Empirical evidence indicates that a teacher's personality influences the classroom climate, students' behaviors, and their interpersonal relationships. Although the effect of a teacher's personality on students' psychological well-being has long been stressed in many studies, very little is known about the actual personality characteristics of Greek in-service teachers. The purpose of this study was to allocate the characteristics that best describe the personality of Greek elementary school teachers (according to the 16 Cattellian primary factors). Our study belongs in the broader research field aiming at describing and understanding the possible foundations of teachers' behavior. The sample consisted of 138 elementary teachers, who completed a standardized Greek version of the 16PF. Our statistical analysis of one-sample t-test along with an effect size calculation revealed that certain personality characteristics described the Greek elementary teacher and clearly distinguishes them from the normative group of the Greek population. Elementary teachers appear to be quite submissive, cautious, with a tendency to oppose or postpone change. They also scored a low tolerance level against fear and arousal, and high tension levels. Elementary teachers seem to respond to events, ideas, and experiences more with feeling than with thinking and find it difficult to control their feelings, which results in getting upset easily. They also seem to pay little attention to how they may appear to others and generally do what they feel like doing. Elementary teachers also scored low on aspiration level. Possible implications of the results are discussed with reference to students' psychological well-being.
Roussi-Vergou CJ; Angelosopoulou A; Zafiropoulou MM
This study investigated whether the personality variables, as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), differed significantly between families with an agoraphobic parent and families with nonagoraphobic parents. Participants were 15 agoraphobic female parents and 5 male agoraphobic parents, their spouses, and children. Two matched control groups of subjects (comparable to the female agoraphobic and male agoraphobic families) were used. Significant differences in personality variables were found between the families with agoraphobic parents and their matched controls. Significant personality differences among family members in the agoraphobic family were evident, and they also differed according to whether the agoraphobic parent was female or male.
Mlott SR; Vale WH
The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was administered to a group of security guard applicants to determine its retest reliability after a moderate (9-month) interval. All of the Pearson correlations for specific test scales were lower than the reliabilities reported by the test's authors. These data raise questions as to the usefulness of the 16PF for the prediction of security guard behavior.
Baird JS Jr
The study goal was to identify the main clusters of 16PF score profiles to be found in a mixed sample of students and adults. The 300 subjects represented, half male and half female, were subdivided into three equal subsamples. To demonstrate replicability, the three subsamples were cluster analyzed by three procedures: Nonhierarchical average linkage, minimum variance, and K-means. Four profile clusters were identified and replicated across two or three samples and for all three methods. The results were compared with those reported by other investigators.
Lorr M; Suziedelis A
This study tested for five higher-order dimensions hypothesized to be common to the Interpersonal Style (ISI) and the 16PF questionnaires. A sample of detoxified alcohol dependent inpatients (N = 50) were administered the ISI and the 16PF on two separate occasions. The 31 scale intercorrelations were analyzed by the method of principal axes. An oblique factor structure obtained by use of the Promax procedure confirmed the factors expected. These were interpreted as representing Self Control, Interpersonal Involvement or Exvia, Emotional Stability or reversed 16PF Anxiety, Independence, and Level of Socialization. At least two or three closely similar higher-order factors have been isolated on each of three other popular inventories (PRF, CPI and GZTS). The existence of such common dimensions should facilitate the interpretation and confirmation of distinctive score profiles.
Lorr M; Nerviano VJ; Myhill J
The Mini-Mult and 16PF-E were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 216 clients. Several multivariate analyses were conducted to specify the common and unique information that these two brief instruments generate. While the 16PF-E provides a global estimate of the client's overall level of emotional adjustment, as well as information regarding a wide range of non-pathological traits, the Mini-Mult focuses on subtle aspects of maladjustment corresponding to traditional psychiatric syndromes. For preliminary screening purposes the 16PF-E results in a broader assessment of personality functioning.
Cross-cultural personality research has generated a great amount of data on individual difference patterns in diverse cultures. One of the major instruments used in this research has been Cattell's 16PF. A major question in this research is whether the underlying personality structure is equivalent for different cultures. The present study evaluated the second order factor structure of the 16PF in 101 subjects of European ancestry and 117 subjects of Japanese ancestry. The factor structure for the Japanese was significantly different from that of the caucasian group. The caucasian results did not differ from those reported by Cattell and his associates. The implications of these results for personality theory and for cross-cultural evaluation were briefly discussed.
Canonical correlation analysis was used to investigate the overall relationship between the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF) and the Work Motivation Inventory (WMI). The results indicated that the two instruments shared two independent components which accounted for 30% of their total variance. The results provide some support for the validity of both devices and provide a link between the factorially constructed 16PF and Maslow's personality theory.
Sasek J; Wakefield JA Jr
The development of the new fifth edition of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is described. The factor structure of the new 16PF was explored with 4 samples ranging from 646 to 3,498 subjects. Results support the validity of the 16PF factor structure and its continuity with earlier versions. (SLD)
Cattell, Raymond B.; Cattell, Heather E. P.
Critics have occasionally asserted that the number of factors in the 16PF tests is too large. This study discusses factor-analytic methodology and reviews more than 50 studies in the field. It concludes that the number of important primaries encapsulated in the series is no fewer than the stated number. (Author/JAZ)
Cattell, Raymond B.; Krug, Samuel E.
This paper comments on unusual results recently published by Byravan and Ramanaiah. Their factor analysis of the 16PF and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised showed the scales of the two tests to be largely unrelated. However, two recent factor analyses of these tests show strong relationships between the two sets of global factors--as strong as between the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised five factors and Goldberg's big-five factors. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.
The utility of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Fifth Edition (16PF) as an indicator of mentor effectiveness was examined. A random sample of the 16PF scores of 74 mentors was drawn from a population of 837 mentors from Big Brothers Big Sisters. Caseworkers rated mentor's effectiveness using a rubric developed for this purpose. The rubric showed good interrater agreement. Caseworkers' ratings of mentor's effectiveness was used to rate mentors systematically as appropriate or inappropriate. The 16PF scores of mentors were compared at an alpha level of .05 for appropriate and inappropriate groups using independent t tests and multivariate analyses of variance, which reflected significant differences between male and female mentors on Factors E and Q3. Significant differences were also found between "appropriate" and "inappropriate" mentors on Factors L and Q4. These differences reflected only moderate effect sizes and lacked practical significance or meaning. The results suggest that, while the 16PF discriminates statistically between "appropriate" and "inappropriate" mentors, in terms of practical significance, the questionnaire is not particularly useful as an initial screening tool.
Garner CM; Byars A; Greenwood M; Garner KA
The evaluation of response bias (i.e., minimization or exaggeration) is central to forensic psychological evaluations. Yet few studies have assessed forensic samples to investigate the ability of psychological tests to detect response bias. We studied the relationship between the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) validity scales for 65 alleged sex offenders and assessed the effects of different cutoff scores for the 16PF validity scales. Results indicate consistent significant correlations between the validity scales of the 16PF and the MMPI for measures of minimization and exaggeration. use of a priori cutoff scores resulted in the classification of our sample in proportions parallel to those found in previous research for the 16PF Fake-Good scale but not the Fake-Bad scale. Our results indicate that 16PF validity scales are useful, but interpretations must take into account different base rates of response bias between sex offenders and the general population.
Grossman LS; Haywood TW; Wasyliw OE
We administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II; Millon, 1987) and the Sixteen Personality Factors Inventory (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) to 131 outpatients in marital therapy and tested the correlation between the validity scales of the two instruments. The results indicated that MCMI-II Disclosure and Debasement scales were positively correlated with the 16PF Fake-Bad scale and negatively correlated with the 16PF Fake-Good scale. The MCMI-II Desirability scale was significantly correlated with the 16PF Fake-Good scale.
Grossman LS; Craig RJ
A Danish translation of the Cattell's 16PF has been used in studies evaluating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This paper reports a psychometric analysis of the 16PF and Eysenck's EPQ based on a sample of 558 young Danes. Many 16PF scales had unacceptable psychometric properties (as indicated by coefficient alpha and item--total score correlations), but more satisfactory results were obtained with the EPQ N and E scales. A factor analysis of all 16PF and EPQ scales suggested a six factor solution that roughly corresponds to the second-order factor structure obtained by Krug and Johns (1986). It is concluded that the second-order factor structure should be the basis of interpretation of the 16PF in both practical and research contexts.
Mortensen EL; Reinisch JM; Sanders SA
Form E of the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF-E) was administered to 70 adults (45 men and 25 women) who resided in a public facility for mentally retarded persons. Alpha coefficients were computed for each of 16 primary trait scales. The Intelligence (B), Ego Strength (C), Dominance (E), Superego Strength (G), Parmia (H), Protension (L), Autia (M), Shrewdness (N), Guilt Proneness (O), and Self-Sentiment (Q3) scales exhibited low internal consistency, whereas Premsia (I) and Self-Sufficiency (Q2) evidence relatively higher levels. Personality traits of subjects were also assessed by staff ratings. Ratings were compared to 16PF-E primary and secondary trait scores via correlation coefficients. Results provided virtually no support for the validity of the 16PF-E primary scales and the Exvia, Anxiety, and Cortertia secondary factors as applied to the subject population. Limited support for the validity of the Independence secondary factor was found.
An examination of the internal structure of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) and the interrelationship among the TSCS scales and the secondary dimensions of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) supported three conclusions: (a) The primary dimension underlying the TSCS is positive self-evaluation, freedom from neurotic symptoms, or the absence of anxiety, (b) this central dimension of the TSCS aligns with the 16PF secondary Anxiety vs. Adjustment, and is virtually independent of the other dimensions of the normal personality sphere, and (c) the mutual orthogonality of extraversion, anxiety or neuroticism, and an empirically derived psychoticism scale provided some support for Eysenck's PEN theory of personality organization.
In this pilot study, we investigated whether there was a differential psychophysiological response during the beginning, middle, and end of the administration of a performance-based instrument (Rorschach Inkblot Method, RIM; Exner, 2003) versus a self-report measure of personality (Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, 5th ed. [16PF]; Cattell, Cattell, & Cattell, 1993). Results indicate that adult participants (n = 15) experienced greater electrodermal activity during the administration of the RIM as compared to the 16PF. Effect sizes for the differences between the instruments were all very large (Cohen's d = 1.71 at beginning, d = 1.1 at middle, and d = .98 at end).
Momenian-Schneider SH; Brabender VM; Nath SR
The effectiveness of the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) motivational distortion correction procedures was investigated with a sample of 212 welfare recipients who completed the 16PF while participating in a mandatory welfare-to-work program. A multiple regression analysis showed that the motivational distortion (MD) score was significantly related to most of the preselected Personality factors. The regression analysis also revealed that primary E (Dominance) was associated with MD, although the manual does not require MD adjustments for this factor. Based on comparisons of mean differences at the various MD correction levels, findings indicated general support for the MD correction procedures described in the manual; however, the magnitude of the correction procedures should be used cautiously as this may overcorrect for MD on some of the 16PF primaries. The relevance of the findings also are discussed in terms of evidence for Cattell's (1968, 1973, 1986) trait-view theory as it applies to response distortions.
Merydith SP; Humphreys JK; Ebener DJ
Examined the effects of a computer-based administration procedure on reliability and validity of a personality questionnaire. Utilizing a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, Form A of the 16PF was administered to 80 undergraduates who had been randomly assigned to either computer-computer, computer-booklet, booklet-computer, or booklet-booklet administration conditions. Subjects also completed a self-report anxiety measure before and after each administration of the 16PF. Multivariate analyses revealed no significant differences in score reliability, validity, or self-reported anxiety among the four administration conditions. Small yet significant differences were noted with respect to ratings of the assessment experience. Subjects in the two groups which were exposed to both administration formats rated the computer procedure as more positive in comparison to the booklet format. Due to the student sample, replication of these findings with treatment-seeking clients is needed.
Harrell TH; Lombardo TA
Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the fourth edition (2003) of the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI) and version 5 of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). After some minor changes the LCI was applied jointly with the 16PF to a sample of 3089 first-year university students. Complete records were obtained in respect of 3033 participants for the LCI, and 2798 for both the 16PF and the LCI. An iterative principal factor analysis of the LCI was done. The three-factor-structure previously found was substantiated by the analysis. Highly acceptable reliabilities were obtained. The 16PF yielded six global factors with reliabilities that ranged from 0,721 to 0,861. Canonical correlations of 0,659; 0,455 and 0,322 were obtained between the three scales of the LCI and the primary factors of the 16PF.
Johann M Schepers; Claire F Hassett
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychiatric symptomatology and personality characteristics of Korean senior high school students considered to use the Internet to excess. METHOD: We administered a questionnaire packet to students that included 4 measures. These measures included a questionnaire on Internet use patterns during the previous month, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). A total of 328 students, aged 15 to 19 years, participated in the study. RESULTS: Students were divided into 4 Internet user groups according to their IAT total scores: nonusers (n = 59, 18.0%), minimal users (n = 155, 47.3%), moderate users (n = 98, 29.9%), and excessive users (n = 16, 4.9%). The SCL-90-R showed that the excessive users group, when compared with the other groups in this study, reported the highest levels of symptomatology. The 16PF also revealed that excessive users were easily affected by feeling, emotionally less stable, imaginative, absorbed in thought, self-sufficient, experimenting, and preferred their own decisions. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that senior high school students who use the Internet to excess report and subsequently exhibit significantly more psychiatric symptoms than students who use the Internet less frequently. In addition, excessive users appear to have a distinctive personality profile when compared with nonusers, minimal, and moderate users.
Yang CK; Choe BM; Baity M; Lee JH; Cho JS
The Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF) was administered to 69 subjects. Each subject was asked to rate himself on the 16 personality factors on the 16PF. The 16PF scores and the self-ratings were compared by canonical analysis. Three significant relationships were identified. The relationships primarily involved indices of social interaction from the 16PF and indices of internal traits from the self-ratings.
Friedman AF; Sasek J; Wakefield JA Jr
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of application of the measurement table of PHI and 16PF and SCL-90 for freshmen psychology inspection. METHODS: The measurement tables of PHI and 16PF for psychology inspection of freshmen of 2004-2007 years were used to sift crisis intervention objects. RESULTS: Continuous four years test showed certain stability, in addition to excited factors,the scores of Freshmen's PHI factors were more lower than normal. The incidence rates of mental problems screened by PHI table were very low and 3-5 serious-mental-problem students weren't detected. The problem can be resolved by the application of PHI combined with 16PF through remesuring the suspected cases by SCL-90. CONCLUSION: The combinative application of PHI, 16PF and SCL-90 would be better.
Meta-analysis of 34 studies on Cattell's 16PF test reveals ragged egos (C-), guilt (O), distrust (L), frustration (Q4), alienation (G-), vague identity (Q3-), alarm (H-), resentment (Q1), quasi-autism (M), scattered intellect (B-), grandiosity (E), autonomy (Q2), infantilism (I), avoidance (A-), and deviousness (N). The aberrant scores on E, G, I, Q1, and Q2 discriminate addicts from suicidals and the chronically ill or unemployed. We found nine types of addicts in our developmental study of 83 members of Alcoholics Anonymous. On the more stable second-order 16PF factors, 43% were highest on Autonomous, 37% on Desperate, 16% on Tough Poise, and 4% on Extravert. Profiles differed more by sexual preference than by gender. Recidivism was highest among homosexual men (38%) and the desperate (25%). Only the Fourth and Fifth Steps of the AA program seem crucial to recovery. Treatment programs based on these and tailored to sexual preference and the second-order personality types seem highly advisable.
Tuite DR; Luiten JW
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar evidências de validade discriminante do Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), comparando-o com os 16 Fatores de Personalidade. O construto de inteligência emocional tem sido definido como a capacidade de perceber, entender e usar precisamente as emoções em si e em relação aos outros, bem como gerenciá-las para facilitar os processos cognitivos e promover o crescimento pessoal e intelectual. Participaram 270 universitários de diferentes cursos -Psicologia, Educação Física, Matemática e Biologia, sendo utilizados o MSCEIT e o 16 PF em aplicação coletiva. Os resultados indicaram correlações significativas baixas positivas e negativas entre IE e personalidade, tais como; Extroversão (r = 0,125*), Brandura (r = 0,253**), Rigidez de Pensamento (r = -0,193**). A análise dos resultados indica que não houve equivalência entre construtos de inteligência emocional e personalidade, embora algumas dimensões deste último possam contribuir para um adequado desempenho em IE.The present study aim was to investigate discriminative validity evidences between Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and The 16 Personality Factors. The construct definition has been described as the person's ability to accurately perceive, express, understand and use his or her own emotions and the emotions of others as well manager them in order to facilitate the cognitive process and to promote intellectual and personal growth. Participated 270 undergraduate students from Psychology, Physical Education, Mathematics and Biology courses. The material was MSCEIT and the 16 PF. The instruments were applied collection was. The results indicated several low positive and negative significant correlations between EI and personality such as Extroversion (r = 0,125*), Softness (r = 0,253**), Tough mindedness (r= -0,193**). The results have showed that there was no equivalence of constructs although it may indicate that some personality traits can contribute to an appropriated achievement in EI.
Marilda Aparecida Dantas; Ana Paula Porto Noronha
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar evidências de validade discriminante do Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), comparando-o com os 16 Fatores de Personalidade. O construto de inteligência emocional tem sido definido como a capacidade de perceber, entender e usar precisamente as emoções em si e em relação aos outros, bem como gerenciá-las para facilitar os processos cognitivos e promover o crescimento pessoal e intelectual. Participa (more) ram 270 universitários de diferentes cursos -Psicologia, Educação Física, Matemática e Biologia, sendo utilizados o MSCEIT e o 16 PF em aplicação coletiva. Os resultados indicaram correlações significativas baixas positivas e negativas entre IE e personalidade, tais como; Extroversão (r = 0,125*), Brandura (r = 0,253**), Rigidez de Pensamento (r = -0,193**). A análise dos resultados indica que não houve equivalência entre construtos de inteligência emocional e personalidade, embora algumas dimensões deste último possam contribuir para um adequado desempenho em IE. Abstract in english The present study aim was to investigate discriminative validity evidences between Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and The 16 Personality Factors. The construct definition has been described as the person's ability to accurately perceive, express, understand and use his or her own emotions and the emotions of others as well manager them in order to facilitate the cognitive process and to promote intellectual and personal growth. Participated 270 (more) undergraduate students from Psychology, Physical Education, Mathematics and Biology courses. The material was MSCEIT and the 16 PF. The instruments were applied collection was. The results indicated several low positive and negative significant correlations between EI and personality such as Extroversion (r = 0,125*), Softness (r = 0,253**), Tough mindedness (r= -0,193**). The results have showed that there was no equivalence of constructs although it may indicate that some personality traits can contribute to an appropriated achievement in EI.
Dantas, Marilda Aparecida; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto
This report presents a meta-analysis of a series of published 16PF findings which describe score profiles of nine groups of substance users/abusers, a nonuser comparison group, seven psychiatric groups, a group of criminals, and a group of gang delinquents. Analytical procedures include K Means Clustering, Cattell's rp statistic, and Pearson r. Although drug use was found to be associated with various forms of psychiatric diagnoses, it was not found to be associated with any particular form of psychopathology. The 16PF profiles of groups of users of different substances were not homogeneous within groups. Some similarity, however, was found among profiles of alcoholics. No evidence could be found to support the contention that groups of substance abusers yield the particular profile pattern on the 16PF that was ascribed to them in an earlier meta-analyses. Due to the inadequacies of the 16PF in diagnosing psychiatric conditions, it is suggested that a more fruitful direction of future research might be to use Cattell's Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ).
Spotts JV; Shontz FC
Full Text Available This study evaluates relationship between personality, gender and departments of a random sample of 91 employees working in 5-star hotels in the Alanya Region of Turkey. Evaluation was conducted using Cattell’s 16 PF (Sixteen Personality Factor) questionnaire. T-test assessed the relationship between personality and gender and one-way Anova analysed personality and department relationship. Results indicate that in the relationship between personality and gender there were significant variance for the openness to change. 16 PF showed significant differences for openness to change, vigilance, privateness and perfectionism subscales, in terms of personality and department relationship.
Sevcan Y?ld?z; Engin Üngüren; Cihan Polat
This study examined the relationships between Rorschach variables and the 16PF in a sample of 62 university students. Good form level was associated with ego strength, and Popular responses were associated inversely with a scale of rebelliousness. The results did not support some hypotheses, for example, that the Difference score, inanimate movement, and diffuse shading would correlate with 16PF indicators of good coping. On the contrary, the Difference score was associated with a scale that suggests anxiety. Further examination revealed that EA, M, and M+ also were associated with 16PF scales of guilt and anxiety. FC+, T, and to a lesser extent S, were associated with indications of good, relatively anxiety-free functioning.
A new computerized interpretation system for the 16PF is described. This system is based on the novel concept of attempting to simulate directly the diagnostic report-writing capabilities of a single clinician. Certain considerations regarding the problem of validity in respect to this area are brought up, and the general operation of the system is outlined.
Karson S; O'Dell JW
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a validade de uma medida de inteligência emocional correlacionando-a com medidas de inteligência, personalidade e desempenho profissional. Participaram do estudo 119 sujeitos, com idade entre 17 e 64 anos, de ambos os sexos e que trabalham em empresas situadas em municípios do interior do estado de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Versão em Português do Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), o Questionário Dezesseis Fatores da Personalidade (16PF), Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5), Avaliação de Desempenho respondido por duas pessoas (um supervisor e um colega). Os resultados apontam baixa correlação entre inteligência emocional e personalidade, bem como com inteligência. Indicam também que a faceta regulação das emoções se correlaciona com o desempenho profissional e apresenta validade incremental em relação à inteligência. Em suma conclui-se que a inteligência emocional constitui um tipo diferenciado de inteligência útil na avaliação psicológica no contexto organizacional.This research had as objective to investigate the validity of a emotional intelligence measure correlating it with measures of intelligence, personality, and job performance. The participants were 119 subjects, aged 17 to 64 years old, of bothe sex that work in cities industries from the state of São Paulo. The instruments used: the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), protuguese version, the Sixteen Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF), the Battery of Reasoning (BPR-5) a performance evaluation made by two persons (supervisor and a colegue). The results show low correlations between emotional intelligence and personality. Also that the branch managing emotions is correlated with job performance and presents validy with the intelligence. In sum it was concluded that emotional intelligence constitutes a differentiated type of intelligence useful for psychological assessment in the context of industrial and organizational psychology.
Cláudia Cobêro; Ricardo Primi; Monalisa Muniz
Form E of Cattell's 16PF test was administered to 515 hospitalized schizophrenics. This sample was compared to Cattell's standardization population for both raw scores and sten scores. Comparisons were made between males and females, acute patients and chronic patients, and amongst three categories of schizophrenia (paranoid, undifferentiated, schizo-affectives). The results indicate that the "schizophrenic profile," reported in previous research with Form A, did not obtain expected differentiations among schizophrenic categories. The question of the usefulness of Form E in diagnosing schizophrenia was raised.
Serban G; Katz G
Personality test scores obtained in 1966 from the 16PF, Form A are compared with supervisory ratings on overall job ability made at least two years later on a sample of 510 terminal area journeymen controllers. Those rated above average were found to differ significantly from those rated below average in ability on one primary personality factor, namely, C (ego strength). Other factors which approached significance are also discussed. The present study represents an attempt to determine whether personality factor scores are valid over longer periods of time in successfully discriminating journeymen terminal controllers rated above and below average in overall ability by their supervisors
Personality comparisons using Cattell's 16PF were made between 137 pilot incumbents, 81 pilot applicants, and the general population norms. No significant differences were found between the scores on the personality factors for the Pilot Incumbents and the Pilot Applicants. Further, the incumbents and applicants who had previous military training versus those who did not had highly similar personalities. However, on nearly every personality factor a significant difference was found between the general population norms and the sample of Pilot Incumbents and Applicants. The Pilot Incumbent/Applicant group scored significantly more intelligent, emotionally stable, and mature in comparison to the general population norms. We believe that it is the high-risk nature of this occupation that leads applicants, wishing to pursue this field, to assess very carefully their own person-job fit and self-select themselves, thus ultimately producing this very distinct "pilot personality profile" described in 1995 by Bartram.
Wakcher S; Cross K; Blackman MC
The reception, processing, and storage of information about experience define personality. The present study investigated the relationship between auditory event-related potentials (AERP) and personality traits. The AERP were recorded using a standard auditory oddball paradigm, and personality was evaluated by Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in 20 healthy young male subjects. The P300 latency was found to be significantly associated with rule consciousness (factor G in the 16PF), perfectionism (factor Q3), and self-control (factor SC): it was negatively correlated with G score (r = -0.56, P = 0.01), Q3 score (r = -0.67, P = 0.001), and SC score (r = -0.65, P = 0.002). Moreover, the P300 amplitude and N100 amplitude were negatively correlated with reasoning (factor B; r = -0.46, P = 0.044; and r = -0.72, P = 0.002, respectively). These results indicate that the personality traits of self-control, perfectionism, high superego, and reasoning are related to information processing in the brain.
Lee HJ; Kim L; Han CS; Kim YK; Kim SH; Lee MS; Joe SH; Jung IK
Determined whether individuals who adapted well or poorly to the loss of their vision could be differentiated on the basis of the Cattell 16PF. Well adjusted individuals were defined as those who displayed minimal depression and high social independence, while poorly adjusted individuals were highly depressed and socially dependent. By the use of discriminant analysis based upon the standard 16PF, 84.5% of highly depressed and 81% of the minimally depressed group were classified accurately. In a second analysis, 75% of socially independent and 73% of socially dependent individuals were classified correctly. Premorbid characteristics of well and poorly adjusted blind Ss were described.
Greenough TJ; Keegan DL; Ash DG
29 female students in the first author's psychology of women took the 16 PF, along with 8 female golf stars and 8 average female golf team members. The women's studies students were significantly more venture-some, more tough-minded, and more imaginative than the female golf stars.
Joesting J; Whitehead GI 3rd
Provided evidence of 16PF validity by meta-analysis of source-trait profiles from nine studies for four psychiatric groups (N = 916) (nonparanoid schizophrenics, major depressives, anxiety disorders, alcoholics). All groups had mean sten profiles that deviated markedly from normal personality, and there was considerable convergence between salient traits and diagnostic criteria except for alcoholics.
Dana RH; Bolton B; Gritzmacher S
INCLUSION OF THE LATENT PERSONALITY VARIABLE IN MULTINOMIAL LOGIT MODELS USING THE 16PF PSYCHOMETRIC TEST/ INCLUSIÓN DE LA VARIABLE LATENTE PERSONALIDAD EN MODELOS LOGIT MULTINOMIAL UTILIZANDO PRUEBA PSICOMÉTRICA 16PF
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los modelos de demanda de viajes utilizan principalmente los atributos modales y las características socioeconómicas como variables explicativas. También se ha establecido que las actitudes y percepciones influyen en el comportamiento de los usuarios. Sin embargo, las variables psicológicas del individuo condicionan la conducta del usuario. En este estudio se incluyó la variable latente personalidad, en la estimación del modelo híbrido de elección discreta, el cua (more) l constituye una buena alternativa para incorporar los efectos de los factores subjetivos. La variable latente personalidad se evaluó con la prueba psicométrica 16PF de validez internacional. El artículo analiza los resultados de la aplicación de este modelo a una población de empleados y docentes universitarios, y también propone un camino para la utilización de pruebas psicométricas en los modelos híbridos de elección discreta. Nuestros resultados muestran que los modelos híbridos que incluyen variables latentes psicológicas son superiores a los modelos tradicionales que ignoran los efectos de la conducta de los usuarios. Abstract in english Travel demand models typically use modal attributes and socioeconomic characteristics as explanatory variables.It has been established that attitudes and perceptions as well as individual psychological variables influencea user's behavior. In this study, the latent personality variable was included in the estimation of a hybrid discrete choice model to incorporate the effects of subjective factors. The latent personality variable was assessed with the 16PF psychometric te (more) st,which has been widely use by researchersworldwide. The paper analyzes the results of applying this model to a sample of employees and university professors and proposes a way in which the psychometric tests can be used in hybrid discrete choice models. Our results show that hybrid models that include latent psychological variables are superior to traditional models that ignore the effects of user'sbehavior.
CÓRDOBA MAQUILÓN, JORGE E.; JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ, G. PATRICIA
Previous research examined "general instability" and "psychopathy" scales, derived from the 16PF, in terms of Foulds' criteria of content, group differentiation, change over time, and score distributions. When the external criterion of a newly validated measure of psychiatric mood state (the DSSI/sAD) was used, it was confirmed in both a patient and a normal group that the "general instability" scale is related significantly to symptomatology, while the "psychopathy" scale is relatively independent of present state.
Bedford A; McIver D
A single experiment is reported which investigated possible personality differences between college students who responded to a mail survey and those who did not. 208 college students completed the 16PF as part of a class assignment. Then each student was mailed a survey dealing with either a national or local issue (environmental, media, or sports). Multivariate analysis of the 16 subscales of the 16PF yielded a significant interaction between sex and response type. Subsequent protected univariate analyses identified significant sex x response type interactions on scales Q2 (Self-reliance), F (Liveliness), and O (Apprehension). Mean differences on the Self-reliance and Apprehension were sex differences rather than personality differences between responders and nonresponders. The only mean difference for response type was on Liveliness and applied only to men; responders scored lower than nonresponders. Multivariate analysis of the global scales of the 16PF yielded a significant interaction between sex and response type. Protected univariate analyses indicated a significant interaction between sex and response type on the Extraversion scale and a sex difference; female nonresponders scored higher than male nonresponders. No other comparisons were significant.
Johnson JS; Mowrer RR
This article reviews published 16PF research on drug users. It also compares the 16PF scores of a new sample of nonusers with scores of matched groups of heavy, chronic users of cocaine, amphetamine, opiates, and barbiturates/sedative hypnotics, as well as combined groups of stimulant users, depressant users, and a combined group of users of all substances. No significant differences were found among drug user groups, but the profile of the nonuser group was distinctive. K-Means Cluster Analyses, as well as Cattell's Similarity and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients, were used to compare profiles of these new samples with the 19 groups described in an earlier meta-analysis of published 16PF studies. Data from the new samples did not cluster with data from other published research, although certain specific similarities appeared in more detailed correlational analyses. Methodological problems are discussed, and it is recommended that in future studies drug user groups be more carefully selected and defined, sample descriptions be more thorough and complete, complete profile information be routinely provided, and efforts be made to explore the utility of the Cattell CAQ in studies of drug users/misusers.
Spotts JV; Shontz FC
Responses to 65 of the 187 items on Cattell's 16PF test were skewed by 83 members of Alcoholics Anonymous. Seventeen of those items had significantly different distributions when the 18 recidivists were compared to the 8 who had remained clean of all addictive substances and compulsive behaviors during the 2-year period studied. Another 14 items had significantly different distributions when the recidivists were compared to all the others. Comparisons with non-drug-disadvantaged groups and non-AA recovering addicts are suggested in order to isolate empirical predictor items for "addictive" versus "cured" scales.
Tuite DR; Luiten JW
The 16PF was administered in either Spanish or English to 546 Anglo- or Mexican-Americans separated into three ethnicity/test language groups: Anglos tested in English, Mexican-Americans tested in Spanish, and Mexican-Americans tested in English. Multivariate and univariate statistics revealed significant differences among the three groups. The largest number of scale differences was between Anglos and Mexican-Americans tested in Spanish. The second largest number of differences was found between the two Mexican-American groups, and the smallest number of differences was found between Anglos and Hispanics tested in English.
Whitworth RH; Perry SM
In recent years, there has been growing interest in examining the relationship between personality characteristics and nursing service. Nurses' personality characteristics affect nursing quality and contribute toward success in the field of nursing, but little is known about excellent nurses' personality characteristics that promote the quality of nursing care. The purpose of this study was to identify excellent nurses' personality characteristics through comparison and examination of the characteristics between excellent and average nurses. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted with the 16PF. Data were collected from three hospitals in the People's Republic of China. The participants were comprised of a total of 159 excellent (N = 78) and average (N = 81) qualified nurses. Excellent nurses possess higher social boldness, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, and lower dominance, vigilance, shrewdness than average nurses. The study revealed the personality profile of excellent nurses. Nurses may be selected, employed and trained according to the personality characteristics of excellent nurses. Thus nursing strategies should be developed and adjusted to get the right person in the right job the first time. PMID:23485225
Zhang, Li; Liu, Bo; Ren, Hui; Liu, Yu-Fu; Zhang, Yan
Abstract In recent years, there has been growing interest in examining the relationship between personality characteristics and nursing service. Nurses' personality characteristics affect nursing quality and contribute toward success in the field of nursing, but little is known about excellent nurses' personality characteristics that promote the quality of nursing care. The purpose of this study was to identify excellent nurses' personality characteristics through comparison and examination of the characteristics between excellent and average nurses. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted with the 16PF. Data were collected from three hospitals in the People's Republic of China. The participants were comprised of a total of 159 excellent (n = 78) and average (n = 81) qualified nurses. Excellent nurses possess higher social boldness, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, and lower dominance, vigilance, shrewdness than average nurses. The study revealed the personality profile of excellent nurses. Nurses may be selected, employed and trained according to the personality characteristics of excellent nurses. Thus nursing strategies should be developed and adjusted to get the right person in the right job the first time.
Zhang L; Liu B; Ren H; Liu YF; Zhang Y
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the creativity of medical students and study their personality characteristics using personality questionnaires. METHODS: This investigation was conducted among 310 medical students using 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). RESULTS: A total of 302 students completed the questionnaires. The male and female students showed significant differences in two sub-factors with similar creativity. Four subfactors were identified to positively or inversely correlate to the creativity. The number of male students without either high or low scores was greater than that of female students. The incidences of abnormal scores in 16PF showed significant difference between students with typical EPQ scores and those with atypical scores for introversion-extroversion. CONCLUSIONS: These medical students do not show high creativity in this study. Compared with the male medical students, the female students are more likely to have extroverted personality, and their scores for 16 basic personality factors easily exceed the normal ranges, suggesting the necessity of mental health education. The students with at least 5 abnormal scores in 16PF may show a typical introversion-extroversion personality, and individual psychological counseling can be considered when necessary.
Wang YP; Tian Y; Liu L; Ma XX; Deng YN
The aim of this study was to adapt the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) for use in Norway. Three studies involving three different samples of university students (mean age 22 years, total N = 792) were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a five factor structure provided an acceptable fit to the data. All five factors loaded significantly on the overall mindfulness factor. As expected, correlations between the FFMQ total scores and subscales were positive and significant, ranging from 0.45 to 0.65. Correlations between FFMQ total/subscales and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were significant and negative (since low scores on the MAAS indicate high mindfulness), ranging from r = -0.17 to -0.69. The Norwegian FFMQ total score was inversely correlated with all indicators of psychological health: neuroticism (r = -0.61), ruminative tendencies (r = -0.41), self-related negative thinking (r = -0.40), emotion regulation difficulties (r = -0.66) and depression (r = -0.46 to r = -0.65). In contrast to the other FFMQ subscales, the FFMQ Observe subscale did not have a positive relation to psychological health in our mostly non-meditating sample. However, being able to non-judgmentally observe one's inner life and environment is a part of the mindfulness construct that might emerge more clearly with more mindfulness training. We conclude that the Norwegian FFMQ has acceptable psychometric properties and can be recommended for use in Norway, especially in studies seeking to differentiate between different aspects of mindfulness and how these may change over time.
Dundas I; Vøllestad J; Binder PE; Sivertsen B
BACKGROUND: The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. METHODS: The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. RESULTS: The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention.
Villalobos GH; Vargas AM; Rondón MA; Felknor SA
This study assessed the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU), a commonly used assessment of cravings for cigarettes, with a sample of smokers presenting for treatment in a smoking cessation trial. On the basis of previous research, three confirmatory factor analytic models were tested. Model 1 hypothesized a 26-item,…
Toll, Benjamin A.; McKee, Sherry A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S.
In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...
[en] The human factors engineering (HFE) as a discipline, and as a process, seeks to discover and to apply knowledge about human capabilities and limitations to system and equipment design, ensuring that the system design, human tasks and work environment are compatible with the sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical attributes of the personnel who operates systems and equipment. Risk significance considers the magnitude of the consequences (loss of life, material damage, environmental degradation) and the frequency of occurrence of a particular adverse event. The questionnaire design was based on the following definitions: the score and the classification of the nuclear safety risk. The principal benefit of applying an approach based on the risk significance in the development of the questionnaire is to ensure the identification and evaluation of the features of the projects, related to human factors, which affect the nuclear safety risk, the human actions and the safety of the nuclear plant systems. The human factors questionnaire developed in this study will provide valuable support for risk assessment, making possible the identification of design problems that can influence the evaluation of the nuclear safety risk. (author)
The human factors engineering (HFE) as a discipline, and as a process, seeks to discover and to apply knowledge about human capabilities and limitations to system and equipment design, ensuring that the system design, human tasks and work environment are compatible with the sensory, perceptual, cognitive and physical attributes of the personnel who operates systems and equipment. Risk significance considers the magnitude of the consequences (loss of life, material damage, environmental degradation) and the frequency of occurrence of a particular adverse event. The questionnaire design was based on the following definitions: the score and the classification of the nuclear safety risk. The principal benefit of applying an approach based on the risk significance in the development of the questionnaire is to ensure the identification and evaluation of the features of the projects, related to human factors, which affect the nuclear safety risk, the human actions and the safety of the nuclear plant systems. The human factors questionnaire developed in this study will provide valuable support for risk assessment, making possible the identification of design problems that can influence the evaluation of the nuclear safety risk. (author)
Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Augusto, Silas C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana], e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, e-mail: email@example.com, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, e-mail: email@example.com, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, e-mail: email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. AIMS: Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. METHODS: Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. RESULTS: Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple urinary tract infections more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis.
Lammert C; Nguyen DL; Juran BD; Schlicht E; Larson JJ; Atkinson EJ; Lazaridis KN
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. METHODS: The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. RESULTS: Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's ? was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. CONCLUSION: The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.
Carreon LY; Sanders JO; Polly DW; Sucato DJ; Parent S; Roy-Beaudry M; Hopkins J; McClung A; Bratcher KR; Diamond BE
Development of the proactive/reactive questionnaire for teachers: factor structure and psychometric properties. The main purpose of this study was to develop a proactive/reactive aggression questionnaire for children in Spanish, reported by teachers. To develop the questionnaire, we selected eight items from the most widely used questionnaires in English using the criteria of a group of experts. Exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 267 children yielded two dimensions, one of proactive and the other of reactive aggression, consisting of four items each. Both scales showed good reliability and were related to an external criterion such as academic performance.
Cosi Muñoz S; Vigil-Colet A; Canals Sans J
Explores the structure of the Role Questionnaire (RQ) so as to clarify the measurement and structure of role conflict among high school counselors. Results indicate three underlying factors for the questionnaire: role ambiguity, role incongruity, and role conflict. A three-dimensional view of the RQ is required across populations and job…
Freeman, Brenda; Coll, Kenneth M.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of psychologic factors in patients with oral lichen planus, and attempts were made to identify possible personality features characteristic of patients with oral lichen planus. STUDY DESIGN: The study involved 100 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1) and 50 control subjects (group 2). We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cattell Personality Questionnaire 16PF, Hassanyeh Rating of Anxiety-Depression-Vulnerability, Beck Depression Inventory, Raskin Depression Screen, and Covi Anxiety Screen. RESULTS: The patients with oral lichen planus were found to exhibit greater anxiety, as reflected by statistically significant scores with the anxiety tests that were used (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cattell Personality Questionnaire 16PF, Hassanyeh Rating of Anxiety-Depression-Vulnerability, and Covi Anxiety Screen). The patients with oral lichen planus likewise exhibited greater depression than the controls in all 3 depression tests applied (Beck Depression Inventory, Hassanyeh Rating of Anxiety-Depression-Vulnerability, and Raskin Depression Screen) and were more vulnerable to psychic disorders on the basis of the PD subscales (vulnerability) of the Hassanyeh questionnaire. Three features (conformity to the group, astuteness, and rebelliousness) defined the personalities of our patients with oral lichen planus, according to the Cattell 16PF questionnaire. Finally, those patients with erosive lichen planus exhibited higher depression scores than patients with nonerosive lichen planus. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the higher anxiety scores observed in patients with oral lichen planus, it was not established that the observed psychologic alterations constitute a direct etiologic factor of oral lichen planus; nor was it established that such alterations are a consequence of oral lichen planus and its lesions.
Rojo-Moreno JL; Bagán JV; Rojo-Moreno J; Donat JS; Milián MA; Jiménez Y
Sexual harassment has long been a problem in educational, employment, and military populations. It is unclear whether existing questionnaires used to measure sexual harassment in the U.S. military--particularly, derivatives of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire--perform similarly in men and women. Using exploratory factor analyses in a mixed sample of active duty troops and veterans (289 men, 181 women), sex differences were found in one version's factor structure. Implications and suggestions for improving the validity of the questionnaire for men are offered. PMID:21323136
Reddy, Madhavi K; Murdoch, Maureen
Full Text Available Objective: To select the common syndrome factors of menopausal syndrome through questionnaire investigation among experts.Methods: Firstly, a questionnaire was constructed on the basis of our previous research, and then investigation of the experts by the questionnaire was carried out. The experts came from twelve tertiary hospitals (6 cities) in China, and engaged in clinical practice of gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The common TCM syndrome factors of menopausal syndrome were selected based on consent degree of the experts in mean value, full marks ratio, rank sum and variation coefficient.Results: One hundred sets of the questionnaires were sent out and ninety-eight sets were returned back. The callback rate was 98%. In accordance with cumulative percentage of expert agreement and complete agreement more than 50% and the coefficient variation less than 0.25, we confirmed the common TCM syndrome factors of menopause syndrome. The syndrome factors related to disease location were kidney, liver, heart, and spleen, and those related to the nature of disease were yin deficiency, deficiency of essence, yang deficiency, hyperactivity of yang, qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood deficiency, and blood stasis.Conclusion: Expert consultation questionnaire can collect consensus opinions of experts and is effective for identifying common TCM syndrome factors of a disease. The TCM syndrome factors acquired through the study may provide the evidence for establishment of TCM syndrome diagnosis criteria for the disease in future.
In this study factor analysis was used to estimate the validity of the Rudie-McGaughran Essential-Reactive questionnaire. Answers of VA alcoholic men were tape-recorded and scored using the Rudie and McGaughran criteria. Only 2 factors, economic dependence and gastrointestinal symptoms, were validated using factor analysis. Five of the remaining six factors evaluated dimensions of dependence unique to the Essential alcoholic men. PMID:1496086
Braggio, J T; Pishkin, V; Parsons, O A; Fishkin, S M; Tassey, J R; Her, C
In this study factor analysis was used to estimate the validity of the Rudie-McGaughran Essential-Reactive questionnaire. Answers of VA alcoholic men were tape-recorded and scored using the Rudie and McGaughran criteria. Only 2 factors, economic dependence and gastrointestinal symptoms, were validated using factor analysis. Five of the remaining six factors evaluated dimensions of dependence unique to the Essential alcoholic men.
Braggio JT; Pishkin V; Parsons OA; Fishkin SM; Tassey JR; Her C
The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Health Concerns Questionnaire were evaluated in a sample of 133 elderly chronic pain outpatients. Reliability and validity data are presented for the HCQ total scores, 3 varimax rotated factors, and 3 content scales that distinguish endorsement of medically versus psychologically oriented items.
Nation PC; Dush DM
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081
Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous
Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting.
Yeomans MR; Leitch M; Mobini S
OBJECTIVE: We explored the use of feedback in interactive web-based questionnaires for collecting data on lifestyle factors in epidemiological studies. DESIGN: Here we report from a cohort study on lifestyle factors and upper respiratory tract infections among 1805 men and women. We introduced interactivity in the form of personalized feedback and feedback on a group level regarding dietary intake, physical activity and incidence of infections in web-based questionnaires as incentives for the respondents to continue answering questions and stay in the study. SETTING: The study was performed in Sweden. SUBJECTS: All participants were randomly selected from the population registry. RESULTS: Personalized feedback was offered in the baseline questionnaire and feedback on a group level in the five follow-up questionnaires. In total, 88 % of the participants actively chose to get personalized feedback at least once in the baseline questionnaire. The follow-up questionnaires were sent by email and the overall compliance at each follow-up was 83-84 %, despite only one reminder. In total, 74 % completed all five follow-ups. However, the compliance was higher among those who chose feedback in the baseline questionnaire compared with those who did not choose feedback. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to use feedback in web questionnaires and that it has the potential to increase compliance. The majority of the participants actively chose to take part in the personalized feedback in the baseline questionnaire and future research should focus on improving the design of the feedback, which may ultimately result in even higher compliance in research studies.
Bälter O; Fondell E; Bälter K
The objectives of this study were to assess the validity of a self-administered hearing questionnaire in the assessment of risk to hearing, to amend the questionnaire design as necessary, and to give general guidance on the use of audiometric questionnaires in hearing conservation programmes. The study was carried out at a colliery in Staffordshire. The odds of deafness, according to the Health and Safety Executive definition, were analysed by exposure to the hearing risk variables in the questionnaire. The results of the hearing questionnaire were linked to a cross-sectional audiometric survey. There were 189 questionnaires eligible for inclusion. Noise exposure at work was reasonably well predicted by having to shout at work (OR 1.42, 95 per cent CI 0.58-3.54) and being exposed to noisy tools and machinery (OR 2.12, 95 percent CI 0.72-6.72). Risk to hearing from disease was predicted by having 'abnormal' hearing or discharging ears, but not by any of the other exposure variables. Risk to hearing from acoustic trauma was demonstrated for fire-arms (OR 1.23, 95 per cent CI 0.5-2.98). None of the hobbies included in the questionnaire usefully predicted hearing loss. The conclusions are that, contrary to Health and Safety Executive advice, audiometric questionnaires may reasonably be administered to all employees, as they are useful in the documentation of hearing loss risk factors. They should not, however, be used to detect ear disease. A revised questionnaire was drafted as the result of these findings, and will be piloted in a larger population.
BACKGROUND: There is currently no standard tool for the measurement of asthma in epidemiological studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of asthma, to describe the potential local risk factors, and to assess the agreement between written and video questionnaires in 13- to 14-year-old schoolchildren. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study involving 5427 adolescents in 26 schools. Prevalence of asthma symptoms were evaluated using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written and video questionnaire. The adolescents were asked additional questions for risk factors of asthma. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime wheeze, wheeze in the last 12 months and doctor-diagnosed asthma with written questionnaire were found as 13.5%, 6.3% and 11.2% respectively. Prevalence of lifetime wheeze, wheeze in the last 12 months, wheeze after exercise in the last 12 months, with video questionnaire were found as 9.6%, 5.5%, 11.9% and 1.9% respectively. The proportion of total agreement between the two questionnaires was high (0.77-0.81) with poor kappa value (0.25-0.50). In multivariate analysis, family history of atopy, stuffed toys and accompaniment of children to their parents after school hours in textile industry were found as risk factors for asthma. In addition kind of bird, such as canary was found as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of asthma is moderate in Turkey. Agreement between the two questionnaires was high. Accompaniment of children to their parents in textile industry is a newly-described risk factor for asthma.
Becerir T; Akcay A; Duksal F; Ergin A; Becerir C; Guler N
Despite favorable psychometric properties, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) (GAD-Q-IV) does not have a known factor structure, which calls into question use of its original weighted scoring system (usually referred to as the dimensional score). Analyses…
Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Holaway, Robert M.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The Forgivingness questionnaire has been designed to assessforgivingness in a variety of cultural contexts. This questionnaire was based on common Western conceptualizations of forgiveness. In Western communities, when one is the victim of an intentional offense, a feeling of resentment seems logical. The intensity and duration of this feeling of resentment usually depends on the circumstances of the offense, the attitude of the offender and the personality of the victim. This study explored the factor structure of forgiveness in an Iranian sample and the relationship between forgiveness and mental health among the Iranian participants . "nMethod: Two hundred ninety two university students participated in this study. The Forgivingness Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire were used "nResults: The forgivingness items indicated Cronbach's alpha of .94 for the total scale. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the raw data for the whole sample. Using the scree test, three interpretable factors emerged that accounted for %66.34 of the variance. Correlation coefficients between FQ and GHQ (r = -0.59, p< 0.01). "nConclsusion: Our results were consistent with what had been obtained in several European and Asian samples. However, they were different from the findings of Kadiangandu et al., who reported two factors in their Congo sample: revenge versus forgiveness and personal and social circumstances.
Samaneh Nateghian; Samad Shirinzadeh; Javad Molazadeh; Esmaeil Ghaderi
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is widely used as a unidimensional instrument, but factor analyses tended to suggest that it contains two or three factors. Not much is known about the usefulness of the GHQ-12 factors, if they exist, in revealing between-patient differences in clinical states and health-related quality of life. Methods We addressed this issue in a cross-sectional survey of out-patients with psychological disorders in Singapore. The participants (n = 120) completed the GHQ-12, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare six previously proposed factor structures for the GHQ-12. Factor scores of the best-fitting model, as well as the overall GHQ-12 score, were assessed in relation to clinical and health-related quality of life variables. Results The 3-factor model proposed by Graetz fitted the data better than a unidimensional model, two 2-factor models, and two other 3-factor models. However, the three factors were strongly correlated. Their values varied in a similar fashion in relation to clinical and health-related quality of life variables. Conclusions The 12-item General Health Questionnaire contains three factors, namely Anxiety and Depression, Social Dysfunction, and Loss of Confidence. Nevertheless, using them separately does not offer many practical advantages in differentiating clinical groups or identifying association with clinical or health-related quality of life variables.
Gao Fei; Luo Nan; Thumboo Julian; Fones Calvin; Li Shu-Chuen; Cheung Yin-Bun
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the factor structure of youth and maternal involvement ratings on the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire, a measure of family allocation of condition management responsibilities in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Participants included 251 youth aged 11-18 years with inflammatory bowel disease and their mothers. Item-level descriptive analyses, subscale internal consistency estimates, and confirmatory factor analyses of youth and maternal involvement were conducted using a dyadic data-analytic approach. RESULTS: Results supported the validity of 4 conceptually derived subscales including general health maintenance, social aspects, condition management tasks, and nutrition domains. Additionally, results indicated adequate support for the factor structure of a 21-item youth involvement measure and strong support for a 16-item maternal involvement measure. CONCLUSIONS: Additional empirical support for the validity of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Family Responsibility Questionnaire was provided. Future research to replicate current findings and to examine the measure's clinical utility is warranted.
Greenley RN; Reed-Knight B; Blount RL; Wilson HW
BACKGROUND: Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross  scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. METHODS: The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age?=?23.3, SD?=?3.5; 53.6% female) and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age?=?36.0 SD?=?14.6; 71.2% female). Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with "When I don't feel well, in order to feel better…". Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. RESULTS: After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach's ?) for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ's construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration of the new response-focused strategy in the Gross's model of emotion regulation.
Scherer A; Eberle N; Boecker M; Vögele C; Gauggel S; Forkmann T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative affect and difficulties in its regulation have been connected to several adverse psychological consequences. While several questionnaires exist, it would be important to have a theory-based measure that includes clinically relevant items and shows good psychometric properties in healthy and patient samples. This study aims at developing such a questionnaire, combining the two Gross  scales Reappraisal and Suppression with an additional response-focused scale called Externalizing Behavioral Strategies covering clinically relevant items. Methods The samples consisted of 684 students (mean age?=?23.3, SD?=?3.5; 53.6% female) and 369 persons with mixed mental disorders (mean age?=?36.0 SD?=?14.6; 71.2% female). Items for the questionnaire were derived from existing questionnaires and additional items were formulated based on suggestions by clinical experts. All items start with “When I don’t feel well, in order to feel better…”. Participants rated how frequently they used each strategy on a 5-point Likert scale. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to verify the factor structure in two separate student samples and a clinical sample. Group comparisons and correlations with other questionnaires were calculated to ensure validity. Results After modification, the CFA showed good model fit in all three samples. Reliability scores (Cronbach’s ?) for the three NARQ scales ranged between .71 and .80. Comparisons between students and persons with mental disorders showed the postulated relationships, as did comparisons between male and female students and persons with or without Borderline Personality Disorder. Correlations with other questionnaires suggest the NARQ’s construct validity. Conclusions The results indicate that the NARQ is a psychometrically sound and reliable measure with practical use for therapy planning and tracking of treatment outcome across time. We advocate the integration of the new response-focused strategy in the Gross’s model of emotion regulation.
Scherer Anne; Eberle Nicole; Boecker Maren; Vögele Claus; Gauggel Siegfried; Forkmann Thomas
Full Text Available The scores of 700 Afrikaans-speaking university students on the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire were subjected to an inter-battery factor analysis. This technique uses only the correlations between two sets of variables and reveals only the factors that they have in common. Three of the Big Five personality factors were revealed, namely Extroversion, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. However, the Conscientiousness factor contained a relatively strong unsocialised component and in this regard it is similar to Eysencks Psychoticism factor. The results support the construct validity of the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. Implications for personality questionnaire design and validation are discussed. OpsommingDie tellings van 700 Afrikaanssprekende universiteitstudente vir die Comrey Persoonlikheidskale en die 16 Per- soonlikheidsfaktorvraelys is aan 'n interbattery-faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie tegniek gebruik slegs die korrelasies tussen twee stelle veranderlikes en ontbloot slegs faktore wat die twee stelle veranderlikes gemeen het. Drie van die faktore van die vyfFaktormodel is blootgele, naamlik Ekstroversie, Neurotisisme en Konsensieusheid. Die Konsensieusheidsfaktor het ook n relatief sterk ongesosialiseerdheidskomponent ingesluit en in hierdie sin is dit soortgelyk aan Eysenck se Psigotisisme faktor. Die resultate ondersteun die konstrukgeldigheid van die Comrey Persoonlikheidskale en die 16 Persoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys. Implikasies vir die ontwerp en validering van persoonlikheidstoetse word bespreek.
Gideon P. de Bruin
OBJECTIVE: Sui Zheng Shi Liang strategy (regulating prescription dosage with different syndromes) is an important part of syndrome differentiation and treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Questionnaires were given to doctors and patients to study the essential factors (indicators and timing) of Sui Zheng Shi Liang strategy in the treatment process of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Two questionnaires were designed for diabetes patients and their doctors. The questionnaires included the most important indicators for determining the patient's condition, the ability of TCM in treating T2DM, the length of time it takes forTCM to be effective, and when to adjust the prescription dosage. The frequency of answers was calculated, summarized, and analyzed after the survey. RESULTS: Twenty questionnaires from doctors and 90 questionnaires from patients were included in the analysis. Doctors and patients recognized that TCM could decrease blood glucose, improve syndromes, and delay complications. Doctors were mainly concerned about glycosylated hemoglobin, while the patients were concerned about fasting plasma glucose for determining whether treatment was effective. Doctors also paid attention to changes in blood sugar and syndromes 2 weeks after medication was given as the indication to adjust the prescription dosage, while patients were concerned about these factors in 4 weeks. The prescription should be regulated when there are side effects or the medication is ineffective. CONCLUSION: The essential factor in the treatment process of T2DM in Sui Zheng Shi Liang strategy is that if fasting blood glucose level did not decrease after 4 weeks of treatment, the Chinese medicine prescription should be adjusted.
Lian F; Chen X; Zhao L; Xu L; Tong X
The purpose of the study was to develop a psychometrically reliable and valid instrument that assesses psychosocial factors that influence transition to motherhood in first-time pregnant adolescents 15-18 years of age. The descriptive, correlational study tested the Adolescent Prenatal Questionnaire (APQ) in 145 unmarried first-time pregnant adolescents 15-18 years of age who planned to keep their infants. Factor analysis yielded an interpretable four-factor solution that accounted for 40% of the variance with adequate internal consistency estimates and test-retest correlations to merit further testing.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the goodness-of-fit of five models of Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) data, in clinical and community samples. METHOD: The EDE-Q was administered to 228 eating disorder patients and 211 non-eating disordered university students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the validity of the original four EDE-Q subscales with that of brief one-factor, extended one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models. Measurement invariance across the two samples was considered. RESULTS: The only model to provide an acceptable fit to the data was the brief one-factor model consisting of eight Weight and Shape Concern items. Scores on this scale correlated highly with the original EDE-Q subscales. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the EDE-Q may be increased if a modified scoring system is used. This complements findings from recent research with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE).
Allen KL; Byrne SM; Lampard A; Watson H; Fursland A
In recent years, psychological studies have increasingly come to support the so-called "Big Five" or "Five-factor Model" (FFM) of human personality. However, the vast majority of research in this field has been undertaken in Western contexts, thus raising the question of how applicable the Big Five is to Asian populations. Moreover, nearly all research into the Big Five has relied on traditional techniques of statistical analysis (e.g., factor analysis, correlation) to validate their results, despite the limitations of such methods. This study examined instrument validation of a widely-used Big Five instrument (the Factor Markers questionnaire) given to a Japanese population (n = 283) by using the Rasch rating scale model (Andrich, 1978). Rasch principal components analysis of the item residuals indicated the possible existence of additional factors within the Intellect/Imagination and Agreeableness factors, as well as additional item fit problems within each hypothesized construct.
Apple MT; Neff P
The Comprehensive Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ; Demmel & Hagen, 2003a, 2003b) is a self-report measure designed to assess an individual's alcohol expectancies. In this study, we examined the CAEQ in a student sample (N= 932) and in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients (N= 744). The Five-factor structure was confirmed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity of the revised CAEQ was supported by showing significant relationships to quantity and frequency of drinking. The results of this study suggest that the revised CAEQ appears to be a psychometrically sound tool for the assessment of alcohol expectancies among both students and alcohol-dependent inpatients.
Nicolai J; Demmel R; Moshagen M
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was carried out with the aim of studying the features of the Young Schema Questionnaire in nonclinical population.Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study 37 postgraduate male students of Shahed and Shahid Beheshti universities in Tehran who were selected using stratified random method completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF). Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient and analysis of variance. Results: The results of the factor analysis revealed 17 factors as follows: Seven intact scales (five out of five items), three scales with four items, two with three items, and one with two items. Also, the two YSQ-SF original scales merged into one factor. The results yielded interpretable scales for all 15 schema subscales proposed by Young. These 15 subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. Higher-order principal component analysis yielded three higher order factors in line with previous findings.Conclusion: These results are consistent with previous results based on the English, French and Dutch versions of the YSQ-SF and provided support for the cross-cultural validity of the YSQ-SF.
Zohre Sadooghi; Maria E. Aguilar-Vafaie; Kazem Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaie; Namieh Esfehanian
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a practical, economic and user-friendly screening instrument of emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. This study was aimed primarily at evaluating the factor structure of the Greek version of the SDQ. Methods A representative nationwide sample of 1,194 adolescents (11 to 17 years old) completed the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the factor structure of the SDQ. Results CFA supported the original five-factor structure. The modification of the model provided some improvements. Internal consistency was acceptable for total difficulties, emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour scale, moderate for hyperactivity/inattention scale and inadequate for peer and conduct problems scale. Older adolescents (aged 15 to 17 years) reported more hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems than younger ones (aged 11 to 14 years) and girls reported more emotional symptoms and less prosocial behaviour problems than boys. Adolescents of low socioeconomic status (SES) reported more difficulties than those of medium and high SES. Conclusion The Greek SDQ could be potentially considered as a community-wide screening instrument for adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems.
Giannakopoulos George; Tzavara Chara; Dimitrakaki Christine; Kolaitis Gerasimos; Rotsika Vasiliki; Tountas Yannis
Full Text Available Culture, as a variable which explains a great part of individual differences, has proved to be effective in defining the factors to which individuals ascribe their success or failure. This study introduced a completely new perspective to the relationship between culture and foreign language attributions by making reference to Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital. To this aim, a questionnaire for measuring cultural capital was designed, applied, and validated. The Factorability of the intercorrelation matrix was measured by two tests, namely, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity the results of which indicated that the factor model was appropriate (0.65, p
Reza Zabihi; Mojtaba Pordel
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Cuestionario de Condiciones de Trabajo fue diseñado y aplicado como una herramienta de evaluación de componentes psicosociales del entorno laboral en organizaciones de servicio a personas. Lo contestaron 1252 profesionales de la sanidad (medicina y enfermería) y de la educación superior empleados respectivamente en hospitales y en universidades de diversos países iberoamericanos. Este cuestionario incluye series de ítems cerrados organizados de acuerdo con un mod (more) elo teórico según el cual las condiciones de trabajo se configuran en torno a una triple relación de la organización con el método, con el entorno y con la persona. Un análisis de componentes principales mostró la existencia de seis factores en el cuestionario, agrupados por pares en tres grupos de escalas, mostrando todas ellas una notable consistencia interna, con altos valores ? de Cronbach. El estudio psicométrico indica que el cuestionario reproduce fielmente la estructura del modelo teórico propuesto. Abstract in english The Working Conditions Survey was designed and applied as a tool for assessing psychosocial components of work environment in serving people organizations. 1252 professionals of health care (medical and nursing) and of higher education respectively employed in hospitals and in universities from several Latin American countries, answered this questionnaire. This tool includes series of closed items organized according to a theoretical model that configures working conditio (more) ns around a three-way relationship of the organization with the method, with the environment and with the person. A principal component analysis showed the existence of six factors in the questionnaire, grouped in three pairs of scales, all showing a remarkable internal consistency with high Cronbach's ? values. The psychometric study indicates that the questionnaire faithfully reproduces the structure of the proposed theoretical model.
Blanch, Josep M.; Sahagún, Miguel; Cervantes, Genís
BACKGROUND: The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is increasingly used in studies with bariatric surgery patients although little is known about psychometric properties of this self-report measure in this clinical group. The current study evaluated the factor structure and construct validity of the EDE-Q in bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: Participants were a consecutive series of 174 obese bariatric surgery candidates who completed the EDE-Q and a battery of behavioral and psychological measures. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed an inadequate fit for the original EDE-Q structure but revealed a good fit for an alternative structure suggested by recent research with obese samples. CFA supported a seven-item, three-factor structure; the three factors were interpreted as dietary restraint, shape/weight overvaluation, and body dissatisfaction. The three factors converged with other relevant collateral measures. CONCLUSIONS: These factor analytic findings, which replicate recent findings from studies with diverse obese samples, demonstrated convergent validity. Implications of these findings for clinical assessment and research with bariatric surgery patients are discussed.
Grilo CM; Henderson KE; Bell RL; Crosby RD
How parents feed their children may impact on their weight and eating behaviours, both now and in the future. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) proposes to measure parental feeding practices and was originally developed using 12 factors in relatively small, homogenous samples. In contrast the present study used a large, diverse sample (n=1013) of children aged 4-8years. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original 12-factor model was not a good fit and that several factors were strongly inter-correlated. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis yielded five scales of interest: Healthy Eating Guidance, Monitoring, Parent Pressure, Restriction and Child Control. These scales were largely supported by further analyses in these data. Parents who were concerned about their child being overweight reported more Healthy Eating Guidance and Restriction and less Parent Pressure, whereas parents concerned about their child being underweight used more Parent Pressure and less Healthy Eating Guidance. Parents who rated a healthy diet for their child as very important undertook more Healthy Eating Guidance and Monitoring of food intake and less Child Control. These five factors from the CFPQ provide a well-supported and useful set of feeding practices that could be applicable to a wide variety of population groups.
Haszard JJ; Williams SM; Dawson AM; Skidmore PM; Taylor RW
OBJECTIVE: To examine the Eastern-Western difference in the interpretation of Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ) by assessing the psychometric properties of a revised Chinese medicine (CM)-specific version of IMAQ (CM-IMAQ). METHODS: Factor and Rasch analysis were performed with data collected from a mail survey of 165 Hong Kong Western medical doctors (WMD) randomly sampled from the official registry. The structural validity, unidimensionality, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) of the Hong Kong CM-IMAQ were evaluated. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) demonstrated that the original IMAQ factor structure was not concordant with our data on Chinese WMD, and subsequent explanatory factor analysis (EFA) validated a new three-factor model for CM-IMAQ: (1) attitude towards "tonification", (2) attitude towards the effectiveness of CM, and (3) attitude towards CM knowledge. The original IMAQ factor on holism and doctor-patient relationship disappeared. Rasch analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of "tonification" and the effectiveness domains, but further refinement of the knowledge domain is needed. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural adaptation of the IMAQ has demonstrated differences between Eastern and Western doctors trained in allopathic medicine in their interpretations of holism in healthcare. For Chinese WMD, the emphasis of holistic care is placed on "tonifying" the body rather than on nurturing the mind and spirit. Confucian and Taoist conceptualizations of mental health as well as the persistent stigma towards mental illness within modern Chinese culture may explain why Chinese WMD do not regard mental health promotion as part of routine healthcare.
Chung V; Chong M; Hong LC; Ma PH; Wong SY; Griffiths SM
Background: The Spanish Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5) is one of the most widely used instruments assessing self-concept with Spanish-speaking samples. It is also one of the few psychometrically sound instruments assessing self-concept from a multidimensional perspective. The availability of the AF5 in both languages (Spanish and English) would expand its potential, and would facilitate cross-cultural research. Method: To validate the English version of the AF5, we used multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was 624 USA respondents, 301 males (48%) and 323 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.21, SD = 1.08). Results: The English version of the AF5 does not change the original factor weights, the variances and covariances of the factors, or the error variances of items, with regard to the original Spanish five-factor model. The five factors proposed -academic, social, emotional, family, and physical- satisfactorily reproduce the inter-item relationships of the original Spanish version. The reliability for all items and dimensions of the English version was also good, with similar results as the original version. Conclusions: This preliminary validation study of the English version of the AF5 showed that it is an acceptable measure to be used with English-speaking adolescents.
García F; Gracia E; Zeleznova A
Background: The Spanish Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5) is one of the most widely used instruments assessing self-concept with Spanish-speaking samples. It is also one of the few psychometrically sound instruments assessing self-concept from a multidimensional perspective. The availability of the AF5 in both languages (Spanish and English) would expand its potential, and would facilitate cross-cultural research. Method: To validate the English version of the AF5, we used multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was 624 USA respondents, 301 males (48%) and 323 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.21, SD = 1.08). Results: The English version of the AF5 does not change the original factor weights, the variances and covariances of the factors, or the error variances of items, with regard to the original Spanish five-factor model. The five factors proposed -academic, social, emotional, family, and physical- satisfactorily reproduce the inter-item relationships of the original Spanish version. The reliability for all items and dimensions of the English version was also good, with similar results as the original version. Conclusions: This preliminary validation study of the English version of the AF5 showed that it is an acceptable measure to be used with English-speaking adolescents. PMID:24124791
García, Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Zeleznova, Alina
The validity of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), one of the measures used to assess parental child feeding practices and attitudes, has been confirmed in American populations. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the validity and factor structure of the translated version of the CFQ among parents of Japanese elementary school children. The structural equation modelling software Linear Structural Relationships (LISREL) was applied to explore the validity of the translated CFQ to examine child feeding behaviours and attitudes in a sample of 920 parents of Japanese elementary schoolchildren from schools in Koshu City in Yamanashi prefecture (grades 4-6), Japan. The confirmatory factor analysis suggested that after dropping the items with a low factor loading and adding three error covariances between items, the 7-factor model displayed acceptable fit and most items loaded as expected. Of the 24 direct factor-item correlations, 22 were greater than 0.50. Our study confirmed the validity of the translated CFQ to assess child feeding practices and attitudes among parents of elementary schoolchildren brought up in a Japanese eating culture.
Geng G; Zhu Z; Suzuki K; Tanaka T; Ando D; Sato M; Yamagata Z
The Mizes Anorectic Cognitions-Revised (MAC-R) questionnaire is a 24-item self-report instrument designed to assess cognitions associated with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. We examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MAC-R in a sample of 290 undergraduates. We found that a brief 3-factor oblique model (composed of 12 items) of the MAC-R provided acceptable fit to the present sample data. This model was largely invariant across male and female participants. The brief version of the MAC-R (the BMAC) and subscale scores correlated significantly with scores from related measures of eating disorders, showing evidence of concurrent validity. The BMAC total and subscales also showed evidence of discriminant validity by differentiating between empirically defined subclinical eating disorders and control participants. Both logistic regression and discriminant function analyses showed that only the self-control and self-esteem subscale was most useful in distinguishing between the subgroups.
Osman A; Chiros CE; Gutierrez PM; Kopper BA; Barrios FX
Weight-based self-esteem (WBSE) is hypothesized to be the core cognitive feature of eating disorders. The Weight Influenced Self-Esteem Questionnaire (WISE-Q) was designed to measure the influence of a negatively perceived body image on multiple dimensions of self-esteem, which we believe to be one aspect of WBSE. Study 1 sought to determine the factor structure of the WISE-Q as well as to examine the reliability and concurrent validity of WISE-Q scores among eating disorder and undergraduate student participants. In Study 2, validity was further investigated by examining changes in WISE-Q scores with treatment. The WISE-Q has two factors representing generalized and expected WBSE. Evidence of internal and test-retest reliability was found. Also, the pattern of correlations between WISE-Q scores and other constructs was in line with predictions. As expected, WISE-Q scores improved with treatment yet remained high.
Trottier K; McFarlane T; Olmsted MP; McCabe RE
Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) - 12 was designed as a short questionnaire to assess psychiatric morbidity. Despite the fact that studies have suggested a number of competing multidimensional factor structures, it continues to be largely used as a unidimensional instrument. This may have an impact on the identification of psychiatric morbidity in target populations. The aim of this study was to explore the dimensionality of the GHQ-12 and to evaluate a number of alternative models for the instrument. Methods The data were drawn from a large heterogeneous sample of cancer patients. The Partial Credit Model (Rasch) was applied to the 12-item GHQ. Item misfit (infit mean square ? 1.3) was identified, misfitting items removed and unidimensionality and differential item functioning (age, gender, and treatment aims) were assessed. The factor structures of the various alternative models proposed in the literature were explored and optimum model fit evaluated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results The Rasch analysis of the 12-item GHQ identified six misfitting items. Removal of these items produced a six-item instrument which was not unidimensional. The Rasch analysis of an 8-item GHQ demonstrated two unidimensional structures corresponding to Anxiety/Depression and Social Dysfunction. No significant differential item functioning was observed by age, gender and treatment aims for the six- and eight-item GHQ. Two models competed for best fit from the confirmatory factor analysis, namely the GHQ-8 and Hankin's (2008) unidimensional model, however, the GHQ-8 produced the best overall fit statistics. Conclusions The results are consistent with the evidence that the GHQ-12 is a multi-dimensional instrument. Use of the summated scores for the GHQ-12 could potentially lead to an incorrect assessment of patients' psychiatric morbidity. Further evaluation of the GHQ-12 with different target populations is warranted.
Smith Adam B; Fallowfield Lesley J; Stark Dan P; Velikova Galina; Jenkins Valerie
The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, 1-month test-retest reliability, and congruent validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). Study 1, in which 5751 Taiwanese adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the adequacy of the original four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach ?. Study 2, in which 108 adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the 1-month test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We examined the congruent validity of the C-SBEQ by examining the consistency between self-reported and teacher- and classmate-nominated experiences of bullying involvement in Study 2. The results of CFA supported the four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ in Taiwanese adolescents. The test-retest and internal reliability values of all subscales of the C-SBEQ were at acceptable to satisfactory levels. Nominated adolescents had significantly higher self-reported scores on three C-SBEQ subscales than non-nominated ones, and the levels of agreement between self-reported and nominated victims were moderate. The results of this study indicate that the C-SBEQ is appropriate for assessing bullying experiences in Taiwanese adolescents.
Yen CF; Kim YS; Tang TC; Wu YY; Cheng CP
The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, 1-month test-retest reliability, and congruent validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). Study 1, in which 5751 Taiwanese adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the adequacy of the original four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach ?. Study 2, in which 108 adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the 1-month test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We examined the congruent validity of the C-SBEQ by examining the consistency between self-reported and teacher- and classmate-nominated experiences of bullying involvement in Study 2. The results of CFA supported the four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ in Taiwanese adolescents. The test-retest and internal reliability values of all subscales of the C-SBEQ were at acceptable to satisfactory levels. Nominated adolescents had significantly higher self-reported scores on three C-SBEQ subscales than non-nominated ones, and the levels of agreement between self-reported and nominated victims were moderate. The results of this study indicate that the C-SBEQ is appropriate for assessing bullying experiences in Taiwanese adolescents. PMID:22974670
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Kim, Young-Shin; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping
BACKGROUND: The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) 20-item questionnaire measures how chronic care patients perceive their involvement in care. We aimed to adapt the measure into Danish and to assess data quality, internal consistency and the proposed factorial structure. METHODS: The PACIC was translated by a standardised forward-backward procedure, and filled in by 560 patients receiving type 2 diabetes care. Data quality was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency (Cronbach's ? and average inter-item correlation), item-rest correlations and factorial structure was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: The item response was high (missing answers: 0.5-2.9%). Floor effect was 2.7-69.2%, above 15% for 17 items. Ceiling effect was 4.0-40.4%, above 15% for 12 items. The subscales had average inter-item correlations over 0.30 and CFA showed high factor loadings (range 0.67-0.77). All had ? over 0.7 and included items with both high and low loadings. The CFA model fit was good for two indices out of six (TLI and SRMR). CONCLUSIONS: Danish PACIC is now available and validated in primary care in a type 2 diabetes population. The psychometric properties were satisfactory apart from ceiling and floor effects. We endorse the proposed five scale structure. All the subscales showed good model fit, and may be used for separate sum scores.
Maindal HT; Sokolowski I; Vedsted P
BACKGROUND: Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsies are routinely performed to diagnose and stage prostate cancer. We prospectively evaluated the safety, morbidity, and complication rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 336 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy. A post-biopsy questionnaire was sent to the patients 4 weeks after biopsy concerning questions about minor complications. Information on major complications was obtained by telephone interview. RESULTS: There were 2 major and 48 minor complications. The most common complication was hematuria in 6.5% of cases, followed by pain while urinating in 6.0% of cases. There was no statistically significance difference between hematuria and aspirin/thrombolytic drug use (P = 0.170) and between positive microbiology in urine and elevated temperature (P = 0.665). CONCLUSIONS: Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy is safe for diagnosing prostate cancer with few major and minor complications. Aspirin/thrombolytic drug use in patients' history is no risk factor for hematuria. Positive microbiology in urine before biopsy is no risk factor for a higher infection rate.
Ecke TH; Gunia S; Bartel P; Hallmann S; Koch S; Ruttloff J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment) was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8), with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.
Evenson Kelly R; McGinn Aileen P
Two studies were conducted to assess the Swedish version of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), which was originally created by Baer et al. (2006). The aim of Study 1 was to examine the psychometric properties of the FFMQ using data from 495 individuals. Quantitative and qualitative analyses resulted in a reduction of the scale by 10 items. Psychometric properties, including internal consistency of the revised instrument, were examined. The Swedish FFMQ provides results comparable to those obtained by Baer. Cronbach's alphas were high for all the facets. The Swedish FFMQ appears to be a potentially useful tool in measuring mindfulness among Swedish participants. The aim of Study 2 was to test the suggested hierarchical five-factor solution and construct validity, using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Similar to findings for the English version of the FFMQ, the CFA showed that the Observing facet was not a significant part of an overall self-reported mindfulness structure in a Swedish population with little meditation experience.
Lilja JL; Frodi-Lundgren A; Hanse JJ; Josefsson T; Lundh LG; Sköld C; Hansen E; Broberg AG
In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data.…
Aguado, Jaume; Campbell, Alistair; Ascaso, Carlos; Navarro, Purificacion; Garcia-Esteve, Lluisa; Luciano, Juan V.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past few decades, drug and overall healthcare expenditure have risen rapidly in most countries. The present study investigates the attitudes and the factors which influence physician prescribing decisions and practice in Greece and Cyprus. Methods A postal questionnaire was developed by researchers at the Department of Health Economics at the National School of Public Health in Greece, specifically for the purposes of the study. This was then administered to a sample of 1,463 physicians in Greece and 240 physicians in Cyprus, stratified by sex, specialty and geographic region. Results The response rate was 82.3% in Greece and 80.4% in Cyprus. There were similarities but also many differences between the countries. Clinical effectiveness is the most important factor considered in drug prescription choice in both countries. Greek physicians were significantly more likely to take additional criteria under consideration, such as the drug form and recommended daily dose and the individual patient preferences. The list of main sources of information for physicians includes: peer-reviewed medical journals, medical textbooks, proceedings of conferences and pharmaceutical sales representatives. Only half of prescribers considered the cost carried by their patients. The majority of doctors in both countries agreed that the effectiveness, safety and efficacy of generic drugs may not be excellent but it is acceptable. However, only Cypriot physicians actually prescribe them. Physicians believe that new drugs are not always better and their higher prices are not necessarily justified. Finally, doctors get information regarding adverse drug reactions primarily from the National Organisation for Medicines. However, it is notable that the majority of them do not inform the authorities on such reactions. Conclusion The present study highlights the attitudes and the factors influencing physician behaviour in the two countries and may be used for developing policies to improve their choices and hence to increase clinical and economic effectiveness and efficiency.
Theodorou Mamas; Tsiantou Vasiliki; Pavlakis Andreas; Maniadakis Nikos; Fragoulakis Vasilis; Pavi Elpida; Kyriopoulos John
OBJECTIVE: To develop a Spanish version of the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) and to test its psychometric properties. METHODS: A forward and backward translation methodology was used to translate the questionnaire, which was then applied to 206 participants (174 physiotherapy students and 32 family physicians). The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess test-retest reliability. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and item analysis. Construct validity was measured using Pearson correlation coefficients between HC-PAIRS and FABQ, FABQ-Phys, FABQ-Work and the responses given by participants to three clinical case scenarios. An exploratory factor analysis was carried out following the Kaiser normalization criteria and principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation (quartimax). Sensitivity to change was assessed after a teaching module. RESULTS: Test-retest reliability was ICC 0.50 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha was 0.825. The HC-PAIRS scores correlated significantly with the scores of the FABQ and also with the recommendations for work and activity given by the participants in the three clinical case scenarios. Sensitivity to change test showed an effect size of 1.5, which is considered a large change. Factor analysis suggests that the Spanish version of HC-PAIRS measures a unidimensional construct. CONCLUSION: The Spanish version of the HC-PAIRS has proven to be a reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to assess health care providers' attitudes and beliefs about LBP. It can be used in evaluating clinical practice and in undergraduate acquisition of skills and knowledge.
Domenech J; Segura-Ortí E; Lisón JF; Espejo-Tort B; Sánchez-Zuriaga D
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, drug and overall healthcare expenditure have risen rapidly in most countries. The present study investigates the attitudes and the factors which influence physician prescribing decisions and practice in Greece and Cyprus. METHODS: A postal questionnaire was developed by researchers at the Department of Health Economics at the National School of Public Health in Greece, specifically for the purposes of the study. This was then administered to a sample of 1,463 physicians in Greece and 240 physicians in Cyprus, stratified by sex, specialty and geographic region. RESULTS: The response rate was 82.3% in Greece and 80.4% in Cyprus. There were similarities but also many differences between the countries. Clinical effectiveness is the most important factor considered in drug prescription choice in both countries. Greek physicians were significantly more likely to take additional criteria under consideration, such as the drug form and recommended daily dose and the individual patient preferences. The list of main sources of information for physicians includes: peer-reviewed medical journals, medical textbooks, proceedings of conferences and pharmaceutical sales representatives. Only half of prescribers considered the cost carried by their patients. The majority of doctors in both countries agreed that the effectiveness, safety and efficacy of generic drugs may not be excellent but it is acceptable. However, only Cypriot physicians actually prescribe them. Physicians believe that new drugs are not always better and their higher prices are not necessarily justified. Finally, doctors get information regarding adverse drug reactions primarily from the National Organisation for Medicines. However, it is notable that the majority of them do not inform the authorities on such reactions. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights the attitudes and the factors influencing physician behaviour in the two countries and may be used for developing policies to improve their choices and hence to increase clinical and economic effectiveness and efficiency.
Theodorou M; Tsiantou V; Pavlakis A; Maniadakis N; Fragoulakis V; Pavi E; Kyriopoulos J
Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and validation of the Risk and protective factors for drug use questionnaire in college youth. Content validity, construct validity and reliability were established. The sample consisted of 763 students between 15 and 25 years old, from a private university in Cali, Colombia. The questionnaire reliability was 0,906, and six psychosocial risk and protective factors were defined (emotional disturbance, satisfaction with interpersonal relations, beliefs and appraisal about drugs, spirituality, social permissiveness and access to drugs, social skills and self-control). The current questionnaire is a useful tool to assess drug use and the psychosocial factors associated to it in college youth. However, it will be administered in later studies in order to establish its predictive validity
Salazar Torres, Isabel Cristina; Varela Arévalo, María Teresa; Tovar Cuevas, José Rafael; Cáceres de Rodríguez, Delcy Elena
BACKGROUND: Hyperemesis gravidarum is known as a complex disease with interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors. Our study was an attempt to understand the psychological effects on hyperemesis gravidarum by using an objective scale. METHODS: Thirty-four pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum who were hospitalized in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey comprised the patient group and asymptomatic pregnant women who came for routine antenatal visits to our clinic were enrolled in this study as the control group between March 1, 2007 and October 15, 2008. Women in both groups filled in the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) questionnaire. The data collected from both groups were analyzed by using the Student's t-test (SPSS 13.00). Frequencies of high SCL scores between groups were analyzed by chi-square tests. RESULTS: The patients with hyperemesis gravidarum had higher distress scores than those in the control group. The mean value of global severity index (GSI) was 1.03 in the patient group and 0.64 in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.005). The most significant difference between the two groups was in somatization subscales (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex disorder with psychological aspects. Considering this fact can help us deal with the disorder.
Pirimoglu ZM; Guzelmeric K; Alpay B; Balcik O; Unal O; Turan MC
Bryant and Smith [(2001). Refining the architecture of aggression: A measurement model for the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. "Journal of Research in Personality," 35, 138-167] refined the 29-item Aggression Questionnaire and obtained a 12-item short form of the AQ that has yet to be validated with samples outside of North America and…
Ang, Rebecca P.
The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) is an abbreviated version of McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) developed for pragmatic reasons to improve the clinical utility of the MPQ. Although the SF-MPQ has been used in more than 250 published studies, few studies have examined the core construc...
Mason, Shawn T.; Arceneaux, Lisa L.; Abouhassan, William; Lauterbach, Dean; Seebach, Caryn; Fauerbach, James A.
Full Text Available Objective: To screen common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome factors of chronic renal failure (CRF) via questionnaire investigation among experts. Methods: A questionnaire was developed based on the results of our previous researches. The investigation was carried out with the questionnaire among experts who are engaged in clinical research and treatment of nephrosis with the title of chief or associate chief physician from 15 hospitals in China. Common TCM syndrome factors of CRF were obtained based on the data analysis of the mean value on general evaluation, cumulative percentage and coefficient of variation.Results: A total of 114 sets of the questionnaire were sent out and all of them were returned back, 113 of which were effective. The recovery rate was 100%. The TCM syndrome factors were regarded as common factors of CRF syndrome if the cumulative percentage was more than or equal to 60% and the coefficient of variation was less than or equal to 0.35. The syndrome factors related to the disease location were the kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and lung; the syndrome factors related to the disease type were dampness, turbid toxin, blood stasis, water retention, and phlegm which belong to excess type, and qi deficiency, yin deficiency, yang deficiency, blood deficiency, and essence deficiency which belong to deficiency type.Conclusion: The common TCM syndrome factors of CRF were obtained from the representative experts through the questionnaire investigation among the experts. The results enable us to have a deeper understanding of the disease in view of TCM compared with the previous literature data and may contribute to the establishment of TCM syndrome diagnosis criteria of the disease in the future.
Kai Qu; Tian-fang Wang
AIM OF THE STUDY: A questionnaire was developed and validated which assesses factors influencing career choices of medical students and their perception of possibilities in general practice. METHODS: The first questionnaire version, which was developed based on a systematic literature review, was checked for comprehensibility and redundancy using concurrent think aloud. The revised version was filled out by a pilot sample of medical students and the factor structure was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). The final version was filled out in an online survey by medical students of all 5 Medical Faculties in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The factor structure was validated with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed as internal consistency using Cronbach's ?. RESULTS: The questionnaire comprises 2 parts: ratings of (A) the individual importance and of (B) the possibilities in general practice on 5-point scales. The first version comprising 118 items was shortened to 63 items after conducting interviews using concurrent think aloud. A further 3 items giving no information were removed after piloting the questionnaire on 179 students. The 27 items of part A were structured in 7 factors (PCA): image, personal ambition, patient orientation, work-life balance, future perspectives, job-related ambition, and variety in job. This structure had a critical fit in the CFA applied to the final version filled out by 1 299 students. Internal consistency of the factors was satisfactory to very good (Cronbach's ?=0.55-0.81). CONCLUSION: The questionnaire showed good psychometric properties. Further, not assessed factors influence career choice resulting in unexplained variance in our dataset and the critical fit of the model.
Hermann K; Buchholz A; Loh A; Kiolbassa K; Miksch A; Joos S; Götz K
Included here are instruments and questionnaires developed by Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch staff for use in our research efforts. These tools are also used by many other researchers in government and academia. Documentation, software, and other supporting material, when available, are also provided.
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Osijek, Croatia and its possible interconnections with gender, year of study, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area, sources of financing and type of residence during study. A validated questionnaire was self-administered to cross-faculty representative student sample of "J. J. Strossmayer" University of Osiek in June 2006. General demographic data, as well as data on academic features and student socio-economical status were obtained. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for assessing the extent of alcohol consumption, with cut off value of 8 indicating possible alcohol problems. The majority of study participants 90.9% (755/831) had tried alcohol at least once in their life. Among this group, 43.8% (331/755) had an AUDIT total score of 8 or more: 69.2% (229/331) were males and 30.8% (102/331) were females. Among the study participants who screened positive, 70.4% (233/331) responded positively to simple advice focused on the reduction of hazardous drinking (AUDIT 8-15), 14.5% (48/331) needed brief counseling and continued monitoring (AUDIT 16-19), and 15.1% (50/331) clearly warranted further diagnostic evaluation for alcohol dependence (AUDIT 20 and above). Significantly different statistical data was found within the following factors: gender, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area and type of residence (chi2 = 76.232, p = 0.0000; Fisher exact test = 31.828, p = 0.0000; chi2 = 11.667, p = 0.0086 and chi2 = 6.639, p = 0.0362 respectively). Alcohol consumption resulting in risk behaviors is common among university students from eastern Croatia. These findings emphasize the need for comprehensive and effective preventative strategies directed towards student population.
Miskulin M; Petrovi? G; Miskulin I; Puntari? D; Milas J; Dahl D; Rudan S
Full Text Available Abstract Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version) was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA)". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i) by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) by interview and (ii) by accelerometry (Actigraph™ device). After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86) and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87). The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83%) to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%). Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an average completion time of six minutes for the 49-item version and less than two minutes for the short version. Conclusion The ALPHA questionnaire is an instrument to measure environmental perceptions in relation to physical activity. It appears to have good reliability and predictive validity. The questionnaire is now available to other researchers to investigate its usefulness and applicability across Europe.
Spittaels Heleen; Verloigne Maïté; Gidlow Christopher; Gloanec Julien; Titze Sylvia; Foster Charlie; Oppert Jean-Michel; Rutter Harry; Oja Pekka; Sjöström Michael; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse
The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthropometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.
Lara Cristiane Natacci; Mario Ferreira Júnior
The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: tradução para o português e aplicação em mulheres brasileiras/ The three factor eating questionnaire - R21: translation and administration to Brazilian women
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar e discutir a relação dos comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar entre si e com os parâmetros antropométricos: índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. MÉTODOS: Tradução para o português e aplicação do The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens, com subsequente comparação aos parâmetros antropométricos de 125 mulheres trabalhadoras do Instituto Central (more) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, escolhidas casualmente em um grupo de 800 interessados em orientação nutricional. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se associações entre a alimentação emocional e o descontrole alimentar, além de associações entre alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: O The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire - versão reduzida de 21 itens mostrou-se um instrumento adequado para identificar os comportamentos de restrição cognitiva, alimentação emocional e descontrole alimentar, padrões de comportamentos cuja análise pode servir como ponto de partida para a adoção de estratégias de abordagem de orientação nutricional em programas de controle de peso. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and discussed how cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors interrelate and relate with the anthropometric parameters BMI and waist circumference. METHODS: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire consisting of 21 items was translated into Portuguese, administered to 125 female employees from the Central Unit of the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine Clinics Hospital and compared with the anthr (more) opometric data of these women who had been casually selected from a group of 800 individuals interested in nutrition counseling. RESULTS: Emotional eating was found to be associated with bingeing, body mass index and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: The short version of The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire with 21 items proved to effectively identify cognitive restraint, emotional eating and bingeing behaviors. Analysis of these behavior patterns can be the starting point for the implementation of strategies for approaching nutrition counseling in weight-control programs.
Natacci, Lara Cristiane; Ferreira Júnior, Mario
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the factor structure of a Korean version of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (K-MCQ-30) and to further evaluate its concurrent validity. METHOD: Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on the data sets from two independent samples of Korean college students (n = 662; n = 664). Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted on the cross-sectional data from another sample (n = 97). RESULTS: The 5-factor model of the K-MCQ-30 showed a good fit to the first sample after minor modification. The revised 5-factor model was replicated with the second sample. Five factors of the K-MCQ-30 had positive correlations with measures of emotional disorder symptoms and predicted each of the symptoms in different ways. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide general support for the 5-factor structure of the K-MCQ-30 and its good concurrent validity in nonclinical samples.
Cho Y; Jahng S; Chai S
In this study, the authors tested alternative factor models of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a sample of Spanish postpartum women, using confirmatory factor analysis. The authors report the results of modeling three different methods for scoring the GHQ-12 using estimation methods recommended for categorical and binary data. A discriminant function analysis was also performed to test the utility of a multiple factor model. A two-phase cross-sectional study was designed: (a) 1,453 women visiting at 6 weeks postpartum completed the GHQ-12 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire and (b) based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale outcomes, participants were stratified and randomly selected within each stratum for clinical evaluation. Using the Likert-type scoring approach, Hankins's one-factor model with "method effects" obtained the best fit. In addition, Graetz's three-factor model provided little discrimination between diagnostic groups, the factors being highly correlated. These results support the presence of only one latent factor in the GHQ-12.
Aguado J; Campbell A; Ascaso C; Navarro P; Garcia-Esteve L; Luciano JV
Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza vaccination rate in hospitals among health care workers in Europe remains low. As there is a lack of research about management factors we assessed factors reported by administrators of general hospitals that are associated with the influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers. Methods All 81 general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate in a self-administered questionnaire study. The questionnaire was directed at the hospital administrators. The following factors were addressed: beliefs about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, whether the hospital had a written policy on influenza vaccination and how the hospital informed their staff about influenza vaccination. The questionnaire also included questions about mandatory vaccination, whether it was free of charge and how delivered as well as the vaccination campaign costs. The outcome of this one-season survey is the self-reported overall influenza vaccination rate of health care workers. Results In all, 79 of 81 hospitals that were approached were willing to participate and therefore received a questionnaire. Of these, 42 were returned (response rate 52%). Overall influenza vaccination rate among health care workers in our sample was 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 14.6% to 20.8%). Hospitals in which the administrators agreed with positive statements concerning the influenza vaccination had a slightly higher, but non-significant, vaccine uptake. There was a 9% higher vaccine uptake in hospitals that spent more than €1250,- on the vaccination campaign (24.0% versus 15.0%; 95% confidence interval from 0.7% to 17.3%). Conclusions Agreement with positive statements about management factors with regard to influenza vaccination were not associated with the uptake. More economic investments were related with a higher vaccine uptake; the reasons for this should be explored further.
Riphagen-Dalhuisen Josien; Kuiphuis Joep CF; Procé Arjen R; Luytjes Willem; Postma Maarten J; Hak Eelko
The Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50; Landgraf JM et al., The CHQ User's Manual. Boston, MA: The Health Institute, New England Medical Centre, 1996) appears to be a useful method of assessing children's health. The CHQ-PF50 is designed to measure general functional status and well-being and is available in several versions to suit the needs of the health researcher. Several publications have reported favorably on the psychometric properties of the CHQ. Landgraf et al. reported the results of an exploratory factor analysis at the scale level that provided evidence for a two-factor structure representing physical and psychosocial dimensions of health. In order to cross-validate and extend these results, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with an independent sample of generally healthy, predominantly minority children. Results of the analysis indicate that a two-factor model provides a good fit to the data, confirming previous exploratory analyses with this questionnaire. One additional method factor seems likely because of the substantial similarity of three of the scales, but that does not affect the substantive two-factor interpretation overall.
Hepner KA; Sechrest L
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop the Personhood Questionnaire (PQ) to determine the factor structure of "personhood" for elderly healthcare services and identify personhood components other than PQ items. METHOD: We enrolled 314 healthcare professionals at long-term care facilities in Japan. Participants completed a questionnaire consisting of 17 PQ items. The PQ was designed to assess the degree of need in elderly healthcare services on a 5-point Likert scale (Question 1), and identify personhood components other than PQ items (Question 2). We performed factor analysis for answers to Question 1, and text mining and cluster analysis for answers to Question 2. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure. Cronbach's ? was 0.87 for the 17 original items and 0.86 for the 15 items after removing two items. Text mining identified 27 personhood components, which were classified into three clusters. The second cluster consisted of non-PQ items. CONCLUSIONS: Factor 1 was "forming daily life," factor 2 was "forming career and context," factor 3 was "affecting psychological behavior," and factor 4 was "forming basic attributes." Components of the second cluster require further examination before incorporation into the concept of personhood. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: • Improving the quality of individualized care, in which "personhood" and dignity of elderly people are respected, is an urgent goal. • The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), a conceptual practice model for occupational therapy, should be used jointly with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to establish the concept of personhood. • The construction of personhood in elderly health care services consists of a four-factor structure, including "forming daily life," "forming career and context," "affecting psychological behavior," and "forming basic attributes." • This study suggests that provision of high-quality individualized care can be achieved by promoting services that focus on "forming daily life,” which has the highest factor contribution.
Kurokawa H; Yabuwaki K; Kobayashi R
The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) has been one of the most commonly used instruments to assess leadership in organizational settings for the last two decades. However, the factor structure proposed by the MLQ authors has received some criticism. The aim of this work is to examine the fit indices of several alternative factor models suggested by the literature. In order to accomplish this objective, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 954 participants using a Spanish version of the MLQ. Results show that the model that produces the better fit with the data consists of four factors: transformational leadership, developmental/transactional leadership, corrective leadership and avoidant/passive leadership. This model is parsimonious and consistent with the MLQ literature.
Molero Alonso F; Recio Saboya P; Cuadrado Guirado I
Reductions in cravings have been associated with improved recovery from alcohol and other drug use problems. Self-report assessments of cravings provide a way of monitoring progress over the course of treatment particularly in residential settings. There is a need to develop brief craving measures suitable for repeat administration. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of a six-item version of the Desires for Alcohol Questionnaire (DAQ-6). In study 1 exploratory factor analysis involving 710 participants attending residential treatment revealed two factors: 'expectancy of negative reinforcement' and 'strong desires and intentions'. In study 2 confirmatory factor analysis replicated this factor structure in an independent sample of 116 participants. Both studies provided evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the DAQ-6 when compared to other measures. The DAQ-6 shows promise as a brief self-report measure of cravings but the utility of the separate subscales in treatment contexts requires further research.
Mo C; Deane FP; Lyons GC; Kelly PJ
We evaluated the cross-cultural generalizability of the factor structure for the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) using confirmatory factor analysis. The factor structure was reasonably invariant over large samples of responses by Australian, Spanish, and Turkish students. Consistent with a priori predictions, the factor structures based on Australian and Spanish high school students were somewhat more similar to each other than to those based on Turkish university students, but these differences were small. Psychometric, theoretical cross-cultural, and practical considerations support the PSDQ's usefulness in a variety of research and applied settings. The study also provides a model for comparing psychometric properties based on responses to original and translated versions of sport psychology measures. PMID:12230332
Marsh, Herbert W; Marco, Inés Tomás; Abçý, F Hülya
We evaluated the cross-cultural generalizability of the factor structure for the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) using confirmatory factor analysis. The factor structure was reasonably invariant over large samples of responses by Australian, Spanish, and Turkish students. Consistent with a priori predictions, the factor structures based on Australian and Spanish high school students were somewhat more similar to each other than to those based on Turkish university students, but these differences were small. Psychometric, theoretical cross-cultural, and practical considerations support the PSDQ's usefulness in a variety of research and applied settings. The study also provides a model for comparing psychometric properties based on responses to original and translated versions of sport psychology measures.
Marsh HW; Marco IT; Abçý FH
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between psychological factors and efficacy of acupuncture on primary dysmenorrhea. METHODS: Sixty cases of primary dysmenorrhea were observed. Before acupuncture treatment, the self-designed confidence questionnaire was used to assess patients' confidence in acupuncture efficacy. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was adopted to assess patients' tension level during acupuncture. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were applied to assess the situations of patients' anxiety and depression. Eysenck's personality questionnaire (EPQ) and Cattell sixteen personality factors questionnaire (16PF) were provided to assess the personal characters of patients. Pain intensity, pain duration and accompanied symptoms were recorded before and after acupuncture treatment so as to assess the efficacy. Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the psychological factors and acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea. RESULTS: There were significant differences in grading of dysmenorrhea, pain intensity score and pain duration after treatment as compared statistically with those before treatment (all P<0.001). The standardized coefficients of dominance (r=0.6797) and anxiety (r=-0.5906) in personality factors and the reduction of pain duration (r=0.9042) among efficacy indices were the highest. The overall correlation coefficients were all lower between the indices of psychological factors and canonical variables of dysmenorrhea efficacy. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture efficacy on primary dysmenorrhea has a certain correlation with dominance and anxiety of patients' personality factors. But, the psychological factors do not play a leading role in acupuncture treatment.
Xiong J; Liu F; Wang W; Huang GY
Background: The Alabama Child Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) is a multi-source and multi-method instrument created to assess the most relevant parenting practices from a bidirectional perspective. Despite its advantages, the APQ has not been validated with a Spanish population. The objective of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties and factor structure of the APQ, child self-report version, in a community sample of Spanish children. Method: The participants were 423 Spanish children (58.9% boys) aged between 8 and 12 years. Results: Exploratory factor analysis suggested a version of the questionnaire that consists of 16 items with a four-factor structure: Parental Involvement, Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The internal consistency of the subscales was moderate, except for the father's Parental Involvement factor, which reached acceptable reliability. Convergent validity with a measure of quality of life was adequate. Gender differences were only found in Poor Supervision, with higher scores in boys than in girls. Conclusions: Overall, these findings provide support for the use of the APQ to measure parenting practices perceived by Spanish children. PMID:23910746
Escribano, Silvia; Aniorte, Jennifer; Orgilés, Mireia
Background: The Alabama Child Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) is a multi-source and multi-method instrument created to assess the most relevant parenting practices from a bidirectional perspective. Despite its advantages, the APQ has not been validated with a Spanish population. The objective of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties and factor structure of the APQ, child self-report version, in a community sample of Spanish children. Method: The participants were 423 Spanish children (58.9% boys) aged between 8 and 12 years. Results: Exploratory factor analysis suggested a version of the questionnaire that consists of 16 items with a four-factor structure: Parental Involvement, Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The internal consistency of the subscales was moderate, except for the father's Parental Involvement factor, which reached acceptable reliability. Convergent validity with a measure of quality of life was adequate. Gender differences were only found in Poor Supervision, with higher scores in boys than in girls. Conclusions: Overall, these findings provide support for the use of the APQ to measure parenting practices perceived by Spanish children.
Escribano S; Aniorte J; Orgilés M
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated questionnaire. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Italian version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Growing attention is being given to cognitive-behavioral measures to improve interventions for LBP. The CPAQ has never been validated in Italian subjects with chronic LBP. METHODS: The psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach ?), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), sensitivity to change by calculating the smallest detectable change, and construct validity by comparing CPAQ with a pain numerical rating scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (Pearson correlations). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were computed to further investigate construct validity of the CPAQ subscales. RESULTS: The questionnaire was administered to 142 subjects with chronic LBP. Factor analysis confirmed a 2-factor (viz., Activities Engagement and Pain Willingness) 20-item solution, achieving a good data-model fit. Internal consistency (? = 0.88) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.86) were good. The smallest detectable change was 22. Construct validity showed a moderate correlation between the CPAQ and numerical rating scale (r = -0.485), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire Scale (r = -0.594), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (r = -0.595), and a close correlation with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = -0.610 for the Anxiety score and r = -0.659 for the Depression score) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (r = -0.658). The standardized regression coefficients for Activity Engagement were significant in all of the equations, and those for Pain Willingness were significant in the anxiety, depression, and disability equations. CONCLUSION: The Italian CPAQ had a good factorial structure and psychometric properties that replicated the results of other versions. Its use is recommended for clinical and research purposes.Level of Evidence: 2.
Monticone M; Ferrante S; Rocca B; Nava T; Parini C; Cerri C
Improving the quality of clinical training requires provision of suitable educational environment and one of its requirements is determination of the stress-inducing factors. The present research was carried out to explore these factors from the viewpoint of students of nursing school. This research was a descriptive study. The samples included a total of 230 students who had passed at least one credit of clinical training and had been selected through convenience sampling. Based on the research results, the most tension-inducing area was related to the unpleasant emotions area, clinical experiences, unpleasant feelings, educational environment and interpersonal relationships, respectively. Throughout clinical training processes, students of different medical fields face a great deal of tension-inducing factors. The identification of these factors could play a significant role in reducing the amount of tension among them.
Moridi G; Khaledi S; Valiee S
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes often find it difficult to control their blood glucose level on a daily basis because of distance or physical incapacity. With the increase in Internet-enabled smartphone use, this problem can be resolved by adopting a mobile diabetes monitoring system. Most existing studies have focused on patients' usability perceptions, whereas little attention has been paid to physicians' intentions to adopt this technology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and user acceptance of mobile diabetes monitoring among Japanese physicians. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of physicians was conducted in Japan. The structured questionnaire was prepared in a context of a mobile diabetes monitoring system that controls blood glucose, weight, physical activity, diet, insulin and medication, and blood pressure. Following a thorough description of mobile diabetes monitoring with a graphical image, questions were asked relating to system quality, information quality, service quality, health improvement, ubiquitous control, privacy and security concerns, perceived value, subjective norms, and intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. The data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. RESULTS: In total, 471 physicians participated from 47 prefectures across Japan, of whom 134 were specialized in internal and gastrointestinal medicine. Nine hypotheses were tested with both the total sample and the specialist subsample; results were similar for both samples in terms of statistical significance and the strength of path coefficients. We found that system quality, information quality, and service quality significantly affect overall quality. Overall quality determines the extent to which physicians perceive the value of mobile health monitoring. However, in contrast to our initial predictions, overall quality does not have a significant direct effect on the intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. With regard to net benefits, both ubiquitous control and health improvement are significant predictors. Net benefits in turn significantly motivate physicians to use mobile health monitoring, and has a strong influence on perceived value. Perceived value and subjective norms are predictors of intention to use. In our sample, concerns over privacy and security risk have no significant effects on intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. Among the 3 control variables, only age significantly affected intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring, whereas experience and gender were not significant predictors of intention. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians consider perceived value and net benefits as the most important motivators to use mobile diabetes monitoring. Overall quality assessment does affect their intention to use this technology, but only indirectly through perceived value. Net benefits seem to be a strong driver in both a direct and indirect manner, implying that physicians may perceive health improvement with ubiquitous control as a true utility by enhancing cost-effective monitoring, and simultaneously recognize it as a way to create value for their clinical practices.
Okazaki S; Castañeda JA; Sanz S; Henseler J
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) in Moroccan postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture assessed by the Arabic version of ECOS 16 questionnaire. Methods 357 postmenopausal women were included in this study. The participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by DXA of the lumbar spine and the total hip as well as X-ray examination of the thoraco-lumbar spine to identify subclinical vertebral fractures. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire on clinical and sociodemographic parameters, and osteoporosis risk factors. The Arabic version of the ECOS16 (Assessment of health related quality of life in osteoporosis questionnaire) was used to assess quality of life. Results The mean age was 58 ± 7.8 years, and the mean BMI was 28.3 ± 4.8 kg/m2. One hundred and eight women (30.1%) were osteoporotic and 46.7% had vertebral fractures. Most were categorized as Grade1 (75%). Three independent factors were associated with a poor quality of life: low educational level (p = 0,01), vertebral fracture (p = 0,03), and history of peripheral fracture (p = 0,006). Worse QOL was observed in the group with vertebral fracture in all domains except "pain": Physical functioning (p = 0,002); Fear of illness (p = 0,001); and Psychosocial functioning (p = 0,007). The number of fractures was a determinant of a low QOL, as indicated by an increased score in physical functioning (p = 0,01), fear of illness (p = 0,007), and total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Patients with higher Genant score had low QOL in these two domains too (p = 0,002; p = 0,001 respectively), and in the total score (p = 0,01) after adjusting on age and educational level. Conclusion Our current data showed that the quality of life assessed by the Arabic version of the ECOS 16 questionnaire is decreased in post menopausal women with prevalent vertebral fractures, with the increasing number and the severity of vertebral fractures.
Abourazzak Fatima E; Allali Fadoua; Rostom Samira; Hmamouchi Ihsane; Ichchou Linda; El Mansouri Laila; Bennani Loubna; Khazzani Hamza; Abouqal Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni Najia
Culture, as a variable which explains a great part of individual differences, has proved to be effective in defining the factors to which individuals ascribe their success or failure. This study introduced a completely new perspective to the relationship between culture and foreign language...
Reza Zabihi; Mojtaba Pordel
The second part of the series of articles presents the reliability testing results of questions concerning factors that could influence or originate the symptoms of low back pain (LBP). The questions are a part of the questionnaire designed for pupils aged 13-18. 124 persons aged 13-17 were tested. The questionannaires were filled in twice by every pupil in no more than 7-day period, and then the answers were compared according to the test-retest method. The questions concerning risk factors were about: the intensive growth period, chronic diseases, the medical diagnosis of LBP, concomitant faulty posture, sport training and leisure time physical activities, leisure time spent sitting, possible nutritional deficiencies, the amount of sleep, the impact of lifting and dislike for school. Results that were obtained in the process of testing indicated that reasoning would be invalid if based on questions about sports (45% repeatable answers), about leisure time physical activities (Polish version of the leisure time exercise questionnaire of Godin and Shepard--correlation for the Godin and Shepard index was 0,29) and about intensive growth period (small number of valid responses indicates that the question is incomprehensible for adolescents). The rest of questions were found acceptably reliable.
Baczkiewicz M; Demczuk-W?odarczyk E
The second part of the series of articles presents the reliability testing results of questions concerning factors that could influence or originate the symptoms of low back pain (LBP). The questions are a part of the questionnaire designed for pupils aged 13-18. 124 persons aged 13-17 were tested. The questionannaires were filled in twice by every pupil in no more than 7-day period, and then the answers were compared according to the test-retest method. The questions concerning risk factors were about: the intensive growth period, chronic diseases, the medical diagnosis of LBP, concomitant faulty posture, sport training and leisure time physical activities, leisure time spent sitting, possible nutritional deficiencies, the amount of sleep, the impact of lifting and dislike for school. Results that were obtained in the process of testing indicated that reasoning would be invalid if based on questions about sports (45% repeatable answers), about leisure time physical activities (Polish version of the leisure time exercise questionnaire of Godin and Shepard--correlation for the Godin and Shepard index was 0,29) and about intensive growth period (small number of valid responses indicates that the question is incomprehensible for adolescents). The rest of questions were found acceptably reliable. PMID:21735849
Baczkiewicz, Maja; Demczuk-W?odarczyk, Ewa
BACKGROUND: Inability to recognize stroke warning signs and delay in seeking medical attention for recognized symptoms contribute to treatment delay, thus limiting the potential for intervention and impacting negatively on potential stroke outcome. AIM: To examine knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in the adult population in Ireland. METHODS: In 2009, 1000 members of the general public were interviewed by telephone using quota-based population sampling of adults (?18 years). Information was gathered using the Stroke Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ). RESULTS: 71% of participants could correctly list two or more risk factors for stroke, typically generic lifestyle risk factors. Two-thirds could not identify two warning signs for stroke. While 31% could identify two or more stroke warning signs, there was no consistency in warning signs identified. Less than 50% stated they would call an ambulance if having a stroke. Overall, there were significant gaps in knowledge, with poorest levels evident in those aged ?65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Survey findings provide first evidence on levels of knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in the Irish adult population. Awareness of stroke warning signs was poor, as was awareness of the need to call emergency services and the potential for acute stroke intervention. These factors contribute to delay in seeking medical attention following stroke, with resulting implications for stroke outcome.
Hickey A; Holly D; McGee H; Conroy R; Shelley E
BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is a critical factor in health care. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of nurses' job satisfaction and its associated factors. METHOD: A stratified random sample of 421 registered nurses working at a large hospital in Mashhad, Iran was surveyed. RESULT: The results showed that autonomy, task requirement and work interaction had scores higher than their respective median on the subscales. There were significant differences between demographic characteristics and the autonomy, task requirement, work interaction, salary, work condition, professional development, supportive nursing management, decision making, professional status subscales and mean total job satisfaction. In univariate analysis, young age, being female and being married were significantly associated with a higher level of job satisfaction. The adjusted R(2) for this model was 0.14, indicating that the model explained 14% of the variability. The regression model was highly significant, F (4298) = 13.194, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The authors emphasise that the human resources policies and incentives need to be re-visited. Efforts undertaken to improve working conditions, supportive nursing management, improved professional status, professional development and increased salaries are some of the ways for nurse managers to improve job satisfaction.
Atefi N; Lim Abdullah K; Wong LP; Mazlom R
Background Sleep disturbance is very common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which may initiate or exacerbate a variety of co-morbidities and negatively impact rehabilitative treatments. To date, there are paradoxical reports regarding the associations between inherent characteristics of TBI and sleep disturbance in TBI population. The current study was designed to explore the relationship between the presence of sleep disturbance and characteristics of TBI and identify the factors which are closely related to the presence of sleep disturbance in TBI population. Methods 98 TBI patients (72 males, mean age ± SD, 47 ± 13 years, range 18-70) were recruited. Severity of TBI was evaluated based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). All participants performed cranial computed tomography and were examined on self-reported sleep quality, anxiety, and depression. Results TBI was mild in 69 (70%), moderate in 15 (15%) and severe in 14 (15%) patients. 37 of 98 patients (38%) reported sleep disturbance following TBI. Insomnia was diagnosed in 28 patients (29%) and post-traumatic hypersomnia in 9 patients (9%). In TBI with insomnia group, 5 patients (18%) complained of difficulty falling asleep only, 8 patients (29%) had difficulty maintaining sleep without difficulty in initial sleep and 15 patients (53%) presented both difficulty falling asleep and difficulty maintaining sleep. Risk factors associated with insomnia were headache and/or dizziness and more symptoms of anxiety and depression rather than GCS. In contrast, GCS was independently associated with the presence of hypersomnia following TBI. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an association between locations of brain injury and the presence of sleep disturbance after TBI. Conclusion Our data support and contribute to a growing body of evidence which indicates that TBI patients with insomnia are prone to suffer from concomitant headache and/or dizziness, report more symptoms of anxiety and depression and severe TBI patients are likely to experience hypersomnia.
Sheng, Ping; Tong, Wusong; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Dayuan; Yu, Mingkun; Huang, Liuqing; Zhao, Zhongxin; Lu, Yicheng; Dong, Yan
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt “Chemistry Perception Questionnaire (CPQ)”, developed by Wells (2003), into Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale. The original version of the scale was composed of 35 items gathered under seven factors (aptitude, chemophobia, discipline, ethnicity, gender, instruction and value). First, permission from the developers of the scale was sought. Then, the items of the scale were translated into Turkish by researcher. The translation validity of the scale was examined by referring to the views of English and Turkish language experts. Once the final form of the scale had been derived, an English language expert translated the items of the scale from Turkish to English. The results obtained from this translation indicated that the Turkish version scale closely approximated to the original scale. Turkish version of the scale was administered to total of 435 university students from Education, Science and Engineering Faculties of Bartin, Kirikkale, Kilis 7 Aralik and Mustafa Kemal Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated and items which had negative or low correlation with the total scale score were excluded from the scale. The construct validity of the scale was examined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the scale was constructed from 20 items gathered under five factors (gender, value, chemophobia, discipline, aptitude). The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha) for the whole scale was calculated as .745.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76%) responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors"). The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%). Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking as risk factors was good, and patients who suffered from atrial fibrillation or carotid stenosis seemed to be well informed about these conditions as risk factors. However, the knowledge level was low regarding diabetes as a risk factor and regarding the use of anticoagulants and platelet aggregation inhibitors for stroke/TIA prevention. Better teaching strategies for stroke/TIA patients should be developed, with special attention focused on diabetic patients.
Sloma Andrzej; Backlund Lars G; Strender Lars-Erik; Skånér Ylva
The construct of attempted eating restriction has been measured in a number of ways in recent years. The Three-Factor Model of Dieting suggests that dieting can be subdivided into three types: (1) frequency of past dieting and overeating (i.e., history of dieting), (2) current dieting to lose weight, and (3) weight suppression, or the difference between an individual's current weight and his or her highest previous weight. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe the Dieting and Weight History Questionnaire (DWHQ), a measure that we have used for many years to assess these three dimensions of dieting; (2) provide some recent examples of published research on each type of dieting; (3) discuss some of the nuances of assessing these dieting types; and (4) suggest directions for future research.
Witt AA; Katterman SN; Lowe MR
BACKGROUND: Natural rubber latex glove use is widespread in mainland China, but the prevalence and risk factors for latex glove allergy among clinical nurses have previously been unreported. METHODS: A questionnaire was used to collect information on latex glove-related allergy among clinical nursing staff in 35 hospitals of eight provinces in the southern, central southern, and northern regions of China, and the risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. Some subjects with glove dermatitis were patch tested with a modified European standard series of allergens. RESULTS: Among 8485 female nurses in eight provinces of China, overall prevalence of latex glove allergy was 8.8%. Of 743 symptomatic nurses, 573 (77.1%) and 475 (63.9%) reported symptoms suggestive of glove dermatitis and type I latex allergy, respectively. Of 69 randomly selected subjects with glove dermatitis, 18 (26.1%) had a positive patch to rubber additives. Employment seniority, positive family and personal history of allergic diseases, and longer extent of time spent in a single hospital room were associated with latex allergy, while using >5 pairs of gloves per working day may be a protective factor. CONCLUSION: Chinese nurses are at high risk for latex sensitization. Nurses who develop latex-related symptoms after exposure to latex gloves should undergo screening tests for latex allergy. Low-protein, powder-free natural rubber latex gloves, or latex-free gloves should be widely adopted in China, along with other preventive measures.
Liu QL; He XZ; Liang K; Xie R; Fang HP; Zhu KJ; Fan YM
A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the susceptibility of the 16 Personality Factor Test (16PF) to faking for a sample of male felons. The study is a replication of an earlier study of a similar sample. Motivational distortion (MD) correlated significantly with the 16PF primary scores. The relationship was most evident when the structure coefficients rather than the beta weights were analyzed. The findings were consistent with the previous results which indicated a fairly high degree of support for the MD corrections provided in the manual. An important exception was that Dominance (E) was suppressed by individuals from both samples when MD was present.
Seibel HP; Wallbrown FH; Reuter EK; Barnett RW
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is used routinely as a unidimensional measure of psychological morbidity. Many factor-analytic studies have reported that the GHQ-12 has two or three dimensions, threatening its validity. It is possible that these 'dimensions' are the result of the wording of the GHQ-12, namely its division into positively phrased (PP) and negatively phrased (NP) statements about mood states. Such 'method effects' introduce response bias which should be taken into account when deriving and interpreting factors. Methods GHQ-12 data were obtained from the 2004 cohort of the Health Survey for England (N = 3705). Following exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the goodness of fit indices of one, two and three factor models were compared with those of a unidimensional model specifying response bias on the NP items, using structural equation modelling (SEM). The hypotheses were (1) the variance of the responses would be significantly higher for NP items than for PP items because of response bias, and (2) that the modelling of response bias would provide the best fit for the data. Results Consistent with previous reports, EFA suggested a two-factor solution dividing the items into NP and PP items. The variance of responses to the NP items was substantially and significantly higher than for the PP items. The model incorporating response bias was the best fit for the data on all indices (RMSEA = 0.068, 90%CL = 0.064, 0.073). Analysis of the frequency of responses suggests that the response bias derives from the ambiguity of the response options for the absence of negative mood states. Conclusion The data are consistent with the GHQ-12 being a unidimensional scale with a substantial degree of response bias for the negatively phrased items. Studies that report the GHQ-12 as multidimensional without taking this response bias into account risk interpreting the artefactual factor structure as denoting 'real' constructs, committing the methodological error of reification. Although the GHQ-12 seems unidimensional as intended, the presence of such a large response bias should be taken into account in the analysis of GHQ-12 data.
The purpose of this study was to examine personality profiles of Canadian anaesthetists and to investigate the role of personality variables in anaesthetist's job satisfaction. Three hundred and thirty senior Canadian anaesthetists completed the Cattell 16PF personality inventory. A brief demographic questionnaire inquired about special interests and job satisfaction. This paper reports the initial analysis of the replies. Most anaesthetists were very satisfied with their work. Female anaesthetists are more tender-minded, sensitive and over-protective than their male colleagues.
Clarke IM; Morin JE; Warnell I
Full Text Available Abstract in english A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%), rivers or streams (15.1%), wells (5.4%) and boreholes (5.2%). A number of households (46.8%) consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents was (more) hed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2%) consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7%) consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2%) who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6%) reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9%) of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8%) and for deterring rodents (20.2%). The majority of households (91.3%) fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2%) provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8%) had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis.
Ogendi, Edwin; Maina, Naomi; Kagira, John; Ngotho, Maina; Mbugua, Gabriel; Karanja, Simon
A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%), rivers or streams (15.1%), wells (5.4%) and boreholes (5.2%). A number of households (46.8%) consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents washed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2%) consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7%) consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2%) who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6%) reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9%) of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8%) and for deterring rodents (20.2%). The majority of households (91.3%) fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2%) provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8%) had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis.
Ogendi E; Maina N; Kagira J; Ngotho M; Mbugua G; Karanja S
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%), rivers or streams (15.1%), wells (5.4%) and boreholes (5.2%). A number of households (46.8%) consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents washed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2%) consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7%) consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2%) who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6%) reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9%) of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8%) and for deterring rodents (20.2%). The majority of households (91.3%) fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2%) provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8%) had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%). Only one farmer (0.3%) had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis.
Edwin Ogendi; Naomi Maina; John Kagira; Maina Ngotho; Gabriel Mbugua; Simon Karanja
In order to further specify the structure of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), correlations among the first order factors of the CPI were factor analyzed, yielding two second order factors. These factors were described, and were named General Adjustment and Social Sensitivity, respectively. The second order configuration of CPI scales appeared to be consistent with other research done on the scales. It was suggested that, like the 16PF, second order factor scores for the CPI could have some utility.
Burger GK; Pickett L; Goldman M
PURPOSE: The present study validated the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire for general use in New Zealand. METHODS: A random postal sample from the national electoral roll was used, and 808 questionnaires were returned. Psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed, including tests of the four-domain factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. RESULTS: Goodness-of-fit from the confirmatory factor analysis were good, and the overall conclusion of the Rasch analysis supported the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) findings after dealing with problems of threshold ordering, local dependency, and differential item functioning (DIF). CONCLUSIONS: The WHOQOL-BREF is valid for general use in New Zealand. In the future work, the WHOQOL-BREF domain scores should either be analyzed using non-parametric statistics or data should be fitted to the Rasch model to derive interval person estimates.
Krägeloh CU; Kersten P; Rex Billington D; Hsu PH; Shepherd D; Landon J; Feng XJ
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is a common problem in developmental age with an estimated overall prevalence ranging from 1.6% to 15%, and possible persistence during adolescence. There is a growing interest in the sleep habits of children affected by PNE, which is derived from the contradictory data present in clinical literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of sleep disturbances in a population of children affected by PNE, and to identify whether PNE could be considered as a risk factor for sleep disturbances among children.Materials and methods: A total of 190 PNE children (97 males, 93 females) aged 7–15 years, (mean 9.64 ± 1.35 years), and 766 typically developing children matched for age (P = 0.131) and gender (P = 0.963) were enrolled. To evaluate the presence of sleep habits and disturbances, all of the subjects’ mothers filled out the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), a questionnaire consisting of six subscales: Disorders in Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS), Sleep Breathing Disorders (SBD), Disorders of Arousal (DA), Sleep–Wake Transition Disorders (SWTD), Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DOES), and Nocturnal Hyperhidrosis (SHY). The results were divided into “pathological” and “normal” scores using a cut-off value (pathological score = at least three episodes per week), according to the validation criteria of the test. Then, the Chi-square test was used to calculate the statistical difference and a univariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the role of PNE as a risk factor for the development of each category of sleep disorders and to calculate the odds ratio (OR).Results: PNE children show a higher prevalence of all sleep disturbances (41.03% DIMS; 85.12% SBD; 63.29% DA; 67.53% SWTD; 31.28% DOES; 37.92% SHY; 25.33% SDSC total score), and according to OR results (SDSC total score OR = 8.293, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.079–13.540; DIMS OR = 7.639, 95% CI = 5.192–11.238; SBD OR = 35.633, 95% CI = 22.717–55.893; DA OR = 13.734, 95% CI = 9.476–19.906; SWTD OR = 14.238, 95% CI = 9.829–20.625; DOES OR = 5.602, 95% CI = 3.721–8.432; SHY OR = 6.808, 95% CI = 4.608–10.059), PNE could be considered as a risk factor for the development of sleep disorders.Conclusion: Among PNE children, sleep could be strongly altered, thus helping to affirm the hypothesis that PNE tends to alter sleep architecture, or it could itself be the consequence of an abnormal sleep structure. The findings also point to the existence of a potential increase in the risk of developing sleep disorders in the presence of PNE.Keywords: primary nocturnal enuresis, SDSC, sleep
Esposito M; Gallai B; Parisi L; Roccella M; Marotta R; Lavano SM; Mazzotta G; Carotenuto M
INTRODUCTION: Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is a common problem in developmental age with an estimated overall prevalence ranging from 1.6% to 15%, and possible persistence during adolescence. There is a growing interest in the sleep habits of children affected by PNE, which is derived from the contradictory data present in clinical literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of sleep disturbances in a population of children affected by PNE, and to identify whether PNE could be considered as a risk factor for sleep disturbances among children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 190 PNE children (97 males, 93 females) aged 7-15 years, (mean 9.64 ± 1.35 years), and 766 typically developing children matched for age (P = 0.131) and gender (P = 0.963) were enrolled. To evaluate the presence of sleep habits and disturbances, all of the subjects' mothers filled out the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC), a questionnaire consisting of six subscales: Disorders in Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS), Sleep Breathing Disorders (SBD), Disorders of Arousal (DA), Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders (SWTD), Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DOES), and Nocturnal Hyperhidrosis (SHY). The results were divided into "pathological" and "normal" scores using a cut-off value (pathological score = at least three episodes per week), according to the validation criteria of the test. Then, the Chi-square test was used to calculate the statistical difference and a univariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the role of PNE as a risk factor for the development of each category of sleep disorders and to calculate the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: PNE children show a higher prevalence of all sleep disturbances (41.03% DIMS; 85.12% SBD; 63.29% DA; 67.53% SWTD; 31.28% DOES; 37.92% SHY; 25.33% SDSC total score), and according to OR results (SDSC total score OR = 8.293, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.079-13.540; DIMS OR = 7.639, 95% CI = 5.192-11.238; SBD OR = 35.633, 95% CI = 22.717-55.893; DA OR = 13.734, 95% CI = 9.476-19.906; SWTD OR = 14.238, 95% CI = 9.829-20.625; DOES OR = 5.602, 95% CI = 3.721-8.432; SHY OR = 6.808, 95% CI = 4.608-10.059), PNE could be considered as a risk factor for the development of sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: Among PNE children, sleep could be strongly altered, thus helping to affirm the hypothesis that PNE tends to alter sleep architecture, or it could itself be the consequence of an abnormal sleep structure. The findings also point to the existence of a potential increase in the risk of developing sleep disorders in the presence of PNE.
Esposito M; Gallai B; Parisi L; Roccella M; Marotta R; Lavano SM; Mazzotta G; Carotenuto M
Cuestionario general de salud-12: análisis de factores en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia General health questionnaire-12: factor analysis in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia
Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: el cuestionario general de salud de doce puntos (GHQ-12) es un instrumento diseñado para cuantificar síntomas emocionales (trastornos mentales comunes) en diferentes contextos. Sin embargo, no se conoce la estructura factorial de esta versión en población colombiana. OBJETIVO: conocer la estructura de factores y la mejor forma de puntuación para el GHQ-12 en población general de Bucaramanga, Colombia. MÉTODO: una muestra probabilística de la población general, representada por 2.496 adultos entre 18 y 65 años, diligenció el GHQ-12. Se determinó la consistencia interna y los factores para las formas de puntuación ordinal (0-1-2-3) y binarias (0-0-0-1, 0-0-1-1 y 0-1-1-1). RESULTADOS: la forma ordinal mostró una consistencia interna de 0,779 y dos factores que explicaban 42,5% de la varianza. Por otro lado, la forma binaria 0-1-1-1 presentó una consistencia interna de 0,774; la forma 0-0-1-1, de 0,708; y la forma 0-0-0-1, de 0,360. Las formas binarias 0-1-1-1 y 0-0-1-1 mostraron tres factores responsables de 50,6% y 46,3%, respectivamente. La forma 0-0-0-1 no presentó una aceptable solución factorial. CONCLUSIONES: en Bucaramanga, la forma de puntuación ordinal presenta un mejor comportamiento psicométrico que las binarias. Todas las formas de puntuación muestran alta consistencia interna y aceptable solución factorial, excepto la forma 0-0-0-1 BACKGROUND: The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was designed to quantify emotional symptoms (common mental disorders) in different settings. However, its factor structure is not known in Colombian population. OBJECTIVE: To establish the factor structure and the best form of punctuation for the GHQ-12 in the general population of Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHOD: A probabilistic sample of 2,496 adults from the general population in Bucaramanga, Colombia, completed the GHQ-12. The internal consistency and analysis factor were computed for the ordinal scoring (0-1-2-3) and for binary scoring (0-0-0-1, 0-0-1-1, and 0-1-1-1). RESULTS: The ordinal scoring GHQ-12 presented an internal consistency of 0.779 and two factors that accounted for 42.5% of the variance. In other hand, the scoring way 0-1-1-1 exhibited an internal consistency of 0.774; 0-0-1-1 scoring, of 0.708; 0-0-0-1 scoring, of 0.360. The binary scoring 0-1-1-1 and 0-0-1-1 showed three factors responsible of 50.6% and 46.3% of the variance respectively. The 0-0-0-1 scoring did not present a good factor solution. CONCLUSIONS: Among people from the general populalation the ordinal scoring for the GHQ-12 exhibites better psychometric properties than binary ones. Except the 0-0-0-1 scoring method, reminding scorings present a high internal consistency and aceptable factor solution.
Adalberto Campo Arias
With increasing Internet coverage, the use of a web-based survey for epidemiological study is a possibility. We performed an investigation in Japan in winter 2008 using the web-based daily questionnaire for health (WDQH). The WDQH is a web-based questionnaire survey formulated to obtain information about the daily physical condition of the general public on a real-time basis, in order to study correlations between changes in physical health and changes in environmental factors. Respondents were asked whether they felt ill and had specific symptoms including fever. We analysed the environmental factors along with the health conditions obtained from the WDQH. Four factors were found to influence health: minimum temperature, hours of sunlight, median humidity and weekday or holiday. The WDQH allowed a daily health survey in the general population in real time via the Internet.
Sano T; Akahane M; Sugiura H; Ohkusa Y; Okabe N; Imamura T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between early life factors and survey response in epidemiological studies of adults. Methods The Children of the 1950s cohort is composed of 12,150 children (boys 51.7%) born in Aberdeen 1950–56 and in primary schools in the city in 1962. Information on birth weight, gestational age, growth, behaviour and socio-economic position at birth and in childhood were obtained from contemporaneous records. Cognitive test scores at ages 7,9 and 11 years were also available from school records. The outcome was response to a postal questionnaire sent (2001–2003) to surviving cohort members in middle age. Results Of 11,282 potentially mailed subjects, 7,183 (63.7%) returned questionnaires. Response rates were highest among females, and those whose parents were married at birth, were in a non-manual social class at birth or in childhood, had fewer siblings, were taller and heavier in childhood for their age and had lower Rutter B behavioural scores. Childhood cognitive test scores at every age were strongly and positively related to the response rate to a postal questionnaire independently of other early life factors monotonically across the entire range of test scores. Those in the bottom fifth at age 11 had a response rate of 49% while those in the top fifth 75%. Conclusion The strength and consistency of the association of childhood cognition with questionnaire response rate in middle age is surprisingly large. It suggests that childhood cognition across the entire normal range is a powerful influence on the complex set of later behaviours that comprise questionnaire response. The extent of possible response bias in epidemiological studies of the associations between childhood characteristics (particularly those related to cognition) and later health is probably larger than is generally realised, at least in situations where the survey instrument is a postal questionnaire.
Nishiwaki Yuji; Clark Heather; Morton Susan M; Leon David A
Background: The Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q) is used widely to evaluate the quality of life of persons with intellectual disability (ID). Its validity for use with Spanish-speaking cultures has been demonstrated for individuals with visual disabilities, but not for those with physical or intellectual disabilities. Such was the purpose of…
Caballo, C.; Crespo, M.; Jenaro, C.; Verdugo, M. A.; Martinez, J. L.
|Explored structure of brief version of Ways of Coping (WOC) Questionnaire and coping strategies employed by students enrolled in stressful academic programs. Findings from 207 veterinary medicine students lend support to view that there are relatively stable underlying coping structures across samples or groups within specified coping situations.…
Brown, Sharon L.
Because of the recency of the large numbers of youth diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D), measures of adherence behavior and family response to diabetes have not been developed or tested. The objective of this study is to identify whether questionnaires on personal and family behaviors regarding th...
Previous research suggests that women scoring high on dietary restraint may be insensitive to flavour-flavour learning, but no study has yet explored this using the olfactory conditioning paradigm. Accordingly, 56 women who were sweet likers were classified as either high or low on both the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint and disinhibition scales. They evaluated two odours before and after disguised pairings of one odour with 10% sucrose and the other with 0.01% quinine. Liking for the quinine-paired odour decreased post-training, with no effects of restraint or disinhibition. In contrast, the increase in liking for the sucrose-paired odour was significantly greater in women classified as scoring high in disinhibition, but was unaffected by restraint. Sweetness of the sucrose paired odour increased, and bitterness of the quinine-paired odour decreased, similarly in all groups. These data suggest that sensitivity of restrained eaters to flavour-based learning may result from their attitude to the food used as reinforcer rather than some basic failure in the learning process, and also suggest that women scoring high on disinhibition may show heightened sensitivity to hedonic cues.
Yeomans MR; Mobini S; Bertenshaw EJ; Gould NJ
Previous research suggests that women scoring high on dietary restraint may be insensitive to flavour-flavour learning, but no study has yet explored this using the olfactory conditioning paradigm. Accordingly, 56 women who were sweet likers were classified as either high or low on both the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint and disinhibition scales. They evaluated two odours before and after disguised pairings of one odour with 10% sucrose and the other with 0.01% quinine. Liking for the quinine-paired odour decreased post-training, with no effects of restraint or disinhibition. In contrast, the increase in liking for the sucrose-paired odour was significantly greater in women classified as scoring high in disinhibition, but was unaffected by restraint. Sweetness of the sucrose paired odour increased, and bitterness of the quinine-paired odour decreased, similarly in all groups. These data suggest that sensitivity of restrained eaters to flavour-based learning may result from their attitude to the food used as reinforcer rather than some basic failure in the learning process, and also suggest that women scoring high on disinhibition may show heightened sensitivity to hedonic cues. PMID:18955073
Yeomans, Martin R; Mobini, Sirous; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Gould, Natalie J
The Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) is used to examine students' study approaches in higher education. The questionnaire assumes to measure two factors: a deep and a surface study approach. Analyses into the validity and reliability of the original English R-SPQ-2F yielded positive results. In this study, we examined the degree to which these positive results can also be found for the Dutch version that we developed. By comparing our results with the results of earlier studies in different cultures, we conclude cross-cultural sensitivity is an important point to be borne in mind when using the R-SPQ-2F. Our research supports the validity and reliability of our Dutch version of the R-SPQ-2F.
Stes A; De Maeyer S; Van Petegem P
This systematic review assesses the validity of epidemiological questionnaires used to measure psychosocial and organizational work factors (POWFs) in nurses. Of the 632 articles published between 1980 and July 2008 identified in this review, 108 provide some data concerning analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of such instruments (content validity or conceptual basis, reliability, validation of internal construction) and their external validity with respect to health aspects (concurrent validity and predictive validity). Psychometric properties of generalist questionnaires validated among blue collar or white collar workers were also assessed in the nurse population. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), because of its longevity and reputation, was the generalist questionnaire most used among this population. Although its structure often raises questions in the nurse population, its dimensions (mainly the control one) have been shown to be predictive of some health outcomes measured with "objective" indicators concerning absenteeism, injuries, and musculoskeletal disorders. Effort Reward Imbalance (ERI), which has a structure more stable among the nurse population, has shown concurrent validity in terms of intent to leave the nursing profession. No questionnaire specifically designed for nurses can claim to satisfy all of the recommendations in terms of internal validity. Nevertheless, the Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) seems to be one of the most promising instruments because of its appropriateness (content validity), its structure, which has a rather good fit (construct validity), its ability to discriminate magnet hospitals like other NWI derivates (discriminant validity), and it has also been associated in cross-sectional studies with health outcomes, especially nurses' self-assessed mental health but also with patients' health outcomes objectively assessed (concurrent validity). However, elements for predictive validity are still lacking with NWI derivates. The Discussion provides recommendations for measuring POWFs, encompassing the use of external validated measurements.
Bonneterre V; Liaudy S; Chatellier G; Lang T; de Gaudemaris R
This systematic review assesses the validity of epidemiological questionnaires used to measure psychosocial and organizational work factors (POWFs) in nurses. Of the 632 articles published between 1980 and July 2008 identified in this review, 108 provide some data concerning analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of such instruments (content validity or conceptual basis, reliability, validation of internal construction) and their external validity with respect to health aspects (concurrent validity and predictive validity). Psychometric properties of generalist questionnaires validated among blue collar or white collar workers were also assessed in the nurse population. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), because of its longevity and reputation, was the generalist questionnaire most used among this population. Although its structure often raises questions in the nurse population, its dimensions (mainly the control one) have been shown to be predictive of some health outcomes measured with "objective" indicators concerning absenteeism, injuries, and musculoskeletal disorders. Effort Reward Imbalance (ERI), which has a structure more stable among the nurse population, has shown concurrent validity in terms of intent to leave the nursing profession. No questionnaire specifically designed for nurses can claim to satisfy all of the recommendations in terms of internal validity. Nevertheless, the Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) seems to be one of the most promising instruments because of its appropriateness (content validity), its structure, which has a rather good fit (construct validity), its ability to discriminate magnet hospitals like other NWI derivates (discriminant validity), and it has also been associated in cross-sectional studies with health outcomes, especially nurses' self-assessed mental health but also with patients' health outcomes objectively assessed (concurrent validity). However, elements for predictive validity are still lacking with NWI derivates. The Discussion provides recommendations for measuring POWFs, encompassing the use of external validated measurements. PMID:19886473
Bonneterre, Vincent; Liaudy, Sylvette; Chatellier, Gilles; Lang, Thierry; de Gaudemaris, Régis
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A falta de confiança parental na competência para cuidar do bebé pode originar dificuldades na relação entre mãe/pai e filho. O Questionário de Confiança Parental avalia a perceção parental da capacidade para cuidar do bebé e reconhecer as suas necessidades, através de 13 itens, respondidos com base numa escala de frequência. Este estudo pretendeu identificar a estrutura fatorial mais adequada para o questionário. Uma amostra comunitária de 223 casais com b (more) ebés de 6 meses respondeu ao protocolo de avaliação. As análises fatoriais confirmatórias revelaram como mais adequado um modelo trifatorial:Conhecimento acerca do Bebé, Prestação de Cuidados ao Bebé e Avaliação da Experiência de Parentalidade. A versão portuguesa do Questionário de Confiança Parental apresentou bons níveis de fidelidade e validade, pelo queconstitui um instrumento útil na avaliação de mães e pais de bebés nos primeiros meses de vida, possibilitando a sinalização de situações de risco acrescido nestas díades. Abstract in english The lack of parental confidence on one?s ability to take care of one?s baby may cause difficulties in the relationship between the parents and the child. The Maternal Confidence Questionnaire assesses parental confidence on the ability to take care of the baby and recognize his needs. It is a 13-item questionnaire with a frequency answer scale. Our study aimed to identify the factorial structure of the Portuguese version of the Maternal Confidence Questionnaire. A commu (more) nity sample of 223 couples with 6-month-old babies answered the assessment protocol. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a three-factor structure (Knowledge of the Baby, Taking Care of the Baby, Assessment of the Parenting Experience) to be the most adequate. The Portuguese version of the Maternal Confidence Questionnaire has good reliability and validity levels and is a useful instrument in the assessment of parents of young babies, making it possible to identify risk situations in these dyads.
Nazaré, Bárbara; Fonseca, Ana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
OBJECTIVES: We studied 1365 male workers at a Japanese computer worksite in 2004 to determine the relationship between employees' time management factor of visual display terminal (VDT) work and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) score. METHODS: We developed questionnaires concerning age, management factor of VDT work time (total daily VDT work time, duration of continuous work), other work-related conditions (commuting time, job rank, type of job, hours of monthly overtime), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, having breakfast, sleeping hours), and the Japanese version of 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of the high-GHQ groups (>6.0) associated with age and the time management factor of VDT work. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated lower ORs for certain groups: workers older than 50 years old had significantly a lower OR than those younger than 30 years old; workers sleeping less than 6 h showed a lower OR than those sleeping more than 6 h. In contrast, significantly higher ORs were shown for workers with continuous work durations of more than 3 h compared with those with less than 1 h, those with more than 25 h/mo overtime compared with those with less, those doing VDT work of more than 7.5 h/day compared with those doing less than 4.5 h/day, and those with more than 25 h/mo of overtime compared with those with less. CONCLUSION: Male Japanese computer workers' GHQ scores are significantly associated with time management factors of VDT work.
Sugimura H; Horiguchi I; Shimizu T; Marui E
Full Text Available Good oral health can be achieved by preventive dental behaviours such as regular dental visits as well as practising adequate selfcare by means of proper and frequent tooth brushing methods. OBJECTIVES: To correlate the influence of socio-economic parameters (occupation, education and income) according to modified Kuppuswamy's scale on preventive dental behaviours such as frequency of dental visits and tooth brushing with paste. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire based cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the influence of socio- economic status on Dental visits and frequency of tooth brushing in patients visiting the O.P.D ( Out Patient Department) at I.T.S Dental College, Greater Noida. A total of 327 patients from 18 to 74 years were included from both the genders. A fifteen item closed ended questionnaire was prepared, which had information regarding the Chief complaint along with Age, Gender, Socioeconomic Status, intervals of dental visits and frequency of brushing. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic classification, which includes monthly income, education level and occupation, was used to classify the socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. RESULTS:There was no statistically significant difference reported between various levels of education, socio-economic status and gender when correlated with the frequency of dental visits. However, the results show that with increase in the level of education and socio-economic status the frequency of tooth brushing was positively correlated. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that groups with low education and socio-economic status are important targets to enhance dental preventive behaviours.
Sachit Anand Arora; Amit Jayna; Anil Sharma; Mansi Atri
Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…
Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
|Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…
Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2]) assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US) with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years) were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.
Petrowski Katja; Paul Sören; Zenger Markus; Brähler Elmar
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12?year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12?year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that significantly higher prices of soft drinks would lead them to buy less soft drinks with their own pocket money, but a majority of parents did not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children’s soft drink consumption. Conclusions We conclude that economic factors, especially parents’ financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children’s sports participation and soft drink consumption, respectively.
Jensen Jørgen; Bere Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Jan Natasa; Maes Lea; Manios Yannis; Martens Marloes K; Molnar Denes; Moreno Luis A; Singh Amika S; te Velde Saskia; Brug Johannes
BACKGROUND: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children's soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. METHODS: Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children's sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. RESULTS: Economic factors were found to be associated with children's sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children's soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents' financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children's sports activities. Children's pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that significantly higher prices of soft drinks would lead them to buy less soft drinks with their own pocket money, but a majority of parents did not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children's soft drink consumption. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that economic factors, especially parents' financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children's sports participation and soft drink consumption, respectively.
Jensen JD; Bere E; De Bourdeaudhuij I; Jan N; Maes L; Manios Y; Martens MK; Molnar D; Moreno LA; Singh AS; te Velde S; Brug J
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factor screening among blood donors remains a cornerstone for the safety of blood supply and is dependent on prospective donor self-disclosure and an attentive predonation interview. Audio computer-assisted structured interview (ACASI) has been shown to increase self-reporting of risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and March 2011 at four Brazilian blood centers to identify the population of HIV-negative eligible blood donors that answered face-to-face interviews without disclosing risks, but subsequently disclosed deferrable risk factors by ACASI. Compared to the donor interview, the ACASI contained expanded content on demographics, sexual behavior, and other HIV risk factors questions. RESULTS: A total of 901 HIV-negative blood donors were interviewed. On the ACASI, 13% of donors (n?=?120) declared a risk factor that would have resulted in deferral that was not disclosed during the face-to-face assessment. The main risk factors identified were recent unprotected sex with an unknown or irregular partner (49 donors), sex with a person with exposure to blood or fluids (26 donors), multiple sexual partners (19 donors), and male-male sexual behavior (10 donors). Independent factors associated with the disclosure of any risk factor for HIV were age (?40 years vs. 18-25 years; adjusted odds ratio [AOR],?0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.88) and blood center (Hemope vs. Hemominas; AOR,?2.51; 95% CI, 1.42-4.44). CONCLUSION: ACASI elicited increased disclosure of HIV risk factors among blood donors. ACASI may be a valuable modality of interview to be introduced in Brazilian blood banks.
Blatyta PF; Custer B; Gonçalez TT; Birch R; Lopes ME; Lopes Ferreira MI; Carneiro Proietti AB; Sabino EC; Page K; de Almeida-Neto C
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factor screening among blood donors remains a cornerstone for the safety of blood supply and is dependent on prospective donor self-disclosure and an attentive predonation interview. Audio computer-assisted structured interview (ACASI) has been shown to increase self-reporting of risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and March 2011 at four Brazilian blood centers to identify the population of HIV-negative eligible blood donors that answered face-to-face interviews without disclosing risks, but subsequently disclosed deferrable risk factors by ACASI. Compared to the donor interview, the ACASI contained expanded content on demographics, sexual behavior, and other HIV risk factors questions. RESULTS: A total of 901 HIV-negative blood donors were interviewed. On the ACASI, 13% of donors (n?=?120) declared a risk factor that would have resulted in deferral that was not disclosed during the face-to-face assessment. The main risk factors identified were recent unprotected sex with an unknown or irregular partner (49 donors), sex with a person with exposure to blood or fluids (26 donors), multiple sexual partners (19 donors), and male-male sexual behavior (10 donors). Independent factors associated with the disclosure of any risk factor for HIV were age (?40 years vs. 18-25 years; adjusted odds ratio [AOR],?0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.88) and blood center (Hemope vs. Hemominas; AOR,?2.51; 95% CI, 1.42-4.44). CONCLUSION: ACASI elicited increased disclosure of HIV risk factors among blood donors. ACASI may be a valuable modality of interview to be introduced in Brazilian blood banks. PMID:23521083
Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; Birch, Rebecca; Lopes, Maria Esther; Lopes Ferreira, Maria Ines; Carneiro Proietti, Anna Barbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Page, Kimberly; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many family practice residency programs use the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in the process of resident advising. The purpose of this study was to validate the MBTI with an alternative personality evaluation instrument. METHODS: We evaluated 44 residents with both the MBTI and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and computed correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The highest correlations between the two tests were for the Extraversion/Introversion dimension of personality (r = -.71). The 16PF factors of Tough Poise, Independence, and Superego/Control were also significantly correlated with items on the MBTI. The Anxiety dimension of the 16PF yielded no significant correlations with the MBTI. CONCLUSIONS: The Extraversion/Introversion variables of the MBTI and 16PF are highly correlated. Other variables on the 16PF and MBTI are also correlated.
Eicke FJ; Blake G; Replogle W
Cuestionarios sobre factores de riesgo de la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico en conductores: Una revisión A review of questionnaires exploring driver´s exposure and risk factors in road crashes
Full Text Available Dada la diversidad de cuestionarios empleados en el estudio de la epidemiología analítica de las lesiones por tráfico, realizamos una revisión de los estudios publicados al respecto entre 1989 a 2011, con objeto de identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. Dicha revisión puso de relieve que la mayor parte de los cuestionarios se centran en el factor humano sobre el riesgo de accidente, pero son muy pocos los que incluyen la intensidad de exposición y la asociación de ésta con otros factores de riesgo de la accidentalidad. Muchos cuestionarios poseen un elevado número de ítems y complejas escalas de valoración. Además, en España son escasos los cuestionarios validados sobre la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico. Por todo ello, es necesario trabajar en el diseño y la validación de cuestionarios que recojan de forma sencilla información integral sobre la epidemiología de las lesiones por tráfico de cara a su mayor conocimiento y prevención.Given the diversity of questionnaires currently being used in the study of the analytic epidemiology of traffic injuries, we made a review of studies on this question published between 1989 and 2011 in order to identify their advantages and disadvantages. We were able to observe that most of the questionnaires were focused on the human factor regarding the risk of road crashes, but very few of them included intensity of exposure and its association with other risk factors in road crashes. Many questionnaires have a high number of items and complex rating scales. Furthermore, in Spain there are few validated questionnaires which contain complete information about exposure and road crashes. In Spain we should work on the design and validation of questionnaires containing questions aimed at obtaining complete and easy information about the epidemiology of traffic injuries. In this way we would be able to increase our awareness of traffic injuries and how to prevent them.
E. Jiménez Mejías; P. Lardelli; C. Amezcua; J.J. Jiménez Moleón
Cuestionarios sobre factores de riesgo de la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico en conductores: una revisión/ A review of questionnaires exploring driver´s exposure and risk factors in road crashes
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Dada la diversidad de cuestionarios empleados en el estudio de la epidemiología analítica de las lesiones por tráfico, realizamos una revisión de los estudios publicados al respecto entre 1989 a 2011, con objeto de identificar sus fortalezas y debilidades. Dicha revisión puso de relieve que la mayor parte de los cuestionarios se centran en el factor humano sobre el riesgo de accidente, pero son muy pocos los que incluyen la intensidad de exposición y la asociación (more) de ésta con otros factores de riesgo de la accidentalidad. Muchos cuestionarios poseen un elevado número de ítems y complejas escalas de valoración. Además, en España son escasos los cuestionarios validados sobre la exposición y la accidentalidad por tráfico. Por todo ello, es necesario trabajar en el diseño y la validación de cuestionarios que recojan de forma sencilla información integral sobre la epidemiología de las lesiones por tráfico de cara a su mayor conocimiento y prevención. Abstract in english Given the diversity of questionnaires currently being used in the study of the analytic epidemiology of traffic injuries, we made a review of studies on this question published between 1989 and 2011 in order to identify their advantages and disadvantages. We were able to observe that most of the questionnaires were focused on the human factor regarding the risk of road crashes, but very few of them included intensity of exposure and its association with other risk factors (more) in road crashes. Many questionnaires have a high number of items and complex rating scales. Furthermore, in Spain there are few validated questionnaires which contain complete information about exposure and road crashes. In Spain we should work on the design and validation of questionnaires containing questions aimed at obtaining complete and easy information about the epidemiology of traffic injuries. In this way we would be able to increase our awareness of traffic injuries and how to prevent them.
Jiménez Mejías, E.; Lardelli, P.; Amezcua, C.; Jiménez Moleón, J.J.
VALIDEZ DE UN INSTRUMENTO MULTIDIMESIONAL PARA MEDIR FACTORES DE RIESGO ASOCIADOS A TRASTORNOS DE LA CONDUCTA ALIMENTARIA EN PÚBERES MEXICANOS VALIDITY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO EATING DISORDERS IN MEXICAN PUBESCENTS
Full Text Available Objetivo: obtener la validez y consistencia interna de un cuestionario para púberes mexicanos, hombres y mujeres, que evalúe factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Sujetos y método: El cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra no probabilística, de púberes estudiantes de la ciudad de México (504 hombres y 511 mujeres), con edades de 11 a 15 años de edad, con una media de 12,13. Se realizó un análisis de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y un análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación oblimin por el método de máxima verosimilitud. Resultados: Ambos instrumentos arrojaron 5 factores, con una buena consistencia interna, alcanzando un valor total de alpha de Cronbach de 0,75 para hombres (55,6% de varianza explicada) y 0,83 para mujeres (57,6% de varianza explicada). Conclusión: El instrumento resultó válido en hombres y mujeres, para medir factores de riesgo asociados a trastornos alimentarios, principalmente socioculturales, conductas alimentarias y desarrollo puberal.Objective: To obtain the validity and internal consistency of a questionnaire for the screening of risk factors associated to eating disorders in Mexican pubescent males and females. Subjects and methods: The questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 504 males and 511 female students in México City from 11 to 15 years of age with a median of 12,13. Statistical methods included internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha) and principal components factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Both instruments obtained five-factors structure, showed a good total Cronbach's alpha score: males 0,75 (55,6 %), and females 0,83 (57,6%) of the total explained variance. Males displayed a normal eating behavior factor, while for females a restrictive dieting factor was obtained. Conclusions: This questionnaire is a valid measure in pubescent boys and girls for assessing risk factors associated with eating disorders, in particular socio-cultural factors, eating behaviors and pubertal development.
Teresita de Jesús Saucedo-Molina; Claudia Unikel-Santoncini
PURPOSE: Dermatologic toxicities from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are common, disrupt health-related quality of life (HRQL), and lead to dose reduction or discontinuation of potentially life-saving cancer therapy. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-EGFRI was developed to measure HRQL among patients receiving EGFRIs. METHODS: The FACT-EGFRI was developed through the triangulation approach using the established functional assessment of chronic illness therapy method of patient questionnaire construction. This included literature review, qualitative data collection and analysis, and quantitative survey data collection on candidate items to identify the most important items related to EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities according to patients receiving EGFRIs and expert clinicians. RESULTS: Twelve expert clinicians and 20 patients were interviewed for the initial questionnaire development. Dermatologic symptoms associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors endorsed as high priority by both patients and oncologist experts were selected. The final version includes 18 items which assess the physical, emotional, social, and functional impact that skin, nail, and hair toxicities have on patients' HRQL. CONCLUSIONS: The FACT-EGFRI-18 measures the severity of patient-reported EGFRI-induced dermatologic toxicities and effects on HRQL and was developed using qualitative data from patients and expert clinicians. Further validation is underway. The FACT-EGFRI-18 may be useful for clinicians and researchers to quantify dermatologic toxicities from the patient perspective in standard clinical care, evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reduce dermatologic toxicities, and to guide treatment decision making.
Wagner LI; Berg SR; Gandhi M; Hlubocky FJ; Webster K; Aneja M; Cella D; Lacouture ME
Domestic violence (DV) occurs frequently within the UK, with one in four women and one in six men experiencing DV during their life. DV is the leading cause of morbidity for women aged 19-44 years and is associated with sexual health problems. However, few data exist on the prevalence of DV in UK genitourinary (GU) medicine settings. An anonymous questionnaire was self-completed by patients (n = 476/500) attending Bournemouth GU medicine clinic during July 2009 to explore associations between lifetime DV and sociodemographic, sexual and behavioural factors. Overall, 21% (98/472) reported that they had ever been abused by a partner (12% [27/229] of men and 29% [71/243] of women). Logistic regression highlighted that being female, having children/dependants and use of illicit drugs were the most important factors associated with lifetime DV. Regular staff training on DV is recommended to increase awareness and signposting to relevant services.
Sanmani L; Sheppard ZA; Chapman C
Using a health survey among the rural population of Austria (n=12 484), risk factors for overweight and obesity are analysed. Health awareness turned out as essential mediator, which helps to promote a weight-stabilising life-style. An adverse health behaviour is often due to an unrealistic assessment of a risky overweight condition in connection with a negative attitude to reduce weight. Target groups should be informed about the clearly better health status in normal weight compared with that in overweight and obese people, in order to raise health awareness and motivate people at risk to undergo a modification of their life-style. PMID:23757104
Schoberberger, R; Dorner, T; Rieder, A
Using a health survey among the rural population of Austria (n=12 484), risk factors for overweight and obesity are analysed. Health awareness turned out as essential mediator, which helps to promote a weight-stabilising life-style. An adverse health behaviour is often due to an unrealistic assessment of a risky overweight condition in connection with a negative attitude to reduce weight. Target groups should be informed about the clearly better health status in normal weight compared with that in overweight and obese people, in order to raise health awareness and motivate people at risk to undergo a modification of their life-style.
Schoberberger R; Dorner T; Rieder A
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of De-qi (, obtaining qi) and psychological factors on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea, with an attempt to explore the relationship among De-qi, psychological factors, and clinical efficacy. METHODS: The patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly assigned to a group of acupuncture with manual manipulation (manipulation group, n=67) and an acupuncture group without manipulation (non-manipulation group, n=64). Pain intensity and pain duration were used as measures for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the acupuncture treatment. De-qi, the sensations a patient experienced during the acupuncture treatment, was scored on a 4-point scale by the subjects. In addition, the psychological factors, including belief in acupuncture, the level of nervousness, anxiety, and depression, were quantitatively assessed. The personality of the subject was assessed using the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) and 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF). RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 120 patients, 60 patients in each group. There were statistically significant differences in pain intensity (W=2410.0, P<0.01) and pain duration (W=3181.0, P<0.01) between the two groups. The number of De-qi acupoints (W=1150.5, P<0.01) and the average intensity of De-qi (W=1141.0, P<0.01) were significantly higher in the manipulation group as compared with their non-manipulation counterparts. The correlation coefficients between De-qi and therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture were greater than those between psychological factors and therapeutic efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the psychological factors, De-qi contributed more to the pain-relieving effect of acupuncture in subjects with primary dysmenorrhea. Moreover, manual manipulation is a prerequisite for eliciting and enhancing the De-qi sensations, and De-qi is critical for achieving therapeutic effects.
Xiong J; Liu F; Zhang MM; Wang W; Huang GY
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims are to assess respiration-related quality of life using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire and determine its influencing factors among patients with silicosis in China. BACKGROUND: The incidence of silicosis had an increasing trend in recent years in developing countries. Although the majority of patients with silicosis are in therapy routinely, the patients' quality of life has been impaired because silicosis cannot be cured. The study on quality of life of patients with silicosis is few, and clinical physicians have difficulty in planning to promote quality of life of patients with silicosis according to the current health situation. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was used for this study. METHODS: A survey was performed on patients with silicosis by face-to-face interview in the Shenyang No. 9 Hospital in China. The St. George Respiratory Questionnaire was used to assess respiration-related quality of life. RESULTS: In all 208 enrolled patients with silicosis, symptoms, activity and impacts scores were 56·02, 56·46 and 52·33, respectively. Lower impacts scores were found comparing with symptoms and activity ones. Patient age was associated with an expected decrease in respiration-related quality of life. Patients with longer duration of exposure had higher total scores of the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire, indicating worse quality of life. Patients with more co-morbidities reported worse quality of life. CONCLUSION: Patients with silicosis were found relatively moderate respiration-related quality of life. Shortening dust exposure, decreasing the number of co-morbidity and controlling the occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis could improve respiration-related quality of life. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: As indicated by the results of this study, the number of co-morbidity negatively impact the quality of life of patients with silicosis. Clinical physicians and nurses should pay close attention to the co-morbidity to promote quality of life of patients with silicosis according to the current health situation.
Liu H; Yan B; Han B; Sun J; Yang Y; Chen J
Full Text Available Medical education faces ever-increasing demands: larger amounts of knowledge have to be taught to larger student numbers in a time- and cost-effective manner. Therefore, new media have gained respect and raised high expectations, due to their obvious advantages. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a standardised instrument, which allows for valid assessment of parameters relevant for the evaluation of computer-based learning (CBL). The main emphasis was placed on the overall acceptance of CBL as well as on some pertinent characteristics of individual learners. We took this as an example to systematically describe the construction of a questionnaire, focussing on the methodological and scientific aspects of this multi-step process. A first version, which was constructed on theoretical grounds, was analysed and revised using standard pretest conditions (n=18). The second revision was done using a cognitive pretest-technique, called "Think-Aloud" (n=10). After this qualitative evaluation, the questionnaire was offered to a representative sample of n=328 third-year medical students. In this quantitative analysis, 12 valid psychometric scales could be confirmed by factor analysis. Reliability analysis yielded satisfying values (a=0.71-0.91) in 10 cases: 5 scales on learner properties, 2 scales on learning strategies, one scale on the attitude towards CBL and 2 scales on expectations regarding CBL. For 2 scales (a=0.66-0.67), we identified a need for further revision in order to improve accuracy. The described questionnaire provides a valid, quantitative means to assess relevant parameters to evaluate CBL interventions.
Hahne, Amina Katharina; Krause, Holger; Pfaff, Holger; Herzig, Stefan
PURPOSE: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ I) was developed as a tool to assess a broad range of psychosocial work environment factors and was recently revised (COPSOQ II). The research question in this study was: Do COPSOQ II-scales predict a high need for recovery (NFR) after work better than COPSOQ I-scales? METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 990 subjects (84.5% response), employed in the public sector. Psychosocial factors were assessed by COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for the presence of a high NFR, controlled for gender, age, physical workload and other relevant occupational and non-occupational factors. Analyses were performed for COPSOQ I and COPSOQ II separately. RESULTS: In both COPSOQ versions, 'quantitative demands' (p < 0.001) and 'job insecurity' (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with a high NFR. Additionally, in the COPSOQ I model, 'demands for hiding emotions' (p < 0.05) and 'degrees of freedom' (p < 0.05), and in the COPSOQ II model 'emotional demands' (p < 0.05) and 'commitment to the workplace' (p < 0.005) were significant as well. 'Degrees of freedom' was omitted by the developers in the revised COPSOQ II. Reintroducing it into the COPSOQ II model did not alter the existing associations, but pointed out 'degrees of freedom' to be an additional important dimension (p < 0.05). The COPSOQ II model with 'degrees of freedom' included also had the best data fit. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested the COPSOQ II to be better predictive than COPSOQ I for a high NFR, but also indicated that 'degrees of freedom' should be included into the COPSOQ II when studying the NFR as outcome parameter.
Kiss P; De Meester M; Kruse A; Chavée B; Braeckman L
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, no study on smoking behavior of medical students in Inner Mongolia has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the 1-month prevalence of and factors associated with daily smoking among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, to assist interventions designed to reduce the smoking behavior of medical college students in this region. Methods During December 2010 and January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students at the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: students’ basic information, attitude on smoking behavior, and smoking status of the student daily smokers. Students who smoked every day in the last 30?days were regarded as daily smokers. Factors associated with smoking were identified using binary logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 6044 valid surveys were returned. The overall prevalence of daily smoking was 9.8% while the prevalence of daily smoking among males and females were 29.4% and 1.7%, respectively. Males in the Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest daily smoking rate (48.9%). Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with daily smoking among male medical students were highest year of study (OR?=?3.62; CI: 1.18–11.05); attitude towards smoking behavior Do not care about people smoking around you (OR?=?2.75; CI: 2.08–3.64); and Smoking is harmful to their health (OR?=?4.40; CI: 2.21–8.75). The main factor associated with daily smoking among female medical students was attitude towards smoking behavior Eliminate smoking on campus (OR?=?0.11; CI: 0.06–0.23). Both for male and female medical students, there was no association between ethnicity and cigarette daily smoking. In regard to smoking status, more than 60% of daily smokers began smoking in high school, 61.3% smoked less than 5 cigarettes per day, 62.9% of the daily smokers’ families opposed their smoking behavior, and after an hour of not smoking 74.6% daily smokers did not feel uncomfortable. Conclusions Antismoking education should be further promoted in Inner Mongolia medical students, with consideration given to the factors associated with daily smoking behavior found in the present study.
Bian Jiang; Du Maolin; Liu Zhiyue; Fan Yancun; Eshita Yuki; Sun Juan
Background: Since 1995, epidemiologic studies of atopic disorders using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire have been performed in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. The prevalence, burden and risk factors of atopic dermatitis were surveyed in these studies, which helped to enhance their comparability among different areas and age groups, as well as to clarify the nature of atopic dermatitis and other atopic disorders. Methods: From 21 facilities, 8,750 children were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The data were collected via the Internet using a questionnaire based on the Korean-language version of the ISAAC study format. Results: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis over the previous 12 months was 14.4%. The prevalence in preschool children was significantly higher than in elementary school children. Family history of atopic diseases, diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis and diagnosis of food allergy were positively associated with atopic dermatitis in both preschool and elementary school children. In addition, raising pets was positively associated with atopic dermatitis in preschool children. In elementary school children, female gender, secondhand smoking, breastfeeding, changing the parents' house to a newly built one during the first year of life, diagnosis of asthma and diagnosis of allergic rhinitis were positively associated with atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in preschool and elementary school children in Korea is similar to that of children in other developing countries. The risk factors for atopic dermatitis are different in preschool and elementary school children. More detailed strategies will be necessary to reduce atopic dermatitis in both age groups.
Baek JO; Hong S; Son DK; Lee JR; Roh JY; Kwon HJ
OBJECTIVES: Past research of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) lacks clear results regarding its factorial validity, item fitting, mindfulness in the general population, and on the higher order structure of mindfulness. We derived an alternative two-factor higher order structure for the FFMQ, delineating the attentional and experiential aspects of mindfulness. METHOD: Data of 640 persons from the Austrian community were used for primary analyses, and data of 333 Austrian students were used for cross-validation. Confirmatory analyses and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were utilized to investigate psychometric and structural properties. Associations with related variables and indicators of mental health were examined. RESULTS: Confirmatory models fitted only poorly on the full 39-item FFMQ. Fit was acceptable in an abridged 20-item version in both samples. The Nonreact scale had only weak psychometric properties. ESEM analyses suggested a good fit of two higher order factors and revealed structural differences between the samples. Beneficial effects of mindfulness appeared to be uniquely associated with the experiential aspects of mindfulness. Strategies of emotion regulation showed differential associations with the two higher order factors in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are relevant both with regard to conceptual issues on mindfulness and the assessment of mindfulness with the FFMQ. Replications in meditating samples and in patients are needed.
Tran US; Glück TM; Nader IW
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the higher-order summary factor structure of the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form-50 (CHQ) in a sample of children with new-onset epilepsy. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQL) 24 months post-diagnosis. METHODS: Data came from the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 374), a multi-site study documenting HRQL among children with epilepsy from diagnosis through 24 months. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine goodness of fit between the original structure of the CHQ and HERQULES data. Multiple regression was used to identify risk factors at diagnosis for HRQL at 24 months. RESULTS: The models demonstrated good fit: baseline: CFI = 0.945; TLI = 0.941; WRMR = 1.461; RMSEA = 0.058; 24 months: CFI = 0.957; TLI = 0.954; WRMR = 1.393; RMSEA = 0.055. Factor loadings were high and no cross-loadings observed (first order: ? = 0.27-0.99, 0.24-0.98; second order: ? = 0.69-0.86, 0.54-0.92; p < 0.001 for all). Controlling for HRQL at diagnosis, predictors for better 24-month HRQL were as follows: physical health: fewer cognitive problems (p = 0.023) and parents with fewer depressive symptoms (p = 0.049); psychosocial health: older parent age (p = 0.043), fewer behavior problems (p = 0.004), and families with better functioning (p = 0.008) and fewer demands (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The CHQ higher-order summary factor structure was replicated in a sample of children with new-onset epilepsy, and child and family risk factors at diagnosis were found to predict HRQL 24 months post-diagnosis. These findings suggest it is possible to identify at-risk children early in the illness process and provide impetus for adopting family-centered care practices. PMID:23334980
Ferro, Mark A; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Speechley, Kathy N
Resources made available by DCEG for use in developing study questionnaires. Includes questionnaires reviewed and approved by DCEG’s Technical Evaluation Committee, as well as non-reviewed questionnaire modules to be used as starting points for development.
INTRODUCTION: Asthma treatment requires control and monitoring. According to Global Initiative For Asthma (GINA) asthma severity is described by degree of control. The aim of the present study was to compare self-patients' opinions about asthma control with Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores. Furthermore factors associated with asthma control were analyzed in the examined group of patients. Age, BMI, the length and the degree of asthma treatment, concomitant diseases, physical activity, exposition to the tobacco smoke, needs for education and self-control were assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a 36-point questionnaire that evaluated last two years of asthma duration, the reference data were obtained by objective evaluation with ACT. Fifty three patients, 37 women and 16 men, median age 54 years (24-80 years), from outpatients clinic were enrolled into the study. According to ACT score the patients (pts) were divided into 3 groups: 25 points - well controlled asthma (group 1), 20-24 points - partially controlled asthma (group 2) and less than 20 points - lack of asthma control (group 3). Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test were used to compare the characteristics of subjects in different ACT groups. Pearson's test was used for assessment of correlation between different parameters. RESULTS: Twenty seven of 53 pts (51%) were treated with low dose of inhaled steroids and long acting beta-agonists (third degree of treatment according to GINA). During last two years the treatment was intensified in 37 pts (70%) due to exacerbation, and 19 of them (36%) were hospitalized in the course of exacerbation. Although 36 out of 53 pts (68%) claimed their asthma was fully controlled, ACT showed full control only in 5/53 (9%) of cases, partial control in 18/53 (34%), lack of control - in 30/53 (57%). Older age (p ? 0.05) and longer duration of the disease (p ? 0.01) were the factors significantly influencing lack of asthma control. A tendency towards worse asthma control was combined also with overweight and greater number of concomitant diseases (mainly coronary artery disease, diabetes and gastro-esophageal reflux). The presence of influenza vaccinations in medical history was associated with better asthma control (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy between subjective assessment of asthma control and ACT score was observed in the examined group of patients. The frequency of asthma exacerbations (according to questionnaire) was describing the degree of asthma control more precisely than self-assessment. Older age and longer disease duration were combined with significantly worse asthma control. Better asthma control was combined with the presence of influenza vaccinations in medical history.
Krasnod?bska P; Hermanowicz-Salamon J; Domaga?a-Kulawik J; Chazan R
UNLABELLED: This study was conducted to clarify regional differences in residential factors and the association of those factors with dwellings having sick house syndrome (SHS) problems. The survey was conducted in six areas of northern and southern Japan. In terms of regional differences, dampness was not as severe in the dwellings in Sapporo as compared with that in areas in the south. SHS was defined using five categories of nasal, throat and respiratory, skin and general symptoms, which appeared frequently or not frequently and improved upon leaving the home. The dampness index was estimated by the sum of the presence of several indicators: condensation on the window panes and/or wall, visible mold growth, moldy odor, slow-drying wet towels in the bathroom, and water leakage. The dwellings where inhabitants showed any symptoms of SHS comprised 3.7% of all surveyed dwellings. We found significant associations between SHS and dampness index, odors, and stuffiness of the air. For dampness, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) increased with increased dampness index, adjusting for the age of the house, pets indoors, stuffiness of the air, and odors. These results showed an increased risk when several dampness indicators appeared simultaneously. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: To evaluate the associations of residential environments and Sick House Syndrome (SHS), this cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 2297 dwellings in six areas in Japan from 2003 to 2004. The dwellings where inhabitants showed any of nasal, throat and respiratory, skin and general symptoms comprised 3.7% of all surveyed dwellings, and an increased risk for SHS was found when several dampness indicators, 'condensation', 'visible mold growth', 'moldy odor', 'slow drying wet towels in the bathroom' and 'water leakage', appeared simultaneously.
Kishi R; Saijo Y; Kanazawa A; Tanaka M; Yoshimura T; Chikara H; Takigawa T; Morimoto K; Nakayama K; Shibata E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a promising tool for the measurement of home care satisfaction in Greece.
Aletras Vassilis H; Kostarelis Arsenis; Tsitouridou Maria; Niakas Dimitris; Nicolaou Anna
This is a pamphlet instructing the construction of questionnaires, as the use of questionnaires in business, industry, government, and education has increased steadily in recent years. They are used in many different areas of government operation, includi...
P. A. Duckworth
|This study gives results of the first phase of the 12-18 year old Turkish students' norm study of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), which developed by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie (1993). The scale was administrated to 1114 students from 3 primary schools and 3 high schools in Ankara in Turkish language, science,…
Karadeniz, Sirin; Buyukozturk, Sener; Akgun, Ozcan Erkan; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Demirel, Funda
Reproducibilidad de un cuestionario telefónico sobre factores de riesgo asociados al comportamiento y las prácticas preventivas Reproducibility of a telephone questionnaire on risk factors associated with behavior and preventive practices
Full Text Available Objetivo: Se evalúa la reproducibilidad del cuestionario utilizado en un sistema de vigilancia de factores de riesgo de enfermedades no transmisibles (SIVFRENT), basado en encuestas continuas con entrevista telefónica. Métodos: El mismo cuestionario fue aplicado telefónicamente en 2 ocasiones a una muestra de 586 personas de 18-64 años representativas de la Comunidad de Madrid, con un intervalo de 13-32 días. Se analizan 27 variables relacionadas con la percepción del estado de salud, antropometría, actividad física, consumo de tabaco y alcohol, prácticas preventivas, accidentalidad y seguridad vial. Para valorar la estabilidad de las respuestas se analizó la concordancia absoluta, los valores del índice kappa sin ponderar y ponderado, y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI), en las variables categóricas nominales, ordinales y cuantitativas, respectivamente. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta a la segunda entrevista fue del 78,7%, y participaron 461 personas. La comparación de las prevalencias y promedios en las 2 entrevistas refleja que en 19 de los 27 indicadores analizados la desviación relativa fue inferior al 5%, y sólo 2 superaron el 20%. La concordancia absoluta excedió del 85% en 13 de las 20 variables categóricas, y los coeficientes kappa y CCI superaron el valor de 0,8 en 10 variables, en 13 oscilaron entre 0,6 y 0,8, en 3 entre 0,4 y 0,6, y sólo una fue inferior a 0,4. No se observó un patrón uniforme de variables sociodemográficas asociadas a la discordancia. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que el cuestionario telefónico utilizado en el SIVFRENT sobre factores de riesgo asociados al comportamiento y las prácticas preventivas es reproducible en una amplia muestra representativa de la población adulta de la Comunidad de Madrid.Objective: To assess the reproducibility of a questionnaire used in a surveillance system for risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SIVFRENT), based on continuous surveys through telephone interviews. Methods: The same questionnaire was administered telephonically to a cross-section of 586 individuals aged between 18 and 64 years representative of the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) on 2 occasions with an interval of 13 to 32 days. Twenty-seven variables related to perceived health status, anthropometry, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, preventive practices, injuries and road safety were analyzed. To assess response stability, absolute agreement, unweighted and weighted kappa values, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used in nominal, ordinal and quantitative categorical variables, respectively. Results: The response rate to the second interview involving 461 people was 78.7%. The comparison of prevalences and averages from both interviews revealed that in 19 out of the 27 indicators analyzed, the relative deviation was under 5% and exceeded 20% in only 2 indicators. Absolute agreement was greater than 85% in 13 of the 20 categorical variables. In 10 variables, the kappa and ICC coefficients were greater than 0.8, in 13 they ranged from 0.6 to 0.8, in 3 from 0.4 to 0.6 and only 1 was below 0.4. A uniform pattern of sociodemographic variables associated with disagreement was not observed. Conclusions: The results suggest that the telephone questionnaire used in the surveillance system on risk factors associated with behavior and preventive practices (SIVFRENT) is reproducible in a wide sample representative of the adult population of the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
Iñaki Galán; Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo; Belén Zorilla
In this paper, we demonstrate how establishment survey questionnaire design can be improved by utilizing different research methods such as focus groups, document design analyses, pretests, and response analysis surveys. We discuss the lack of research on...
K. L. Goldenberg P. A. Phipps S. Butani
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
AIMS: To assess the degree of satisfaction of caregivers of children with gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding through the structured questionnaire SAGA-8. Secondly, to evaluate if the parental satisfaction degree was related to several independent variables. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 92 caregivers of children with GT feeding and chronic diseases. The following data was obtained: caregiver satisfaction with GT feeding (SAGA-8), age at GT placement, anthropometric data, length and mode of nutritional support, family demographic characteristics and caregiver psychological status. RESULTS: All primary caregivers were mothers. High satisfaction with GT feeding was expressed by 82.6% of families. The simplicity of the system was emphasized by 87%, and 85.9% were very satisfied with the support received from the hospital staff. 73.9% of mothers acknowledged their child's nutritional status had improved and 89.1% rated the enhancement family's overall situation. Moreover, 75% of mothers reduced feeding-time, and 68.5% reported less respiratory infections. Finally, 71.7% of mothers recognized that they would have implemented this technique earlier. Caregiver satisfaction was positively correlated with age at GT placement and length of treatment, and both variables explained the 19.4% of the satisfaction variance. No correlation with anthropometric data, nutrition support mode, family demographic characteristics or caregiver psychological status was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The SAGA-8 questionnaire is a simple, specific, straight-forward tool to evaluate parental/caregiver degree of satisfaction with GT feeding and facilitates effective monitoring of the intervention. Lengths of HEN and precocious age at GT placement are responsible for most of parental satisfaction.
Martínez-Costa C; Calderón C; Gómez-López L; Borraz S; Pedrón-Giner C
OBJECTIVE: A validation survey was carried out in this study to assess the acceptability, validity and reliability of the Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (HKIEQ), which was newly developed to measure patient experiences of hospital care in Hong Kong (HK). DESIGN: Cross-sectional validation survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Principal component exploratory factor analysis assessed the construct validity of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient estimated the reliability of the instrument. Acceptability of the questionnaire regarding the percentage of missing value of individual items was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 511 patients discharged from public hospitals in HK were interviewed. Low percentage of missing value (0.2 to 21.3%) showed high acceptability. Nine dimensions of hospital care explaining 75.4% of the variance were derived from factor analysis and content validity. These items showed satisfactory internal reliability consistency (0.49 to 0.97). Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.36 to 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: The HKIEQ performed well on several psychometric indicators and is a promising measure of patient experience with public hospital inpatient care in HK. The findings provided important insight on developing tools to measure patient experience in hospitals to improve the quality of care and to lay the foundation for further research on patient expectations and needs regarding hospitalization.
Wong EL; Coulter A; Cheung AW; Yam CH; Yeoh EK; Griffiths S
Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and in...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Martens, Marloes
Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and i...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Martens, Marloes K
This study examines the predictive accuracy of four different methods of administration of a questionnaire designed to predict cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD) in healthy probands. The method of administration uses the establishment of trust and the explanation of questions as variables in all four possible combinations, i.e. trust and explanation, trust only, explanation only, and neither, the prediction being that the combination of trust and explanation would produce the most accurate prediction, the treatment using neither the worst prediction, with methods using either trust alone or explanation alone intermediate. The criterion was the successful prediction of cancer and CHD. A total population of 3563 men and women was used, and followed up over 15 years, death certificates being used to establish cause of death. As predicted, the combination of trust and explanation did best, use of neither worst. Explanation seemed more important than trust, and the combination seemed to have a synergistic effect. It is apparent that method of administration had an important effect on the outcome of the experiment. PMID:7654164
Grossarth-Maticek, R; Eysenck, H J; Boyle, G J
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate predictors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan, for follow-up with consultant psychiatrist. METHODS: A convenient sampleof psychiatric patients from Aga Khan University Hospital was enrolled between April and May, 2005. An interviewer assisted, standardized questionnaire was used for data collection. Patients with cognitive deficit or psychosis and those presenting for the first time were not included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 128 patients, those with co-morbidity (32.81%) were less adherent than those without comorbidity (p-value:0.002). Adherence among depressed was 61.53%; psychotic was 58.82%; bipolar disorder was 73.91%. Reasons for non-adherence included sedation (30%), medication cost (22%), forgot to take medication (36%); and inability of the physicians to explain timing and dose (92%) or benefit of medication (76%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-adherence is a common and important issue. Treatment cost and co-morbidity should be reviewed in order to keep the medication regime affordable and comprehensible.
Taj F; Tanwir M; Aly Z; Khowajah AA; Tariq A; Syed FK; Waqar F; Shahzada K
BACKGROUND: Sizwe Tropical Diseases Hospital is the only specialized Hospital for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB cases in Gauteng Province. In South Africa, there is a mismatch between numbers of individuals with a laboratory diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and those being referred for the initiation of specialist treatment. We determined reasons for non-referral of MDR-TB and XDR-TB cases. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive questionnaire-based study amongst provincial primary health care facilities (PHC) and hospitals providing routine care for (drug-susceptible) TB, regarding specialist care referral of patients whose TB culture and susceptibility testing confirmed MDR-TB or XDR-TB diagnoses in the first half of 2008. RESULTS: In total 148 cases were analyzed; 144/148 (97%) had MDR-TB and 4/148 (3%) had XDR-TB. The main reason for non-referral to specialist care was loss to follow up, for patients diagnosed in-hospital (74/97; 76%) as well as in PHCs (11/21; 52%). Nineteen per cent (18/97) of patients diagnosed in hospital versus 33% (7/21) of patients diagnosed in PHCs deceased before referral. CONCLUSIONS: A significant problem in the fight to control DR-TB is follow-up after diagnosis with a delay in patient tracing. TB Focal Points in hospital need to be strengthened in order to improve on patient follow-up and care, and tracer teams should assist with community follow up.
Nkosi D; Janssen S; Padanilam X; Louw R; Menezes CN; Grobusch MP
The first of two studies described here aimed to determine the extent to which psychological instruments could be used to describe the psychological profile of Underwater Sabotage Device Disposal (USDD) operators in the South African Navy. The Advanced Progressive Matrices, 16-Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), Self-Directed Search Questionnaire, and Rey Complex Figure Test were used. In this study, five 16PF factors appeared to be most descriptive of the sample. They were adventurous, assertive, self-assured, emotionally stable, and tough minded. These factors appeared appropriate when discussed from an environmental demand perspective. Occupational interests were realistic and social, and operators scored high on the Complex Figure Test. The second study aimed to determine the extent to which the 16PF could differentiate between USDD operators and other clearance divers. Two factors showed a significant difference between the two groups. The USDD operators were more adventurous and more assertive, which also appeared appropriate when discussed from an environmental demand perspective.
van Wijk C; Waters AH
Abstract Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-lev...
Jensen Jørgen; Bere Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Jan Natasa; Maes Lea; Manios Yannis; Martens Marloes K; Molnar Denes
INTRODUCTION: Screening, diagnosis and assessment of the management of male and female sexual dysfunctions have been greatly improved by the scientific development of self-administered questionnaires. Their use became the rule in clinical trials and epidemiological surveys. Nevertheless, their routine use has not yet become part of daily urological practice. Even if these tools replace neither the patient interview and medical history and the psychological and social context of the sexual behavior, nor clinical examination, they are of great assistance for determining management and are also highly reliable. METHODS: Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the author. RESULTS: We present here several questionnaires which have been validated in their French version with the methodology for the calculation of the scores. The International Index of Erectile Function (15 items) and two abbreviated versions, the Erectile Function domain (six items) and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (five questions) are mainly of use for patients with erectile dysfunction. They provide a robust classification of the severity of the condition. The Premature Ejaculation Profile (four questions) is used for patients with premature ejaculation. It describes premature ejaculation with the following criteria: time to ejaculation, control over ejaculation, the level of distress. The Male Health Sexual Questionnaire (25 questions) provides with a wider and more comprehensive approach to male sexuality of male sexuality including: erection, ejaculation, desire and satisfaction. This questionnaire is particularly useful to investigate ejaculatory disorders. Lastly, the Female Sexual Function Index (19 questions) is the tool of choice for female sexuality with questions regarding desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. CONCLUSION: Validated, user-friendly questionnaires are available in French language for the diagnosis and the follow-up of sexual dysfunctions in both men and women.
A good deal of recent research on somatic discomfort has employed the Body Symptom Questionnaire of Fisher and Greenberg to quantify the perceived location of the somatic discomfort. Certain formal psychometric properties of the instrument have not yet been established, and it is the purpose of this paper to do so. Specifically, since the independence of the questionnaire scales has not been determined, it is a primary focus of this discussion. A principal axis method of factoring showed that the Body Symptom Questionnaire scales are orthogonal to each other.
Reihman J; Fisher S; Greenberg RP
Factors associated with depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in Community-Dwelling Older Adults (The Bambuí Health Aging Study) Fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos avaliados pelo General Health Questionnaire (12 itens) em idosos residentes na comunidade (Projeto Bambuí)
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This study evaluated 1,510 participants of the Bambuí Health Aging Study baseline. The dependent variable was the presence of depressive symptoms assessed by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and predictive variables were sociodemographic characteristics, social support network, lifestyle and health conditions. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 38.5% (12-item General Health Questionnaire ? 5). Depressive symptoms were positively and independently associated with female gender (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.01-1.33), aged 80 years or over (PR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02-1.54) compared with 60-69 years, single (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.02-1.46) or separated (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.03-1.65) marital status, less than 4 years of schooling (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.04-2.00), self-reported global health (reasonable: PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.45-2.34; bad or very bad: PR = 2.44; 95%CI 1.91-3.12), incapacity or great difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.22-1.57) and complaint of insomnia in the last month (PR = 1.77; 95%CI: 1.22-1.99). CONCLUSION: The similarities between factors associated with depressive symptoms in this population and in others do not explain the high prevalence rates previously reported in Bambuí. These findings may guide efforts to investigate others factors to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of depression in this population.OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos em idosos residentes na comunidade. MÉTODO: Este estudo seccional foi desenvolvido em 1.510 idosos, que correspondem a 86% do total de residentes na cidade de Bambuí-MG com 60 ou mais anos de idade. A variável dependente deste estudo é a presença de sintomas depressivos, determinada por meio do General Health Questionnaire (12 itens). As variáveis independentes incluíram características sociodemográficas, indicadores da rede social de apoio, estilos de vida e indicadores das condições de saúde. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 38,5% (escore no General Health Questionnaire ? 5). Associações positivas e independentes com esses sintomas foram observadas para sexo feminino (RP = 1,15; IC95%: 1,01-1,33), faixa etária de 80 anos ou mais (RP = 1,22; IC95%: 1,02-1,54) comparada com idades entre 60 e 69 anos, ser solteiro (RP = 1,25; IC95%: 1,02-1,46) e ser separado (RP = 1,30; IC95%: 1,03-1,65), anos de escolaridade inferior a quatro anos (RP = 1,42; IC95%: 1,04-2,00), percepção da saúde como razoável (RP = 1,84; IC95%: 1,45-2,34) e ruim ou muito ruim (RP = 2,44; IC95%: 1,91-3,12), incapacidade funcional (RP = 1,39; IC95%: 1,22-1,57) e insônia nos últimos 30 dias (RP = 1,77; IC95%: 1,22-1,57). CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados aos sintomas depressivos são semelhantes aos descritos em outros estudos e não explicam a alta prevalência de depressão encontrada em Bambuí. Esses achados demonstram a necessidade de investigação de outros fatores na tentativa de elucidar a etiopatogenia da depressão nessa população.
Érico Castro-Costa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa; Sandra Carvalhais; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchoa
A number of hypotheses were generated predicting the relationship between the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory and factors on the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) questionnaire. As expected, positive relationships were found between abuse and apprehension, tension, and anxiety, while a negative relationship was observed between abuse and stability. The 16PF factors of apprehension, tension, anxiety and stability, which had the strongest relationship with abuse, are factors descriptive of neuroticism. A regression and discriminant analysis, however, indicated these factors alone were not sufficient to accurately describe and predict abuse.
Robertson KR; Milner JS
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to validate the questionnaire by using confirmatory factor analysis. Besides, it also would like to examine the internal reliability. Three hypotheses were tested. The questionnaires have been answered by 294 respondents among ten schools. The minimum criterion of model was achieved. The reliability of the questionnaires was high.
Khoo Yin Yin; Abdul Ghani Kanesan Abdullah
Previous research has shown correlations between normal personality variables of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and Axis II personality disorder scales using the Morey, Waugh, and Blashfield Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. This study (N = 37) compared variables from the adolescent version of the 16PF, the High School Personality Questionnaire, Revised, including the new Clinical Supplement and the MMPI scales of Morey, et al. and yielded results similar to those from earlier studies with other inventories. Extraversion scores correlated positively with those on Narcissistic and Histrionic scales, negatively with scores on Schizoid, Avoidant, and Schizotypal scales; scores on Independence had a similar pattern.
Moyer RD; Schuerger JM
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Prior to elective surgery it is essential to know in advance the patient’s clinical condition. The aim of this study was to compare the preoperative evaluation (POE) through questionnaire responses with preanesthetic evaluation by the anesthesiologist. METHOD: Prior to their preoperative evaluation, patients answered a questionnaire with information regarding age, weight, height, scheduled surgery, past medical and surgical history, allergies, medications and doses used, social history (illicit drugs, alcohol, smoking), functional capacity and exercise tolerance. Preoperative evaluation was performed by an anesthesiologist who had no access to the questionnaire data or knowledge about the research. The questionnaire data were compared with the preoperative evaluation by two independent investigators, in order to answer the questions: 1) Was the questionnaire evaluation effective - could the patient undergo surgery without the need for face-to-face consultation? 2) Has been there any relevant information - ability to change the anesthetic approach - not assessed by the questionnaire, but assessed by the face-to-face consultation? 3) Has been there any information added by the health questionnaire that was missed by face-to-face consultation? For statistical analysis, the paired Student’s t-test was used for parametric data and chi-square test for categorical data, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 269 eligible patients there was one refusal, and four agreed to participate but did not complete the questionnaire, in addition to 52 losses, totaling 212 participants. Questionnaire data added to the consultation in 109 cases (51.4%). The screening questionnaire alone was effective for 144 patients (67.93%), with no need for consultation. The anesthesiologist evaluation referred patients for surgery on their fi rst visit in 178 opportunities (84%). In the identification of cases of non-referral to surgery, the questionnaire showed a negative predictive value of 94.4%, positive predictive value of 38.2%, sensitivity of 76.5%, and specificity of 76.4%. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) clinical factors associated with non-referral to surgery were: age over 65 years, BMI > 30, low functional capacity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, renal failure, hepatitis, and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire was effective for screening patients who needed further evaluation and/or changes in treatment regimen prior to elective surgery. Moreover, the questionnaire added data not covered by clinical evaluation.
Mendes FF; Machado EL; de Oliveira M; Brasil FR; Eizerik G; Telöken P
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Zalles, Daniel R.; Library, Online E.
CERN must remain the centre of excellence that it has been for the last sixty years. Therefore, the Organization must continue to be able to attract, motivate and retain the best specialists coming from all the Member States. This is why, every five years, on the occasion of a five-yearly review, our employment conditions are compared with bodies having similar activities.In order to prepare the next five-yearly review, the topics of which will be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has drawn up a questionnaire that gives you the opportunity to tell us what you think about your current employment conditions. You can also indicate how you wish to see them evolve, and to help you we present some proposals for improvement on which you can give your opinion. Above all, do not hesitate, by using the comments’ fields available in the questionnaire, to formulate your own suggestions in all areas of your conditions of employment that are of interest to you. Your replies will hel...
Association du personnel
Fiabilidad y validez de un cuestionario para medir en estudiantes universitarios la asociación de la ansiedad y depresión con factores académicos y psicosociofamiliares durante el curso 2004-2005/ Academic and psycho-socio-familiar factors associated to anxiety and depression in university students. Reliability and validity of a questionnaire
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La elevada frecuencia de ansiedad y depresión en estudiantes universitarios está relacionada con factores sociales, familiares y con el estrés académico. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar la consistencia interna y la validez de un cuestionario de situaciones socio familiares y académicas que pueden estar relacionadas con situaciones psicopatológicas en estudiantes universitarios. Método: El estudio se realizó en la Universidad Católica Sa (more) n Antonio de Murcia, en una muestra de 700 alumnos a los que se les administró un cuestionario de elaboración propia, que contenía ítems que valoraban aspectos académicos y socio familiares. Como factores de estudio independientes se utilizaron variables que medían diversas situaciones estresantes de los estudiantes y la escala de ansiedad y depresión de Goldberg, todo con el fin de medir la validez del cuestionario. Resultados: La fiabilidad del cuestionario quedó demostrada al obtener en el test-retest un coeficiente de correlación intraclase de 0,819. El cuestionario original de 19 ítems quedó reducido a 15 tras el análisis de homogeneidad, obteniendo un alfa de Cronbach de 0,758. La validez de constructo se evaluó con el análisis factorial del cuestionario, resultando dos factores que representaban a "aspectos académicos" y "aspectos sociofamiliares". Los estudiantes con el test de ansiedad y depresión positivo eran los que más puntuación obtuvieron en el cuestionario global y en los dos factores, quedando demostrada la validez de criterio. Conclusiones: El cuestionario del estudio es una herramienta de valoración, de fácil uso y de ágil aplicación para la detección precoz de ansiedad y depresión en estudiantes universitarios. Abstract in english Background: The high frequency of anxiety and depression in university students is related to social, family factors and academic stress. The aim of this research is to determine the internal consistency and validity of a questionnaire on socio-familiar and academic situations which may be related to psychopathological situations in university students. Methods: The research was carried out at the Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia with 700 students, to whom a qu (more) estionnaire made by the researchers was given. This questionnaire included items which evaluated academic and socio-familiar aspects. Variables regarding various stressful situations amongst students, and the Goldberg?s level of anxiety and depression scale were used as independent facts of research in order to measure the validity of the questionnaire. Results: The reliability of the questionnaire was shown after obtaining an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.819. The original questionnaire with 19 items was reduced to 15 items after the homogeneity analysis, obtaining a Cronbach alpha of 0.758. The validity of constructio was evaluated with the factor analysis of the questionnaire, with a result of two factors which represented ?academic aspects? and ?socio-familiar aspects?. Those students with a positive anxiety and depression test were the ones who obtained the higher score on the global questionnaire and in both factors, proving the validity of the criteria. Conclusions: The research questionnaire is an agile and easy to use tool for the assessment and early detection of anxiety and depression in university students.
Balanza Galindo, Serafín; Morales Moreno, Isabel; Guerrero Muñoz, Joaquín; Conesa Conesa, Ana
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The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
The first study aimed to determine the extent to which the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) can be used to describe successful divers in the South African Navy. The 16PF profiles of 100 divers were analyzed to describe the personality characteristics of naval divers. Results indicate that four personality factors were most descriptive of the sample. They were Group-orientation, Enthusiasm, Adventurousness, and Confidence. These factors seemed appropriate when discussed from an environmental demand perspective. The second study aimed to determine the extent to which the 16 PF can be used to differentiate between divers and submariners in the South African Navy. The two groups differed significantly on two factors--divers scored higher on Enthusiasm and submariners scored higher on Conservatism.
Van Wijk C; Waters AH
The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,…
Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Effectiveness of a questionnaire based intervention programme on the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms, risk factors and sick leave in computer workers: A cluster randomised controlled trial in an occupational setting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arm, shoulder and neck symptoms are very prevalent among computer workers. In an attempt to reduce these symptoms, a large occupational health service in the Netherlands developed a preventive programme on exposure to risk factors, prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms, and sick leave in computer workers. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this intervention programme. Methods The study was a randomised controlled trial. The participants were assigned to either the intervention group or the usual care group by means of cluster randomisation. At baseline and after 12 months of follow-up, the participants completed the RSI QuickScan questionnaire on exposure to the risk factors and on the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. A tailor-made intervention programme was proposed to participants with a high risk profile at baseline. Examples of implemented interventions are an individual workstation check, a visit to the occupational health physician and an education programme on the prevention of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms. Secondary outcome measures were the scores on risk factors for arm, shoulder and neck symptoms and the number of days of sick leave. Sick leave data was obtained from the companies. Multilevel analyses were used to test the effectiveness. Results Of the 1,673 persons invited to participate in the study, 1,183 persons (71%) completed the baseline questionnaire and 741 persons participated at baseline as well as at 12-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, the intervention group showed a significant positive change (OR = 0.48) in receiving information on healthy computer use, as well as a significant positive change regarding risk indicators for work posture and movement, compared to the usual care group. There were no significant differences in changes in the prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms or sick leave between the intervention and usual care group. Conclusions The effects of the RSI QuickScan intervention programme were small, possibly as a result of difficulties with the implementation process of the proposed interventions. However, some significant positive effects were found as to an increase in receiving education and a decrease in exposure to adverse postures and movements. With regard to symptoms and sick leave, only small and non-significant effects were found. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1117
Speklé Erwin M; Hoozemans Marco JM; Blatter Birgitte M; Heinrich Judith; van der Beek Allard J; Knol Dirk L; Bongers Paulien M; van Dieën Jaap H
Development and validation of a questionnaire measuring factors associated with physical activity in adolescents/ Desenvolvimento e validação de um questionário para mensurar fatores associados à atividade física em adolescentes
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: desenvolver e analisar a fidedignidade e validade de um questionário para mensurar fatores associados à atividade física (AF) em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 248 adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos de idade. Os fatores associados à AF mensurados foram: atitude, autoeficácia, apoio social dos pais e dos amigos para prática de AF, ambiente percebido. O alpha de Cronbach (?) e a correlação intraclasse (CCI) foram utilizados para verificar a (more) fidedignidade, e a análise fatorial exploratória para avaliar a validade do questionário. RESULTADOS: a medida de atitude continha um único fator (atitude: ?=0,76; CCI=0,89); a de autoeficácia dois fatores: recursos para prática de AF (?=0,76; CCI=0,75), apoio social e motivos para prática de AF (?=0,75; CCI=0,67); a de apoio social dois fatores: apoio dos amigos (?=0,90; CCI=0,89) e dos pais (?=0,81; CCI=0,91); a medida de ambiente três fatores: acesso e atratividade dos locais para prática de AF (?=0,69; CCI=0,82), segurança para a prática de AF (?=0,70; CCI=0,75) e infra-estrutura geral do bairro (?=0,73; CCI=0,67). CONCLUSÃO: o questionário demonstrou validade e fidedignidade (consistência interna e reprodutibilidade) satisfatórias, recomendando a sua utilização em adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to develop a questionnaire to measure factors associated with physical activity (PA) in adolescents and analyze its reliability and validity. METHODS: a total of 248 adolescents from 14 to 19 years old took part in this study. The factors associated with PA measured were: attitude, self-efficacy, social support of PA and perceived environment. Cronbach's alpha (?) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to test reliability, and exploratory (more) factor analysis to evaluate validity. RESULTS: attitude was measured as a single factor (attitude: ?=0.76, ICC=0.89); self-efficacy consisted of two factors: resources for PA (?=0.76, ICC=0.75) and social support and motives for engaging in PA (?=0.76, ICC=0.67); social support was measured as two factors: support for PA from friends (?=0.90, ICC=0.89) and support for PA from parents (?= 0.81, ICC=0.91); and the environment was measured as three factors: access to and attractiveness of places to engage in PA (?=0.69, ICC=0.82), security/safety when engaging in PA (?=0.73, ICC=0.67), and general infrastructure of the neighborhood (?=0.70, ICC=0.75). CONCLUSIONS: the questionnaire exhibited satisfactory validity and reliability and can be recommended for studies investigating adolescents.
Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Nascimento, Juarez Vieira do; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Hallal, Pedro Curi
The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...
The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence), the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.
Kalashnikova A.S.; Levochkina N.S.
The segregation analysis is made of inheritance of the E factor of the Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire on the basis of a population sample consisting of 108 free-structured pedigrees. The possibility of major gene control of inheritance for this quantitative trait is confirmed.
Ginzburg EKh; Kolpakov VG; Fedotov AM; Chekasov IL; Chugu? VF
Aim To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Methods Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. Results The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I – positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II – negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III – subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach ? was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I – ??=?0.83; factor II – ??=?0.79; and factor III – ??=?0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Conclusion Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism.
Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen
Questionnaires are vulnerable to joking and suffer from lack of agreement regarding the unitary traits through which scales are validated. Eight basic requirements for construction of factor-true scales are established and it is shown that one or more of the requirements is missing for 80 percent of recently published questionnaires. (Author)
Cattell, Raymond B.
Full Text Available The study attempts to develop and validate a new instrument to measure therapeutic relationship for use with high hospital principals and hospital employees. By using the three domains of therapeutic relationship, namely Patient factor, Therapist factors and Environmental factors, a primary questionnaire with 142 – item was developed and tested based on a sample of 250 hospital employees drawn from 4 hospitals representing in Iran. KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy (.832) and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (1345.32) and Analysis of Scree Plot have shown that the properties of sample are appropriate for factor analysis. Factor analysis for the final items items were made from which 64 items were extracted which had factor loading of >0.5 on the four domains. The properties of reliability and validity have borne significant results which show this instrument can be considered suitable to determine the position of therapeutic relationship in hospital employees.
FatemehKhoshnavafomani; ForoughRafii; RahmatollahKharazmirahimabadi
Full Text Available Various approaches are used to assess spirituality via questionnaires, ranging from one-dimensional scales to highly multidimensional models. For the present investigation, an – in spirituality research unorthodox – factor analytic method was chosen: principal axis analysis with oblique rotation. An item collection was examinated and cross-validated via internet. The spirituality questionnaire contains four dimensions: belief in God, search for meaning, mindfulness, and feeling of security. They present with high internal consistencies. The factorial structure of the four dimensions was confirmed. Based on the better fit of this method of extraction the authors assume that these dimensions may depict the concept of spirituality more precisely than the previously used factor analytic methods, i.e. the principal component analysis (PCA) with orthogonal rotation.
Jochen Hardt; Sonja Schultz; Carola Xander; Gerhild Becker; Malgorzata Dragan
...Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY...Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB...and 4730SP, Federal Labor Standards Questionnaires, will be used by HUD and...
Objective:The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes.Method:Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples.Results:The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis.Conclusions:Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas.
Peters ER; Moritz S; Schwannauer M; Wiseman Z; Greenwood KE; Scott J; Beck AT; Donaldson C; Hagen R; Ross K; Veckenstedt R; Ison R; Williams S; Kuipers E; Garety PA
Objective:The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),(1) relating to "Anomalous Perceptions" and "Threatening Events" themes.Method:Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples.Results:The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis.Conclusions:Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:23413104
Peters, Emmanuelle R; Moritz, Steffen; Schwannauer, Matthias; Wiseman, Zoe; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Scott, Jan; Beck, Aaron T; Donaldson, Catherine; Hagen, Roger; Ross, Kerry; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Ison, Rebecca; Williams, Sally; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa A
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of musculoskeletal questionnaire. METHODS: A self-administered modified musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to investigate 12 098 workers from eight occupations, i.e. coal mining, petroleum, metallurgical, mechanical manufacturing, chemical, garment and railroad transportation industries and education. The Cronbach's ? coefficient, analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the reliability and validity of musculoskeletal questionnaire. RESULTS: The consistent test between total items of Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and each factor showed that the range of Cronbach's ? was 0.52 ? 0.92, except from vibration factor, other Cronbach's ? was more than 0.7. All 55 items of Musculoskeletal Questionnaire were subjected to factor analysis, and ten latent factors were identified, which explained 55.17% of the total variance. The potentially hazardous working conditions could be categorized into seven dimensions (force, dynamic load, static load, repetitive load, climate factors, vibration exposure and environmental ergonomic factor), which consisted with the theory model. The results of covariance analysis indicated that there were significant difference among 7 dimension indices in different jobs (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The modified Musculoskeletal Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for measuring musculoskeletal workload.
Du WW; Wang S; Wang JX; He LH; Wu SS; Li JY; Yang L; Yu SF; Xia ZL; Li LP; Zhu AP; Liu XF; Zhu ZH
Obstructive sleep apnea, detected by the Berlin Questionnaire: an associated risk factor for coronary artery disease/ Risco de apneia obstrutiva do sono detectado pelo Questionário de Berlim está associado com doença arterial coronariana
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS), fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana, permanece subdiagnosticada. Investigou-se se o risco de SAOS pelo Questionário de Berlim (QB) associa-se com doença arterial coronariana. Casos foram pacientes encaminhados para coronariografia eletiva, classificados em casos com lesão significativa (estenose > 50%) ou sem lesões significativas. Controles foram selecionados em amostra populacional. QB foi positivo em 135 ( (more) 41,2%) de 328 casos, em contraste com 151 (34,4%) de 439 controles (p = 0,03). Em análise logística multinomial, o risco de SAOS identificado pelo QB associou-se com doença arterial coronariana exclusivamente nos casos com lesões de pelo menos 50% (OR: 1,53; IC95%: 1,02-2,30; p = 0,04). Em indivíduos com lesões significativas, o risco de SAOS pela QB foi maior entre os que têm 40-59 anos (OR: 1,76; IC95%: 1,05-2,97; p = 0,03) e em mulheres (OR: 3,56; IC95%: 1,64-7,72; p = 0,001). Em conclusão, alto risco para a SAOS identificados pela QB associa-se a risco de lesões coronarianas significativas na angiografia, particularmente em indivíduos mais jovens e em mulheres. Abstract in english Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a risk factor for coronary artery disease, remains under diagnosed. We investigated if OSA identified by the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is associated with the risk of coronary artery disease. Cases were patients referred for elective coronariography. The cases were classified with significant coronary lesions (stenosis > 50% in an epicardial coronary) or without significant coronary lesions. Controls were selected from a population-based samp (more) le. Positive BQ results were identified in 135 (41.2%) of 328 cases, in contrast with 151 (34.4%) of 439 control subjects (p = 0.03). In a multinomial logistic analysis, the risk for OSA identified by the BQ was independently associated with coronary artery disease in cases with lesions of at least 50% (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.02-2.30; p = 0.04). The risk from OSA identified by the BQ was higher in younger subjects (40-59 years) (OR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.05-2.97; p = 0.03) and in women (OR = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.64-7.72; p = 0.001). In conclusion, OSA identified by the BQ greatly increases the risks of coronary artery disease in patients having significant coronary artery lesions indicated by anangiogram, particularly in younger individuals and in women.
Massierer, Daniela; Martinez, Denis; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Pellin, Paulo P.; Garcia, Márcio S.; Zacharias, Ana Luisa; Antunes, Isadora F.; Wainstein, Marco V.; Moreira, Leila Beltrami; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Fuchs, Flavio Danni
Full Text Available The main objective was to study the personality of the volleyball players of India. All the players of Indian team and the players of Brazil team, who came for FIVB Men Volleyball World Championship held at Pune in August 2009, were selected for the study. They were administered the Cattell’s 16 PF questionnaire. The results wereanalyzed with the help of ‘t’ test which showed that there are significant differences found between Indian volleyball players and Brazilian Volleyball players on seven factors but not on nine factors of 16 PF Questionnaire. Indian players scored high on factor ‘F’, factor ‘I’ and factor ‘M’ whereas Brazilian players have scored high on factor ‘B’, factor ‘G’, factor ‘H’ and factor ‘L’. Indian players scored low on Factor B which means that they tend to be slow to learn and grasp and they were dull as compared with Brazilian team, and gives concrete and literal interpretation. This dullness simply represents poor functioning.
Govind Kadam; Kamlakar Kadam; Mansaram Autade
Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire (NQQ) has become an annual "tradition" at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time, using audience response devices, to those of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States, acquired through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include transplantation issues. These cases, along with single best answer questions, were prepared by Dr. Hricik. After the audience responses, the "correct" and "incorrect" answers were then briefly discussed and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article aims to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience-that of the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Have fun. PMID:22595824
Hricik, Donald E; Glassock, Richard J; Bleyer, Anthony J
ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.
Full Text Available Designing the perfect survey questionnaire is impossible. However, researchers can still create an effective research. To make your questionnaire effective, it is necessary to pretest it before actually using it. The following paper reveals some general guidelines on pretesting and what to do for a more effective marketing research giving the fact that the existing literature highlights the importance and indispensability of pretesting and on the other hand, does not provide sufficient information in terms of methodology about it. Also, we have tried to explain the importance of questionnaires pretesting before applying them in order to obtain the best results in marketing research and we’ve kept in mind that high quality in this domain means using new tools and improving the existing ones if one searches for efficient results.
ALINA-MIHAELA BABONEA; MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU
The Sleep Quality Questionnaire was developed and its reliability and validity were estimated. Four samples involving approximately 1400 Japanese college students and employees were used to examine the factor structure, the test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and incremental validity. Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were associated with well-being, such as general health states, depressive symptoms, chronic fatigue, and quality of life. Test-retest estimates indicated that Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were stable over an 8-week period. The Sleep Quality Questionnaire incrementally contributes to well-being even beyond the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and to sleep duration. Overall, the data suggest that the Sleep Quality Questionnaire scale is both reliable and valid.
Physical Activity Questionnaires (PAQ) Validation Studies Ainsworth New Physical Activity Questionnaire (N-PAQ) Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ) Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (ADNFS) Auckland Heart Study (AHS) Physical Activity
The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) is used in ergonomics research to measure behavioural problems associated with attentiveness and memory in everyday life. CFQ scores have been related to constructs such as accident proneness and outcomes such as human error and psychological strain. The two-year test-retest reliability of the CFQ is reported together with the findings of factor analyses of CFQ data from 535 respondents. Evidence for the predictive and criterion validity and internal reliability of the CFQ is provided. Psychological strain was measured concurrently with CFQ on both testing occasions, two years apart. The test-retest reliability of the summated CFQ score was found to be 0.71, while for the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) strain measure it was 0.32.The relative variance stability was five times greater for the CFQ than the GHQ, indicating that scores on these questionnaires are not covariates. The use of the CFQ as a measure of cognitive control capacity is also discussed. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomists have long been interested in human error and the role of high work demands due to poor equipment design and excessive workload. The CFQ measures attentiveness in daily life and is shown to have excellent psychometric properties that make it suitable for use in both laboratory and field studies as a trait measure of attentiveness in daily life.
Bridger RS; Johnsen SA; Brasher K
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ). METHOD: Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Version; SM severity was assessed using the 17-item SMQ; and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm exploratory factor analysis results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: social situations outside of school, school situations, and home and family situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity was also well supported. CONCLUSIONS: Measure structure findings are consistent with the three-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomena beyond other child anxiety measures.
Letamendi AM; Chavira DA; Hitchcock CA; Roesch SC; Shipon-Blum E; Stein MB
Factor de riesgo para suicidio según dos cuestionarios y factores asociados en población estudiantil de la Universidad de Manizales (Colombia), 2011/ Risk factor for suicide according to two questionnaires and factors linked to the student population of a university in Manizales (Colombia), 2011
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El suicidio es una conducta producto de la interacción de muchas variables que llevan al ser humano a tratar de terminar con su vida por sus propios medios. Este estudio pretende identificar el factor de riesgo suicida; además de factores asociados en los estudiantes de pregrado de la Universidad de Manizales. Es un estudio de corte transversal, en el cual se seleccionó una muestra probabilística de 355 alumnos de programas de dicha universidad y se aplicaron los cues (more) tionarios de Beck y Plutchik para riesgo suicida y factores asociados. El estudio mostró un factor de riesgo para suicidio según la Escala de Plutchik de 13,5% y según la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck entre riesgo suicida alto y moderado de un 16,7%. Y como factores asociados se encontraron significativos, según la Escala de Plutchik, el estrato socioeconómico (p= 0,005), presencia de un diagnóstico psiquiátrico (p=0,000), consumo de alcohol (p=0,000) y sustancias psicoactivas (p=0,000), antecedentes familiares de suicidio (p=0,034), funcionalidad familiar (p=0,000), nivel de autoestima (p=0,000), ansiedad (p=0,000) y depresión (p=0,000); según la Escala de Beck, además de los anteriores factores asociados, se encontró la asociación significativa con raza (p=0,003), estado civil (p=0,007), espiritualidad (p=0,000) y el programa de pregrado que se encuentre cursando el estudiante (p=0,000). El Factor de Riesgo para Suicidio, según Escala de Plutchik, es parecido al encontrado en otras poblaciones análogas. Las escalas de Plutchik y de Beck, aunque relacionadas, no son equivalentes. Abstract in english Suicide is a conduct as a result of the interaction of many variables that lead a human being to end with his/her life through their own means. This study pretends to identify the suicidal risk factor and associated factors in undergraduate students of the Universidad de Manizales. This is a Cross-sectional study, of a probabilistic sample of 355 student of the undergraduate programs of the Universidad de Manizales. The student population that was studied consisted of thr (more) ee hundred and fifty five students. The Plutchik's Scale and Beck's Hopelessness Scale for suicide risk were employed, the associated factors also were measured. This study showed, according to Plutchik's Scale, a suicide risk factor of 13.5%, and a 16.7% of a high and moderate suicide risk factor according to Beck's Scale. The study also threw out important associated factors on the Plutchik's Scale: socioeconomic stratum (p= 0,005), psychiatric diagnosis (p= 0,000), intake of alcohol (p= 0,000) and psychoactive substances consumption (p=0,000), family members with suicidal background (p=0,034), family functionality (p= 0,000), self-esteem levels (p= 0,000), anxiety (p= 0,000) and depression (p= 0,000). In relation to Beck's Scale, besides the factors that were previously mentioned, the following were found race (p=0,003), marital status (p= 0,007), spirituality (p= 0,000), and the undergraduate program that each student is part of (p= 0,000). Plutchik Risk factor for suicide, is similar to that found in others similar populations. Plutchik and Beck scales are not equivalent but related.
Cañón, Sandra Constanza; Castaño Castrillon, José Jaime; Atehortúa Rojas, Beatriz Eugenia; Botero Mejía, Paola; García Ruiz, Luz Karime; Rodríguez Vanegas, Luisa María; Tovar Aguirre, Carlos Arturo; Rincón Urrego, Eliana
Summary.-The relationship between occupational preferences and personality traits was examined. A randomly chosen sample of 735 students (age range = 17 to 23 years; 50.5% male) in their last year of high school participated in this study. Participants completed Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor-5 Questionnaire (16PF-5 Questionnaire) and the Kuder-C Professional Tendencies Questionnaire. Initial hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the participants into two groups by Kuder-C vocational factors: one showed a predilection for scientific or technological careers and the other a bias toward the humanities and social sciences. Based on these groupings, differences in 16PF-5 personality traits were analyzed and differences associated with three first-order personality traits (warmth, dominance, and sensitivity), three second-order factors (extraversion, control, and independence), and some areas of professional interest (mechanical, arithmetical artistic, persuasive, and welfare) were identified. The data indicated that there was congruency between personality profiles and vocational interests.
Garcia-Sedeño M; Navarro JI; Menacho I
Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire has become an annual tradition at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time using audience response devices with the answers of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include fluid and electrolyte disorders, transplantation, and ESRD and dialysis. Cases representing each of these categories along with single best-answer questions were prepared by a panel of experts (the authors). The correct and incorrect answers then were briefly discussed after the audience responses and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article tries to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience-the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Have fun. PMID:22580788
Palmer, Biff F; Glassock, Richard J; Bleyer, Anthony J
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form ([YSQ-SF], Young, 1999) and the gender differences in early maladaptive schemas. The study took place in Colombia, where 1392 university students (541 male y 851 female) completed the YSQ-SF. The results confirmed the existence of the original 15 first-order factors, in consistency with the 15 theoretical schemas. However, the results for the second-order structure were less conclusive, as both a three second order factor and a five second order factor structures showed similar fit indices. Alpha coefficients for the schemas rated between 0.74 and 0.89. Men scored higher than women on several schemas.
Nora Helena Londoño Arredondo; Esther Calvete; Alberto Ferrer; Liliana Chaves; Diego Castrillón; Mónica Schnitter; Carlos Marín; Katherine Maestre
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to undertake the process of cultural adaptation of the Brace Questionnaire (BrQ) into Polish. METHODS: The BrQ is an instrument for measuring the quality of life of scoliotic adolescents who are being treated conservatively with wearing a corrective brace. The BrQ consists of 34 Likert-scale items related to eight domains. The translation from the original Greek into Polish was performed. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was in accordance with the guidelines of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project. It involved 35 adolescents, aged between 10.0 and 16.0 years, all with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with mean Cobb angle of 35.1 ± 10.6 degrees, and all wearing the same kind of brace (Chêneau orthosis) for more than 3 months. Statistical analysis calculated the reliability (internal consistency), floor and ceiling effects of the BrQ. RESULTS: The internal consistency was satisfactory; Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.94. There was no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSIONS: Polish version of the BrQ is reliable and can be used in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis wearing the brace to assess their quality of life.
Kinel E; Kotwicki T; Podolska A; Bia?ek M; Stry?a W
Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.
Boulton KA; Vogelnest LJ; Vogelnest L
Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082
Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry
Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was the construction and evaluation of an attention questionnaire. A corollary of the study was to determine the common factors between the Attention Questionnaire (AQ) and the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI). The AQ and the LCI (1999) were applied jointly to a sample of 1577 first-year university students. To start with the AQ was subjected to a principal factor analysis. It yielded three factors which were identified as Concentration Ability, Arousal and Distractibility. Three scales were formed which yielded reliabilities of 0,886, 0,757 and 0,863 respectively. Multiple battery factor analysis was used to establish the common factor structure of the two instruments. Autonomy and Internal Control were strongly related to Concentration Ability.
Johann M Schepers
This is a further development of a specific questionnaire, the 3-set 4P, to be used for measuring former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems after intensive care and the need for follow-up. The aim was to psychometrically test and evaluate the 3-set 4P questionnaire in a larger population. The questionnaire consists of three sets: "physical", "psychosocial" and "follow-up". The questionnaires were sent by mail to all patients with more than 24-hour length of stay on four ICUs in Sweden. Construct validity was measured with exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. This resulted in three factors for the "physical set", five factors for the "psychosocial set" and four factors for the "follow-up set" with strong factor loadings and a total explained variance of 62-77.5%. Thirteen questions in the SF-36 were used for concurrent validity showing Spearman's r(s) 0.3-0.6 in eight questions and less than 0.2 in five. Test-retest was used for stability reliability. In set follow-up the correlation was strong to moderate and in physical and psychosocial sets the correlations were moderate to fair. This may have been because the physical and psychosocial status changed rapidly during the test period. All three sets had good homogeneity. In conclusion, the 3-set 4P showed overall acceptable results, but it has to be further modified in different cultures before being considered a fully operational instrument for use in clinical practice.
Akerman E; Fridlund B; Samuelson K; Baigi A; Ersson A
Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...
The sunlight exposure questionnaire for use in the Chinese population was constructed based on extensive literature review and item suitability for measuring life-time exposure. The content validity index (CVI) was derived from ratings by, an expert panel to assess the item content and relevance. 650 population-based Chinese women completed the sunlight exposure questionnaire through telephone interview. To assess the questionnaire reliability, 94 women were re-interviewed after 2 weeks. 98.4% of the sunlight exposure questionnaire items were found to have valid CVI (>0.83). The Scree plot and the Principal Components Factor Analysis showed a two-factor construct was appropriate and no questionnaire item needed to be excluded. The questionnaire also had a good test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.59-0.93; k: 0.51-100). This sunlight exposure questionnaire was found to be adequate for measurement of life-time sunlight exposure among Hong Kong Chinese women.
Wu S; Ho SC; Lam TP; Woo J; Yuen PY; Qin L; Ku S
PURPOSE: To report a diplopia questionnaire (DQ) with a data-driven scoring algorithm. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: To optimize questionnaire scoring, 147 adults with diplopic strabismus completed both the DQ and the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20) health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) questionnaire. To assess test-retest reliability, 117 adults with diplopic strabismus. To assess responsiveness to surgery, 42 adults (46 surgeries). METHODS: The 10-item AS-20 function subscale score (scored 0-100) was defined as the gold standard for severity. A range of weights was assigned to the responses and the gaze positions (from equal weighting to greater weighting of primary and reading). Combining all response option weights with all gaze position weights yielded 382848 scoring algorithms. We then calculated 382848 Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing each algorithm with the AS-20 function subscale score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To optimize scoring, Spearman rank correlation coefficients (measuring agreement) between DQ scores and AS-20 function subscale scores. For test-retest reliability, 95% limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For responsiveness, change in DQ score. RESULTS: For the 382 848 possible scoring algorithms, correlations with AS-20 function subscale score ranged from -0.64 (best correlated) to -0.55. The best-correlated algorithm had response option weights of 5 for rarely, 50 for sometimes, and 75 for often, and gaze position weights of 40 for straight ahead in the distance, 40 for reading, 1 for up, 8 for down, 4 for right, 4 for left, and 3 for other, totaling 100. There was excellent test-retest reliability with an ICC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.92), and 95% limits of agreement were 30.9 points. The DQ score was responsive to surgery with a mean change of 51 ± 34 (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a data-driven scoring algorithm for the DQ, rating diplopia symptoms from 0 to 100. On the basis of correlations with HRQOL, straight-ahead and reading positions should be highly weighted. The DQ has excellent test-retest reliability and responsiveness, and may be useful in both clinical and research settings.
Holmes JM; Liebermann L; Hatt SR; Smith SJ; Leske DA
CONTEXT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages the use of risk factor questionnaires to screen children for lead poisoning. A majority of state health departments have formal lead screening guidelines that recommend health care providers use questionnaires. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the ability of lead screening questionnaires to predict lead poisoning risk among children. METHODS: Articles that reported the evaluation of a predesigned lead screening questionnaire were obtained by searching Medline/PubMed and by examining references of articles obtained through the online search. From each evaluation, we abstracted the number of children that were true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative, according to the results of the screening questionnaire and the follow-up blood lead test. From these data, we calculated specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for each evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria: these included 28 separate questionnaire evaluations. Among 17 evaluations of the 1991 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention questionnaire, sensitivity ranged from 0.25 to 0.87, specificity from 0.31 to 0.80, and accuracy (sum of sensitivity and specificity) from 0.74 to 1.39. The pooled mean estimates for this questionnaire were sensitivity 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.68); specificity 0.52 (0.45-0.60); accuracy 1.12 (1.06-1.18). Among 11 evaluations of all other questionnaires, sensitivity ranged from 0.43 to 0.90, specificity from 0.17 to 0.66, and accuracy from 0.94 to 1.27. For these questionnaires, the pooled mean estimates were sensitivity 0.76 (0.68-0.85), specificity 0.41 (0.33-0.49), and accuracy 1.12 (1.06-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Lead screening questionnaires showed a wide range of sensitivity and specificity and performed little better than chance at predicting lead poisoning risk among children.
The aim of this paper was to validate a French version of the Chronotype Questionnaire (Ogi?ska, 2011, Pers. Individ. Dif. 50:1039-1043), which represents an interesting novelty in the psychometric assessment of chronotype, because it comprises not only an assessment of the morningness-eveningness (ME) dimension, but also a distinctness (DI) dimension (i.e., amplitude), which represents the range of diurnal variation. In study 1, we aimed to confirm the structure of the Chronotype Questionnaire, with two different samples, young adults (n = 338, mean ± SD = 18.70 ± 1.12 yrs, 244 men and 94 women) and old adults (n = 477, mean ± SD = 55.92 ± 11.9 yrs, 168 men and 310 women). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated a poor fit in both samples as well as in the whole sample, which could be due to some inconsistencies in the original instrument, above all in the distinctness dimension. We therefore decided to revise the Chronotype Questionnaire, keeping the ME dimension, but refining the DI dimension. In study 2, with a new sample of 197 participants (mean ± SD = 22.71 ± 2.23 yrs, 105 men and 92 women), we examined the factor structure of the revised scale containing 18 items. The resulting questionnaire contained 16 items (i.e., 8 items on each scale), with item factor loadings higher than .45. In study 3, we aimed to confirm the factor structure of the instrument developed in study 2 as well as to examine its convergent validity, with a new sample of 158 participants (mean ± SD = 55.92 ± 11.9 yrs, 97 men and 61 women). Results of the CFA showed that a good fit of the model could be obtained with 16 items in the questionnaire. The new questionnaire derived from the original Chronotype Questionnaire was from now on called the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ). Convergence validity was obtained with the Horne and Östberg questionnaire and the ME scale of the CCQ, showing a negative significant relationship (r = -.82). The CCQ showed promising psychometric qualities, and further research should aim to combine it with physiological variables. PMID:23510464
Dosseville, Fabrice; Laborde, Sylvain; Lericollais, Romain
The aim of this paper was to validate a French version of the Chronotype Questionnaire (Ogi?ska, 2011, Pers. Individ. Dif. 50:1039-1043), which represents an interesting novelty in the psychometric assessment of chronotype, because it comprises not only an assessment of the morningness-eveningness (ME) dimension, but also a distinctness (DI) dimension (i.e., amplitude), which represents the range of diurnal variation. In study 1, we aimed to confirm the structure of the Chronotype Questionnaire, with two different samples, young adults (n = 338, mean ± SD = 18.70 ± 1.12 yrs, 244 men and 94 women) and old adults (n = 477, mean ± SD = 55.92 ± 11.9 yrs, 168 men and 310 women). The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated a poor fit in both samples as well as in the whole sample, which could be due to some inconsistencies in the original instrument, above all in the distinctness dimension. We therefore decided to revise the Chronotype Questionnaire, keeping the ME dimension, but refining the DI dimension. In study 2, with a new sample of 197 participants (mean ± SD = 22.71 ± 2.23 yrs, 105 men and 92 women), we examined the factor structure of the revised scale containing 18 items. The resulting questionnaire contained 16 items (i.e., 8 items on each scale), with item factor loadings higher than .45. In study 3, we aimed to confirm the factor structure of the instrument developed in study 2 as well as to examine its convergent validity, with a new sample of 158 participants (mean ± SD = 55.92 ± 11.9 yrs, 97 men and 61 women). Results of the CFA showed that a good fit of the model could be obtained with 16 items in the questionnaire. The new questionnaire derived from the original Chronotype Questionnaire was from now on called the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ). Convergence validity was obtained with the Horne and Östberg questionnaire and the ME scale of the CCQ, showing a negative significant relationship (r = -.82). The CCQ showed promising psychometric qualities, and further research should aim to combine it with physiological variables.
Dosseville F; Laborde S; Lericollais R
The present paper re-examines the usefulness of questionnaires in dictionary use research, using Glynn Hatherall's well-known criticism of questionnaires as a starting point. It is argued here that charges directed at questionnaires apply equally easily to the alternatives suggested by Hatherall. It...
Personality structure, as measured by the Preschool Personality Questionnaire, was studied in preschool children. Two studies are reported which discuss factor analysis, including the ability factors of the PSPQ. (ST)
Cattell, Raymond B.; Dreger, Ralph M.
The "Decision-Making Questionnaire" (DMQ) was developed and validated in order to examine the factors that affect decision making. The investigation was carried out with two samples, one of 170 participants and the other of 425 of both sexes. Each sample was divided into three age ranges: young students (18-25 years), adults (26-60 years), and…
Lizarraga, Maria Luisa Sanz De Acedo; Baquedano, Maria Teresa Sanz De Acedo; Oliver, Maria Soria; Closas, Antonio
BACKGROUND: A considerable amount of Mexican women will be in menopausal status, though it won't be possible to carry out densitometry to all of them. Developing a risk-factor--based instrument to screen those who would need it is advisable. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the sensitivity and specificity of the Albrand questionnaire, which could be used to identify risk factors for osteoporosis. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sampling technique was used to include 906 menopausal women. All women answered a modified and previously validated version of Albrand questionnaire; Cronbach's alpha was 0.83. Eight risk factors for osteoporosis were analyzed; each risk factor had a different weight and the total score per patient was calculated. All underwent lower arm densitometry. RESULTS: Peripheral densitometry revealed that 166 patients had osteoporosis and 740 did not. The global prevalence of osteoporosis was 18.3%; the cut-off value was set in > or =4 points. The Albrand questionnaire had 55% sensitivity and 79% specificity; the positive predictive value was 39% and the negative predictive value was 90%. CONCLUSION: Albrand questionnaire has acceptable sensitivity and specificity and it could be useful for screening menopausal women who would need densitometry tests. Applying the instrument would reduce costs of osteoporosis detection.
Mendoza-Romo MA; Ramírez-Arriola MC
Using 2 different samples of smokers, the authors developed and cross-validated a Spanish, brief version of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU; S. T. Tiffany & D. J. Drobes, 1991). The smokers in Study 1 (N = 245) and Study 2 (N = 225) were from the province of Alicante, Spain. In both samples, a 2-factor model provided an excellent fit for a…
Cepeda-Benito, Antonio; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio
Full Text Available Bias in questionnaires is an important issue in public health research. To collect the most accurate data from respondents, investigators must understand and be able to prevent or at least minimize bias in the design of their questionnaires. This paper identifies and categorizes 48 types of bias in questionnaires based on a review of the literature and offers an example of each type. The types are categorized according to three main sources of bias: the way a question is designed, the way the questionnaire as a whole is designed, and how the questionnaire is administered. This paper is intended to help investigators in public health understand the mechanism and dynamics of problems in questionnaire design and to provide a checklist for identifying potential bias in a questionnaire before it is administered.
Bernard C.K. Choi, PhD; Anita W.P. Pak, PhD
An educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge in asthma allows the children and/or its parents to acquire abilities that allow to prevent and/or to handle the asthmatic attacks, decreasing the morbidity produced by the disease, nevertheless we do not account with a validated instrument that allows us to quantify the level of asthma knowledge. The objective is to develop and to validate a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma to be filled out by the parents and/or people in charge of the care of the asthmatic pediatric patients. The 17 items that conform the questionnaire were obtained alter literature review, realization of focal groups the professional experience of the investigators and the realization of pilot studies. The face content and concurrent validity of the instrument was evaluated; we also determined the factor structure, test-retest reproducibility, and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire. We included 120 patients with average age of 4.5 %3.7 years the factor analysis demonstrated a probable structure of three factors that altogether explain 85% of the total variance of the results the face and content validity was based on the concept of a multi-disciplinary group of experts in the field the concurrent validity was demonstrated by the ability of the questionnaire to distinguish low from high knowledge parents. Test-retest reproducibility and sensitivity to change were demonstrated comparing scores of the questionnaire filled out in two different occasions. The questionnaire of knowledge of asthma developed in the study is a useful and reliable tool to quantify the basal level of asthma knowledge in parents of asthmatic children and to determine the effectiveness of an educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge and understanding of the disease.
PREVALENCIA DE LOS ENFOQUES DE APRENDIZAJE EN ESTUDIANTES DE FISIOLOGÍA MÉDICA: CUESTIONARIO DE PROCESO DE ESTUDIO REVISADO DE DOS FACTORES (R-SPQ-2F)/ PREVALENCE OF LEARNING APPROACHES IN MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY STUDENTS: REVISED STUDY PROCESS QUESTIONNAIRE IN TWO-FACTORS (R-SPQ-2F)
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la metodología de aprendizaje basada en proyectos de investigación dirigida, sobre la prevalencia de los enfoques de aprendizaje. Metodología: se administró el cuestionario R-SPQ-2F (Cuestionario de proceso de estudio revisado de dos factores), a una población de 98 estudiantes del curso de fisiología médica de la Universidad de Boyacá, a final de semestre, tras la implementación de proyectos de investigación dirigidos durante el p (more) eriodo académico. Se determinaron los enfoques, motivos y estrategias de aprendizaje para cada estudiante y se correlacionó la información con las notas en escala numérica al finalizar el curso. Resultados: la mayoría de estudiantes mostraron un enfoque profundo (86.6 %), predominantemente, en intensidad baja (54 %). Se halló una correlación entre el enfoque y la calificación numérica al final del curso. Conclusiones: la implementación de proyectos de investigación dirigidos fue útil para generar un enfoque profundo de aprendizaje en los estudiantes y viéndose reflejado en su rendimiento en escala numérica al final del curso. Sin embargo, la intensidad del enfoque es aún baja y requiere más trabajo en todo el Departamento de Ciencias Básicas a nivel de desarrollo curricular. Abstract in english Objective: to evaluate the effect of learning methodology based on research projects, focused on the prevalence of learning approaches. Methods: the R-SPQ-2F (Revised Study Process Questionnaire in Two Factors) was administered at the end of the semester to 98 medical students enrolled in a physiology course at Universidad de Boyacá after hiving implemented supervised research projects during the academic period. Approaches, motives and learning strategies for each stude (more) nt were determined and the information was correlated with the information of grades given in a numerical scale at the end of the course. Results: most students exhibited a deep learning approach (86.6 %) predominantly in low intensity (54 %). A correlation was found between learning approach and academic performance. Conclusions: the implementation of supervised research projects was helpful in generating a deep approach to learning in this population, which was reflected on academic performance reported in numerical scale at the end of the course. However, the intensity of the approach is still low and it requires more work in the Basic Sciences Department at the curriculum development level.
Riveros Pérez, Efraín; Bernal, Martha; González, Nubia
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the psychometric properties of Novaco Anger Questionnaire (short form) in Isfahan city. In this reaserch 100 university students were selected through simple random sampling. and answered the Novaco Anger Questionnaire. To obtain the questionnaire validity, the correlation between scores of Novaco Questionnaire and Buss and Perry Questionnaire, was obtained. For reliability, test-retest method and Chronbach Alpha were used. Findings indicated that, reliability of the questionnaire by Chronbach alpha was 0.86 and by test-retest was 0.73. The correlation between Buss and Berry and Novaco scores was 0.78. Test content validity was confirmed by 5 psychologist, counselors, and sociologists and verified by factor analysis. It was concluded that Novaco Anger Questionnaire can be used for assessing anger.
M. Malekpour; S. Zangeneh; S. Aghababaei
Full Text Available Teachers and psychologists need an instrument to assess learners' language proficiency in mathematics to enable them to plan and evaluate interventions and to facilitate best practice in mathematics classrooms. We describe the development of a mathematics vocabulary questionnaire to measure learners' language proficiency in mathematics in the intermediate phase. It covers all the steps from designing the preliminary questionnaire to standardising the final instrument. A sample of 1 103 Grades 4 to 7 Afrikaans-, English- and Tswana-speaking learners in North West Province completed the Mathematics Vocabulary questionnaire (Primary) (MV(P)), consisting of 12 items. We analysed the data by calculating discrimination values, performing a factor analysis, determining reliability coefficients, and investigating item bias by language, gender, and grade. We concluded that there was strong evidence of validity and reliability for the MV(P).
Marthie van der Walt; Kobus Maree; Suria Ellis
Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) TUS-CPS Translations: TUS-CPS Translations into Other Languages Information
Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite num...
Lenstra, Arjen K.
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. METHODS: A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.
Andersson AC; Elg M; Perseius KI; Idvall E
[en] The results from this questionnaire gave a general view of the state of the radiography practices in Sweden, and the questionnaire hopefully contributed to improve the knowledge of these regulations for the licensees. The largest deficiencies were found in the documentation of the radiation protection organisation as well as documentation of quality assurance and operational statistics. The results of the questionnaire constitute a useful basis for selecting companies for future inspections by SSI. Those who has not answered the questionnaire and are working with site radiography can expect a visit in the near future
... Frequencies for Pain Reliever Questionnaire Items: Divided Attention – This product treats minor aches and pains associated with headache. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources
OBJECTIVES: To develop a questionnaire assessing the expectations of patients regarding management of osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. METHODS: A detailed document reporting on a qualitative analysis of interviews of patients with knee OA was sent to experts and a Delphi procedure was adopted for item generation. Eighty physicians (64 general practitioners, 16 rheumatologists) recruited 566 patients with knee OA to test the provisional questionnaire. Items were reduced according to their metric properties and exploratory factor analysis. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Construct validity was tested by divergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman technique. RESULTS: Sixty items were extracted from analysis of the interview data. The experts needed three Delphi rounds to obtain consensus on a 33-item provisional questionnaire. The item reduction process resulted in an 18-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis extracted three main factors: factor 1 represented expectations for education, factor 2 expectations for information on technical and human support, and factor 3 expectations for physician empathy. The Cronbach ? coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.92). Expected divergent validity was observed. Confirmation factor analyses confirmed higher intra-factor than inter-factor correlations. Test-retest reliability was good with an ICC of 0.79, and Bland-Altman analysis did not reveal a systematic trend. CONCLUSIONS: A new 18-item questionnaire assessing patient expectations of management of knee OA by their physicians is proposed. The questionnaire has good content and construct validity.
Benhamou M; Boutron I; Dalichampt M; Baron G; Alami S; Rannou F; Ravaud P; Poiraudeau S
BACKGROUND: Patient safety has been a priority in primary healthcare in the last years. The prevailing culture is seen as an important condition for patient safety in practice and several tools to measure patient safety culture have therefore been developed. Although Dutch primary care consists of different professions, such as general practice, dental care, dietetics, physiotherapy and midwifery, a safety culture questionnaire was only available for general practices. The purpose of this study was to modify and validate this existing questionnaire to a generic questionnaire for all professions in Dutch primary care. METHODS: A validated Dutch questionnaire for general practices was modified to make it usable for all Dutch primary care professions. Subsequently, this questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2400 practices from eleven primary care professions. The instrument's factor structure, reliability and validity were examined using confirmatory and explorative factor analyses. RESULTS: 921 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 615 were eligible for factor analysis. The resulting SCOPE-PC questionnaire consisted of seven dimensions: 'open communication and learning from errors', 'handover and teamwork', 'adequate procedures and working conditions', 'patient safety management', 'support and fellowship', 'intention to report events' and 'organisational learning' with a total of 41 items. All dimensions had good reliability with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70 -- 0.90, and the questionnaire had a good construct validity. CONCLUSIONS: The SCOPE-PC questionnaire has sound psychometric characteristics for use by the different professions in Dutch primary care to gain insight in their safety culture.
Verbakel NJ; Zwart DL; Langelaan M; Verheij TJ; Wagner C
BACKGROUND: To develop a Korean version of the Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ) in order to evaluate physician attitudes toward integrative medicine/complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). METHODS: We developed a Korean IMAQ through careful translation of the 28-item questionnaire developed by Schmidt et al. A web-based survey was sent via email to 118 primary care physicians in Korea. The complete respose rate wasa 52.5%. The questionnaire's reliability and validity were verified using Cronbach's ?, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Although the Korean IMAQ exhibited excellent internal consistency, its validity was insufficient. Our results suggest that Western and Korean physicians may have different understandings of CAM and the concept of holism, as factor analysis showed that incorrectly classified items were mainly part of the holism conceptual domain. Furthermore, the sum of the items within the holism conceptual domain was not significantly different for physicians who had previously received CAM education. CONCLUSION: This study developed and tested the first Korean IMAQ. We found that this version of the questionnaire lacks sufficient validity and requires further modification.
Kim JH; Lee JB; Lee DC
BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy beliefs are an important determinant of (changes in) health behaviors. In the area of smoking cessation, there is a need for a short, feasible, and validated questionnaire measuring self-efficacy beliefs regarding smoking cessation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a six-item questionnaire to assess smoking cessation self-efficacy. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from a smoking cessation study. A total of 513 smokers completed the Smoking Abstinence Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SASEQ) and questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and motivation to quit smoking. After that, they set a quit date and attempted to stop smoking. One year after the quit date, smoking status of participants was assessed by self report. The psychometric properties of the SASEQ were studied and we investigated whether SASEQ scores predicted successful smoking cessation. RESULTS: Factor analysis yielded one factor, with an Eigenvalue of 3.83, explaining 64% of variance. All factor loadings were ?0.73. We found a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89 for the SASEQ, low correlations for the SASEQ with depressive symptoms, and motivation to quit, indicating that self-efficacy is measured independently of these concepts. Furthermore, high baseline SASEQ scores significantly predicted smoking abstinence at 52 weeks after the quit date (OR?=?1.85; 95% CI?=?1.20~2.84). CONCLUSIONS: The SASEQ appeared to be a short, reliable, and valid questionnaire to assess self-efficacy beliefs regarding smoking abstinence. In the present study, this instrument also had good predictive validity. The short SASEQ can easily be used in busy clinical practice to guide smoking cessation interventions.
Spek V; Lemmens F; Chatrou M; van Kempen S; Pouwer F; Pop V
Full Text Available Aim. The present study aimed at the adaptation and validation of two questionnaires assessing fear of bodily sensations (BSQ; suggested Polish name: Kwestionariusz Dozna? Cielesnych [KDC]) and concerns specific to agoraphobics (ACQ; suggested Polish name: Kwestionariusz My?li Towarzysz?cych Agorafobii [KMTA]).Method. The study included a total of 82 patients diagnosed with agoraphobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV as well as 100 control subjects who did not show the presence of mental disorders.Results. The results showed that both adapted questionnaires meet basic psychometric criteria. The Polish-language versions of the ACQ and BSQ are characterized by a high content validity, internal consistency and showed to be stable over a period of 28 days. Moreover, the factor structure of the Polish version of the ACQ showed to be highly similar to the original version.Conclusions Polish-language versions of the ACQ and BSQ have been found to be reliable and valid research and diagnostic instruments for the assessment of fear for bodily sensations and agoraphobic cognitions. Due to their high efficiency and adequate psychometric characteristics these measures might be very useful in research as well as in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects.
Micha?owski, Jaros?aw M.; Holas, Pawe?
This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…
The purpose of this study was to discover what patterns of attitudes are associated with cadet perception of the frequency and usefulness of questionnaire surveys of cadet opinion. The responses of 150 cadets to the 1971 First Class Questionnaire were sca...
R. F. Priest
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: The aim of this study was to measure the reliability and validity of the Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire. This ques-tionnaire includes 29 questions which was used by psychologists after being translated to Farsi.Method: In a cross-sectional study 492 18-22 years old students (248 male, 244 female) from Shiraz University, who were selected using the random-cluster sampling method, were evaluated using the Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient, factor analysis and t-test.Results: Using factor analysis, the four factors of anger, physical and verbal aggression, resentment and suspicion were extracted. The test-retest reliability of this questionnaire was 0.78. Also, the comparison of these factors between males and females revealed that males scored significantly higher at anger (p<0.001), aggression (p<0.001) and suspicion (p<0.01). In addition, the high correlation of the factors with the total score of the questionnaire, the weak correlation of factors with each other and alpha coefficient scores is an indication of the adequacy and the practicality of this questionnaire for being used by researchers, professionals and psychologists in Iran. Conclusion: Buss and Perry’s Aggression Questionnaire has appropriate validity and reliability for being used by researchers and professionals.
The present study was conducted to construct and validate a questionnaire of social and cultural capital in the foreign language context of Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed by picking up the most frequently-used indicators of social and cultural capital. The Factorability of ...
Reza Pishghadam; Mohsen Noghani; Reza Zabihi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949) 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient ?, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, ?G, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of ?G are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (?) and discrimination (?G) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (? > 0.88). However, ?G was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (?G = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient ?G was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's ? has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the more general formula introduced here is reported as ?G, to avoid the implication that items are dichotomously coded.
BACKGROUND: Structured questionnaires are valuable instruments to measure the impact of specific diseases in patient's quality of life through a score and they are available such abroad as in Brazil. Nevertheless, questionnaires based on gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms are not available in Portuguese. AIM: To develop and validate in Portuguese a specific questionnaire for gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Velanovich's original questionnaire was translated, one question about "regurgitation" symptom was included and the vocabulary was adjusted to be understood to the scholarity level of the analyzed population. The "face validity" to each question was evaluated by the members of a multidisciplinary panel and a symptom's questionnaire for gastroesophageal reflux disease was developed. The questionnaire was applied to patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms confirmed by prolonged pH esophageal monitoring. The reproducibility, the comprehension, the time spent to fill out the questionnaire and the correlation coefficient to Johnson-DeMeester's score were measured. RESULTS: The "face validity" was considered satisfactory by the panel and the questionnaire was applied to 124 patients, consecutively. The comprehension of the questionnaire and the time less than 5 minutes to fill out them were observed in all patients (100%). Reproducibility for 10 patients in two different occasions showed a high intra-class correlation coefficient of 0,833. The correlation to the Johnson-DeMeester's score was null. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the symptom's questionnaire for gastroesophageal reflux disease has "face validity", excellent reproducibility, easy comprehension and was quickly answered by patients. The correlation with Johnson-DeMeester's score was null.
Fornari F; Gruber AC; Lopes Ade B; Cecchetti D; de Barros SG
Full Text Available In today’s era computer is the basic need of everyone. From an individual to business organizations, Industries, colleges and universities, everyone use computer for their basic purpose. Software is a main part of a computer system. Today’s most of the person use proprietary and pirated software. These software are not the best options towards convenience of a user. Because proprietary software is costly, that is not afforded by every user and pirated software is illegal to use. The alternative to these software is open source software. Open source software is not widely used because of its less awareness among common man. This research paper analyzes the factors related to open source software that to aware and to check the awareness of open source software. The research paper includes a survey questionnaire that takes all the factors into count and before starting actual survey a pilot study for this questionnaire was done to confirm its acceptance.
Dr. Pardeep Mittal#1, Jatinderpal Singh
Full Text Available This study investigated consistency among Turkish students’ responses to TIMSS 2007 questionnaire items on frequency of certain activities in mathematics classrooms. In Turkey, 4476 students from 143 schools participated in the study. Analyses have revealed the existence of inconsistencies in student responses as indicated by high proportion of within-class variance components. That is, students in same class specified fluctuating frequencies to certain classroom activities, showing that some factors had an affect on perception of individuals. Further analyses showed that students at different levels of mathematics achievement reported differently on frequency of classroom activities, and precise items were answered more consistently compared to items containing vague terms. Using factor scores instead of individual item responses contributed consistency of responses within classes but only to a small extent. Based on the findings, this study also provided implications for questionnaire design.
Hüseyin H Y?ld?r?m; Selda Y?ld?r?m
This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.
This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a behavioral assessment of eating that would be predictive of fat intake in African American women. DESIGN: Questionnaires were developed using a three-stage design, involving item generation, item refinement, and questionnaire validation. SUBJECTS: Focus groups sessions were conducted with 40 African American women, initial questionnaire development employed 80 African American women, and questionnaire validation involved 310 African American women from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Statistical analyses Transcripts of focus groups were used to generate 113 behavioral questionnaire items. The initial questionnaire was administered along with a food frequency questionnaire, and the item pool was reduced to 51 items. Factor analysis was used to create subscales. Correlation (r) and multiple regression analysis (R) were used to evaluate construct validity. RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed six subscales: low-fat eating, emotional eating, snacking on sweets, cultural/ethnic, haphazard planning, and meal skipping. The scales are significant predictors of micronutrient (R values from 0.22 to 0.47) and macronutrient intakes (R values from 0.33 to 0.58) assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and show construct validity in relationship to other measures of eating behavior (r values from 0.22 to 0.65). APPLICATIONS: The Eating Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (EBPQ) may be a useful tool for clinical assessment, clinical and community nutrition intervention studies, and epidemiologic research with African American women.
Schlundt DG; Hargreaves MK; Buchowski MS
Using an index of aerobic conditioning 27 adult female joggers and 25 nonexercisers were identified. During individual interviews with each subject basic demographic data were obtained and blood pressure, vital capacity, resting pulse rate, and body fat were meaSured. All subjects completed Form A of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Statistically significant differences occurred on two primary factors, and one secondary dimension of the 16PF. The probability of three marginally significant differences out of 24 comparisons is well within the range of expected chance fluctuation. Thus, the study provided no evidence that personality characteristics are predisposing factors in the adoption of an aerobic jogging program by young adult females. The only statistically significant training effect was lower pulse rate; blood pressure, vital Capacity, and body fat were similar for the two groups. Finally, the results of this study of females were compared to those of a previous investigation of male joggers.
Bolton B; Renfrow NE
Full Text Available The widespread acceptance of the Big Five model implies that personality consists of relatively independent dimensions that form a taxonomy whereby individual differences may be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the subscales of an established personality inventory that measures narrow traits of personality, the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), could be reduced meaningfully to fit a broad factor model within a South African context. The OPQ 5.2 concept model was administered to 453 job applicants in the telecommunications sector. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor structure that included five factors corresponding to the Big Five model of personality. The sixth factor, labeled Interpersonal Relationship Harmony, resembled the description of the Chinese tradition factor, extracted in a non-Western society. Opsomming Die wye aanvaarding van die Groot-Vyfmodel impliseer dat persoonlikheid uit relatief onafhanklike dimensies bestaan wat ’n taksonomie vorm waarmee individuele verskille verklaar kan word. Die doel van die ondersoek was om vas te stel of die subskale van ’n gevestigde persoonlikheidsvraelys wat gedetailleerde persoonlikheidstrekke meet, die Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ), op sinvolle wyse gereduseer kon word tot ’n breë faktormodel in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Die OPQ 5.2 konsepmodel is toegepas op 453 werkapplikante in die telekommunikasiesektor. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het ’n sesfaktorstruktuur gelewer, insluitende vyf faktore wat met die Groot Vyf persoonlikheidsmodel ooreenstem. Die sesde faktor wat as Interpersoonlike Verhoudingsharmonie benoem is, toon ooreenstemming met die Chinese tradisiefaktor wat in ’n nie-Westerse samelewing onttrek is.
Deléne Visser; J. M. Du Toit
Full Text Available This article reports on the development and administration of the Academic Listening Self-rating Questionnaire (ALSA). The ALSA was developed on the basis of a proposed model of academic listening comprising six related components. The researchers operationalized the model, subjected items to iterative rounds of content analysis, and administered the finalized questionnaire to international ESL (English as a second language) students in Malaysian and Australian universities. Structural equation modeling and rating scale modeling of data provided content-related, substantive, and structural validity evidence for the instrument. The researchers explain the utility of the questionnaire for educational and assessment purposes.
Vahid Aryadoust; Christine C. M. Goh; Lee Ong Kim
Full Text Available In the study metric characteristics of children aberrant behavior questionnaire were analyzed. The analysis was performed on the sample of 1.165 children, aged 4-7, in preschool institutions in several towns of Vojvodina. The questionnaire contained 36 items of the Likert-type scale and was filled in by one parent of each child. The authors examined main metric characteristics of the complete questionnaire, as well as individual items under the Rasche’s measurement model. Generally, parents seldom notice aberrant behavior in their children. Most frequently they notice stubbornness, while very rarely torturing of animals. The item discrimination, on the whole, was found satisfying. The reliability of the questionnaire is 0.84., and all indicators of misfit are within satisfactory ranges. According to differential functioning of the items, the authors found gender and age specificities of parents’ evaluation of aberrant behavior of their children. Parents often notice stubbornness and moldiness in girls, and aggression in boys. According to the parent’s observations, younger children are characterized by nail nibbling, ticklishness, and fearfulness, whereas older children show a tendency to force their way by crying, waywardness and bed-wetting. By means of factor analysis of the items, three principal facets of aberrant behavior were determined: overindulgence, shyness and quarrelsomeness. Cross validation (hold out) showed that these three facets were robust in relation to the selection of the sample.
Fajgelj Stanislav; Bala Gustav
There is a considerable discrepancy between the number of identified occupational-related bladder cancer cases and the estimated numbers particularly in emerging nations or less developed countries where suitable approaches are less or even not known. Thus, within a project of the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, a questionnaire of the Dortmund group, applied in different studies, was translated into more than 30 languages (Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Korean, Latvian, Malay, Persian (Farsi), Polish, Portuguese, Portuguese/Brazilian, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Spanish/Mexican, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese). The bipartite questionnaire asks for relevant medical information in the physician's part and for the occupational history since leaving school in the patient's part. Furthermore, this questionnaire is asking for intensity and frequency of certain occupational and non-occupational risk factors. The literature regarding occupations like painter, hairdresser or miner and exposures like carcinogenic aromatic amines, azo dyes, or combustion products is highlighted. The questionnaire is available on www.ifado.de/BladderCancerDoc. PMID:22652680
Golka, Klaus; Abreu-Villaca, Yael; Anbari Attar, Rowshanak; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Aslam, Muhammad; Basaran, Nursen; Belik, Rouslana; Butryee, Chaniphun; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Dzhusupov, Keneshbek; Ecke, Thorsten H; Galambos, Henrieta; Galambos, Henrieta; Gerilovica, Helena; Gerullis, Holger; Gonzalez, Patricia Casares; Goossens, Maria E; Gorgishvili-Hermes, Lela; Heyns, Chris F; Hodzic, Jasmin; Ikoma, Fumihiko; Jichlinski, Patrice; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Martinova, Irina; Mittal, Rama Devi; Ravichandran, Beerappa; Romics, Imre; Roy, Bidyut; Rungkat-Zakaria, Fransiska; Rydzynski, Konrad; Scutaru, Cristian; Shen, Jianhua; Soufi, Maria; Toguzbaeva, Karlygash; Vu Duc, Trinh; Widera, Agata; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hengstler, Jan G
Validação de inquérito de risco referido para vigilância em saúde de fatores de risco de doença arterial coronariana em servidores públicos estaduais de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil/ Validation of a health survey questionnaire focusing on risk factors for coronary artery disease in a group of public employees in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi investigada a validade da Ficha de Saúde, inquérito de risco referido (INQ-RR) do Programa IPSEMG-Família, na identificação de pessoas em risco de desenvolver doença arterial coronariana (DAC) numa amostra aleatória, estratificada por sexo, de 297 segurados com idade igual e superior a 40 anos, de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos em entrevistas realizadas pelas equipes de saúde da família foram comparados com dados de exames clínico- (more) laboratoriais. Foram avaliados a sensibilidade, a especificidade e os valores preditivos positivos e negativos das questões sobre história atual ou prévia de diabetes mellitus, hipertensão arterial, colesterol elevado e tabagismo. Dentre os participantes que apresentavam pelo menos um exame clínico-laboratorial alterado, 81,0% (sensibilidade total) foram identificados pelo inquérito de risco referido ao declarar ter pelo menos um fator de risco. Os padrões de Sheffield e da Nova Zelândia foram utilizados para determinar os segurados com risco elevado de adquirir doença coronariana e avaliar se estes seriam também identificados pela Ficha de Saúde. A sensibilidade para identificar esse subgrupo de pacientes foi de 100,0%. Abstract in english The validity of a health survey questionnaire used in a family health promotion program to identify individuals at risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) was studied in a random sample of 297 State public employees in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample was stratified by sex, and subjects were 40 years of age or older. Results obtained in interviews were compared to laboratory and clinical data. We assessed the questionnaire's sensitivity, speci (more) ficity, and positive and negative predictive values in relation to questions about current or previous history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and high cholesterol. Among individuals with at least one altered clinical or laboratory test, 81% (total sensitivity) were identified by the referred risk inquiry when reporting at least one risk factor. Sheffield and New Zealand tables were used to determine the individuals with increased risk of developing CAD and to assess if they would also be identified by the health survey questionnaire. The sensitivity for identifying this subgroup was 100%.
Bittencourt, Roberto José; Chaves, Sandro Rodrigues; Amado, Roberto Campos; Mendonça, Valda Franqueira; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo
... Frequencies for Pain Reliever Questionnaire Items: Divided Attention – If stomach pain occurs while taking this product, you can continue to use ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources
Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL et al. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
This memorandum provides a brief guide to the construction and usage of simple questionnaires to collect opinions on various topics. Although it is devoted primarily to user trials of aircrew equipment, many of the principles discussed are common to other...
M. F. Allnutt C. B. Bolton
This study aims to develop an assessment tool to evaluate multilingual questionnaires by categorizing the types of translation issues that can lead to measurement errors in crosscultural surveys. Based on the results of two multilingual projects that cogn...
M. Fond Y. Pan
To assist States and local agencies, The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed programs to address the status of the air toxics problem in their localities. The document provides example questionnaires used by several State and local agencie...
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items concerning walking and biking from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires (PAQs). The purpose of this database is to provide easy access to a large number of items assessing duration and frequency of walking and bicycling in the non-disabled adult population. We also briefly review the results of validation studies identified for some of the PAQs.
El Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio en el estudio de la Estructura y Estabilidad de los Instrumentos de Evaluación: Un ejemplo con el Cuestionario de Autoestima CA-14/ Confirmatory Factor Analysis in the study of the Structure and Stability of Assessment Instruments: An example with the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (CA-14)
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este trabajo presenta un estudio de la estructura factorial y la estabilidad del Cuestionario de Autoestima CA-14 utilizando la técnica del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio. El trabajo pretende ilustrar y guiar en las posibilidades que ofrece esta técnica, prestando especial atención a los requisitos que deben cumplir los datos, los métodos de estimación sugeridos en la literatura científica, los índices de ajuste más adecuados para evaluar los modelos y otras ci (more) rcunstancias que se deben tener en cuenta a la hora de estimar modelos de Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio. En el trabajo se presentan además diversas estrategias metodológicas en la implementación de esta técnica: correlación de errores residuales, imposición de constricciones o equivalencias en los parámetros de un modelos, modelos multigrupo, etc. Abstract in english This research presents a study of the factor structure and temporal stability of the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (CA-14) using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) techniques. The paper pretends to offer a potential guide to researchers, paying special attention to data requirements, estimation methods suggested in the literature, recommended fit indices and other circumstances that need to be taken into account when estimating CFA models. Also, various methodological strateg (more) ies are shown during the implementation of CFA models: correlated errors, use of parameter constraints, multigroup analysis, etc
Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo validar a versão brasileira do Questionnaire of Smoking Urges(QSU). Teve delineamento experimental, sendo que seus participantes foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em grupos de zero, 30 e 60 minutos de abstinência do tabaco. A amostra teve 201 sujeitos dos sexos masculino (n = 67) e feminino (n = 134), que tinham entre 18 e 65 anos de idade (M = 38,15). Os instrumentos utilizados, além do QSU, foram ficha com dados sócio-demográficos, escala analógico-visual para avaliar o craving, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependencee os inventários Beck de ansiedade e de depressão. Observou-se que o total da variância da análise fatorial com dois fatores foi de 57,76 %, havendo alta correlação entre ambos (r = 0,726; p = 0,000). O Fator 1 representou antecipação do alívio do afeto negativo, dos sintomas da abstinência da nicotina e desejo urgente e arrebatador de fumar, e o Fator 2 refletiu o desejo de fumar e antecipação do prazer de fumar, resultados inversos aos da versão original. A versão brasileira do QSU demonstrou ser um instrumento adequado e confiável, podendo ser utilizado tanto na pesquisa quanto na clínica.This study was designed to validate the Brazilian version of the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges(QSU). The design was experimental, and participants were randomly distributed in groups of zero, 30, and 60 minutes of tobacco abstinence. The total sample was 201, with 67 males and 134 females, age ranging from 18 to 65 (M = 38.15). The instruments applied, besides QSU, were the Social and Demographic Data Form, Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate craving, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories. Total variation in the two-factor factorial analysis was 57.76%, with a high inter-correlation (r = 0.726; p = 0.000). Factor 1 represented the anticipated relief of negative affect, nicotine abstinence symptoms, and urgent and overwhelming desire to smoke. Factor 2 represented the desire to smoke and the anticipation of smoking pleasure. Such results are contrary to those found in the original QSU. The Brazilian version proved to be an adequate and reliable instrument that can be used in both research and patient treatment.
Renata Brasil Araujo; Margareth da Silva Oliveira; Maria Augusta Mansur
BACKGROUND: To determine correlations between personality factors and clinical skills of second-year medical school students. METHOD: Participants were 206 medical students who had completed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the Clinical Skills Assessment II (CSA II). RESULTS: of the 16PF and CSA II were analyzed using Pearson R. Results Overall CSA II score correlated positively with Warmth and negatively with Abstractedness and Privateness. Communication skills correlated positively with Warmth, Emotional Stability, and Perfectionism and negatively with Privateness. Data gathering correlated positively with Warmth and negatively with Abstractedness. Physical exam and Case presentation subtests had no correlates. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that a relationship may exist between personality and clinical skills.
Manuel RS; Borges NJ; Gerzina HA
Using an index of aerobic conditioning 23 adult male exercisers and 23 nonexercisers were identified. During individual interviews with each subject basic demographic data were obtained and blood pressure, resting pulse rate, and body fat were measured. All subjects completed Form A of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Statistically significant differences occurred on six primary factors and four Secondary dimensions of the 16PF. In comparison to the inactive subjects the exercisers, all of whom were joggers or runners, were more reserved, expedient, suspicious, forthright, liberal, and self-sufficient on the primary traits, and were more alert and independent, less discreet, and evidenced lower super-ego strength on the broader secondary patterns. The statistically significant training effects were lower pulse rate and less body fat, but did not include blood pressure.
Renfrow NE; Bolton B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.
Andersson Ann-Christine; Elg Mattias; Perseius Kent-Inge; Idvall Ewa
Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to confirm the validity and internal reliability of Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire (PFSQ) which was a parent-report measure and was designed to assess variations in parent’s feeding styles.Material and Method: For this cross sectional study, PFSQ was translated to Turkish and conducted among parents of both preschool students and patients who applied to the pediatric outpatient clinic. 468 of 650 responded questionnaires were examined for factor structure. The data were analyzed by PASW ver.18 and SPSS program.Results: The questionnaire was conducted among parents of 243 boys and 225 girls, the mean age was 5.84±1.28 Reliability coefficients (Cronbach Alphas) of subscales ranged from 0.54 to 0.83 Factor structure, internal reliability and subscale correlations were similar to original PFSQ.Conclusions: Evidence for associations between parental feeding style and subsequent weight trajectory of children needs to be established through longitudinal follow-up studies.Given the dramatic increase in obesity that has been observed in recent years, and particularly the increase in childhood obesity, investment in research in the development of obesity in childhood should be given a high priority. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 124-31)
Mustafa Özçetin; Resul Y?lmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Haluk Esmeray
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a questionnaire assessing fears and beliefs of patients with knee OA. DESIGN: We sent a detailed document reporting on a qualitative analysis of interviews of patients with knee OA to experts, and a Delphi procedure was adopted for item generation. Then, 80 physicians recruited 566 patients with knee OA to test the provisional questionnaire. Items were reduced according to their metric properties and exploratory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Construct validity was tested by divergent validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland and Altman technique. RESULTS: 137 items were extracted from analysis of the interview data. Three Delphi rounds were needed to obtain consensus on a 25-item provisional questionnaire. The item-reduction process resulted in an 11-item questionnaire. Selected items represented fears and beliefs about daily living activities (3 items), fears and beliefs about physicians (4 items), fears and beliefs about the disease (2 items), and fears and beliefs about sports and leisure activities (2 items). The Cronbach ? coefficient of global score was 0.85. We observed expected divergent validity. Confirmation factor analyses confirmed higher intra-factor than inter-factor correlations. Test-retest reliability was good, with an ICC of 0.81, and Bland and Altman analysis did not reveal a systematic trend. CONCLUSIONS: We propose an 11-item questionnaire assessing patients' fears and beliefs concerning knee OA with good content and construct validity.
Benhamou M; Baron G; Dalichampt M; Boutron I; Alami S; Rannou F; Ravaud P; Poiraudeau S
Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????Parker & Asher (1993)????????????????????????????????????????????SPSS15.0????????????MULTILOG 7.03??????????????????????????????????????????????1) ?????????????????????????????2) ???????a????b???????????3) ???????????????4) ?????????????????5) ???????????????????????26??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????0.875???????44.380%?????????????????????????????????The item discrimination, difficulty and information function peak of the item response theory are used to revise the friendship quality questionnaire produced by Parker & Asher (1993), the purpose is that this questionnaire revised is more accurate to survey the status of friendship quality of chinese youth. SPSS15.0 software is used to manage data, using MULTILOG 7.03 software to analysis parameter. Structural equation, facet theory and the minimum space method are used to confirm the questionnaire revision. Results are as follows: 1) The friendship quality questionnaire is one-dimensional which can be revised by item response theory. 2) The item discrimination a, difficulty b of new questionnaire are with reasonable scopes. 3) The test information function peak of the new questionnaire is smaller. 4) The factors of old and the new questionnaire have significantly high positive correlation. 5) The results confirmed are that: The structure of four factors with 26 items is clear. Four factors are: affirmation and care, help and guidance, revealed intimately and exchange and conflict solution and accompany. Compared with the original questionnaire, the new one has not conflict and betrayal factor. The questionnaire revised has higher reliability and validity, consistency reliability is 0.875 and variance explained is 44.380%. After measuring officially, the questionnaire revised can survey the status of friendship quality of Chinese youth effectively.
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Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale: the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ). This scale was designed to measure height fear-relevant interpretation bias to help assess the relationship between biased interpretations and acrophobia symptoms. Studies 1 (N=553) and 2 (N=308) established the scale's factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity among two large undergraduate samples. Study 3 (N=48) evaluated the predictive validity of the HIQ by examining how well the scale predicted subjective distress and avoidance on actual heights. Factor analysis resulted in four distinct factors, and results suggest that each of the factors, along with the full HIQ, have good reliability and validity. Additionally, the scale predicts subjective distress and avoidance on heights beyond self-reported acrophobia symptoms. Overall, the HIQ shows promise as a new tool to investigate cognitive processing biases in acrophobia. PMID:21641766
Steinman, Shari A; Teachman, Bethany A
Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale: the Heights Interpretation Questionnaire (HIQ). This scale was designed to measure height fear-relevant interpretation bias to help assess the relationship between biased interpretations and acrophobia symptoms. Studies 1 (N=553) and 2 (N=308) established the scale's factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity among two large undergraduate samples. Study 3 (N=48) evaluated the predictive validity of the HIQ by examining how well the scale predicted subjective distress and avoidance on actual heights. Factor analysis resulted in four distinct factors, and results suggest that each of the factors, along with the full HIQ, have good reliability and validity. Additionally, the scale predicts subjective distress and avoidance on heights beyond self-reported acrophobia symptoms. Overall, the HIQ shows promise as a new tool to investigate cognitive processing biases in acrophobia.
Steinman SA; Teachman BA
Full Text Available The paper is based on the results of a research that aimed to identify the factors influencing school inclusion among disadvantagedstudents. The main outcome of the research was the development of the SSP-School Inclusion Questionnaire, intended to: (1)measure school inclusion levels among students; (2) identify students with significantly lower levels of school inclusion, whoneed to be included in intervention programs; and (3) measure the impact of intervention programs using subjective indicators(beneficiaries’ perception of school and teachers, feelings of safety in school, school performance). The questionnaire was completedby 480 vocational school students aged 15-19 from a large developed urban area (Cluj-Napoca) in Romania. The purpose of theresearch was to test the validity and reliability of the instrument and to propose it to professionals working in education (schoolpsychologists, school counsellors etc.) for efficient data collection and for measuring the impact of educational intervention.
Full Text Available The caregivers perspective about care in comatose patients is different among different caregivers, and thus the question is how it is perceived by caregivers. Among the health staff and family members, perspective of caring is obviously different. Thus, the current study was carried out to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess of caregivers perspective in comatose patient care. For gathering the data used from the questionnaire consisted of items of Van Manens hermeneutic phenomenology, then these items combined and validated by content, face and construct validity and by split half and Cronbach a coefficient for reliability. The results showed that the four factors were labeled living with client, efforts for survival, professional conscience and responsibility and respect of human dignity. The perspective of caring of comatose patient questionnaire had 32 items and 4 dimension and showed validity and reliability, but it need to test more and more to multiplication of its' validity and reliability.
A. Mostafa Shokati; Parkhideh Hasani; Houman Manoochehri; Ebrahim Hajizadeh; Safar Ali Esmaeili Vardanjani; Yaser Moradi
This article presents an empirical measurement invariance study in the substantive area of satisfaction evaluation in training programs. Specifically, it (I) provides an empirical solution to the lack of explicit measurement models of satisfaction scales, offering a way of analyzing and operationalizing the substantive theoretical dimensions; (II) outlines and discusses the analytical consequences of considering the effects of categorizing supposedly continuous variables, which are not usually taken into account; (III) presents empirical results from a measurement invariance study based on 5,272 participants' responses to a training satisfaction questionnaire in three different organizations and in two different training methods, taking into account the factor structure of the measured construct and the ordinal nature of the recorded data; and (IV) describes the substantive implications in the area of training satisfaction evaluation, such as the usefulness of the training satisfaction questionnaire to measure satisfaction in different organizations and different training methods. It also discusses further research based on these findings.
Sanduvete-Chaves S; Holgado-Tello FP; Chacón-Moscoso S; Barbero-García MI
This article presents an empirical measurement invariance study in the substantive area of satisfaction evaluation in training programs. Specifically, it (I) provides an empirical solution to the lack of explicit measurement models of satisfaction scales, offering a way of analyzing and operationalizing the substantive theoretical dimensions; (II) outlines and discusses the analytical consequences of considering the effects of categorizing supposedly continuous variables, which are not usually taken into account; (III) presents empirical results from a measurement invariance study based on 5,272 participants' responses to a training satisfaction questionnaire in three different organizations and in two different training methods, taking into account the factor structure of the measured construct and the ordinal nature of the recorded data; and (IV) describes the substantive implications in the area of training satisfaction evaluation, such as the usefulness of the training satisfaction questionnaire to measure satisfaction in different organizations and different training methods. It also discusses further research based on these findings. PMID:23866222
Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Holgado-Tello, F Pablo; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Barbero-García, M Isabel
This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form (MPQ-SF) from the original 91-item Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; van der Zee & van Oudenhoven, 2000, 2001). In Study 2 (N = 251), the MPQ-SF was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and resulted in a reasonably good fit to the data (comparative fit index = .94; root mean squared error of approximation = .066). Satisfactory coefficient alphas and high correlations with the original scales were found. Moreover, relationships with related scales were largely in the predicted direction. Specific directions for follow-up research are posited. PMID:22966866
van der Zee, Karen; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fietzer, Alexander W
UNLABELLED: Original English questionnaires--Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index--are designed to evaluate health, physical and psychical state of patients with spondyloarthropathies and to assess efficiency of the treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to adapt Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index questionnaires to the Lithuanian context and examine their psychometric aspects: reliability and validity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Validation and linguistic and cultural adaptation of Lithuanian questionnaires were performed according to the requirements for adaptation of the international questionnaires. Psychometric features of Lithuanian questionnaires were examined in 139 patients with spondyloarthropathies. The validity of questionnaires was tested by comparing these questionnaires with Health Assessment Questionnaire Modified for Spondyloarthropathies, metrology indices (tragus-to-wall distance, lateral flexion, modified Schober's distance, intermalleolar distance), pain intensity, patient's well-being, physician's assessment of the disease activity, and total enthesis count. The reliability of questionnaires was assessed by determining internal consistency of scales and scale stability and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The linguistic and cultural adaptation of these questionnaires was made during the study. Internal consistency was high for functional and disease activity index (Cronbach alpha>/=0.80) and moderate for the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score (Cronbach alpha=0.58). High stability in regard to time was characteristic of all three questionnaires (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.95). A significant association between the separate questions of examined instruments, their joint results and other factors reflecting patient's health was established. CONCLUSIONS: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index questionnaires in Lithuanian fully correspond to psychometric requirements. They are appropriate and relevant in assessing the influence of spondyloarthropathies on a patient's health.
Venceviciene L; Rugiene R; Venalis A; Butrimiene I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW). Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form) and NZPAQ (short form) were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE) was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female) completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.
Maddison Ralph; Ni Mhurchu Cliona; Jiang Yannan; Vander Hoorn Stephen; Rodgers Anthony; Lawes Carlene MM; Rush Elaine
The QADVP (questionnaire for assessment of disabled by vestibular pathology) is self-employed and consists of a series of 46 questions divided into 3 scales (emotional, functional and organic) from which direct and proportionate scores (both for each scale and as a whole for the full questionnaire) are gained. The aim of the paper is to show its application-way, the outcome of assessments and the disability degree drawn out from the scores. A prospective study fulfilled within 2 years term (May, 1st 1994 until May, 1st 1996) between patients of the Health Area of Zamora, seen at the ENT outpatients Department. The validation's study (reliability, homogeneity and discriminatory power in each scale and of the whole questionnaire) was made from a sample of 30 patients suffering of recurring-paroxysmal vestibular disease of several etiologies. In order to establish the handicap degree the questionnaire was employed in 60 patients suffering postural-paroxysmal vertigo or Ménière disease, grouped in 4 homogenous sets after the evolutive time. The series in each scale and globally for the whole questionnaire make sharp 4 levels of handicap (from I to IV). Zero degree is equivalent to absence of vestibular disorder. The QADVP is a measuring tool allowing: assessment several degrees of incapacity, to control the development of the disorder and try therapeutic changes.
Pardal Refoyo JL; Beltrán Mateos LD; del Cañizo Alvarez A
Full Text Available Background: The role and importance of meta-cognitive beliefs in creating and retaining of anxiety disorders were explained initially in meta-cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to validate the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent version (MCQ-A) in normal Iranian people and compare of meta-cognitive beliefs between adolescents with anxiety disorders and normal individuals.Materials and Method: This was a standardized study. First of all, the original version was translated into Persian then administered to 204 (101 boys and 103 girls) adolescent aged 13 through 17 years. Theyhave been clustered randomly. They were selected from the schools of Isfahan, together with mood and feelings questionnaire and revised children's manifest anxiety scale. In order to assess reliability, method of internal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficient) was used, and also in order to assess validity, convergent validity, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: The results of correlation coefficient of convergent validity showed a relation between total score of (MCQ-A) and its components with anxiety and depression except cognitive self-consciousness. Data were indicative of appropriate level of Coranbach’s alpha and split-half reliability coefficients of the MCQ-A and extracted factors. The results of factor analysis by principle components analysis and using varimax rotation showed 5 factors that account for 0.45% of the variance. Conclusion: MCQ-A has satisfactory psychometric properties in Iranian people
Kazem Khoramdel; Parinaz Sajadian; Fatemeh Bahrami; Sadegh Zangene
ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 email@example.com SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.
Full Text Available The article reports results of two consecutive studies designed to understand construct validity of writing motivation and to examine its utility in the prediction of academic achievement. In first study, data were collected from 884 students of primary education through writing motivation questionnaire with seven domains (Dutta Roy, 2003). Correspondence analysis reveals two latent traits (intrinsic and extrinsic) of writing motivation. In the second study, writing motivation questionnaire was administered to 200 students and their academic performances in schools were collected. Results reveal inverse relation between latent traits. Composite scores of intrinsic writing motivation were positively and those of extrinsic writing motivation were negatively correlated with academic performance.
Devdulal Dutta Roy
BACKGROUND: Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. METHODS: The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases--a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the "Revised Faces Pain Scale" (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. RESULTS: The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). CONCLUSIONS: The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years.
Lauridsen HH; Hestbaek L
Please help the Academic Training Committee to plan the 2006-07 programme of lectures by filling in the 2006-07 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire, which can be found at: http://academia.web.cern.ch/academia/questionnaire/ If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received.
Full Text Available Background: The effect of poor psychosocial work conditions on health status has widely been discussed in occupational literature. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) is a widely accepted instrument for evaluation of psychosocial work conditions.Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of Persian version of JCQ.Methods: The questionnaire was translated into Persian and back translated. 490 Iranian health care workers completed the questionnaire. After 4 weeks, 196 participants completed the questionnaire once again.Results: Factor analyses revealed an acceptable level of structure validity for the questionnaire. Cronbach's ? was more than 0.75 for all scales except for psychological demand (?=0.60) and job insecurity (?=0.27). reassessment of participants after 4 weeks revealed an acceptable level of reliability for all scales except depression.Conclusion: The Persian version of JCQ is reliable and valid for assessing work conditions among Iranian health care workers, although revision is needed for job insecurity and depression scales.
SM Tabatabaee Jabali; M Ghaffari; O Pournik; L Ghalichi; AR Tehrani Yazdi; SA Motevalian
...2009-04-01 false Circulation of draft questionnaires. 207.63 Section 207.63...207.63 Circulation of draft questionnaires. (a) The Director shall circulate draft questionnaires to the parties for comment in...
The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 1106 Baseline Questionnaires for 534 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to...
The purposes of this longitudinal research are to (1) identify personality traits and trait patterns of incoming WVU medical students; (2) reassess students shortly before their graduation; and (3) identify any trait or trait patterns which demonstrate significant correlations with choice of residency. Students (n = 181; 102 male, 79 female) were administered the Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire during consecutive new student orientations (Fall 1995 and 1996). Findings of the first phase of this research demonstrate significant differences in traits between our medical students and the general population. The most compelling findings, however, involve personality trait differences between female medical students and their male peers. Beyond offering training implications, these early findings suggest the utility of the 16PF in defining trait patterns with medical students.
Meit SS; Meit HT; Yasek V
Full Text Available Motivation is one of the main factors in education. It is a dimension that should not be neglected in classes, hard to be comprehended by students, like Science and Mathematics. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a Likert-type questionnaire to measure students’ motivation towards Science learning. In order to develop this questionnaire, a pretest form was developed through a literature survey, and presented to experts for their evaluation. After the alterations based on their suggestions, a pilot study with 183 middle school students was held to revise the questionnaire. After the revision, a total of 39 items in the questionnaire was administered to the sample group of 421 elementary school students. By this way, a questionnaire consisting of 23 items were developed. In order to obtain validity, exploratory factor analysis was performed. The results of factor analysis indicated that there are five factors explaining 47% of the total variance in the questionnaire. Moreover, the reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha) was found to be .80.
Yüksel Dede; Süleyman Yaman
The Greek version of the social capital questionnaire (SCQ-G) was evaluated in a sample of 521 adults drawn from three different urban areas in Greece. Exploratory factor analysis followed by multi-trait scaling yielded six factors: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Family/Friends Connections, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity, and Work Connections. The factor solution is similar to the patterns identified originally in Australia and the US. Variations suggest that social capital does not share the same structure in different countries. The SCQ-G is a useful scale to measure individual-level social capital in Greece. Social capital measurement tools should be validated in each cultural or national setting in which they are used. PMID:18213683
Kritsotakis, George; Koutis, Antonis D; Alegakis, Athanassios K; Philalithis, Anastas E
The Greek version of the social capital questionnaire (SCQ-G) was evaluated in a sample of 521 adults drawn from three different urban areas in Greece. Exploratory factor analysis followed by multi-trait scaling yielded six factors: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Family/Friends Connections, Value of Life and Social Agency, Tolerance of Diversity, and Work Connections. The factor solution is similar to the patterns identified originally in Australia and the US. Variations suggest that social capital does not share the same structure in different countries. The SCQ-G is a useful scale to measure individual-level social capital in Greece. Social capital measurement tools should be validated in each cultural or national setting in which they are used.
Kritsotakis G; Koutis AD; Alegakis AK; Philalithis AE
INTRODUCTION: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma. Treatment approaches based on BHR severity have been shown to be effective. However, challenge tests are expensive, inconvenient to patients, time consuming, and not easily accessible to general practitioners. Assessment of BHR by a questionnaire would be advantageous in the diagnosis and management of asthma. AIM: To select a set of respiratory symptoms and provoking stimuli related to BHR to compose a reliable Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness Questionnaire (BHQ). METHOD: A list of 33 symptoms and 68 stimuli were selected by in-depth interviews, focus group discussions with asthma patients, and literature review. After a histamine challenge test patients (n=302) were asked to score each question on a 7-point scale (0=no; 6=severe complaints). Factor analysis was performed to identify clusters of interrelated symptoms associated with PC20-histamine. The sensitivity to detect the presence of BHR was analysed by Receiver Operating Curves (ROC). The correlation between the PC20-score and the scores on the questions was analysed. RESULTS: 15 symptoms and 19 provoking stimuli were ultimately selected for the BHQ. CONCLUSION: The BHQ was developed according to FDA-approved standards and is a condition-specific questionnaire able to assess the presence of BHR.
Riemersma R; Postma D; Kerstjens H; Buijssen K; Boezen M; Aalbers R; Veldhuizen W; Strijbos J; van der Molen T
BACKGROUND: Assessment can be a powerful force in promoting student learning. Still, few measures exist to gauge Assessment for Learning (AFL) in the classroom. Literature on AFL suggests that it encompasses both a monitor to track student progress as well as a scaffold to show or help students recognize in what areas they need to improve. AIMS: Based on a review of recent attempts to measure the AFL, we constructed Assessment for Learning Questionnaires for Teachers (TAFL-Q) and for students (SAFL-Q) for evaluating perceptions regarding AFL practices in classrooms using matching items. SAMPLE: The total sample included 1,422 students (49% girls, 51% boys) and 237 teachers (43% females, 57% males) in lower vocational secondary education. METHODS: The 28-item questionnaires were examined by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using EQS on one random half of the sample. The CFA was cross-validated on the second half. Measurement invariance tests were conducted to compare the students and teacher versions of the questionnaires. RESULTS: CFA revealed a stable second-order two-factor structure that was cross-validated: perceived monitoring, and perceived scaffolding subsumed under a common factor: AFL. Tests for measurement invariance showed that the parallel constructs were measured similarly for both students and teachers. CONCLUSION: The TAFL-Q and SAFL-Q capture the construct AFL in two subscales: Monitoring and Scaffolding, and allows for comparisons between teacher and student perceptions. The instruments can be useful tools for teachers and students alike to identify and scrutinize assessment practices in classroom.
Pat-El RJ; Tillema H; Segers M; Vedder P
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la estructura factorial del Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form ([YSQ-SF], Young, 1999) y las diferencias de género en esquemas inadaptados tempranos. El estudio se realizó en Colombia, donde 1.392 estudiantes universitarios (541 hombres y 851 mujeres) completaron el YSQ-SF. Los resultados de los análisis factoriales confirmatorios confirmaron la estructura original de 15 de factores de primer orden, coincidentes con lo (more) s 15 esquemas teóricos. En cambio, los resultados para la estructura de segundo orden fueron menos concluyentes, ya que tanto la estructura de tres factores de segundo orden como la de cinco factores mostraron índices de ajuste similares. Los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach oscilaron entre 0.74 y 0.89. Los hombres puntuaron más alto que las mujeres en numerosos esquemas inadaptados. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form ([YSQ-SF], Young, 1999) and the gender differences in early maladaptive schemas. The study took place in Colombia, where 1392 university students (541 male y 851 female) completed the YSQ-SF. The results confirmed the existence of the original 15 first-order factors, in consistency with the 15 theoretical schemas. However, the results for the second-order structur (more) e were less conclusive, as both a three second order factor and a five second order factor structures showed similar fit indices. Alpha coefficients for the schemas rated between 0.74 and 0.89. Men scored higher than women on several schemas.
Londoño, Nora H; Schnitter, Mónica; Marín, Carlos; Calvete, Esther; Ferrer, Alberto; Maestre, Katherine; Chaves, Liliana; Castrillón, Diego
Inclinação profissional e personalidade: estudo de correlação entre medidas desses construtos Inclinación profesional y personalidad: estudio de correlación entre medidas de estos constructos Professional tendency and personality: research on the correlation among measures of these constructs
Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende estudar a validade concorrente entre o 16PF - Questionário Fatorial da Personalidade e o BBT - Teste de Fotos de Profissões. O BBT é um teste projetivo, que se destina à apreensão do perfil de inclinação profissional, considerando oito fatores pulsionais. Apesar de o BBT ter sido concebido para adolescentes, estudos recentes mostraram que também pode ser empregado em adultos no contexto da orientação de carreira, coaching e seleção de pessoal. Enquanto o 16PF teve sua origem na análise fatorial, a construção do BBT se baseou nos pressupostos teóricos de Szondi sobre a estrutura pulsional das doenças mentais, com base em estudos clínicos com pacientes psiquiátricos. Embora os dois instrumentos partam de pressupostos teóricos muito diferentes, a estrutura fatorial do 16PF se assemelha em grande parte aos fatores pulsionais avaliados pelo BBT. Participaram do estudo 87 profissionais (35 homens e 52 mulheres) oriundos de diversas empresas, com idade média de 29,4 anos (DP=8,2). Os resultados confirmaram as hipóteses de pesquisa no nível de significância 0,05.Este trabajo pretende estudiar la validez concurrente entre el 16PF - Cuestionario Factorial de la Personalidad y el BBT - Prueba de Fotos de Profesiones. El BBT es una prueba proyectiva, que se destina a la aprehensión del perfil de inclinación profesional, considerando ocho factores impulsivos. A pesar del BBT haber sido concebido para adolescentes, estudios recientes mostraron que también puede ser empleado en adultos en el contexto de la orientación de carrera, coaching y selección de personal. Mientras el 16PF tuvo su origen en el análisis factorial, la construcción del BBT se basó en los presupuestos teóricos de Szondi sobre la estructura de impulso de las enfermedades mentales, con base en estudios clínicos con pacientes psiquiátricos. Aunque los dos instrumentos partan de presupuestos teóricos muy diferentes, la estructura factorial del 16PF se asemeja en gran parte a los factores de impulso evaluados por el BBT. Participaron del estudio 87 profesionales (35 hombres y 52 mujeres) oriundos de diversas empresas, con edad Media de 29,4 años (DP=8,2). Los resultados confirmaron las hipótesis de pesquisa en el nivel de significación 0,05This work has the presentation of the result of the convergent correlation research between 16PF - The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire and the BBT - Profession Photos Test as objective. The BBT is a projective test destined to apprehend the vocational profile for the purpose of vocational guidance, considering eight drive needs or factors. Although the BBT was designed to be used with adolescents, recent work has shown that it is also useful in the context of career counseling coaching and selection of employees. While the 16PF had its origin in the factorial analysis, BBT’s development is based on Szondi’s theoretical framework, the drive theory of mental diseases, created upon clinical research with psychiatric patients. Although both instruments are based on very different theories, the factorial structure of the 16PF resembles largely to the drive factors evaluated in BBT. The participants were 87 employees (35 men and 52 women) derived from navigation companies and costal traffic, chemical and information technology segments, aged around 29,4 years (SD=8,2). The results obtained in the correlation study confirmed the hypotheses to the convergence between both instruments at the significance level of 0,05.
Giselle Müller-Roger Welter; Claudio Garcia Capitão
Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…
Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas
The paper describes the construction of a new religious motivation questionnaire. The construction was proceeded by an analysis which revealed that the existing instruments for assessing religious motivation have deficiencies and, most importantly, may not be suitable for use with persons in ado...
Stojkovi? Irena; Miri? Jovan
Full Text Available The paper describes the construction of a new religious motivation questionnaire. The construction was proceeded by an analysis which revealed that the existing instruments for assessing religious motivation have deficiencies and, most importantly, may not be suitable for use with persons in adolescence or younger. In the first phase of the questionnaire construction, a semi-structured interview was used on a sample of 111 respondents aged 10-25 from Belgrade. The interview findings suggested the presence of religious motivation dimensions which are not contained in the existing instruments. In the second phase, an initial pool of items, formulated based on interview answers, was administered to a sample of 354 secondary school and university students from Belgrade. Principal component analysis revealed five dimensions of religious motivation measured by the constructed questionnaire: religion as ultimate value; religion as a means of wish-fulfillment; religion as a source of emotional well-being; ideals and morality; religion as a part of tradition; and tendency to meet social expectations regarding religion. The questionnaire scales show excellent reliability.
Stojkovi? Irena; Miri? Jovan
This User Questionnaire is one of the initiatives undertaken in the framework of the dissemination activity of the Interactive European Grid project, funded by the European Community under the Research Infrastructures activities. The Interactive European Grid offers now the possibility of using the ...
Mosurska, Zofia; Zajac, Milena; Pajak, Robert
The format of the IAEA Design Information Questionnaires and the SAI prepared guidelines for completing them, is described. The guidelines should assist facility operators in meeting the time constraints set forth in the Subsidiary Arrangements by effectively supplying the information needed by the IAEA and in minimizing resource allocations to the preparation effort. 8 refs
Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on general problems of environment protection and civil nuclear energy development. Effects of nuclear facilities on ecosystems and man, ionizing radiations, radionuclides, thermal pollution, noise, effects on landscape, siting, accidents and public opinion are more particularly developed. In conclusion impact on environment of nuclear energy and other energies are compared.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Caregiver Mealtime and Dysphagia Questionnaire (CMDQ). The validation procedures included the following: (a) assessment of internal consistency reliability, (b) testing of approximations to normality, and (c) assessments of convergent and discriminant validity. Study participants were 85 noncompliant and 50 compliant caregivers. Factor analytical techniques revealed three interpretable scales: Quality of Life (QOL), Disagreement with the SLP (DSLP), and Avoidance (AV). All scales were internally consistent. The QOL and DSLP scales showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The AV scale evidenced a floor effect, limiting its discriminating power.
The purpose of this study was to validate the Caregiver Mealtime and Dysphagia Questionnaire (CMDQ). The validation procedures included the following: (a) assessment of internal consistency reliability, (b) testing of approximations to normality, and (c) assessments of convergent and discriminant validity. Study participants were 85 noncompliant and 50 compliant caregivers. Factor analytical techniques revealed three interpretable scales: Quality of Life (QOL), Disagreement with the SLP (DSLP), and Avoidance (AV). All scales were internally consistent. The QOL and DSLP scales showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The AV scale evidenced a floor effect, limiting its discriminating power. PMID:18000706
New models of cancer care and survivorship ask for empowered patients. But how do we measure that patients can derive strength from themselves (intrapersonal) and their perceived social support (interpersonal)? The 40-item Cancer Empowerment Questionnaire (CEQ) measures psychological empowerment as an individual outcome measure. The CEQ was validated in 140 nonmetastatic female breast cancer survivors (mean 5.5 years postsurgery). Principal component analysis elicited four factors representing intrapersonal (personal strength) and interpersonal (social support, community, health care) aspects of empowerment. The CEQ provides a reliable (Cronbach's ?=0.73-0.94) and valid first attempt to operationalize psychological empowerment in cancer care.
van den Berg SW; van Amstel FK; Ottevanger PB; Gielissen MF; Prins JB
The present contribution presents psychometric findings of a newly developed questionnaire on paternal engagement after parental separation based on a sample of 225 separated or divorced fathers living in the German part of Switzerland. Factor analyses led to the following five dimensions: educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, quality of the emotional relationship, temporal availability, and leisure activities. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha) ranged from .86 to .91. The dimensions reflect significant differences of paternal engagement regarding child custody, living arrangements of the mother, and parental cooperation. These findings clearly indicate that paternal engagement after separation should be considered in a differentiated multidimensional way.
Casa AD; Schildknecht CV; Winkler-Metzke C; Steinhausen HC
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the sensibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Disability Questionnaire (HDQ), the first HIV-specific disability questionnaire. METHODS: We administered the HDQ, a sensibility questionnaire and a structured qualitative interview to 22 adults living with HIV and five experienced clinicians. We considered the HDQ sensible if median scores on the sensibility questionnaire were ?5 for adults living with HIV and ?4 for clinicians for at least 80% of the items. We analyzed the interview data using directed qualitative content analytical techniques. RESULTS: Questionnaire scores were ?5 for 88% (15/17) of the items and ?4 for 100% (17/17) of the items for adults living with HIV and clinicians, respectively. The interview analysis indicated participants felt the HDQ possessed face and content validity in all disability dimensions, had adequate response options, was easy to complete, and adequately captured the episodic nature of disability. Participants had mixed responses about the questionnaire title and provided recommendations to refine item wording and response options. CONCLUSIONS: The HDQ appears sensible for use with adults living with HIV. Next steps include further measurement property assessment. The HDQ may be used by rehabilitation clinicians and researchers to assess disability experienced by adults living with HIV. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: • As people with HIV infection live longer, individuals may face a range of health-related challenges due to the disease, concurrent health conditions and the potential adverse effects of treatment. Together, these health-related challenges may be termed disability. • The HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ) is the first HIV-specific instrument developed to describe the presence, severity and episodic nature of the disability experienced by adults living with HIV. The HDQ is comprised of four domains including symptoms and impairments, uncertainty about future health, difficulties carrying out day-to-day activities, and challenges to social inclusion. • The HDQ appears sensible for use with adults living with HIV, possessing face and content validity and ease of use in all four domains as well as describing the daily episodic nature of disability. • The HDQ may be used by rehabilitation clinicians and researchers to assess disability experienced by adults living with HIV.
O'Brien KK; Bayoumi AM; Bereket T; Swinton M; Alexander R; King K; Solomon P
Full Text Available The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of the SUMI questionnaire. The target population of the study consisted of all personnel of the governmental organizations in the city of Tehran, Iran, from whom 29 persons participated in the study to fill out the SUMI questionnaire. The Persian version of this questionnaire is available at designer’s data bases under the title of IRSUMI_31. The obtained coefficients of reliability were 0.838 in testing step and 0.722 in re-testing step, respectively. The coefficients represented a satisfactory proof for the content validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The Persian version of SUMI questionnaire is applicable for all domestic made software as a valid and applicable factor.
seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar
OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of sleep questionnaires that have been psychometrically validated for use in school-aged children. Due to the limitation regarding the psychometric properties and the great variety in question design, there remains a need for a robust omnibus questionnaire that assesses sleep problems in community populations. This study aimed to develop such a questionnaire for school-aged children by assessing the construct validity and reliability of a questionnaire based on a combination of children's sleep domains from two frequently used and validated questionnaires (Habits Questionnaire and Sleep Disorders Scale for Children) and author devised questions. PATIENTS/METHODS: Parents of 1904 children aged 5-10 years (mean 7.7 ± 1.7 years) from 32 elementary schools in Adelaide, South Australia, completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Principal axis factoring revealed six unique sub-scales--Sleep Routine, Bedtime Anxiety, Morning Tiredness, Night Arousals, Sleep Disordered Breathing, and Restless Sleep--containing a total of 26 items. Internal consistency for sub-scales were moderate to strong (range ? = 0.6-0.8) and test-retest reliability was adequate (>0.4). T-score cut-offs were devised for age and sex. CONCLUSION: The new questionnaire provides a robust set of sleep problem sub-scales which can be used for assessment of sleep concerns in a community sample as well as provide for optimal analysis of associations with other measures of childhood daytime functioning such as neurocognition and behaviour.
Biggs SN; Kennedy JD; Martin AJ; van den Heuvel CJ; Lushington K
AIM: To translate into Serbian and to investigate the validity of the cross-culturally adapted the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). METHODS: The questionnaire was validated in 103 consecutive CLD patients treated between October 2009 and October 2010 at the Clinic for Gastroenterology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia). Exclusion criteria were: age 2) ??and liver transplantation. Evaluation of the CLDQ was done based on the following parameters: (1) acceptance is shown by the proportion of missing items; (2) internal reliabilities were assessed for multiple item scales by using Cronbach alpha coefficient; and (3) in order to assess whether the allocation of items in the domain corresponds to their distribution in the original questionnaire (construction validity), an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Discriminatory validity was determined by comparing the corresponding CLDQ score/sub-score in patients with different severity of the diseases. RESULTS: The Serbian version of CLDQ questionnaire completed 98% patients. Proportion of missing items was 0.06%. The total time needed to fill the questionnaire was ranged from 8 to 15 min. Assistance in completing the questionnaire required 4.8% patients, while 2.9% needed help in reading, and 1.9% involved writing assistance. The mean age of the selected patients was 53.8 ± 12.9 years and 54.4% were men. Average CLDQ score was 4.62 ± 1.11. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.93. Reliability for all domains was above 0.70, except for the domain “Activity” (0.49). The exploratory factor analysis model revealed 6 factors with eigenvalue of greater than 1, explaining 69.7% of cumulative variance. The majority of the items (66%) in the Serbian version of the CLDQ presented the highest loading weight in the domain assigned by the CLDQ developers: “Fatigue” (5/5), “Emotional function” (6/8), “Worry” (5/5), “Abdominal symptoms” (0/3), “Activity” (0/3), “Systemic symptoms” (3/5). The scales “Fatigue” and “Worry” fully corresponded to the original. The factor analysis also revealed that the factors “Activity” and “Abdominal symptoms” could not be replicated, and two new domains “Sleep” and “Nutrition” were established. Analysis of the CLDQ score/sub-score distribution according to disease severity demonstrated that patients without cirrhosis had lower total CLDQ score (4.86 ± 1.05) than those with cirrhosis Child’s C (4.31 ± 0.97). Statistically significant difference was detected for the domains “Abdominal symptoms” [F (3) = 5.818, P = 0.001] and “Fatigue” [F (3) = 3.39, P = 0.021]. Post hoc analysis revealed that patients with liver cirrhosis Child’s C had significantly lower sub-score “Abdominal symptoms” than patients without cirrhosis or liver cirrhosis Child’s A or B. For domain “Fatigue”, patients with cirrhosis Child’s C had significantly lower score, than non-cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: The Serbian version of CLDQ is well accepted and represents a valid and reliable instrument in Serbian sample of CLD patients.
Popovic, Dusan Dj; Kovacevic, Nada V; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija B; Trajkovic, Goran Z; Alempijevic, Tamara M; Spuran, Milan M; Krstic, Miodrag N; Jesic, Rada S; Younossi, Zobair M; Pekmezovic, Tatjana D
Full Text Available AIM: To translate into Serbian and to investigate the validity of the cross-culturally adapted the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ). METHODS: The questionnaire was validated in 103 consecutive CLD patients treated between October 2009 and October 2010 at the Clinic for Gastroenterology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia). Exclusion criteria were: age 2) ??and liver transplantation. Evaluation of the CLDQ was done based on the following parameters: (1) acceptance is shown by the proportion of missing items; (2) internal reliabilities were assessed for multiple item scales by using Cronbach alpha coefficient; and (3) in order to assess whether the allocation of items in the domain corresponds to their distribution in the original questionnaire (construction validity), an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Discriminatory validity was determined by comparing the corresponding CLDQ score/sub-score in patients with different severity of the diseases. RESULTS: The Serbian version of CLDQ questionnaire completed 98% patients. Proportion of missing items was 0.06%. The total time needed to fill the questionnaire was ranged from 8 to 15 min. Assistance in completing the questionnaire required 4.8% patients, while 2.9% needed help in reading, and 1.9% involved writing assistance. The mean age of the selected patients was 53.8 ± 12.9 years and 54.4% were men. Average CLDQ score was 4.62 ± 1.11. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.93. Reliability for all domains was above 0.70, except for the domain “Activity” (0.49). The exploratory factor analysis model revealed 6 factors with eigenvalue of greater than 1, explaining 69.7% of cumulative variance. The majority of the items (66%) in the Serbian version of the CLDQ presented the highest loading weight in the domain assigned by the CLDQ developers: “Fatigue” (5/5), “Emotional function” (6/8), “Worry” (5/5), “Abdominal symptoms” (0/3), “Activity” (0/3), “Systemic symptoms” (3/5). The scales “Fatigue” and “Worry” fully corresponded to the original. The factor analysis also revealed that the factors “Activity” and “Abdominal symptoms” could not be replicated, and two new domains “Sleep” and “Nutrition” were established. Analysis of the CLDQ score/sub-score distribution according to disease severity demonstrated that patients without cirrhosis had lower total CLDQ score (4.86 ± 1.05) than those with cirrhosis Child’s C (4.31 ± 0.97). Statistically significant difference was detected for the domains “Abdominal symptoms” [F (3) = 5.818, P = 0.001] and “Fatigue” [F (3) = 3.39, P = 0.021]. Post hoc analysis revealed that patients with liver cirrhosis Child’s C had significantly lower sub-score “Abdominal symptoms” than patients without cirrhosis or liver cirrhosis Child’s A or B. For domain “Fatigue”, patients with cirrhosis Child’s C had significantly lower score, than non-cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: The Serbian version of CLDQ is well accepted and represents a valid and reliable instrument in Serbian sample of CLD patients.
Dusan Dj Popovic; Nada V Kovacevic; Darija B Kisic Tepavcevic; Goran Z Trajkovic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Milan M Spuran; Miodrag N Krstic; Rada S Jesic; Zobair M Younossi; Tatjana D Pekmezovic
INTRODUCTION: A small proportion of individuals with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) develop persistent problems. Up to 80% of the total costs for NSLBP are owing to chronic NSLBP. Psychosocial factors have been described to be important in the transition from acute to chronic NSLBP. Guidelines recommend the use of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire (ALBPSQ) and the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) to identify individuals at risk of developing persistent problems, such as long-term absence of work, persistent restriction in function or persistent pain. These instruments can be used with a cutoff value, where patients with values above the threshold are further assessed with a more comprehensive examination. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies evaluating the accuracy of the ALBPSQ and ÖMPSQ to predict persistent problems. RESULTS: The 13 included studies used different cutoff values for the screening questionnaires ranging from 68 to 147. The pooled sensitivity was 0.59 (0.43-0.74), while the pooled specificity was 0.77 (0.66-0.86). Heterogeneity (I (2)) was 90.02% for sensitivity and 95.41% for specificity. CONCLUSION: Thus, we do not recommend the use of one cutoff value, but the use of a prediction model with all the individual items.
Sattelmayer M; Lorenz T; Röder C; Hilfiker R
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Anthelmintic resistance in equine gastrointestinal nematodes is a threat to equine health and welfare. Detailed knowledge of anthelmintic use and parasite control methods is a prerequisite to identification of potential risk factors for resistance. OBJECTIVES: To identify parasite control practices employed by equine owners in Scotland and investigate management factors associated with anthelmintic resistance. STUDY DESIGN: Questionnaire study of equine parasite control in Scotland. METHODS: Questionnaires were available electronically, distributed at a conference and mailed to clients. Key areas explored included general background, grazing management, anthelmintic treatment practices and use of diagnostic tests. RESULTS: A total of 193 responses detailing information on parasite control programmes of 993 equids were analysed. Moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin or related combination products were the most commonly administered anthelmintics in the preceding 12 months. Treatments licensed for use against cyathostomin encysted larvae and tapeworms were administered by 80% and 90% of respondents, respectively. This was often achieved through indiscriminate use of MOX and MOX-praziquantel products. Faecal egg count (FEC) analysis had been performed on 62% of yards and regular use of FECs reduced annual anthelmintic treatment frequency. Veterinarians had the greatest influence on control practices. While 40% of respondents believed that they practised targeted dosing, this was not associated with delaying treatment beyond the egg reappearance period of the anthelmintic used. CONCLUSIONS: Responses indicated increasing veterinary involvement and use of FECs. The majority of respondents administered anthelmintics licensed against cyathostomin encysted larvae and tapeworms. However, responses suggested that owners did not understand the definition of 'targeted' dosing regimens. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: The high frequency of MOX use represents a potential risk factor for macrocyclic lactone resistance. As veterinarians were the most influential factor in anthelmintic choice, awareness of macrocyclic lactone resistance and potential risk factors for its development and spread should be incorporated into client advice.
Stratford CH; Lester HE; Morgan ER; Pickles KJ; Relf V; McGorum BC; Matthews JB
Full Text Available The basis of family law is the child’s interest. This is related to the right to be listened to, but not as an obligation. As a consequence, there is a necessity for the judge to conduct a judicial exploration of the child. But, in general, the judges are not trained in this type of explorations, and they may consequently obtain erroneous information in their exploration. Therefore, in this work, we present the generation of a questionnaire that explores the judicial agents’ necessities during judicial exploration of children. Five expert researchers in the subject participated in creating the questionnaire; five family judges participated in the pilot test; and in the final study, 63 family judges answered the final questionnaire. Global reliability was adequate (.858), as was the reliability for interviewer’s skills, but it was not for the other areas of the questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis showed a factor structure consisting of 5 factors that accounted for 46.12% of the total variance, but these five factors don’t correspond to the factors provided by experts. But construct validity validated the structure provided by the experts (?2/df = 1.35; BBNNFI = .873; CFI = .879; IFI = .881; RMR = .139; SRMR = .153; RMSEA = .075). To sum up, we can say that the questionnaire could be improved, but the best areas are the stages of the interview and the interviewer’s skills.
Joan Guardia; Maribel Pero; Sonia Benítez; Adolfo Jarne; Mercedes Caso; Mila Arch; Asuncion Molina; Alvaro Aliaga
Full Text Available Data quality (DQ) has been defined as “fitness for use” of the data (also called Information Quality). A single aspect of data quality is defined as a “dimension” such as “consistency”, “accuracy”, “completeness”, or “timeliness”. In order to assess and improve data quality, “methodologies” have been defined. Data quality methodologies are sets of guidelines and techniques that are designed for measurement assessment, and perhaps, improving data quality in a given application or organization. If an appropriate list of dimensions is available for the specific needs of an organization, a questionnaire-based methodology can be designed in order to 1. Measure dimensions and identify “weak” dimensions in the organization 2. Select a proper “strategies” to improve data quality. In this paper we propose a questionnaire-based methodology in order to achieve that.
Reza Vaziri; Mehran Mohsenzadeh
Time to plan for the 2001-02 lecture series. From today until April 9 you have the chance to give your contribution to improved planning for next year's Academic Training Lectures Series. At the web site: http://wwwinfo/support/survey/academic-training/ you will find questionnaires concerning the following different categories: high energy physics, applied physics, science and society and post-graduate students lectures. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at CERN bookshop.
Academic Training; Tel. 73127
Please help the Academic Training Committee to plan the 2005-06 programme of lectures by filling in the 2005-06 Academic Training Programme Questionnaire which can be found at: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.
In 1928, the Library of Virginia inherited a mass of materials from the Virginia War History Commission, which had spent the previous eight years gathering information on Virginia's participation in World War I. Included in this material were over 14,900 four-page questionnaires from a survey of WWI veterans in Virginia. The Library of Virginia has digitized these survey forms and created a free, fully-searchable database. Users have three search options: by word or phrase, combination, and expert/boolean. Search returns offer basic information on each individual, and users must follow the link at the bottom of the page to download the digitized images (in .tif format) of the questionnaire forms. In some cases, respondents submitted photos or additional pages with their forms and these are included in the database.
Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.
Tooze JA; Troiano RP; Carroll RJ; Moshfegh AJ; Freedman LS
Full Text Available This study evaluates the Quantification de L'Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE) supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE) on Bogotá's schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97); by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97); 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99); 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98). The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66) (p<0.01); by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87), 0.76 (0.78) and 0.88 (0.80) respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake
Nicolas Barbosa; Carlos E. Sanchez; Jose A. Vera; Wilson Perez; Jean-Christophe Thalabard; Michel Rieu
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH) because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated consecutively at our institution from March 2004 through August 2005. One hundred forty-eight individuals were enrolled, including 72 patients with TEH and 76 individuals without TEH but with alternative diagnoses, such as a screening colonoscopy or colonic polyps. Out of 38 possible aetiologic factors evaluated, 20 showed no significant bivariate correlation to TEH and were no longer traced, and 16 factors showed a significant bivariate relationship to TEH. By multivariate analysis, six independent variables were found to predict TEH correctly in 79.1% of cases: age of 46 years or younger, use of excessive physical effort, and use of dry toilet paper combined with wet cleaning methods after defaecation were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing TEH; use of bathtub, use of the shower, and genital cleaning before sleep at least once a week were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing TEH. Conclusion Six hypotheses on the causes of TEH have a high probability of being correct and should be considered in future studies on aetiology, prophylaxis, and therapy of TEH.
Gebbensleben Ole; Hilger York; Rohde Henning
Purpose: To improve a questionnaire used to collect patient-reported outcomes from patients with early stage prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy. A secondary aim was to adapt the Late Effects of Normal Tissue (LENT) subjective toxicity questionnaire for use to collect Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) data, the current preferred platform for assessing radiation toxicity. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-seven patients were treated with permanent iodine-125 seed implant brachytherapy for early prostate cancer. Toxicity data were collected before and at nine time points post-treatment (0-36 months). Compliance rates for patients completing individual items and item-subsection correlation coefficients were calculated. A factor analysis was carried out to analyse responses to the questionnaire and identify less informative questions, which could be removed. Cronbach's ? coefficient was used to measure reliability. Results: Two thousand one hundred and eighty-eight questionnaires were analysed. There was poor compliance for questions specifically relating to operations and bowel medication. We found that the division of the questionnaire into subsections based on anatomical site was reasonable and that certain items could be safely removed. The high mean value for Cronbach's ? across all questionnaires (0.752; 95% CI: 0.726-0.779) indicated that the questionnaire was reliable. Fifteen of the 44 questions were removed from the original questionnaires. Questions on urinary incontinence severity, management of urinary and bowel incontinence, effects of reduced flow of urine and the effects of symptoms on activity of daily living and change in sexual function were required to adapt the LENT subjective questionnaire for use to collect CTCAE data. Conclusions: A questionnaire, validated over 6 years to collect LENT subjective data were adapted and is a reliable approach for collecting CTCAE data after prostate brachytherapy.