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Sample records for exudates and transudates

  1. Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.

    Malde H

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

  2. Comparative analysis of pleural fluid biochemical parameters with cholesterol to differentiate transudates from exudates

    Rohit Rungta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Light?s criteria is the gold standard to differentiate transudative pleural effusion (PE from exudative PE, but it requires four biochemical estimations which, in developing countries such as India, may not be feasible in every patient due to economic constraints. Aims: To evaluate the comparative usefulness of pleural fluid biochemical parameters with relative usefulness of pleural cholesterol to the traditional Light? criteria. Setting and Design: Prospective institutional based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 cases of PE were studied consecutively, of which 34 cases were of tuberculous effusion and 22 cases of nontubercular effusion. The data obtained from the patients were collected, analyzed, and observations noted down. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of different biochemical parameters single or in combination were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Results: According to their etiology, 7 of the effusions were transudates and 49 were exudates. Using a cutoff point of 45 mg for pleural cholesterol and values for protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH of Light et al., the best diagnostic power corresponded to the combination of pleural cholesterol and LDH; cholesterol level over 45 mg/dL and/or LDH over 200 IU/L differentiate exudates from transudates with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 98%. Conclusions: The measurement of pleural cholesterol and LDH permits the separation of pleural exudates from transudates with accuracy similar to the original report of Light et al., with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, especially in a country like India where financial and technical constraints are immense.

  3. Pleural Effusion in Meigs' Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Krenke, Rafal; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Korczynski, Piotr; Zielinska-Krawczyk, Monika; Klimiuk, Joanna; Chazan, Ryszarda; Light, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Although Meigs' syndrome is regarded as a well-defined entity, contradictory data on pleural fluid characteristics have been presented, with some papers classifying it as a transudate, whereas others stating that it is an exudate.The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate pleural fluid characteristics in patients with Meigs' syndrome and (2) to analyze the prevalence of transudative and exudative pleural effusion in relation to the applied definition of the syndrome.We performed a search through medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR) to identify papers on Meigs' syndrome published between 1940 and 2013. Two authors independently reviewed each paper searching for prespecified data: (1) signs and symptoms, (2) tumor characteristics, (3) clinical and laboratory data on ascites, (4) clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on pleural fluid, (5) clinical course after tumor removal. All case reports were reclassified according to a new unequivocal classification of Meigs' syndrome-related entities.A total of 653 papers were initially identified, and 454 articles reporting 541 patients were included in the final analysis. After reclassification according to our case definitions, there were 196, 113, and 108 patients defined as classic Meigs' syndrome, nonclassic Meigs' syndrome, and pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, respectively. Significantly more patients presented with right-sided than left-sided and bilateral pleural effusions (P  3.0 g/dL was applied as a criterion of pleural exudate, 88.8% (80/90) of effusions were classified as exudates. Increasing the cut-off level to 3.5 g/dL resulted in only a modest decrease in the percentage of exudative effusions (81%, 73/90).Surprisingly few reports on Meigs' syndrome present data reliably defining the character of pleural effusion. The available data indicate, however, that the majority of pleural effusions in patients with this entity are exudates. This finding may be a prerequisite for the verification of some earlier presented concepts. PMID:26656338

  4. Dosagem de protenas totais e desidrogenase ltica para o diagnstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critrio clssico com uma nova abordagem estatstica / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz, Maranho; Cyro Teixeira da, Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva, Chibante; Gilberto Perez, Cardoso.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critrio de classificao para a diferenciao entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais atravs da dosagem de protenas totais no lquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase ltica no lquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnstico entre es [...] se novo critrio com o critrio clssico. MTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitrios no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parmetros diagnsticos includos no critrio clssico, assim como os do novo critrio, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurcia do critrio clssico para o diagnstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critrio), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurcia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnstico de transudato. A acurcia do novo critrio proposto para o diagnstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critrio clssico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSES: O rendimento diagnstico dos dois critrios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critrio de classificao pode ser utilizado na prtica diria. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  5. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  6. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate.

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke; Agren, Magnus; Ladelund, Steen; Karlsmark, Tonny; Gottrup, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and plevel was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation. PMID:19660042

  7. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke; Agren, Magnus; Ladelund, Steen; Karlsmark, Tonny; Gottrup, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was...... in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14...... of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation....

  8. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    Sorensen, L.T.; Zillmer, R.; Agren, M.; Ladelund, S.; Karlsmark, T.; Gottrup, F.

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was...... in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p <= 0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14....... Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5...

  9. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related retinopathies

    Gilmour, D F

    2014-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a rare inherited disorder of retinal angiogenesis. Cases can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. FEVR patients have an avascular peripheral retina which, depending on the degree of ischaemia, causes the secondary complications of the disease. Expressivity may be asymmetric and is highly variable. Five genes have been identified that when mutated, cause FEVR; NDP (X-linked), FZD4 (autosomal dominant and recessive), LRP5 (autos...

  10. Analysis of immunoglobulin G antibody responses after administration of live and inactivated influenza A vaccine indicates that nasal wash immunoglobulin G is a transudate from serum.

    Wagner, D K; Clements, M L; Reimer, C. B.; Snyder, M.; Nelson, D.L.; Murphy, B R

    1987-01-01

    Following intranasal administration of live influenza A virus vaccine or parenteral inoculation of inactivated influenza virus vaccine, immunoglobulin antibody to the influenza virus hemagglutinin was detected in nasal wash specimens from adult volunteers. Several observations supported the suggestion that this immunoglobulin G hemagglutinin nasal wash antibody appeared to be mainly derived from the serum by a process of passive transudation.

  11. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related retinopathies

    Gilmour, D F

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a rare inherited disorder of retinal angiogenesis. Cases can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. FEVR patients have an avascular peripheral retina which, depending on the degree of ischaemia, causes the secondary complications of the disease. Expressivity may be asymmetric and is highly variable. Five genes have been identified that when mutated, cause FEVR; NDP (X-linked), FZD4 (autosomal dominant and recessive), LRP5 (autosomal dominant and recessive), TSPAN12 (autosomal dominant and recessive), and ZNF408 (autosomal dominant). Four of these genes have been shown to have a central role in Norrin/Frizzled4 signalling, suggesting a critical role for this pathway in retinal angiogenesis. In addition to the ocular features, LRP5 mutations can cause osteopenia and osteoporosis. All FEVR patients in whom molecular testing is not easily accessible should have dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to assess bone mineral density, as treatment can be initiated to reduce the risk of bone fractures. PMID:25323851

  12. Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency

    Bless Aplena Elen Siane

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy) and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow) cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -P)with pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, ra...

  13. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates.

    Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T; Brschweiler, Rafael; Vivanco, Jorge M; Edison, Arthur S

    2009-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to interact chemically with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed by using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites that include organic acids, amino acids, and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and Escherichia coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Pseudomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, thus demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems. PMID:19649780

  14. Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate

    Edgardo Moretti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como muestra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%. Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas.Oral mucosal transudate (OMT is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Chagas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

  15. COMPARISION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE [ADA] LEVELS WITH CYTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLEURAL FLUIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE TUBERCULAR AND NON â TUBERCULAR EFFUSIONS

    Choukimath M Sharanabasav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to utilize biochemical parameters like ADA and protein levels in comparison with cell count and cell type in pleural fluid to differentiate tubercular and non-tubercular effusions. We have analyzed a total of 208 cases and among them 59.61% cases were ADA positive and 40.39% cases were ADA negative, and 156 cases were exudates and 52 cases were transudates. Categorized these effusions into 4 groups taking consideration of ADA, cell count, lymphocyte and protein levels as exudate with ADA positive, exudate with ADA negative, transudate with ADA positive and transudate with ADA negative. This study has shown promising results to diagnose tuberculosis with immediate and cost effectiveness that can be undertaken by any basic laboratory, in a endemic areas and developing countries like India

  16. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Karlovsky Petr; Steingrobe Bernd; Ratzinger Astrid; Hettwer Ursula; Khorassani Reza; Claassen Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrom...

  17. Effectively managing wound exudate.

    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings. PMID:26322408

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found with serum HDL (p=.0001. CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia was significantly associated with retinal hard exudates formation in type 2 diabetic patients. This study suggests treating ophthalmologist should get a fasting lipid profile done if patient has significant hard exudates on fundus examination. Study also recommends need of lipid lowering drugs due to high incidence of dyslipidemia in these patients.

  19. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

  20. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053

  1. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil. PMID:23898672

  2. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    Zhai, Xu

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed...

  3. Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy: Follow-Up and Treatment Results

    Zafer Cebeci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the follow-up and treatment results of cases with the diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in our clinic. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 eyes of 10 cases of FEVR that were followed up and some of them were treated in our clinic. Results: Nine male and one female patients with a mean age of 10.1 (3-30 years were included in the study. Seven patients had a family history of FEVR. Twelve eyes of 8 patients had laser photocoagulation to peripheral avascular areas, 3 patients had vitreoretinal surgery on one of their eyes three times. Unilateral total retinal detachment was determined in two patients at the initial visit and in three patients at the follow-up visits; because no improvement in the vision was expected, surgery was not done. Conclusion: FEVR is an inherited disease that can be detected in any age and can cause severe vision loss. These patients should be followed up throughout the life, and the essential treatment at the appropriate time can lead to partial visual recovery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 370-3

  4. A critical review of modern and emerging absorbent dressings used to treat exuding wounds.

    Sweeney, India R; Miraftab, Mohsen; Collyer, Graham

    2012-12-01

    Wound management has progressed significantly over the last five decades. This emanates from a greater understanding of wound healing, technological progression and improved clinical and scientific research. There are currently a plethora of absorbent dressings on the wound care market which claim to have the ability to manage exudates whilst encouraging healing. However, it is becoming clear, from analysing randomised controlled trials, that some of these absorbent dressings are not meeting their expectations when applied in a clinical setting. Many clinicians now feel that there should be more focus, not only on a dressing's ability to manage exudate efficiently, but on a dressing's ability to proactively encourage healing and thus exudate reduction will ensue. This paper proposes to critically review modern and emerging absorbent wound care dressings used to manage exuding wounds and discuses some advances in this area. PMID:22248337

  5. Atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis: A Case report of exudative retinal detachment and choroidal Ischemia

    Yahya A Al-Zahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  6. [Study on the growth characteristics and root exudates of three wetlands plants at different culture conditions].

    Lu, Song-Liu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Jia

    2009-07-15

    Wetland plants are the important component of constructed wetlands and their root exudates provide the interior hydrocarbon for denitrification. In this study, the growth characteristics and root exudates of Canna indica, Zizania caduciflora and Lythrum salicari in different culture conditions were researched. The results showed that the average biomass initial/biomass in 120 days growth of Canna indica, Zizania caduciflora and Lythrum salicari were 9.1, 3.7, and 4.7, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the root exudates and the biomass of plants, but the release rate of root exudates decreased with the biomass increase. The root exudates release rates of unit biomass were 0.92, 0.47, 0.43 mg x (g x d)(-1) for Lythrum salicari, Canna indica and Zizania caduciflora, respectively. And the root exudates of those three plants are mainly organic acids and arylprotein based on the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum analysis. The results ofthis study also indicate that Canna indiea and Lythrum salicari are befitting wetlands plants. PMID:19774982

  7. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  8. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  9. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods.

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Gran M; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjrke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A; Tiselius, Peter; Kirboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates. Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms. PMID:26788422

  10. Changes in Azospirillum brasilense motility and the effect of wheat seedling exudates.

    Borisov, Igor V; Schelud'ko, Andrei V; Petrova, Lilia P; Katsy, Elena I

    2009-01-01

    The rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 swims, swarms (Swa(+) phenotype) or, very rarely, migrates with the formation of granular macrocolonies (Gri(+) phenotype). Our aims were (i) to identify Sp245 mutants that swarm faster than the parent strain or differ from it in the mode of spreading and (ii) to compare the mutants' responses to wheat seedling exudates. In isotropic liquid media, the swimming speeds of all motile A. brasilense strains were not influenced by the exudates. However, the exudates significantly stimulated the swarming of Sp245. In several Sp245 mutants, the superswarming phenotype was insensitive to local colonial density and to the presence of wheat seedling exudates. An A. brasilense polar-flagellum-defective Gri(+) mutant BK759.G gave rise to stable Swa(++) derivatives with restored flagellum production. This transition was concurrent with plasmid rearrangements and was stimulated in the presence of wheat seedling exudates. The swarming rate of the Swa(++) derivatives of BK759.G was affected by the local density of their colonies but not by the presence of the exudates. PMID:17707621

  11. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates and its fractions.

    Li, Jinhua; Chang, Leng-Chee; Wall, Marisa; Wong, D K W; Yu, Xianzhong; Wei, Yanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 year. Recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-cancer activities. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fermented noni exudates (fNE) were previously found to induce significant tumor rejection in a S180 mouse sarcoma tumor model, while natural killer (NK) cells were demonstrated to be markedly involved in fNE-induced antitumor activity. In this study, fNE was partitioned into three fractions and their antitumor effects were examined using i.p. injection or as water supplement. The in vivo animal study results showed that when delivered by i.p. injection, n-butanol fraction of fNE (BuOH) effectively rejected (100%) tumor challenge and eradicated existing tumors (75%). When delivered as a water supplement, 62.5% of the mice receiving the n-butanol or ethyl acetate fractions resisted tumor cells. The tumor-resistant mice effectively rejected more and higher doses of tumor challenge, indicating that the immune system was activated. The findings confirm those of an earlier study showing fNE to have anti-tumor activity and demonstrating that the n-butanol fraction of fNE contains active antitumor components, to be further identified. More importantly, the antitumor effect of fNE and its fractions as water supplements renders a significant potential for identifying novel and powerful new dietary products for cancer prevention. PMID:24649140

  12. Association Between Components of Exudates and Periwound Moisture-Associated Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients With Malignant Fungating Wounds.

    Tamai, Nao; Akase, Tomoko; Minematsu, Takeo; Higashi, Kyohei; Toida, Toshihiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-03-01

    Excessive wound exudates are troublesome symptoms of malignant fungating wounds. In particular, such exudates may cause periwound moisture-associated dermatitis (MAD). In this study, we focused on factors that contribute to skin irritation by exudates in breast cancer patients with malignant fungating wounds. Our aim was to identify the relationship between MAD surrounding malignant fungating wounds and levels of various candidate irritating factors in their exudates. We recruited 20 breast cancer patients with exudates from malignant fungating wounds and collected three types of exudate samples: pooled exudate, swab, and fresh exudate samples. We measured the pH, concentrations of polyamines (putrescine [PUT], cadaverine [CAD], spermidine, and spermine), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9) in the exudates and cultured them for bacteria. Differences between participants with and without MAD were assessed using Fisher's exact test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Of the 20 participants, 14 had MAD. There were no significant differences in median pH and MMP activity between patients with and without MAD. The level of PUT was significantly higher in the MAD than in the non-MAD group (p = .008), and CAD was detected only in the MAD group (p = .016). Prospective studies are needed to clarify correlations and causal relationships between polyamines and erythema and identify therapeutic targets for preventing the development of MAD. PMID:26180182

  13. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  14. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  15. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  16. The Effect of Root Exudate 7,4?-Dihydroxyflavone and Naringenin on Soil Bacterial Community Structure

    Szoboszlay, Mrton; White-Monsant, Alison; Moe, Luke A.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate how root exudate flavonoids influence the soil bacterial community structure and to identify members of the community that change their relative abundance in response to flavonoid exudation. Using a model system that approximates flavonoid exudation of Medicago sativa roots, we treated a soil with 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone and naringenin in two separate experiments using three different rates: medium (equivalent to the exudation rate of 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone from M. sativa seedlings), high (10 the medium rate), and low (0.1 the medium rate). Controls received no flavonoid. Soil samples were subjected to ATP assays and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The flavonoid treatments caused no significant change in the soil ATP content. With the high 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone treatment rate, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Acidobacteria subdivision 4 increased in relative abundance compared with the control samples, whereas OTUs classified as Gaiellales, Nocardioidaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae were more prevalent in the control. The naringenin treatments did not cause significant changes in the soil bacterial community structure. Our results suggest that the root exudate flavonoid 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone can interact with a diverse range of soil bacteria and may have other functions in the rhizosphere in addition to nod gene induction in legumerhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26752410

  17. The Effect of Root Exudate 7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone and Naringenin on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Szoboszlay, Márton; White-Monsant, Alison; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate how root exudate flavonoids influence the soil bacterial community structure and to identify members of the community that change their relative abundance in response to flavonoid exudation. Using a model system that approximates flavonoid exudation of Medicago sativa roots, we treated a soil with 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and naringenin in two separate experiments using three different rates: medium (equivalent to the exudation rate of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone from M. sativa seedlings), high (10× the medium rate), and low (0.1× the medium rate). Controls received no flavonoid. Soil samples were subjected to ATP assays and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The flavonoid treatments caused no significant change in the soil ATP content. With the high 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone treatment rate, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Acidobacteria subdivision 4 increased in relative abundance compared with the control samples, whereas OTUs classified as Gaiellales, Nocardioidaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae were more prevalent in the control. The naringenin treatments did not cause significant changes in the soil bacterial community structure. Our results suggest that the root exudate flavonoid 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone can interact with a diverse range of soil bacteria and may have other functions in the rhizosphere in addition to nod gene induction in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26752410

  18. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization. The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  19. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

  20. How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?

    Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

  1. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  2. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  3. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    REN TORRES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

  4. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    REN, TORRES; FRANCISCO, URBINA; CLAUDIA, MORALES; BRENDA, MODAK; FRANCO DELLE, MONACHE.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation [...

  5. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  6. Oxalate and root exudates enhance the desorption of p,p'-DDT from soils.

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2006-05-01

    The abiotic desorption of p,p'-DDT from seven Chinese soils spiked with p,p'-DDT and the effects of oxalate at 0.001-0.1M and the root exudates of maize, wheat, and ryegrass were evaluated using batch experiments. Soil organic carbon played a predominant role in the retention of DDT. Oxalate significantly increased the desorption of p,p'-DDT, with the largest increments ranging from 11% to 54% for different soils. Oxalate addition also resulted in the increased release of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions from soils. Root exudates had similar effects to those of oxalate. Root exudates significantly increased DDT desorption from the soils, and the general trend was similar among the plant species studied for all the soils (p > 0.05). Low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon amendments caused partial dissolution of the soil structure, such as the organo-mineral linkages, resulting in the release of organic carbon and metal ions and thus the subsequent enhanced desorption of DDT from the soils. The enhancing effects of oxalate and root exudates on DDT desorption were influenced by the contents of soil organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in soils. PMID:16307790

  7. Functional categories of root exudate components and their relevance to AM fungal growth

    It is well established that plants grown under limited phosphorus (Pi) conditions are more readily colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. It is also known that certain components of host root exudates can stimulate hyphal growth and branching of AM fungi and these compounds are elevated wh...

  8. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D; Venge, P; Dahl, R; Søndergaard, J

    1988-01-01

    A skin window technique was used to study the morphology of leucocytes in upper dermis and exudate during nickel challenge in patients with contact allergy to nickel. Contact allergic patients and healthy volunteers tested with a skin widow without addition of nickel to the chamber medium served as...

  9. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  10. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

  11. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potentia...

  12. Effects of root exudates on the leachability, distribution, and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from mangrove sediments.

    Jia, Hui; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Li, Jian; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2016-03-01

    In this study, column leaching experiments were used to evaluate the leachability, distribution and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene by root exudates from contaminated mangrove sediments. We observed that root exudates significantly promoted the release and enhanced the bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from sediment columns. The concentration of phenanthrene and pyrene and cumulative content released from the analyzed sediment samples following root exudate rinsing decreased in the following order: citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid. After elution, the total concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in sediment layers followed a descending order of bottom (9-12 cm) > middle (5-7 cm) > top (0-3 cm). Furthermore, a positive correlation between leachate pH values and PAH concentrations of the leachate was found. Consequently, the addition of root exudates can increase the leachability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene. PMID:26573317

  13. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Andreas F. Haas; Nelson, Craig E.; Forest Rohwer; Linda Wegley-Kelly; Steven D. Quistad; Carlson, Craig A; James J. Leichter; Mark Hatay; Smith, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Moorea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community re...

  14. [A clinical study on the penetration of aspoxicillin into tissue and wound exudates in breast cancer].

    Tsuburaya, H; Watanabe, I; Takahashi, M; Endo, S

    1985-06-01

    Penetration of aspoxicillin (ASPC), a new semisynthetic penicillin of broad spectrum, into normal and cancer tissue and wound exudate were examined in breast cancer. ASPC was administered by single injection of 1 or 2 g. The concentration of ASPC in the resected skin, normal mammary gland and cancer were similar to their serum levels, when ASPC was administered before radical mastectomy. ASPC concentration in the wound exudate which was collected from the inserted drains into the resected area reached the maximum at 3 approximately 4 hours after the injection at the levels of 19.4 micrograms/ml (1 g) and 35.1 micrograms/ml (2 g). The level decreased gradually by maintained still high at 3.7 micrograms/ml (1 g) and 11.4 micrograms/ml (2 g) even 8 hours after the injection. From these results it may be expected that ASPC is a useful penicillin in the breast surgery. PMID:4046174

  15. Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth

    P. RAJA; Uma, S; H. Gopal; Govindarajan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substa...

  16. Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates.

    Henry, S; Texier, S; Hallet, S; Bru, D; Dambreville, C; Chèneby, D; Bizouard, F; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

    2008-11-01

    To determine to which extent root-derived carbon contributes to the effects of plants on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers, four solutions containing different proportions of sugar, organic acids and amino acids mimicking maize root exudates were added daily to soil microcosms at a concentration of 150 microg C g(-1) of soil. Water-amended soils were used as controls. After 1 month, the size and structure of the nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities were analysed using the narG and napA, and the nirK, nirS and nosZ genes as molecular markers respectively. Addition of artificial root exudates (ARE) did not strongly affect the structure or the density of nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities whereas potential nitrate reductase and denitrification activities were stimulated by the addition of root exudates. An effect of ARE composition was also observed on N(2)O production with an N(2)O:(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio of 0.3 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 80% of sugar and of 1 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 40% of sugar. Our study indicated that ARE stimulated nitrate reduction or denitrification activity with increases in the range of those observed with the whole plant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the composition of the ARE affected the nature of the end-product of denitrification and could thus have a putative impact on greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:18393993

  17. Sticky business : diversity and evolution of Mycocaliciales (Ascomycota) on plant exudates

    Tuovila, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Species of Mycocaliciales are a group of small ascomycetes with pin-like ascocarps. Among Fungi, many mycocalicioid species are rather unique in having specialized to live on the resinous exudates of vascular plants. Terpenoid and phenolic resins essentially are repellents for fungi, but some of these species even appear to use resins for their nutrition. This peculiar ecology has a long evolutionary history, judging from 20 to 40 Ma old amber fossils, in which the ascocarps growing on ancien...

  18. Role of Synthesis and Exudation of Organic Acids in Phosphorus Nutrition in Plants in Tropical Soils

    Hasna Hena Begum

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to uptake adequate Phosphorus (P under limiting conditions in tropical and sub-tropical soils, including modifications to root architecture (e.g. cluster roots in Proteaceae, carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes and enhanced expression of numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations seem to be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants as mycorrhiza in roots significantly helps plants in P uptake at low P soils. The formation of cluster roots in concert with enhanced exudation of low molecular weight organic acids such as citric, oxalic, malic, fumaric, succinic etc. under P-stress by the non-mycorrhizal plants and the accompanying biochemical changes exemplify many of the plant adaptations that enhance P acquisition and use. Several biotechnological approach are now in progress to increase exudation of organic acids from the roots of economically important crop plants for sustainable crop production in tropical and sub-tropical soils.

  19. Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment

    The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

  20. Serum VEGF and CFH in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Haas, Paulina; Steindl, Kerstin; Aggermann, Tina; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina; Krugluger, Walter; Hageman, Gregory S.; Binder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine serum vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) levels and the association of the complement factor H gene (CFH) Y402H polymorphism in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison to unaffected control subjects. Methods Sixty-six AMD patients and 66 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were included in this case-control study. The serum VEGF165 was assayed by ELISA (R&D). Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Chisquared tests were used regarding the polymorphism, a t-test regarding the VEGF-levels. Results Levels of serum VEGF165 were similar in both groups (p-value = 0.2112). Genotype frequency differed significantly between patients with exudative AMD and the healthy control group (p = 0.003136). The serum VEGF165 levels were similar irrespective of the presence of the CFH Y402H polymorphism (p = 0.4113) and independent of the specific genotype (p = 0.9634). Conclusion In the present study exudative AMD is not associated to serum VEGF165 levels; furthermore, our data does not establish a statistical link between VEGF165 and the CFH Y402H polymorphism. PMID:21158586

  1. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    R Nanthakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.

  2. Bacillus Species Are Present in Chewing Tobacco Sold in the United States and Evoke Plasma Exudation from the Oral Mucosa

    Rubinstein, Israel; Pedersen, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 ± 1) × 106 CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudation from postcapillary venules in the intact hamster cheek pouch, exudation that was mediated by the kallikrein/kinin metabolic pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that Bacillus species co...

  3. Casuarina root exudates alter the physiology, surface properties, and plant infectivity of Frankia sp Strain CcI3

    Beauchemin, Nicholas J.; Furnholm, Teal; Lavenus, Julien; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Doumas, Patrick; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S.

    2012-01-01

    The actinomycete genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants, representing more than 200 different species. Very little is known about the initial molecular interactions between Frankia and host plants in the rhizosphere. Root exudates are important in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, especially for initiating Nod factor synthesis. We measured differences in Frankia physiology after exposure to host aqueous root exudates to assess their effects on...

  4. Contribution of Individual Chemoreceptors to Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis Towards Amino Acids of Host and Nonhost Seed Exudates.

    Webb, Benjamin A; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2016-03-01

    Plant seeds and roots exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil that attract bacteria to the spermosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti utilizes eight chemoreceptors (McpT to McpZ and IcpA) to mediate chemotaxis. Using a modified hydrogel capillary chemotaxis assay that allows data quantification and larger throughput screening, we defined the role of S. meliloti chemoreceptors in sensing its host, Medicago sativa, and a closely related nonhost, Medicago arabica. S. meliloti wild type and most single-deletion strains displayed comparable chemotaxis responses to host or nonhost seed exudate. However, while the mcpZ mutant responded like wild type to M. sativa exudate, its reaction to M. arabica exudate was reduced by 80%. Even though the amino acid (AA) amounts released by both plant species were similar, synthetic AA mixtures that matched exudate profiles contributed differentially to the S. meliloti wild-type response to M. sativa (23%) and M. arabica (37%) exudates, with McpU identified as the most important chemoreceptor for AA. Our results show that S. meliloti is equally attracted to host and nonhost legumes; however, AA play a greater role in attraction to M. arabica than to M. sativa, with McpZ being specifically important in sensing M. arabica. PMID:26713349

  5. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the biogeochemical processes acting in the rhizosphere which can play an important role in the availability of trace elements (either nutrient or toxic) for plant uptake. Research is supported by MIUR - FIRB "Futuro in ricerca", internal grant of Unibz (TN5031 & TN5046) and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Rhizotyr TN5218).

  6. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

  7. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica.

    Hooper, A M; Caulfield, J C; Hao, B; Pickett, J A; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R

    2015-09-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. PMID:26164239

  8. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID:26808048

  9. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID:26808048

  10. Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

    2012-12-15

    The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

  11. Acute gross painless transudative ascites in a patient with lupus

    Erfani, T.; Manolios, N; Howe, G; Spencer, D

    2014-01-01

    Gross ascites is a rare presentation of lupus. Ascites in lupus may be due to lupus peritonitis or secondary to one of the complications including nephrotic syndrome. The ascites due to lupus peritonitis has been described as exudative with a serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) below 11 g/L, unless associated with nephrotic syndrome. We report an unusual case of lupus ascites in a 23-year-old woman who presented with acute painless gross ascites with no constitutional, skin or musculoskelet...

  12. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition. PMID:26322029

  13. BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES

    KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; Ajredini, Ramadan; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H.; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T.; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T.; BRSCHWEILER, RAFAEL

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans ex...

  14. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous soil nematode, lives in a complex environment that requires chemical communication for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied...

  15. Senescent leaf exudate increases mosquito survival and microbial activity

    PELZ-STELINSKI, K. S.; Walker, E.D.; KAUFMAN, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of soluble components in senescent leaf material on the growth and development of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus (Say). Oak leaves that were either leached for three days to remove the labile nutrient fraction, or were not leached, served as basal nutrient inputs in each experiment.Mosquito performance in microcosms containing leachate only was significantly worse compared with microcosms containing leaf material in combinati...

  16. Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics

    Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

    2011-12-01

    The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  17. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress

    Mariano, E.D.; Jorge, R.A.; Keltjens, W.G.; Menossi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag p...

  18. Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

  19. Proteomics of wound exudate in snake venom-induced pathology: search for biomarkers to assess tissue damage and therapeutic success.

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John; Gutirrez, Jos Mara; Fox, Jay W

    2011-04-01

    Tissue damage analysis by traditional laboratory techniques is problematic. Proteomic analysis of exudates collected from affected tissue constitutes a powerful approach to assess tissue alterations, since biomarkers associated with pathologies can be identified in very low concentrations. In this study we proteomically explore the pathological effects induced by the venom of the viperid snake Bothrops asper in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Predominant proteins identified in the exudates included intracellular proteins, plasma proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and cell membrane-associated proteins. The presence of such proteins indicates cytotoxicity, plasma exudation, extracellular matrix degradation and shedding of membrane proteins. Some of these proteins may represent useful biomarkers for myonecrosis and microvascular damage. The effect of fucoidan, an inhibitor of myotoxic phospholipases A(2), and batimastat, an inhibitor of metalloproteinases, on the pathological effects induced by B. asper venom were also investigated. Fucoidan reduced the presence of intracellular proteins in exudates, whereas batimastat reduced the amount of relevant extracellular matrix proteins. The combination of these inhibitors resulted in the abrogation of the most relevant pathological effects of this venom. Thus, proteomic analysis of exudates represents a valuable approach to assess the characteristics of tissue damage in pathological models and the success of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21306181

  20. Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.

    Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

  1. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Fernndez-Aparicio, Mnica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance. PMID:24974726

  2. Unusual bacterial infections and the pleura.

    Kummerfeldt, Carlos E; Huggins, John T; Sahn, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsiosis, Q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) are caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, respectively. Pleural fluid from a patient with MSF had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. Coxiellaburnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a transudate due to a constrictive pericarditis. Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Pleural fluid from three tularemia patients showed a lymphocyte predominant exudate. Bacillusanthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Cases of inhalational anthrax from a recent bioterrorist attack evidenced the presence of a serosanguineous exudative pleural effusion. These four bacterial microorganisms should be suspected in patients presenting with a clinical history, exposure to known risk factors and an unexplained pleural effusion. PMID:22977649

  3. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates and distilled water. This indicates that fungal fatty acid metabolism is enhanced when contacting insect, but when in the absence of insect hosts NRP synthesis is increased. Ornithine, arginine and GABA are decreased in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates but remain unchanged in distilled water, which suggests that they may be associated with fungal cross-talk with insects and plants. Trehalose and mannitol are decreased while adenine is increased in three conditions, signifying carbon shortage in cells. Together, these results unveil that B. bassiana has differential metabolic responses in pupae extracts and root exudates, and metabolic similarity in root exudates and distilled water is possibly due to the lack of insect components. PMID:25584432

  4. Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2004-06-01

    The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere. PMID:15142245

  5. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. PMID:26836615

  6. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root exudates. We found that mucilage and 14C concentrations were higher around the young root segments. Mucilage concentration was particularly high in the most apical 3-5 cm of the roots. Drought stress increased 14C exudation relative to C fixation and led to higher mucilage concentrations around roots. However, it remains unclear, whether the lower mucilage concentration around roots grown at higher soil moisture was caused by the faster diffusion of mucilage in wet soils. Therefore, a second experiment was focused on diffusion of mucilage in soil at varying water contents. The diffusion of mucilage in soil was not very sensitive to soil water content. We conclude that mucilage release was higher for plants exposed to drought stress. In summary, the combination of neutron radiography and 14C imaging can successfully be used to visualize and to quantify the distribution of mucilage and root exudates in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil. References Kroener, E., Zarebanadkouki, M., Kaestner, A., & Carmintati, A. (2014). Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils. Water Resources Research, 37. Pausch, J., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2011). Photoassimilate allocation and dynamics of hotspots in roots visualized by 14C phosphor imaging. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174(1), 12-19.

  8. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  9. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high......-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...... indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G′, G″ or η∗ values of...

  10. Root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants of pakistan exhibit allelopathic potential

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants commonly used in Pakistan by plant box and sandwich methods, respectively. In sandwich method, lettuce seedlings were grown with the dry leaf leachates of the selected plant species in a growing media at the rate of 5, 10 and 50 mg dish-1 in a completely randomized design with three replications. Their effects on hypocotyl and radicle growth of the lettuce were recorded as a percentage of untreated control. Data was subjected for analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by Tukey's HSD test at p<0.05. Results indicated that allelopathic effects of the leaf leachates of all selected plant species on the hypocotyl and radicle elongations of the lettuce varied significantly in all concentrations used in experiments. The hypocotyl growth of the lettuce seedlings was affected from promotion (6.71% inhibition) caused by Phlaris minor to inhibition (78.40%) by Withania somnifera. Both species suppressed the radicle length from 33.69-93.30%. Leachates of W. somnifera and Sarcococca saligna exhibited strong inhibitory results in a concentration dependant manner. After the growth period of 50 days, root exudates of S. saligna appeared most detrimental (78.00% inhibition) to radicle growth of the lettuce seedling followed by W. somnifera (75.00%) when tested by plant box method. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature and in the development of new and potent bioherbicides to combat environmental risk. (author)

  11. Enrichment of specific bacterial and eukaryotic microbes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum?L.) through root exudates.

    Mao, Yuejian; Li, Xiangzhen; Smyth, Eoghan M; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-06-01

    Identification of microbes that actively utilize root exudates is essential to understand plant-microbe interactions. To identify active root exudate-utilizing microorganisms associated with switchgrass - a potential bioenergy crop - plants were labelled in situ with (13) CO2 , and 16S and 18S rRNA genes in the (13) C-labelled rhizosphere DNA were pyrosequenced. Multi-pulse labelling for 5 days produced detectable (13) C-DNA, which was well separated from unlabelled DNA. Methylibium from the order Burkholderiales were the most heavily labelled bacteria. Pythium, Auricularia and Galerina were the most heavily labelled eukaryotic microbes. We also identified a Glomus intraradices-like species; Glomus members are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that are able to colonize the switchgrass root. All of these heavily labelled microorganisms were also among the most abundant species in the rhizosphere. Species belonging to Methylibium and Pythium were the most heavily labelled and the most abundant bacteria and eukaryotes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass. Our results revealed that nearly all of the dominant rhizosphere bacterial and eukaryotic microbes were able to utilize root exudates. The enrichment of microbial species in the rhizosphere is selective and mostly due to root exudation, which functions as a nutrition source, promoting the growth of these microbes. PMID:24983534

  12. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N...

  13. Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals

    The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

  14. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

  15. Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis

    Canan H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycioğlu,1 Çağla Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease.Materials and methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed.Results: There were 43 female (48.9% and 45 males (51.1%. The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19 months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009. The mean central retinal thickness (CRT decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 µm at baseline to 250.85±45.48 µm at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 µm at baseline to 268.61±53.51 µm at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ranibizumab, visual acuity

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Properties of Flavonoids from Heliotropium subulatum Exudate.

    Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Ram A

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium subulatum is an erect or procumbent perennial herb; leaves contain foliar trichomes and its resinous exudate is used in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated flavonoids was evaluated by using carrageenan and CFA-induced paw oedema models. Similarly, the disc diffusion and microdilution methods were used for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. Five isolated flavonoids were investigated for their antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Eriodictyol demonstrated maximum anti-inflammatory activity (53.09%) at 30.0 mg/kg dose on 6(th) h and similarly, it inhibited the CFA-induced arthritis swelling (41.84%) with 30.0 mg/kg dose on 8(th) day respectively. As per disc diffusion and microdilution methods used for antimicrobial activity determination, the pinocembrin was found to be most active against Staphylococcus aureus (IZ=27±0.7 mm, 08 μg/ml dose) and Candida albicans (IZ=17±0.9 mm; 12 μg/ml dose). These investigated results revealed that the eriodictyol and pinocembrin showed significant anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Further studies which aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of these isolated flavonoids in the treatment of inflammations and various types of infections have been initiated. PMID:26728771

  17. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum...... peat, peat pore water and natural microbial communities, were exposed outdoors to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15% ozone depletion in southern Scandinavia for 8 wk. •  Enhanced UV-B increased rhizome biomass and tended to decrease the biomass of the largest root fraction of N. ossifragum and...... furthermore decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and monocarboxylic acid concentration, which serves as an estimate of net root exudation, in the pore water of the N. ossifragum mesocosms. Monocarboxylic acid concentration was negatively related to the total carbon concentration of N. ossifragum leaves...

  18. Rheological Modeling, Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Characterization of Raphia hookeri (RH Gum Exudate

    Nnabuk Okon EDDY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raphia hookeri (RH gum exudate has been analysed for physical (colour, odour, taste, pH, salinity, turbidity, chemical (solubility in some solvents, proximate/elemental composition, vitamin composition, phytochemicals and anti-nutrients and spectroscopic (wavelength of maximum absorption, GCMS, FTIR and SEM properties. The results obtained from the study revealed that RH gum has the potential for utilization as an emulsifier, a food additive and as a pharmaceutical excipient. Rheological modeling on the gum revealed that the average intrinsic value of the gum, (deduced from Huggins, Kraemer, Tanglerpaibul and Rao models is approximately 3.0 dl/g. The calculated values of Huggins and Kraemer constants revealed the existence of molecular association in the gum. The gum is found to possess unique rheological properties including absence of degradation/conformational changes, existent of intra and inter molecular interactions, adoption of random coil model and absent of coil overlap transition. RH gum is a shear thinning, non- Newtonian gum with pseudo-plastic behavior. The calculated thermodynamic parameters were comparable to those reported for some food gums.

  19. The past, present, and future of exudative age-related macular degeneration treatment

    Yoreh Barak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular "destructive treatments," such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitreal injections that also carry the inherit risks of infection, retinal tears, and detachment. Several new and more potent VEGF inhibitors are at different stages of development. The goal of evolving pharmacotherapy is to preserve the therapeutic effect while reducing or eliminating the discomfort of intravitreal drug delivery, as well as identify new therapeutic targets. Complement inhibitors, immunomodulators, integrin inhibitors are a few of the new class of drugs that are expected to be in our armamentarium soon. Current medications act to decrease leakage through abnormal subretinal choroidal vasculature and promote involution. However, these medications are only effective in treating the active stage of the choroidal neovascular membrane. Restoration of vision of a large number of patients with involuted choroidal neovascular membranes is warranted. For this purpose, tissue engineering techniques have been employed to reconstruct the subretinal anatomy. Discovery of biomarkers, pharmacogenetics, and very specific targeting holds the promise of increased potency and safety in the future.

  20. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF HARD EXUDATES IN FUNDUS IMAGES USING IMPROVED OTSU THRESHOLDING AND SVM

    Weiwei Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One common cause of visual impairment among people of working age in the industrialized countries is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR. Automatic recognition of hard exudates (EXs which is one of DR lesions in fundus images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of DR.The aim of this paper was to automatically detect those lesions from fundus images. At first,green channel of each original fundus image was segmented by improved Otsu thresholding based on minimum inner-cluster variance, and candidate regions of EXs were obtained. Then, we extracted features of candidate regions and selected a subset which best discriminates EXs from the retinal background by means of logistic regression (LR. The selected features were subsequently used as inputs to a SVM to get a final segmentation result of EXs in the image. Our database was composed of 120 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. 70 of them were used to train the SVM and the remaining 50 to assess the performance of the method. Using a lesion based criterion, we achieved a mean sensitivity of 95.05% and a mean positive predictive value of 95.37%. With an image-based criterion, our approach reached a 100% mean sensitivity, 90.9% mean specificity and 96.0% mean accuracy. Furthermore, the average time cost in processing an image is 8.31 seconds. These results suggest that the proposed method could be a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the screening for DR.

  1. Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report

    Nouri-Majalan Nader; Masoumi Roghayyeh; Halvani Abolhasan; Moghaddasi Sara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the u...

  2. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    Mayka Reghiany, Pedro; Talita, Kato; Adriana Loureno, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fbio Augusto Garcia, Cor; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paio; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0C (2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  3. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Mayka Reghiany Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0C (2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  4. Identification of novel KIF11 mutations in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and a phenotypic analysis.

    Li, Jia-Kai; Fei, Ping; Li, Yian; Huang, Qiu-Jing; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiang; Rao, Yu-Qing; Li, Jing; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-01-01

    KIF11 gene mutations cause a rare autosomal dominant inheritable disease called microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation (MCLMR). Recently, such mutations were also found to be associated with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Here, we report 7 novel KIF11 mutations identified by targeted gene capture in a cohort of 142 probands with FEVR who were diagnosed in our clinic between March 2015 and November 2015. These mutations were: p.L171V, c.790-2A>C, p.Q525*, p.Q842*, p.S936*, p.L983fs and p.R1025G. Phenotypic analysis revealed that all of the affected probands had advanced FEVR (stage 4 or above). Three had microcephaly, and one had chorioretinopathy, which indicated a phenotypic overlap with MCLMR. Two mutations were also found in the families of the affected probands. One parent with a p.R1025G mutation had an avascular peripheral retina and abnormal looping vessels. However, one parent with p.L983fs had normal retina, which indicated incomplete penetration of the genotype. Our results further confirmed that KIF11 is causative of FEVR in an autosomal dominant manner. We also suggest the examination of MCLMR-like features, such as microcephaly, chorioretinopathy, for patients with FEVR and wide-field fundus photography for patients with MCLMR in future practice. PMID:27212378

  5. Early detection and identification of amphizoic amoebae from nasal exudates of a symptomatic case.

    Siripanth, Chutatip; Punpoowong, Benjanee; Riganti, Mario

    2005-04-01

    A man visited the Out Patient Department of the hospital for Tropical Diseases in February 2004 with low grade fever and severe headache for a week. He had the history of diving in a natural pond 2-3 days before the onset of the disease. A thick bloody mucous was observed from the nasal discharge. Fresh microscopic observation of the exudates in 0.85% sodium chloride revealed numerous active amoeba trophozoites. Two groups of the trophozoites were observed The first group was 10 micro sized amoeba with active directional movement by lobopodia and the second group was 15-30 micro sized amoeba with active multiprogressive movement by filopodia. Few flagellate forms were observed after exflagellation in distilled water and some polygonal cysts were also found. Giemsa' stain was used to differentiate the amoeba trophozoites from the leukocytes. It was concluded that this patient was infected by both Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. This is the first report of double infection of free-living amoeba in a symptomatic and non-fatal patient. PMID:16146264

  6. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    GünterNeumann; RicoLippmann; RitaGrosch; KorneliaSmalla

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types...

  7. The Diagnostic Values of Protein to Lactate Dehyrogenase Ratio in Serum and Pleural Fluid in Exudate Pleural Effusions

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different etiologies of pleural effusion are diagnosed based on serum and plural fluid characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the serum and pleural fluid protein to lactate dehyrogenase (Pr/LDH ratio in exudative pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with exudative pleural effusion including: 20 cases with parapneumonic , 20 cases with Tuberculosis (TB, and 20 cases with malignancy. The serum and pleural Pr/LDH were measured and compared among 3 groups. Result: The mean age of the patients was 55±19SD (years and male to female ratio was 36/24. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age of the patients among 3 groups (p=0.08. There were statistically significant differences in serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios among groups ( p=0.04 and p= 0.1, respectively. Additionally the comparisons of serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios between malignancy and tuberculosis groups were significant ( p=0.02 and p=0.001 , respectively. The serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios were higher in TB group. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratio can be used in differentiating the etiology of exudative pleural effusion, but needs to be confirmed by larger study.

  8. VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS

    In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

  9. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity. PMID:22701057

  10. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M.; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A.; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here ...

  11. Differing antimicrobial potency and specificity of peripheral blood and autologous exudative polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    Lam, C; Schtze, E; Gmoser, U

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the antimicrobial potency and specificity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes which actually appear at the sites of bacterial invasion in tissues. In the present work we have compared inflammatory leucocytes induced by intraperitoneal injection of casein in rabbits with autologous peripheral blood cells in killing Escherichia coli serotype 01 and Staphylococcus aureus 502A. The results indicate that inflammatory leucocytes differ significantly from their virgin blood ancestors. While the blood leucocytes were only able to suppress the growth of the gram-negative bacteria, autologous exudative cells killed more than 95% of the test organisms within 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. The enhanced microbicidal activity of the inflammatory cells however, was only specific for the gram-negative bacteria, as evidenced by the failure of leucocytes to kill Staph. aureus to the same extent as the peripheral blood cells. In association with the enhanced gram-negative microbicidal activity the inflammatory cells produced chemiluminescence and released two to three times more O2-anions than the peripheral cells. We interpret these observations to mean that chemotactic factors such as casein activate inflammatory cells to increase their oxidative metabolism. Since microbicidal action of leucocytes is thought to proceed in part through oxygen-dependent reactions, the inflammatory leucocytes would be expected to effectively kill bacteria that are highly susceptible to these lethal oxygen metabolites. It cannot therefore be assumed that assessment of the functional capacity of the virgin peripheral blood PMNs would provide information on the functional characteristics of activated leucocytes which actually migrate to and accumulate at inflammatory sites. PMID:6094092

  12. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Available phosphorus (P) is one of the most important factors affecting crop production worldwide. Study on improving plant P uptake is hence of global importance. We have investigated the responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low P availability in three important food crops (barley, canola and potato) with divergent root traits using a hydroponic culture system. Results showed that plants evolved divergent adaptations of root morphology and exudation as a response to ...

  13. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of Gum Exudates from Khaya senegalensis and Albizia ferruginea on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Ameh, Paul Ocheje

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the inhibitory potentials of gum exudates from Albizia ferruginea (AF) and Khaya senegalensis (KS) on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl medium was investigated using weight loss and gasometric method. The active chemical constituents of the gum were elucidated using GC-MS while FTIR was used to identify the bonds/functional groups in the gums. The two gum exudates were found to be good corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium. On comparison, maximum inhibit...

  14. Modeling the Interaction of H2 on Root Exudate Degradation and Methanogenesis in Wetland Sediments

    Pal, D. S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are many potential sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2 while the H2 and CO2 is synthesized to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. Since H2 is used in methane production and produced in propionate fermentation, increased subsurface H2 concentrations can simultaneously inhibit propionate fermentation and acetate production and enhance hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. For this study, we incubated soil samples from vegetated wetland sediments with propionate or acetate and four different hydrogen concentrations. The headspaces from these incubations were simultaneously analyzed for H2 and CH4 at multiple time points over two months. The comparison of methane production between different hydrogen concentrations and different carbon sources can indicate which process is most affected by increased hydrogen concentrations. The results from this study were combined with a newly formulated steady-state model of propionate degradation and formation of methane, that also accounts for the venting off both gases via plants. The resulting model indicates how methane production and emissions would be affected by plant volatilization.

  15. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and homocysteine in exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Alireza Javadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oxidative stress has been proposed as an important case of exudative age-related macular degeneration (E-ARMD. The aim of the present study was to investigate homocysteine (Hcy, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDL-C levels, the factors involved in oxidative stress, in the patients with E-ARMD. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 45 patients with E-ARMD were compared with 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The levels of biochemical factors, Hcy, ADMA, and of Ox-LDL were estimated by standard methods in both study groups. Results: The levels of Hcy (15.4 7.2 vs. 10.7 3.7 ?M, P = 0.001, Ox-LDL (52.2 13.8 vs. 37.8 10.8 U/l, P = 0.001, and ADMA (0.84 0.23 vs. 0.71 0.26 ?M, P = 0.012 were significantly higher in the patients with E-ARMD than those in the controls. In the patient group, there was a positive and significant correlation between serum Ox-LDL and Hcy concentrations (r = 0.719, P = 0.001, but no correlation was found between serum ADMA and Ox-LDL (r = 0.010, P = 0.900 and also between serum Hcy and ADMA levels (r = -0.070, P = 0.600. Conclusion: The high levels of Hcy as an oxidant agent and ADMA as an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor can lead to increase Ox-LDL levels, and they may have important roles in oxidative stress, which can be a trigger in E-ARMD.

  16. Cesium Interactions With Illite in the Presence of Bacterial Exudates

    Wendling, L. A.; Ward, T. E.; Harsh, J. B.; Hamilton, M. A.; Palmer, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere can significantly alter chemical reactions between contaminants and soil minerals. Several strains of bacteria that exude aluminum-chelating compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). We examined the effect of exudates from the rhizosphere bacteria on cesium desorption from illite. The exudates from some strains of rhizosphere bacteria significantly enhanced Cs desorption from illite. In addition, Cs desorption from illite increased with increasing concentration of exudates from one selected bacterial strain. There was no obvious relationship between Cs desorption and the Al-chelating ability of the exudates. Both mobilization of Al from illite and changes in the density of frayed edge sites on the illite were monitored as a function of exudate type and concentration. Results suggest that exudates from rhizosphere bacteria may play an important role in Cs interactions with illite and, therefore, could alter Cs availability in micaceous soils.

  17. Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose

    Patricia Maloso Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

  18. Leachability of volatile fuel compounds from contaminated soils and the effect of plant exudates: A comparison of column and batch leaching tests.

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fuel compounds such as fuel oxygenates (FO) (MTBE and ETBE) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) are some of the most soluble components of fuel. Characterizing the leaching potential of these compounds is essential for predicting their mobility through the soil profile and assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. Plant root exudates can play an important role in the modification of contaminant mobility in soil-plant systems, and such effects should also be considered in leaching studies. Artificially spiked samples of A and B horizons from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were leached in packed-columns and batch experiments using Milli-Q water and plant root exudates as leaching agents. The leaching potential and rate were strongly influenced by soil-contaminant interactions and by the presence of root exudates. Organic matter in A horizon preferably sorbed the most non-polar contaminants, lowering their leaching potential, and this effect was enhanced by the presence of root exudates. On the other hand, the inorganic components of the B horizon, showed a greater affinity for polar molecules, and the presence of root exudates enhanced the desorption of the contaminants. Column experiments resulted in a more realistic protocol than batch tests for predicting the leaching potential of volatile organic compounds in dissimilar soils. PMID:26619047

  19. Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin

    The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems

  20. Subretinal exudative deposits in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Ie, D; Yannuzzi, L A; Spaide, R. F.; Rabb, M F; Blair, N.P.; Daily, M J

    1993-01-01

    The presence of subretinal exudation in a patient with neurosensory detachment of the macula frequently suggests the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularisation. A retrospective chart review of newly diagnosed cases of central serous chorioretinopathy revealed 11 patients, seven men and four non-pregnant women, who had plaques of subretinal exudate, which presumably were fibrin. Each of these patients had a solitary plaque that ranged in size from 300 to 1500 microns in diameter. These patients...

  1. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphopodia and germinated spore exudates trigger Ca2+ spiking in the legume and nonlegume root epidermis.

    Chabaud, Mireille; Genre, Andrea; Sieberer, Björn J; Faccio, Antonella; Fournier, Joëlle; Novero, Mara; Barker, David G; Bonfante, Paola

    2011-01-01

    • The aim of this study was to investigate Ca(2+) responses to endosymbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the host root epidermis following pre-infection hyphopodium formation in both legumes and nonlegumes, and to determine to what extent these responses could be mimicked by germinated fungal spore exudate. • Root organ cultures of both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota, expressing the nuclear-localized cameleon reporter NupYC2.1, were used to monitor AM-elicited Ca(2+) responses in host root tissues. • Ca(2+) spiking was observed in cells contacted by AM hyphopodia for both hosts, with highest frequencies correlating with the epidermal nucleus positioned facing the fungal contact site. Treatment with AM spore exudate also elicited Ca(2+) spiking within the AM-responsive zone of the root and, in both cases, spiking was dependent on the M. truncatula common SYM genes DMI1/2, but not on the rhizobial Nod factor perception gene NFP. • These findings support the conclusion that AM fungal root penetration is preceded by a SYM pathway-dependent oscillatory Ca(2+) response, whose evolutionary origin predates the divergence between asterid and rosid clades. Our results further show that fungal symbiotic signals are already generated during spore germination, and that cameleon-expressing root organ cultures represent a novel AM-specific bio-assay for such signals. PMID:20880223

  3. Modeling of Heat Transfer and Interdendritic Strain for Exuded Surface Segregation Layer in the Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar

    2016-02-01

    This investigation on the formation of exuded surface segregation layer " ESSL" is intended to provide experimental and simulated comparison to verify the model developed previously by El-Bealy. Preliminary verification and calibration of the previous 2D mathematical model are demonstrated by quantitative errors between the previous measurements and predictions of temperature and macrosegregation. Also, the results from these comparisons reveal that the errors are in the reasonable and within allowable limits. These comparisons lead to the fact that the exuded surface segregation layer mostly forms on the middle slice of broad sheet ingot face and in the early stages of mold zone. The model predictions point out also that the different interdendritic strain hypotheses associated with fluctuations of mold cooling conditions. This affects the interdendritic liquid flow between the equiaxed crystals which influences the severity of ESSL formation and its macrosegregation level. The mechanism of ESSL with heat flow and interdendritic strain generation has been analyzed and discussed. The quantitative comparisons between the pervious experimental results and numerical simulation in this investigation reveal also several solutions to prevent this defect for future work.

  4. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  5. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  6. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates

  7. The 11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions

    Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2 . The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The 11 C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. 11 C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with 11 C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs 11 CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive 11 CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with 11 C and translocated throughout the plant similar to 12 C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or 11 CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  8. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court; Poder, A; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Catteau, G; Thomas, F; Lehtinen, M; Descamps, D

    2011-01-01

    transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...... young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at pre-specified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained...

  9. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, C; Andersen, Anne Poder; Strauss, G; Catteau, G; Thomas, F; Lehtinen, Tuija Marita; Descamps, D

    2010-01-01

    transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...... young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at pre-specified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained...

  10. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  11. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  12. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  13. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  14. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...

  15. [Physicochemical properties of medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate].

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Li, Hong-Lian; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate. Morphological characteristics of the sclerotia and its exudate were observed during different stages of sclerotial formation. The pH of the exudate was detected at different time during cultivation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate during cultivating time. Additionally, the protein content was measured by means of BCA protein assay. Furthermore, CAT content was detected using ultraviolet absorption method. That the protein content of the exudate and CAT specific activity rose gradually during the passage of the cultivating time indicated a high level of oxidative stress during P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate formation. The results showed that the pH of the exudate increased gradually and then dropped down during sclerotial formation. That the pH of the exudate maintained the acidity state during the cultivation indirectly indicated that acidic environment would help sclerotial formation. The exudate produced gradually and was absorbed by the sclerotia itself. PMID:24754165

  16. Phloem exudation studies in selected woody trees

    Costello, L.R.

    1980-10-01

    Chelating agents, particularly EDTA, were tested for their effectiveness in enhancing the exudation of phloem sugars from selected woody tree species. Of the species selected, Fraxinus uhdei (Evergreen Ash) proved most useful for exudation studies. Experiments using /sup 14/C labelled, excised leaflets of F. uhdei demonstrated that exudation was enhanced approximately 9-fold by a 2.0 mM EDTA treatment. An analysis of labelled products in the treatment solution showed that over 90% of label appeared in oligosaccharides and sucrose. These findings suggested that the sugars released into EDTA treatment solutions were principally derived from phloem sieve elements. Electron microscope studies of the fine structure of sieve plate pores after treatment with EDTA or H/sub 2/O showed substantially less callose appearing in sieve plates of leaflets treated with EDTA. It was proposed that EDTA enhances exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that EDTA was effective in promoting exudation from whole plant specimens of F. uhdei as well as from excised leaflets. (MHR)

  17. Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report

    Nouri-Majalan Nader

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the uniformly negative results of a lung perfusion scan, Doppler ultrasound, and culture of bronchoalveolar lavage and plural effusion, and because our patient showed spontaneous improvement. Conclusions False positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause lung trauma presenting as pulmonary contusion and cavitation with plural effusion.

  18. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  19. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1998-01-01

    were antigenically distinct. The three toxins were designated ExhA, ExhB and ExhC. From 60 diseased pigs, each representing an outbreak of exudative epidermitis, a total of 584 isolates of S. hl icus were phage typed and tested for production of exfoliative toxin. ExhA-, ExhB- and ExhC-producing S....... hyicus isolates were found in 12 (20%), 20 (33%) and 11 (18%); respectively, of the 60 pig herds investigated. Production of the different types of exfoliative toxin was predominantly associated with certain phage groups. However. toxin production was found in all of the six phage groups defined by the...... phage typing system. Some changes in the distribution of isolates between phage groups were observed when the results of this study were compared to previous investigations. In this study two new antigenically distinct exfoliative toxins were isolated and tools for in vitro detection of toxin producing...

  20. 14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops

    Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  1. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and...... other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging...... forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at...

  2. Clinical value of detection of malignant ascites and thoracic exudate by means of six tumor-markers

    Objective: To study the clinical value of six potential tumor markers including serums CA125, CYFRA21-1, CA-50, CA15-3, HCG, β-HCG. These were determined in effusions of malignant ascites and hydrothorax of 170 patients, with cellular examination as control. Methods: Using IRMA. Results: The data of our experiments revealed that of all six tumor-markers, CA125 was the highest in positive rate as well as concordance rate with cytology examination. In or- der CA125, CA-50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1, β-HCG. It was valuable to point out that the specificity of HCG and β-HCG was very strong and there was no false positivity had yet been found with them. Though their positivity was not so high as that of CA125. Have to higher specificity of detection of malignant ascites by CYFRA21-1. Conclusions: It suggested that + CYFRA21-1 should be the preferred choice in diagnosing malignant hydrothorax next + CA-50,CYFRA21-1 +CA-50; for malignant ascites as well, CA125 + β-HCG determination is just as good, next CA125 + CYFRA21-1. We believe that when a clear diagnosis of a primary focus of cancer is made clinically, or a malignant ascites or thoracic exudate come highly under suspicion, the diagnosis of malignancy of the ascites or thoracic exudate can be established even though the exfoliative cells, provided the detection by tumor-markers, it has got one of the following results: the roles of tumor-markers determination in malignant serous effusions, two of CA125, CYFRA21-1. CA15-3 and CA-50 markers are positive; anyone of the above markers plus HCG or β-HCG positivity; both HCG and β-HCG or CA15-3 are positive. (author)

  3. EFFICACY OF PLEURAL FLUID ADENOSINE DEAMINASE AND C -REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVELS IN EARLY DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF P LEURAL EFFUSION.

    Aliya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: - CONTEXT: Pleural effusion occurs secondary to various disea ses. Common causes of exudative effusion are tuberculosis, bacterial pneu monia, and malignancy. Transudative effusion is due to systemic diseases like cardiac failure, cirr hosis of liver. Conventional methods of diagnosis may not be able to establish the cause of pleural e ffusion. Early diagnosis and management reduces the morbidity and mortality. AIM: The objective of the study is to estimate pleural fluid Adenosine Deaminase (ADA and C - reactive protein (CRP leve ls and to evaluate their efficacy in differential diagnosis of transudative and exudative, tuberculou s and non tuberculous and inflammatory and non inflammatory effusions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty two patients of pleural effusion were investigated and divided into four groups base d on diagnosis. Group I, II, III and IV had 24 cases of tuberculous effusion, 13 cases of transuda tive effusion, 08 cases of malignant effusion and 07 cases of parapneumonic effusion respectively. Pl eural fluid was analyzed for ADA (Guisti and Galanti’s method and CRP (turbidometric immunoassa y. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The statistical analysis was done using unpaired student‘t’ test an d p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the present study pleural fluid ADA revealed hig hly significant increase in tuberculous effusion than non tuberculous effusions (p <0.001 and also when compared with non tuberculous subgroups, transudative effusion (p < 0 .001, malignant effusion (p<0.001, and PPE (p<0.01. ADA levels at a cutoff value of 40U/L, sh owed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 91.67%, 89.3 %, 88% & 92.6% respectively in tuberculous effusion. Pleural fluid CRP levels in parapneumonic effusion were significantly higher compared to other types of effusions (p<0.001. Significantly h igher levels of CRP were seen in exudative effusion compared to transudative effusion (p<0.001 and in inflammatory effusion compared to non inflammatory effusion (p<0.001.

  4. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  5. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

  6. Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania

    Gaspar S. Mhinzi

    2003-01-01

    Gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from –43.2o to –52o for Acacia Senegal var...

  7. Phosphorus and iron deficiencies induce a metabolic reprogramming and affect the exudation traits of the woody plant Fragaria×ananassa.

    Valentinuzzi, Fabio; Pii, Youry; Vigani, Gianpiero; Lehmann, Martin; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Strawberries are a very popular fruit among berries, for both their commercial and economic importance, but especially for their beneficial effects for human health. However, their bioactive compound content is strictly related to the nutritional status of the plant and might be affected if nutritional disorders (e.g. Fe or P shortage) occur. To overcome nutrient shortages, plants evolved different mechanisms, which often involve the release of root exudates. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying root exudation and its regulation are as yet still poorly known, in particular in woody crop species. The aim of this work was therefore to characterize the pattern of root exudation of strawberry plants grown in either P or Fe deficiency, by investigating metabolomic changes of root tissues and the expression of genes putatively involved in exudate extrusion. Although P and Fe deficiencies differentially affected the total metabolism, some metabolites (e.g. raffinose and galactose) accumulated in roots similarly under both conditions. Moreover, P deficiency specifically affected the content of galactaric acid, malic acid, lysine, proline, and sorbitol-6-phosphate, whereas Fe deficiency specifically affected the content of sucrose, dehydroascorbic acid, galactonate, and ferulic acid. At the same time, the citrate content did not change in roots under both nutrient deficiencies with respect to the control. However, a strong release of citrate was observed, and it increased significantly with time, being +250% and +300% higher in Fe- and P-deficient plants, respectively, compared with the control. Moreover, concomitantly, a significant acidification of the growth medium was observed in both treatments. Gene expression analyses highlighted for the first time that at least two members of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter family and one member of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase family are involved in the response to both P and Fe starvation in strawberry plants. PMID:26188206

  8. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    René Torres; Brenda Modak; Jesús Rodilla; Melissa Salina

    2009-01-01

    Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical meth...

  9. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  10. Subretinal exudative deposits in central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Ie, D; Yannuzzi, L A; Spaide, R F; Rabb, M F; Blair, N P; Daily, M J

    1993-01-01

    The presence of subretinal exudation in a patient with neurosensory detachment of the macula frequently suggests the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularisation. A retrospective chart review of newly diagnosed cases of central serous chorioretinopathy revealed 11 patients, seven men and four non-pregnant women, who had plaques of subretinal exudate, which presumably were fibrin. Each of these patients had a solitary plaque that ranged in size from 300 to 1500 microns in diameter. These patients had no signs or a clinical course suggestive of choroidal neovascularisation. In each case the subretinal plaque was overlying an exuberant leak in the retinal pigment epithelium. The exudate was generally present at the initial examination, and usually showed dissolution before or coincident with the resolution of the neurosensory detachment. After resolution of the central serous chorioretinopathy, patients were left with subtle alterations in the retinal pigment epithelium in the areas of the subretinal plaque. These findings are important for two reasons. Firstly, the presence of subretinal exudation does not necessarily rule out the diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy. Secondly, pathophysiological theories of central serous chorioretinopathy must explain how the plaques are deposited behind the retina. Images PMID:8318481

  11. Larvicidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are released in root exudates of transgenic B. thuringiensis corn, potato, and rice but not of B. thuringiensis canola, cotton, and tobacco.

    Saxena, Deepak; Stewart, C Neal; Altosaar, Illimar; Shu, Qingyao; Stotzky, G

    2004-05-01

    Larvicidal proteins encoded by cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were released in root exudates from transgenic B. thuringiensis corn, rice, and potato but not from B. thuringiensis canola, cotton, and tobacco. Nonsterile soil and sterile hydroponic solution in which B. thuringiensis corn, rice, or potato had been grown were immunologically positive for the presence of the Cry proteins; from B. thuringiensis corn and rice, the soil and solution were toxic to the larva of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), and from potato, to the larva of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), representative lepidoptera and coleoptera, respectively. No toxin was detected immunologically or by larvicidal assay in soil or hydroponic solution in which B. thuringiensis canola, cotton, or tobacco, as well as all near-isogenic non-B. thuringiensis plant counterparts or no plants, had been grown. All plant species had the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, except rice, which had the ubiquitin promoter from maize. The reasons for the differences between species in the exudation from roots of the toxins are not known. The released toxins persisted in soil as the result of their binding on surface-active particles (e.g. clay minerals, humic substances), which reduced their biodegradation. The release of the toxins in root exudates could enhance the control of target insect pests, constitute a hazard to nontarget organisms, and/or increase the selection of toxin-resistant target insects. PMID:15191740

  12. Release of the recombinant proteins, human serum albumin, beta-glucuronidase, glycoprotein B from human cytomegalovirus, and green fluorescent protein, in root exudates from transgenic tobacco and their effects on microbes and enzymatic activities in soil.

    Sabharwal, N; Icoz, I; Saxena, D; Stotzky, G

    2007-01-01

    We determined the release in root exudates of human serum albumin (HSA), beta-glucuronidase (GUS), glycoprotein B (gB) from human cytomegalovirus, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from genetically modified transgenic tobacco expressing the genes for these proteins in hydroponic culture and non-sterile soil. GUS, gB, and GFP were expressed in the plant but were not released in root exudates, whereas HSA was both expressed in the plant and released in root exudates, as shown by a 66.5-kDa band on SDS-PAGE and Western blot and confirmed by ELISA. Root exudates from GUS and gB plants showed no bands that could be attributed to these proteins on SDS-PAGE, and root exudates from GFP plants showed no fluorescence. The concentration of HSA in root exudates was estimated to be 0.021 ng ml(-1), whereas that in the plant biomass was estimated to be 0.087 ng ml(-1). The concentration of HSA in soil was estimated to be 0.049 ng g(-1). No significant differences in the number of microorganisms and the activity of selected enzymes were observed between rhizosphere soil of non-modified and HSA tobacco. PMID:17467280

  13. Salivary gland structure of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (MASKELL, 1890 (Hemiptera and phloem exudate in Eucalyptus globulus LABILLARDIÈRE, 1799 (Myrtaceae

    Sharma Anamika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the salivary glands of the free-living aphalarid Ctenarytaina eucalypti, which infests multiple species of Eucalyptus in Australasia and has been introduced into many other regions of the world, is described and illustrated. The principal salivary gland is multilobed whereas the accessory gland is tubular. 1-D electrophoresis revealed proteins of approximately 58 and 64 kDa in the salivary gland extracts and proteins of similar molecular weights in the extracted plant exudates, including phloem, from infested leaves and tender shoots of E. globulus. Proteins that could fall within this range include, but are not limited to, glucosemethanol- choline-oxidoreductase (53-66 kDa, Zn-binding dehydrogenase (67 kDa and esterase (65-96 kDa, in addition to cytochrome P-450 (50-55 kDa, trehalase (56 kDa, amylase (50-75 kDa and lipase (48-52 kDa. Previous studies indicate that glucose-methanol-cholineoxidoreductase, Zn-binding dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 and trehalase suppress plantdefence mechanisms, whereas the cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase, lipase and esterase have a possible role in enabling C. eucalypti to insert its stylet into leaf and shoot tissues of E. globulus.

  14. Plasticity of Leukocytic Exudates in Resolving Acute Inflammation Is Regulated by MicroRNA and Proresolving Mediators

    Li, Yongsheng; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Baron, Rebecca M.; Quintana, Carolina; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The magnitude and duration of acute inflammation are controlled by active resolution programs involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs; resolvins and maresins) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that miR-466l was temporally regulated in murine exudate-infiltrating leukocytes. Neutrophil miR-466l overexpression in vivo promoted initiation of inflammation that anteceded macrophage expression of this miRNA, which accelerated resolution when overexpressed. In macrophages, miR-466l overexpression increased prostanoids and SPMs (e.g., resolvin D1 [RvD1] and RvD5), which enhanced resolution. RvD1, RvD2, maresin 1 (MaR1), and apoptotic neutrophils reduced miR-466l expression within human macrophages, a feedback regulation that most likely prepares for homeostasis. miR-466l was upregulated in peripheral blood of sepsis patients, and its increase correlated with nonsurvival from sepsis. SPMs and miR-466l regulated transcription factors activator protein 1 and nuclear factor κB1 in miRNA biogenesis. These results demonstrate pivotal roles for SPMs and miR-466l in dynamic leukocyte plasticity during resolution of acute inflammatory responses. PMID:24238341

  15. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001...... streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm(C) and two both erm(A) and erm(C). The presence of erm(B) was confirmed by hybridization to plasmid profiles in all 13 PCR-positive isolates. Of 52......From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  16. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  17. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    Danuta Pi?tka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

  18. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal...... concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin....

  19. Osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand in exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Amir Ghorbanihaghjo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcification and inflammation are among the important cases of exudative age-related macular degeneration (E-ARMD. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if there is any relationship between serum Osteoprotegerin (OPG, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANK-ligand and E-ARMD. In a cross-sectional study, we compared 45 E-ARMD patients with 45 matched controls. Diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Serum samples were analyzed for OPG, RANK-ligand, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and triglyceride (TG. The levels of OPG and RANK-ligand were measured by ELISA methods. The mean age was 72.0±11.5 years in the E-ARMD group and 68.2±8.9 years in the control group (p=0.09. The level of serum OPG was 132.10±75.49 pg/ml in the E-ARMD group and 94.88±61.65 pg/ml in the control subjects. E-ARMD patients had significantly high levels of OPG (p=0.012, as well as significantly high levels of LDL-C and TC (p=0.001 and p=0.005, respectively. We could not find any significant difference in RANK-ligand, HDL-C, or TG between two study groups (p>0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the levels of OPG in E-ARMD patients. The present study showed that E-ARMD patients had high levels of serum OPG. It may act as a protective factor for E-ARMD or only as a secondary phenomenon of different processes of E-ARMD. Further prospective studies would be necessary for prognostic and predictive significance of OPG in patients affected by E-ARMD.

  20. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  1. Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

  2. Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-12-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

  3. Comparative nasal effects of bradykinin and histamine: influence on nasal airways resistance and plasma protein exudation.

    Rajakulasingam, K.; Polosa, R; Lau, L C; M. K. Church; Holgate, S.T.; P. H. Howarth

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bradykinin may contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Like histamine, nasal challenge with bradykinin induces rhinorrhoea, nasal blockage, and plasma protein leakage. Their comparative nasal potencies have not, however, been fully elucidated. METHODS--Three double blind, randomised, placebo controlled and cross-over studies were undertaken to compare objectively the nasal effects of bradykinin, histamine, and vehicle. RESULTS--Both bradykinin and histamine produced d...

  4. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    L.E. Makarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was detected, which can be attributed to the peculiarities of the interactions of plants of peas with bacteria-antagonists and mutualists.

  5. Study of the chemical composition of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium sclerocarpum and evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds and the resin.

    Modak, Brenda; Salina, Melissa; Rodilla, Jesús; Torres, René

    2009-01-01

    Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE). PMID:19924090

  6. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Nico, Peter S.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Kleber, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Multiple lines of existing evidence suggest that climate change enhances root exudation of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased exudate inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon. This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization (`priming’) is commonly rationalized by the assumption that exudates provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon (co-metabolism). Here we show that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude. We find that a common root exudate, oxalic acid, promotes carbon loss by liberating organic compounds from protective associations with minerals. By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, this indirect mechanism accelerated carbon loss more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favourable substrates. Our results provide insights into the coupled biotic-abiotic mechanisms underlying the `priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales.

  7. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; WENZEL, WALTER W.; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil so...

  8. Exudative pleural effusions secondary to gastrointestinal diseases.

    Light, R W

    1985-03-01

    Several different diseases of the gastrointestinal tract may have an associated exudative pleural effusion. In the acutely ill patient with a pleural effusion, the possibility of esophageal perforation should always be considered. It is important to establish this diagnosis as soon as possible since the mortality rate increases markedly if drainage of the mediastinum is delayed for even 12 or 24 hours. The best screening test for esophageal rupture is the level of amylase in the pleural fluid. All patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions should have the amylase level in their pleural fluid measured to rule out a pancreatic etiology for their pleural effusion. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the clinical presentation may be dominated by chest symptoms. Such patients have small to moderately sized pleural effusions that resolve rapidly once appropriate therapy is instituted. If symptoms persist, the possibility of a pancreatic abscess or a pancreatic pseudocyst should be considered. Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts may develop a sinus tract between the pseudocyst and the pleural space. In this situation a large pleural effusion develops. Frequently there are no abdominal symptoms and the diagnosis will not be made unless a pleural fluid amylase is obtained. Patients with exudative pleural effusions that contain predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes should be suspected of having an intra-abdominal abscess, particularly when there is no associated parenchymal infiltrate. Subphrenic, intrahepatic, and splenic abscesses all have a high incidence of accompanying pleural effusion. Abdominal CT scanning is the method of choice to establish each of these diagnoses. PMID:3847297

  9. Detection of Exudates for the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Anitha Somasundaram

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is caused by the abnormalities in the retina due to insufficient insulin in the body. Diabetic Retinopathy affects 80% of all patients who had diabetes for 10 years or more, which can also lead to vision loss. The most primitive sign of Diabetic Retinopathy is Exudates. Exudates in the retina are opacities that result from the escape of plasma and white blood cells from defective blood vessels. Detecting the exudates in an earlier stage can prevent the vision loss. In this paper, an automated algorithm has demonstrated to detect and localize the presence of exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils. In this method, first the retinal fundus image is pre-processed. Then, Mask Technique and Score Computation technique is used for segmenting the exudates in the retinal fundus images. This method does not require supervised learning which requires labeled set, may cause human error and it is time consuming process. It can effectively identify the lesions because exudates were clearly distinguished from optic disc and blood vessels. It helps the ophthalmologists apply proper treatments that might eliminate the disease or decrease the severity of it.

  10. Prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in exudate in nickel allergy

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Kassis, V; Christensen, J D; Søndergaard, J

    1989-01-01

    Ten nickel-allergic patients and 5 healthy control subjects participated in a study of the kinetics of the flux and concentration of migrated leukocytes and extracellular PGE1 and PGF2 alpha during a 48 h period, using a skin chamber technique. The patients were provided with two skin chambers, o...

  11. Flaminal enzyme alginogel: a novel approach to the control of wound exudate, bioburden and debridement.

    White, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    A multidisciplinary panel of Woundcare experts of international repute was assembled to review the clinical evidence and advise on the classification of the Flaminal products. This is based on their exact role in wound management and is to be defined on the basis of clinical efficacy, evidence and utility. Experts of international repute from Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and UK participated in this exercise. PMID:24814362

  12. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna C; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Borregaard, Niels; Cowland, Jack B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow......, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and...

  13. Clinical and multimodal imaging characteristics of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease unassociated with clinically evident exudative retinal detachment.

    Attia, Sonia; Khochtali, Sana; Kahloun, Rim; Ammous, Dhiaeddine; Jelliti, Bechir; Ben Yahia, Salim; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings in acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease without clinically evident exudative retinal detachment (ERD). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 18 patients (36 eyes), diagnosed with acute VKH disease without clinically evident ERD. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Of 18 patients, twelve (66.7%) were female and 6 (33.3%) were male. Mean age was 39years (range, 23-60). Ten patients had been referred with an erroneous diagnosis of primary optic nerve disorder (8; 44.4%) or isolated anterior uveitis (2; 11.1%). Anterior chamber or vitreous inflammatory reaction was noted in 22 eyes (61.1%), each. Fundus findings included optic disc swelling in 30 eyes (83.3%), retinal striae in 20 eyes (55.5%), and yellowish deep lesions in 3 eyes (8.3%). OCT showed a shallow, localized subclinical ERD in 18 eyes (50%), and retinal pigment epithelial folds in 23 eyes (63.9%). B-scan ultrasonography showed diffuse, low- to medium-reflective choroidal thickening in all eyes. FA disclosed delayed choroidal perfusion in at least one eye of all patients (100%), mild pinpoint leakage in 21 eyes (58.3%), optic disc hyperfluorescence in 35 eyes (97.2%) and choroidal folds in 13 eyes (36.1%). ICGA findings included delayed choroidal perfusion in 24 eyes (66.7%), decrease in the number of large choroidal vessels in 36 eyes (100%), fuzzy choroidal vessels in 35 eyes (97.2%), and hypofluorescent dark dots in 28 eyes (77.8%). The association of bilateral optic disc edema with retinal striae and intraocular inflammatory reaction highly suggests acute VKH disease. A multimodal imaging approach including fundus photography, OCT, B-scan ultrasonography, FA, and ICGA provides important clues for the definite diagnosis and help differentiate VKH disease from primary optic nerve disorders. PMID:25939987

  14. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source (60Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  15. Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.

    Seagrass carbon budgets provide valuable insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolv...

  16. Effects of micronutrients deficiency and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chelator exudation by tomato root

    E. Shirmohammadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can affect their host plants growth through nutrient uptake enhancement. Determination of chelators (siderophores and phytosiderophores in root leachates is of importance in order to account for the effects of AMF on nutrient uptake by plants. In this study, tomato plants were inoculated with either Glomus intraradices or Glomus etunicatum or left un-inoculated as non-mycorrhizal control, in pots containing sterile and acid washed perlite. Rorisons nutrient solution harbouring three levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (full strength, half strength and without micronutrients was applied to the pots during three month- growth period. Root leachates were collected and total chelator concentration was quantified by titration with DTPA. Plant roots showed lower mycorrhizal colonization in this condition. The amounts of chelators produced by roots were significantly different in AMF species. In plants inoculated with G. intraradices, the highest chelator production occurred in the absence of micronutrients and in its half strength as well, but the micronutrient levels had no significant effect on chelator production in plants inoculated with G. etunicatum. In the absence of micronutrients, chelator production was higher in G.intraradices inoculated plants compared to the G. etunicatum ones.

  17. Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronized Oscillations of Microbial Populations, Carbon and Oxygen Concentrations, Induced by Root Exudation in the Rhizosphere

    Molz, F. J.; Faybishenko, B.; Jenkins, E. W.

    2012-12-01

    Mass and energy fluxes within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum are highly coupled and inherently nonlinear. The main focus of this presentation is to demonstrate the results of numerical modeling of a system of 4 coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are used to describe the long-term, rhizosphere processes of soil microbial dynamics, including the competition between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and those unable to fix nitrogen, along with substrate concentration (nutrient supply) and oxygen concentration. Modeling results demonstrate the synchronized patterns of temporal oscillations of competing microbial populations, which are affected by carbon and oxygen concentrations. The temporal dynamics and amplitude of the root exudation process serve as a driving force for microbial and geochemical phenomena, and lead to the development of the Gompetzian dynamics, synchronized oscillations, and phase-space attractors of microbial populations and carbon and oxygen concentrations. The nonlinear dynamic analysis of time series concentrations from the solution of the ODEs was used to identify several types of phase-space attractors, which appear to be dependent on the parameters of the exudation function and Monod kinetic parameters. This phase space analysis was conducted by means of assessing the global and local embedding dimensions, correlation time, capacity and correlation dimensions, and Lyapunov exponents of the calculated model variables defining the phase space. Such results can be used for planning experimental and theoretical studies of biogeochemical processes in the fields of plant nutrition, phyto- and bio-remediation, and other ecological areas.

  18. Plant root-driven hydraulic redistribution, root nutrient uptake and carbon exudation interact with soil properties to generate rhizosphere resource hotspots that vary in space and time

    Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by plants occurs in seasonally dry ecosystems worldwide. During drought, water flows from deep moist soil, through plant roots, into dry (often litter-rich) upper soil layers. Using modeling, we explored how physical transport processes driven by transpiration and hydraulic redistribution interact with root physiology (nutrient uptake and carbon exudation) and soil properties (soil texture and cation exchange) to influence nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. At the single root scale, we modeled a 10-cm radial soil domain, and simulated solute transport, soil cation exchange, and root exudation and nutrient uptake under two water flow patterns: daytime transpiration without nighttime HR, and daytime transpiration with nighttime HR. During HR, water efflux flushed solutes away from the root, diluting the concentrations of key nutrients like nitrate. The transport of cations by transpiration in the day and their accumulation near the root led to competitive desorption of ammonium from soil further from the root and generation of hotspots of ammonium availability at night. HR influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of these hotspots and their intensity. They were also influenced by soil properties of texture and cation exchange capacity. This dynamic resource landscape caused by diel cycling between transpiration and hydraulic redistribution presents a stage for greater complexity of microbial interactions. We are currently embedding a microbial community and small food web into this rhizosphere model in order to explore how organisms responsible for nutrient and soil carbon cycling respond to these fluctuating resource regimes.

  19. Effect of Alternaria solani exudates on resistant and susceptible potato cultivars from two different pathogen isolates

    The resistance phenotypes of two potato cultivars to two isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied under greenhouse conditions. The two isolates contain varying degrees of aggressiveness on both susceptible and resistant phenotypes of potatoes. A bioassay was used to ...

  20. Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporters in root exudation of phytoalexins, signals, and disease resistance

    The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organ-isms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3...

  1. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  2. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    -performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...

  3. Peramine and other fungal alkaloids are exuded in the guttation fluid of endophyte-infected grasses.

    Koulman, Albert; Lane, Geoffrey A; Christensen, Mike J; Fraser, Karl; Tapper, Brian A

    2007-02-01

    Many grasses live in association with asymptomatic fungi (Neotyphodium spp. endophytes), which grow in the intercellular spaces of the grass. These endophytes produce a range of alkaloids that protect the grass against grazing by mammals and insects. One of these alkaloids is an unusual pyrrolopyrazine, peramine. Peramine appears to be continuously produced by the endophyte, but does not progressively accumulate. No mechanism for the removal of peramine by its further metabolism or any other process has been reported. Our aim was to detect peramine or peramine metabolites in plant fluids to determine if peramine is mobilized, metabolized or excreted by the plant. We also wanted to determine if other fungal metabolites are mobilized by the plant, as has been proposed for the loline alkaloids. We developed a highly sensitive method for the analysis of peramine, using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. We studied the fragmentation pathway of peramine using ESI MSn and ESI FTICRMS. Based on these results we developed a single reaction monitoring method using the fragmentation of the guanidinium moiety. Cut leaf fluid and guttation fluid of different grass endophyte associations (Lolium perenne with Neotyphodium lolii, Festuca arundinacea with Neotyphodium coenophialum, and Elymus sp. with Epichlo sp.) were analysed. Peramine was detected in the cut leaf fluid of all grass-endophyte associations, but not in the guttation fluid of all associations. In some associations we also detected lolines and ergot peptide alkaloids. This is the first report showing the mobilization of fungal alkaloids into plant fluids by the host plant in grass-endophyte associations. PMID:17126863

  4. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat

    Gislaine Silveira Simões

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

  5. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Denis Fabrcio Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Plida, Flcida, Exsudativa por meio de uma cmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratrios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinria e a anestesia foi ento induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxignio. A sensibilidade de trs frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensvel (HAL + e no-sensvel (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do msculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas aps o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos fils mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este um teste simples e rpido para a avaliao da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - tambm apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores esto relacionados com a formao da anormalidade.

  6. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggre...

  7. Auxin effects on Pb phytoextraction from polluted soils by Tegetes minuta L. and Bidens pilosa L.: Extractive power of their root exudates.

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Cid, Carolina Vergara; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-07-01

    The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production. A greenhouse experiment was carried on to evaluate the auxin application effect on the Pb uptake of Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta. These species were sensitive to auxins, but the phytotoxic effect of Pb was not reversed by this treatment. Root exudates capable of extracting Pb were produced only when the species were grown in highly polluted soils, indicating a behavioral response to Pb exposure which is desirable for phytoremediation. PMID:26954477

  8. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  9. Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Yépez, Pablo; de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

    2005-06-01

    Local variations in fruit- and leaf-eating have been reported for some primate species; however, similar variations in exudate-feeding of pygmy marmosets, one of the most specialized neotropical primate species, have not been studied. In our 3-year study of four populations of pygmy marmosets in northeastern Ecuador, we characterized their exudate-feeding behavior by describing the use of exudate sources. We tested whether the use of exudate species was related to ecological factors such as the availability of exudate species in an area. We estimated the daily activity budgets of the groups with 1-hr scan samples and found significant interpopulation differences in the time spent on exudate feeding. We recorded a total of 18 exudate species used in the four populations; however, the populations differed in the total number of species used and in the preferred species. The most commonly used plant species were Sterculia apetala at San Pablo, Cedrela odorata at Sacha, Inga marginata at Amazoonico, and Parkia balslevii at Zancudo. We recorded the presence and abundance of the 18 exudate species in 90-m transects in the home range of each group and in one additional control area that contained no marmosets, for each population. Differences in the most-used exudate species among populations did not appear to be related to the availability of these species in each population, i.e., the marmosets did not use at random the exudate species available within their range, nor did they use more often the exudate species that were more abundant in their home ranges. One implication of our results for conservation is that protecting exudate resources based on data from only one area will not be sufficient to preserve pygmy marmosets in all populations. PMID:15940711

  10. Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions

    Mark, G. Louise; Dow, J Maxwell; Kiely, Patrick D.; Higgins, Hazel; Haynes, Jill; Baysse, Christine; Abbas, Abdelhamid; Foley, Tara; Franks, Ashley; Morrissey, John; O'Gara, Fergal

    2005-01-01

    Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacter...

  11. Profiling of secondary metabolites in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Strehmel, Nadine; Böttcher, Christoph; Schmidt, Stephan; Scheel, Dierk

    2014-12-01

    To explore the chemical composition of root exudates of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a workflow for nontargeted metabolite profiling of the semipolar fraction of root exudates was developed. It comprises hydroponic plant cultivation and sampling of root exudates under sterile conditions, sample preparation by solid-phase extraction and analysis by reversed-phase UPLC/ESI-QTOFMS. Following the established workflow, root exudates of six-week-old plants were profiled and a set of reproducibly occurring molecular features was compiled. To structurally elucidate the corresponding metabolites, accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry and on-line hydrogen/deuterium exchange were applied. Currently, a total of 103 compounds were detected and annotated by elemental composition of which more than 90 were structurally characterized or classified. Among them, 42 compounds were rigorously identified using an authenticated standard. The compounds identified so far include nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, aromatic amino acids, anabolites and catabolites of glucosinolates, dipeptides, indolics, salicylic and jasmonic acid catabolites, coumarins, mono-, di- and trilignols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and oxylipins and exemplify the high chemical diversity of plant root exudates. PMID:25457500

  12. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    K. Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53 of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36 for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

  13. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  14. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  15. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001...... streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm......From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  17. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  18. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid.

    Costello, L R; Bassham, J A; Calvin, M

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of (14)C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H(2)O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. PMID:16662189

  19. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

  20. Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Costello, L.R.; Bassham, J.A., Calvin, M.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of /sup 14/C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H/sub 2/O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants.

  1. Enhancement of Phloem Exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (Evergreen Ash) using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid 1

    Costello, L. R.; Bassham, James A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem origin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excised leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants. Images PMID:16662189

  2. Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis concomitant to exudative maculopathies.

    Casalino, G; Upendran, M; Bandello, F; Chakravarthy, U

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the clinical course of patients presenting with stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) concomitant with exudative maculopathies.MethodsRetrospective case series. Multimodal imaging findings, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were reviewed. Genetic testing for the RS1 gene was performed in one patient.ResultsWe identified two female patients who fit the definition of SNIFR and presented with concomitant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD). In both the patients, SD-OCT showed exudative macular features and splitting (bilateral in patient 1, unilateral in patient 2) of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) in the macula with no other evidence of hereditary or an acquired predisposing condition. Genetic testing excluded mutation of RS1 gene in patient 1. The fundi of both the patients showed characteristic signs of active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and following anti-VEGF treatment, visual acuity improved and CNV-related exudative changes resolved. However, the split along the OPL remained unaltered.ConclusionsSNIFR may be associated with n-AMD. It is important to recognise the presence of retinoschisis when there is other exudative pathology as the former may be misinterpreted as intraretinal fluid, prompting unnecessary treatment. PMID:26915743

  3. Triterpenes from the exudate of Gardenia urvillei.

    Mai, Hoang Linh; Grellier, Philippe; Prost, Elise; Lemoine, Pascale; Poullain, Cyril; Dumontet, Vincent; Deguin, Brigitte; Vo, Thi Bach Hue; Michel, Sylvie; Grougnet, Raphaël

    2016-02-01

    A cycloartane gardurvilleic acid, three 3,4-seco-cycloartanes securvienol, secodienurvilleic acid, securvitriol, a 3,4;9,10-seco-cycloartane gardheptlactone, two dammaranes urvilone, urvilol, along with eight known cycloartanes and 3,4-seco-cycloartanes and four known dammaranes have been isolated from the bud exudate of Gardenia urvillei, an endemic tree to the New Caledonian dry forest. Two other dammarane derivatives have been obtained by semisynthesis. The structures of the original compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. In association with previously published data, the description of oxidized side-chains in position 17 are now available for two couples of diastereoisomers. Evaluation of anti-parasite activity and cytotoxicity has shown noticeable results for some of the isolated triterpenes. PMID:26608669

  4. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    M. I. Trujillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  5. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  6. Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen-thawed fish muscle.

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    The potential use of feature wavelengths for predicting drip loss in grass carp fish, as affected by being frozen at -20°C for 24 h and thawed at 4°C for 1, 2, 4, and 6 days, was investigated. Hyperspectral images of frozen-thawed fish were obtained and their corresponding spectra were extracted. Least-squares support vector machine and multiple linear regression (MLR) models were established using five key wavelengths, selected by combining a genetic algorithm and successive projections algorithm, and this showed satisfactory performance in drip loss prediction. The MLR model with a determination coefficient of prediction (R(2)P) of 0.9258, and lower root mean square error estimated by a prediction (RMSEP) of 1.12%, was applied to transfer each pixel of the image and generate the distribution maps of exudation changes. The results confirmed that it is feasible to identify the feature wavelengths using variable selection methods and chemometric analysis for developing on-line multispectral imaging. PMID:26617027

  7. Epidemiologic evidence for Lancefield group C beta-hemolytic streptococci as a cause of exudative pharyngitis in college students.

    Turner, J. C.; Hayden, F G; Lobo, M.C.; C. E. RAMIREZ; Murren, D

    1997-01-01

    The isolation rates of strains of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci from throat swab cultures of patients with exudative pharyngitis, the common cold, and healthy controls were compared. By using a cohort study design in a college health service, patients with exudative pharyngitis were retrospectively identified by description of tonsillar exudate on chart review. Patients with rhinoviral infection were prospectively identified during a common cold study. Healthy controls were prospectivel...

  8. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  9. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton

    Mark R. Viant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  10. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60Co ?-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for ?-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than ?-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

  11. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus using oral mucosal transudate by rapid test

    Bhuvan Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Diagnostic test was evaluated in sera and oral fluids from 83 subjects. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 HIV seropositive subjects and the control group comprised of 33 seronegative subjects. Serum samples were collected using the standard phlebotomy technique and oral samples were collected using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody test OMT collecting device. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11 th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were used. Results: All the subjects who tested either positive/reactive or negative/non-reactive with Western blot/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA produced similar results with Rapid test using OMT in study, our study also revealed that the subjects whether on anti-retroviral therapy or not had 100% sensitivity and specificity with the Rapid test using OMT. Conclusions: The Rapid test using OMT is highly accurate as the diagnostic efficacy in our study was 100% for HIV antibody detection and produced similar results to that of conventional Western blot/ELISA tests.

  12. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species

    Bowsher, Alan W.; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments. PMID:26824236

  13. Urinothorax: a rapidly accumulating transudative pleural effusion in a 64-year-old man.

    Deel, Samuel; Robinette, Emory

    2007-05-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old man who developed a rapid, right-sided pleural effusion. On initial presentation to the emergency room, the patient had fever and flank pain consistent with a ureteral obstruction (due to a bladder tumor) and associated hydronephrosis that had required previous placement of a pericutaneous nephrostomy tube. After a 10-day stay in the hospital, the patient's urine output ceased. Symptomatic dyspnea with radiographic evidence of a new pleural effusion soon followed. Urinothorax was the etiology of the effusion. PMID:17534092

  14. Efficacy of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize snake venom-induced local tissue damage as assessed by the proteomic analysis of wound exudate.

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John D; Ayala-Castro, Carla N; Villalta, Mauren; Gutirrez, Jos Mara; Fox, Jay W

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of wound exudates represents a valuable tool to investigate tissue pathology and to assess the therapeutic success of various interventions. In this study, the ability of horse-derived IgG and F(ab')(2) antivenoms to neutralize local pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in mouse muscle was investigated by the proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of affected tissue. In experiments involving the incubation of venom and antivenom prior to injection in mice, hemorrhagic activity was completely abolished and local muscle-damaging activity was significantly reduced by the antivenoms. In these conditions, the relative amounts of several intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins were reduced by the action of antivenoms, whereas the relative amounts of various plasma proteins were not modified. Because not all intracellular proteins were reduced, it is likely that there is a residual cytotoxicity not neutralized by antivenoms. In experiments designed to more closely reproduce the actual circumstances of envenoming, that is, when antivenom is administered after envenomation, the number of proteins whose amounts in exudates were reduced by antivenoms decreased, underscoring the difficulty in neutralizing local pathology due to the very rapid onset of venom-induced pathology. In these experiments, IgG antivenom was more efficient than F(ab')(2) antivenom when administered after envenomation, probably as a consequence of differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:22004524

  15. A coarse-to-fine strategy for automatically detecting exudates in color eye fundus images.

    Welfer, Daniel; Scharcanski, Jacob; Marinho, Diane Ruschel

    2010-04-01

    The detection of exudates is a prerequisite for detecting and grading severe retinal lesions, like the diabetic macular edema. In this work, we present a new method based on mathematical morphology for detecting exudates in color eye fundus images. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed method performance on a known public database, namely DIARETDB1, indicates that it can achieve an average sensitivity of 70.48%, and an average specificity of 98.84%. Comparing to other recent automatic methods available in the literature, our proposed approach potentially can obtain better exudate detection results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19954928

  16. Evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, C and N availability, and stimulated SOM decomposition caused by rhizosphere priming effects.

    Bengtson, Per; Barker, Jason; Grayston, Sue J

    2012-08-01

    Increased temperatures and concomitant changes in vegetation patterns are expected to dramatically alter the functioning of northern ecosystems over the next few decades. Predicting the ecosystem response to such a shift in climate and vegetation is complicated by the lack of knowledge about the links between aboveground biota and belowground process rates. Current models suggest that increasing temperatures and rising concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) will be partly mitigated by elevated C sequestration in plant biomass and soil. However, empirical evidence does not always support this assumption, as elevated temperature and CO(2) concentrations also accelerate the belowground C flux, in many cases extending to increased decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately resulting in decreased soil C stocks. The mechanism behind the increase has remained largely unknown, but it has been suggested that priming might be the causative agent. Here, we provide quantitative evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N caused by rhizosphere priming effects. As plants tend to increase belowground C allocation with increased temperatures and CO(2) concentrations, priming effects need to be considered in our long-term analysis of soil C budgets in a changing environment. The extent of priming seems to be intimately linked to resource availability, as shifts in the stoichiometric nutrient demands of plants and microorganisms will lead to either cooperation (resulting in priming) or competition (no priming will occur). The findings lead us on the way to resolve the varying response of primary production, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N to elevated temperatures, CO(2) concentrations, and N availability. PMID:22957187

  17. Diets high in fruits and low in gum exudates promote the occurrence and development of dental disease in pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus).

    Cabana, Francis; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-11-01

    Asian slow lorises are found in zoos and rescue centres worldwide with Nycticebus pygmaeus, the pygmy slow loris, boasting the largest population in captivity. Diet are reportedly high in fruit and concentrates and low in insects and exudates. Wild feeding studies place insects, nectar, and gums as the most important diet components. Captive populations also show high incidences of health afflictions, many of which may be caused by nutrition. Our study, aims at identifying a causative agent within the diets of N. pygmaeus in regards to diseases prominent within captive populations. We sent out 55 diet and health questionnaires to institutions worldwide. Returned diets were nutritionally analyzed. Nutrient values and proportions of each ingredient were used in a principle components analysis. Resulting factors were used as variables in a binary logistic regression (BLR), with dental disease as the dependent variable. 39 questionnaires were returned with a total of 47 diets. 20 (51.7%) institutions reported the presence of diseases with dental issues being prominent. Factors that were significant in the principle components analysis included gum, nectar, protein, acid detergent fibre, calcium, ash, phosphorus, potassium, Ca:P, magnesium, vitamin D, and energy. Gum was the only significant predictor in the BLR. Lastly, a chi square test for association was performed with the presence of dental disease as the dependent variable and the amount of fruit in the diet. The combination of high fruits and little to no gum promotes the occurrence of dental diseases. Current captive diets do not reflect the evolutionary adaptations of Nycticebus primates. PMID:26339992

  18. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  19. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

  20. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile

    Shraddha Tripathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

  1. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson (common name: sucuba

    Bianca Jorge Sequeira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans, leaf methanol extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and bark methanol extracts inhibited B. subtilis. Active extracts inhibited the ATCC and clinical strains. Polar antifungal and antibacterial principles in latex and extracts are thought to be responsible for the inhibition.

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson (common name: sucuba)

    Bianca Jorge Sequeira; Marcos Jose Salgado Vital; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Isabel Costa Pararols; Glaucia Socorro Barros Caper

    2009-01-01

    Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba) that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans,...

  4. Miscibility Studies of Cashew Gum and Khaya Gum Exudates in Dilute Solution by Viscometry and FTIR Analysis.

    David E. Arthur; C.E. Gimba; Eddy O. Nnabuk

    2014-01-01

    The FTIR and coefficient of viscosity for Cashew/Khaya blends in deionized water were measured, the changes in specific viscosity of the blends with corresponding effect of temperature and ionic salts, i.e. KCl, KBr and AlCl3 were modeled. The measured parameters were used to estimate other related physical quantities using Huggins, Tanglertpaibul and Rao, Frankel-eyring and Arrhenuis-frankel models etc. these quantities includes the intrinsic viscosity (η), conformation parameter (blaw), sta...

  5. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  6. Referral system for hard exudates in eye fundus.

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Gohar; Zafar, Muhammad Faisal; Haq, Ihsan ul

    2015-09-01

    Hard exudates are one of the most common anomalies/artifacts found in the eye fundus of patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. These exudates are the major cause of loss of sight or blindness in people having diabetic retinopathy. Diagnosis of hard exudates requires considerable time and effort of an ophthalmologist. The ophthalmologists have become overloaded, so that there is a need for an automated diagnostic/referral system. In this paper a referral system for the hard exudates in the eye-fundus images has been presented. The proposed referral system works by combining different techniques like Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), K-means Clustering, Visual Dictionaries and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The system was also tested with Back Propagation Neural Network as a classifier. To test the performance of the system four fundus image databases were used. One publicly available image database was used to compare the performance of the system to the existing systems. To test the general performance of the system when the images are taken under different conditions and come from different sources, three other fundus image databases were mixed. The evaluation of the system was also performed on different sizes of the visual dictionaries. When using only one fundus image database the area under the curve (AUC) of maximum 0.9702 (97.02%) was achieved with accuracy of 95.02%. In case of mixed image databases an AUC of 0.9349 (93.49%) was recorded having accuracy of 87.23%. The results were compared to the existing systems and were found better/comparable. PMID:26231313

  7. Miscibility Studies of Cashew Gum and Khaya Gum Exudates in Dilute Solution by Viscometry and FTIR Analysis.

    David E. Arthur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The FTIR and coefficient of viscosity for Cashew/Khaya blends in deionized water were measured, the changes in specific viscosity of the blends with corresponding effect of temperature and ionic salts, i.e. KCl, KBr and AlCl3 were modeled. The measured parameters were used to estimate other related physical quantities using Huggins, Tanglertpaibul and Rao, Frankel-eyring and Arrhenuis-frankel models etc. these quantities includes the intrinsic viscosity (η, conformation parameter (blaw, standard Enthalpy and Energy change of blend flow (∆H and ∆E, Huggins parameter (K, Interaction parameter (bm1 were proposed by Higiro et al., to identify the molecular conformation and the interaction arising in solution of gum blends. The peculiar deviation confirmed the structural changes in the solution of the blends, while the FTIR confirmed the formation of physical blends

  8. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using de...

  9. Ocular Risk Factors for Exudative AMD: A Novel Semiautomated Grading System

    Rufino Silva; João Figueira; Maria Luz Cachulo; Carlos Manta Oliveira; Isabel Pires; Miguel Costa; Pedro Melo; João Pedro Marques

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular risk factors in the conversion of the fellow eye of patients with unilateral exudative AMD, using a novel semiautomated grading system. Materials and Methods. Single-center, retrospective study including 89 consecutive patients with unilateral exudative AMD and ≥3 years of followup. Baseline color fundus photographs were graded using an innovative grading software, RetmarkerAMD (Critical Health SA). Results. The follow-up period was 60.9 ± 3...

  10. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing...... experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with...

  11. A Novel Way to Detect Hard Exudates Using Dynamic Thresholding Technique in Digital Retinal Fundus Image

    Sreeparna Banerjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is considered to be one of the major causes of blindness among diabetes mellitus patients. Due to diabetic retinopathy blood vessels of retina gets damaged and fat, lipoprotein substances gets leaked out of the damaged blood vessels and are deposited in the intra retinal space. These substances are viewed as yellowish or whitish in color and are termed as exudates. They are the most important visible sign of the presence of diabetic retinopathy. Exudates are of two types, (a hard exudates and (b soft exudates. If the disease is not detected in early stages then it may lead to complete loss of vision to the diabetes patients. Detection of exudates is extremely difficult to detect by visual inspection due to small inner diameter of retina and inadequate lighting conditions. An efficient image analysis program can detect the presence effectively. In this paper we have proposed an automatic method for detection of hard exudates. The proposed method exhibits a sensitivity of 97.60% and specificity of 93% and accuracy of 95.70%.

  12. An ABC Transporter Mutation Alters Root Exudation of Phytochemicals that Provoke an Overhaul of Natural Soil Microbiota.

    It has been shown that Arabidopsis root exudates can support the fungal community in native soils but not in non-native soils and recent evidence demonstrates the involvement of ABC transporters in the root secretion of phytochemicals. In this paper we examined differences in the root exudate profil...

  13. In situ measurements of root exudation in three hardwood species in southern Indiana

    O'Connor, D. A.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    Root exudation - the release of soluble organic compounds to soil - has long been considered a black box in ecology owing to methodological difficulties associated with measuring this flux in situ. This knowledge gap is significant given recent findings that suggest exudate inputs are appreciable in magnitude (2-5% of net primary production) and are coupled to microbial activities, nutrient release and soil organic matter decomposition. We developed a novel experimental system for collecting exudates from intact roots of field-grown trees using cuvettes filled with sterile glass beads. We measured root exudation for three tree species in ~80 year old mixed hardwood forest in south central Indiana, USA in the summer of 2012. Exudation rates varied from 0 to 1413 ug C/g root/day, and differed by sampling date and among trees species. Overall, rates were greater in early relative to late July, and greater in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and white oak (Quercus alba) relative to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Across all species, exudation rates were correlated with root mass, indicating that greater allocation to roots likely increases the amount of C available to fuel soil microbial activity. Collectively, the results of this study should enable us to develop improved model parameterizations of the C costs associated with nutrient acquisition, an important feedback for predicting the role of vegetation in mediating climate change.

  14. Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-10-01

    The effects of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. Conditions were selected under which introduction of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with P. fluorescens WCS365 decreased the percentage of diseased plants from 96 to 7%. This is a much better disease control level than was observed in potting soil. Analysis of root exudate revealed that the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici did not alter the total amount of organic acids, but that the amount of citric acid decreased and that of succinic acid increased compared with the nontreated control. In contrast, in the presence of the P. fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, the total amount of organic acid increased, mainly due to a strong increase of the amount of citric acid, whereas the amount of succinic acid decreased dramatically. Under biocontrol conditions, when both microbes are present, the content of succinic acid decreased and the level of citric acid was similar to that in the nontreated control. The amount of sugar was approximately half that of the control sample when either one of the microbes was present alone or when both were present. Analysis of the interactions between the two microbes grown together in sterile tomato root exudate showed that WCS365 inhibited multiplication of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, whereas the fungus did not affect the number of CFU of the bacterium. PMID:17022176

  15. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    S.A. Umoren

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 C. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

  16. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in e...

  17. Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.

    Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis. PMID:24722883

  18. Association of polymorphisms in C2, CFB and C3 with exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population.

    Kim, Suk Jin; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Na Rae; Chin, Hee Seung

    2012-03-01

    This study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in complement component 2 (C2), complement factor B (CFB) and complement component 3 (C3) with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the development of AMD. A total of six SNPs that are located in the C2 (rs547154, rs9332739), CFB (rs4151667, rs641153) and C3 (rs1047286, rs2230199) genes were genotyped in 350 samples comprised of 153 cases, 197 controls. The risk allele frequencies for rs547154 in C2 were 6.54% and 8.12% in AMD patients and controls. Those for rs641153 in CFB were 6.54% and 8.63% in AMD patients and controls. The risk allele frequency for rs9332739 in C2 (AMD, 0.65%, control, 2.03%) and rs4151667 in CFB (AMD, 0.65%, control, 1.78%) was very low. The protective allele of four SNPs was not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P=0.427, P=0.199, P=0.312, P=0.303, respectively). The homozygotes for the protective allele of four SNPs were not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P=0.324, P=0.474, P=0.309, P=0.411, respectively). The genetic effect of two SNPs in C3 could not be investigated because the variants were not observed. There was no evidence to support an interaction of these SNPs with LOC387715/HTRA1 variants or with environmental exposure like smoking. In conclusion, the genetic effect of C2, CFB and C3 polymorphisms, which are known to be important for AMD in Caucasian, were not significant in the Korean population. The low minor allele frequency of these SNPs in Koreans might have affected the results of this study. Ethnic differences in the roles of C2, CFB and C3 in conferring a risk of AMD should be further investigated. PMID:22273503

  19. Interferon-Gamma and Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 Mediate the Aggregation of Resident Adherent Peritoneal Exudate Cells: Implications for the Host Response to Pathogens

    Chandrasekar, Bhagawat S.; Yadav, Shikha; Victor, Emmanuel S.; Majumdar, Shamik; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Wadhwa, Nitin; Podder, Santosh; Das, Mrinmoy; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (Ifn?), a key macrophage activating cytokine, plays pleiotropic roles in host immunity. In this study, the ability of Ifn? to induce the aggregation of resident mouse adherent peritoneal exudate cells (APECs), consisting primarily of macrophages, was investigated. Cell-cell interactions involve adhesion molecules and, upon addition of Ifn?, CD11b re-localizes preferentially to the sites of interaction on APECs. A functional role of CD11b in enhancing aggregation is demonstrated using Reopro, a blocking reagent, and siRNA to Cd11b. Studies with NG-methyl-L-arginine (LNMA), an inhibitor of Nitric oxide synthase (Nos), NO donors, e.g., S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or Diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO), and Nos2-/- mice identified Nitric oxide (NO) induced by Ifn? as a key regulator of aggregation of APECs. Further studies with Nos2-/- APECs revealed that some Ifn? responses are independent of NO: induction of MHC class II and CD80. On the other hand, Nos2 derived NO is important for other functions: motility, phagocytosis, morphology and aggregation. Studies with cytoskeleton depolymerizing agents revealed that Ifn? and NO mediate the cortical stabilization of Actin and Tubulin which contribute to aggregation of APECs. The biological relevance of aggregation of APECs was delineated using infection experiments with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). APECs from orally infected, but not uninfected, mice produce high amounts of NO and aggregate upon ex vivo culture in a Nos2-dependent manner. Importantly, aggregated APECs induced by Ifn? contain fewer intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to their single counterparts post infection. Further experiments with LNMA or Reopro revealed that both NO and CD11b are important for aggregation; in addition, NO is bactericidal. Overall, this study elucidates novel roles for Ifn? and Nos2 in regulating Actin, Tubulin, CD11b, motility and morphology during the aggregation response of APECs. The implications of aggregation or group behavior of APECs are discussed in the context of host resistance to infectious organisms. PMID:26029930

  20. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. PMID:26163565

  1. Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Panos GD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A and serous PED (Group B in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05. In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01. The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

  2. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produo de carne magra em sunos tem acarretado modificaes nas caractersticas bioqumicas do msculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alteraes de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econmicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de sunos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorfico localizado na Regio Sul do Pas. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidncia de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pr e ps-abate para a manuteno da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuzo econmico dos frigorficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  3. DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA EN CANALES DE CERDO DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES

    Wilson E CASTRILLÓN H

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24, en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca. El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23% y DFD (0.77% disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P The PSE (pale, soft and exudative meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluated by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45 and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry. The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 is found for the three meat conditions evaluated at pH45 and pH24.

  4. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

  5. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation.

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M

    2015-10-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first mathematical model for exudation, while also introducing several essential modifications to this hypothesis. We derive a multiscale model consisting of a nonlinear system of differential equations governing phase change and transport within wood cells, coupled to a suitably homogenized equation for temperature on the macroscale. Numerical simulations yield stem pressures that are consistent with experiments and provide convincing evidence that a purely physical mechanism is capable of capturing exudation. PMID:26400199

  6. Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth

    H Schalchli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to protect the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1. IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

  7. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito aleloptico de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de laboratrio e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanlicos e clorofrmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recm-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia lquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificao de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinao reduzida com a menor concentrao dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinao de todas as espcies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma reduo, dependendo da concentrao do crescimento de mudas das espcies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanlico, na concentrao mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espcies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os cidos ferlico e siringico foram os aleloqumicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

  8. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito aleloptico de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    E Al-Sherif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratrio e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanlicos e clorofrmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recm-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia lquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificao de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinao reduzida com a menor concentrao dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinao de todas as espcies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma reduo, dependendo da concentrao do crescimento de mudas das espcies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanlico, na concentrao mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espcies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os cidos ferlico e siringico foram os aleloqumicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

  9. Cell wall loosening proteins of the stigma exudate

    Nieuwland, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Outline of the thesis: The idea, formulated by Cosgrove, that cell wall loosening of the maternal tissue facilitates pollen tube growth is a central theme of this thesis. This idea was originally proposed for beta-expansins released by maize pollen. Since the pollen coat of dry stigma type plants, like maize, bears a functional similarity with the exudate of wet stigma type plants (e.g. tobacco and petunia), this research was started with the analysis of the putative function of the pistil-sp...

  10. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    S. A. Umoren; I. B. Obot; E.E. Ebenso; N. Obi-Egbedi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 C. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. T...

  11. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  12. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K; Harding, K G; Ivins, N; Serra, N; Torres de Castro, O G; Galindo, A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Roed-Petersen, J; Gottrup, F; Blanco, J L; de Mena, M A; Hauschild, A; Moll, I; Svensson, A; Carter, K

    2005-01-01

    conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of Alione Hydrocapillary dressing (Coloplast A/S) in the management of highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers and compare it with two hydropolymer dressings,Tielle and Tielle Plus (Johnson & Johnson). METHOD: A comparative clinical trial was...... treatment. Although severe leakage and maceration were observed more frequently in the comparator group compared with the test group, this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Both treatment protocols were safe and effective in treating highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers. The test dressing...

  13. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  14. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  15. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  16. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    Wieg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of using the same wound dressing during the entire healing period is no longer reasonable. Instead, multiple types of dressings may be needed for a single wound over its healing trajectory. Selection of the most appropriate dressing should be based on wound phase, depth, signs of infection, and level of exudate. Moisture balance is critical in wound care; dryness will hamper epithelial cell migration while excessive generation of fluid causes maceration at the wound margins. Hence, exudate management is a key issue in chronic wound therapy, particularly given that exudate from chronic wounds has a composition different from that of acute wound fluid. Several studies have shown that exudates from non-healing wounds contain significantly elevated levels of protease activity, increased formation of free radicals, and abundant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, while concentrations of growth factors and protease inhibitors are markedly decreased. Application of dressings that remove and sequester excess amounts of wound fluid may not only help in restoring the correct balance of moisture, but also support the wound healing process by preventing tissue deterioration caused by abundant protease activity. Several types of dressings, such as hydrogels, hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrofibers, foams, and superabsorbent dressings, are reviewed here and evaluated with regard to their efficacy for highly exuding wounds. Keywords: chronic wounds, exuding, dressings, clinical efficacy 

  17. Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions.

    Mark, G Louise; Dow, J Maxwell; Kiely, Patrick D; Higgins, Hazel; Haynes, Jill; Baysse, Christine; Abbas, Abdelhamid; Foley, Tara; Franks, Ashley; Morrissey, John; O'Gara, Fergal

    2005-11-29

    Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacterial genes involved in establishing microbe-plant interactions. We have examined the influence on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 transcriptome of exudates from two varieties of sugarbeet that select for genetically distinct pseudomonad populations in the rhizosphere. The response to the two exudates showed only a partial overlap; the majority of those genes with altered expression was regulated in response to only one of the two exudates. Genes with altered expression included those with functions previously implicated in microbe-plant interactions, such as aspects of metabolism, chemotaxis and type III secretion, and a subset with putative or unknown function. Use of a panel of mutants with targeted disruptions allowed us to identify previously uncharacterized genes with roles in the competitive ability of P. aeruginosa in the rhizosphere within this subset. No genes with host-specific effects were identified. Homologues of the genes identified occur in the genomes of both beneficial and pathogenic root-associated bacteria, suggesting that this strategy may help to elucidate molecular interactions that are important for biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and plant pathogenesis. PMID:16301542

  18. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed...

  19. Enhanced root exudation stimulates soil nitrogen transformations in a subalpine coniferous forest under experimental warming.

    Yin, Huajun; Li, Yufei; Xiao, Juan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Xinyin; Liu, Qing

    2013-07-01

    Despite the perceived importance of exudation to forest ecosystem function, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of elevated temperature and nutrition availability on the rates of root exudation and associated microbial processes. In this study, we performed an experiment in which in situ exudates were collected from Picea asperata seedlings that were transplanted in disturbed soils exposed to two levels of temperature (ambient temperature and infrared heater warming) and two nitrogen levels (unfertilized and 25 g N m(-2)  a(-1) ). Here, we show that the trees exposed to an elevated temperature increased their exudation rates I (μg C g(-1) root biomass h(-1) ), II (μg C cm(-1)  root length h(-1) ) and III (μg C cm(-2)  root area h(-1) ) in the unfertilized plots. The altered morphological and physiological traits of the roots exposed to experimental warming could be responsible for this variation in root exudation. Moreover, these increases in root-derived C were positively correlated with the microbial release of extracellular enzymes involved in the breakdown of organic N (R(2)  = 0.790; P = 0.038), which was coupled with stimulated microbial activity and accelerated N transformations in the unfertilized soils. In contrast, the trees exposed to both experimental warming and N fertilization did not show increased exudation rates or soil enzyme activity, indicating that the stimulatory effects of experimental warming on root exudation depend on soil fertility. Collectively, our results provide preliminary evidence that an increase in the release of root exudates into the soil may be an important physiological adjustment by which the sustained growth responses of plants to experimental warming may be maintained via enhanced soil microbial activity and soil N transformation. Accordingly, the underlying mechanisms by which plant root-microbe interactions influence soil organic matter decomposition and N cycling should be incorporated into climate-carbon cycle models to determine reliable estimates of long-term C storage in forests. PMID:23504744

  20. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  1. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  2. Organic acids from root exudates of banana help root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6.

    Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Qiwei; Raza, Waseem; Li, Rong; Vivanco, Jorge M; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    The successful colonization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere is an initial and compulsory step in the protection of plants from soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the role of root exudates in the colonization of PGPR. Banana root exudates were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed exudates contained several organic acids (OAs) including oxalic, malic and fumaric acid. The chemotactic response and biofilm formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 were investigated in response to OA's found in banana root exudates. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation, yqxM and epsD, were evaluated in response to OAs via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results suggested that root exudates containing the OAs both induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation in NJN-6. In fact, the strongest chemotactic and biofilm response was found when 50 μM of OAs were applied. More specifically, malic acid showed the greatest chemotactic response whereas fumaric acid significantly induced biofilm formation by a 20.7-27.3% increase and therefore biofilm formation genes expression. The results showed banana root exudates, in particular the OAs released, play a crucial role in attracting and initiating PGPR colonization on the host roots. PMID:26299781

  3. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  4. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed ηCGOX/ηCG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  5. Sugar exudation by roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] is strongly affected by the nitrogen source.

    Mahmood, Tariq; Woitke, Markus; Gimmler, Hartmut; Kaiser, Werner M

    2002-04-01

    Exudation of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and that of cations and anions from intact roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] grown hydroponically with ammonium or nitrate (3 mM) as N source was investigated. In different experiments, plants grown on ammonium had slightly higher sugar contents than nitrate-grown plants, but their total sugar exudation during a 2-h period was up to 79-fold higher than under nitrate nutrition. Relative root exudation of inorganic anions and cations and that of amino acids (as a percentage of the internal contents exuded per time) was either similar or slightly higher from ammonium-grown than from nitrate-grown plants. Analysis of root architectural parameters revealed that ammonium-grown plants had a higher number of root tips/side roots per gram root fresh weight than nitrate-grown plants, whereas other root parameters, viz. length, diameter, volume and surface area were similar under the two N sources. A majority of the fine roots having diameter up to 0.4 mm represented up to 86% of the total root length, 64% of the total root surface area, and 35% of the total root volume; the root length and surface area per root system of that major root population were similar in ammonium- and nitrate-grown plants. Apparently, root architecture was not responsible for the different exudation rates. Within 12-24 h after shifting ammonium-grown plants to nitrate nutrition, root sugar levels and visible root architecture remained unchanged, yet the sugar exudation rate was reduced 30-fold. Short-term uptake of [14C]glucose (10 microM) from the rooting medium was similar for ammonium- and nitrate-grown plants. Thus, the very different sugar exudation rates were neither related to internal root sugar concentration, nor to the different root architecture, nor to differential resorption of sugars by ammonium- versus nitrate-grown plants. Increased external Ca2+ did not alter sugar exudation, and decreased external pH (4.5) only slightly increased sugar exudation from roots of nitrate-grown plants kept at pH 6.5. It is suggested that the much higher sugar exudation in response to ammonium may facilitate the ecologically and economically important association of diazotrophs with kallar grass roots. PMID:11941465

  6. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas. Understanding the mechanisms developed by these plants which allow them to tolerate and remediate metal-contaminated sediments is important to potentiate their use in phytoremediation purpose. This work provides new knowledge regarding the H. portulacoides and P. australis ability to exude ALMWOAs in response to metal contamination.

  7. Exudative retinal detachment following strabismus surgery in Sturge–Weber syndrome

    Kim, Yu Cheol; Lee, Se Yeop; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with Sturge–Weber syndrome underwent strabismus surgery (oculus sinister [OS]) for the treatment of exotropia. The patient's visual acuity (OS) decreased to hand motion 10 days after the surgery. One month after the surgery, the patient's visual acuity decreased to light perception, and a fundus examination showed total exudative retinal detachment (OS).

  8. Exudative retinal detachment following strabismus surgery in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Yu Cheol Kim; Se Yeop Lee; Kwang Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome underwent strabismus surgery (oculus sinister [OS]) for the treatment of exotropia. The patient′s visual acuity (OS) decreased to hand motion 10 days after the surgery. One month after the surgery, the patient′s visual acuity decreased to light perception, and a fundus examination showed total exudative retinal detachment (OS).

  9. Clinical outcomes of the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration with Pegaptanib

    M. Burova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate the results of intravitreal use of Pegaptanib in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Material end methods. Our study includes 77 patients with exudative AMD, who received 9 injections of Pegaptanib 0.3mg with 6-weeks intervals between them. So the primary treatment lasted one year. During and after the treatment these patients underwent fluorescent angiography (FAG, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fundus photography and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA examination. According to the results of these examinations a decision about a further treatment, whether it was necessary, was taken. Results. By the end of our 2-year study 38 patients after therapy with Pegaptanib had complete obliteration of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV, 19 patients were switched to Ranibizumab, one patient underwent photodynamic therapy with Visudyne, 14 patients had severe progression of AMD, when there was no sense in further treatment, 2 patients dropped out the study because of cerebral insult, 3 patients refused of any further treatment, in spite of persisting exudative activity of the CNV after the primary treatment. Conclusion. Intravitreal аpplication of Pegaptanib is a relatively effective treatment option of exudative AMD as BCVA was stabilized or improved in 55.8% of patients, macular edema decreased in 67.5% of patients and neovascular membrane was obliterated in 49.35% of patients.

  10. Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy: A Variant of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy?

    Arman Mashayekhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR in an elderly patient. Case Report: A 74-year-old Caucasian woman, with a 20-year history of a stable choroidal nevus in her right eye, was referred for evaluation of two small hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs affecting the temporal peripheral fundus of the same eye. Nine months later, the lesions became larger and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vascular changes corresponding to the location of the ophthalmoscopically visible PEDs. Despite one session of verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the lesions continued to enlarge eventually resulting in the development of a large hemorrhagic PED, which failed to respond to two subsequent injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. The final ophthalmoscopic appearance of the large hemorrhagic PED was typical of PEHCR. Conclusion: This case suggests that polypoidal choroidal vascular changes similar to that seen in our patient may underlie the development of PEHCR in some cases.

  11. Potential Abiotic Functions of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Cycling of Soil Organic Matter

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots are the primary source of C in mineral horizons and can significantly accelerate the rate of soil organic matter mineralization in rhizosphere soils. While a portion of this acceleration results from stimulation of microbial enzymatic capacities (the 'priming effect') - abiotic responses also play a significant role in rhizosphere cycling of soil organic matter (SOM). For example, exudate-stimulated mobilization and dissolution of metal species may release previously complexed SOM, or could affect Fe mobility via redox changes associated with microbially-driven O2 depletion. We have investigated the abiotic response of rhizosphere microenvironments, using additions of several 13C-enriched low molecular weight (LMW) root exudates and 13C-plant detritus to controlled microcosms. We hypothesized that certain abiotic effects are triggered by specific exudate compounds and that the magnitude of the effect depends on the soil physiochemical properties. Using a combination of microsensor measurements, solid-phase extractions, X-ray and IR spectroscopy, we measured how root exudates differ in their potential to create reducing microenvironments, alter metal chemisty and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM in the rhizosphere. High resolution X-ray microscopy (STXM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses illustrate the physical fate of the added isotope tracers in both pore water and on mineral surfaces. Our results suggest that certain root exudates facilitate abiotic reactions that increase the pool of bioavailable SOM and stimulate its microbial decomposition in the rhizosphere. In particular, the contrasting ecological functions of LMW organic acids and simple sugars in facilitating SOM breakdown in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  12. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  13. Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06 foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária, em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura.Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06 were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy. At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

  14. Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration

    Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2003-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

  15. Interleukin 3 (IL 3) regulates the in vitro proliferation of both blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages: synergism between a macrophage lineage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and IL 3

    The effect of interleukin 3 (IL 3) on regulation of macrophage proliferation was examined. Although IL 3 alone stimulates the colony formation in bone marrow cells, it fails to stimulate the colony formation by both peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and blood monocytes. However, IL 3 greatly enhances the proliferative capacity of both PEM and monocytes in responding to suboptimal concentrations of CSF-1. At supraoptimal concentrations of CSF-1, IL 3 did not increase the number of colonies, but greatly increased colony size. Kinetic studies showed that IL 3 enhances CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation by shortening the cell doubling time. Monocytes were more sensitive to the action of IL 3 and possessed higher proliferative potential than PEM. Binding studies with radioactive labeled CSF-1 (125I-CSF-1) showed that IL 3 treatment induced an increased expression of CSF-1 receptor activity by PEM which appears to be a result of increased number of available receptor sites. The effect of IL 3 on the expression of receptor activity is both dose- and time-dependent. IL 3 also augments the rate of receptor-mediated CSF-1 endocytosis by PEM which appears to be a direct result of increased expression of CSF-1 binding sites. These results demonstrate that, in addition to stimulating the growth and differentiation of several blood cell lineages by hemopoietic stem cells, IL 3 also possesses the ability to modulate CSF-1 receptors, thereby affecting proliferation of more mature blood monocytes and tissue-derived macrophages

  16. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  17. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the...... rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation...... increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin...

  18. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 C. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration 400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

  19. Disorder of endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel components is associated with the increased apoptotic potential in pale, soft, exudative pork.

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Wangang; Tume, Ron K; Hudson, Nicholas J; Huang, Feng; Yin, Yan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-05-01

    Eight pale, soft and exudative (PSE) and eight reddish-pink, firm and non-exudative (RFN) porcine longissimus muscle samples were selected based on pH and L* at 1h postmortem (PM), and drip loss at 24h PM, and used to evaluate the cellular calcium and apoptosis status. We found that SERCA1 was decreased, while IP3R was decreased in PSE meat (Pmitochondria during apoptosis appearance in PSE meat. Taken together, our data inferred that the calcium channel disorder present in PSE meat was associated with the increased apoptotic potential. PMID:26802614

  20. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  1. Plant roots can actively regulate hydraulic redistribution by modifying the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere using exudates

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Bogie, Nathaniel; Albalasmeh, Ammar

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of hydraulic lift by roots of plants has been observed in many arid and semi-arid regions. The process involves water transfer from moist deep soil zone to shallow and dry layers, typically at night when transpiration is shut off. The widely held explanation is that hydraulic lift receives the strong water potential gradient created during the day when the plants are actively transpiring. However, it is not fully understood whether hydraulic lift is actively controlled by plants or it is a spontaneous response to the occurrence of pressure gradient. Here, we will present modeling study that demonstrates that plant roots can exert significant control on hydraulic redistribution via exudation and formation of rhizospheath. The model is based on results of potted experiments conducted by Nambiar in 1976 (Plant and Soil, 44:267-271), which have shown that plants are able to acquire essential micronutrients from very dry soil so long as water is available to the root system in sufficient quantity elsewhere. He also observed that the roots in the water-depleted zones exhibited evidence of substantial root exudation, which suggests that exudates are needed in order to provide moisture for mobilization and diffusion of nutrients in the dry regions. In addition, our own recent model-based research demonstrated that exudates play important role in facilitating water flow in otherwise dry rhizosphere region. Our models show that exudates facilitate the release of hydraulically lifted water to the rhizosphere by ensuring hydraulic continuity between the root walls and the surrounding dry soil. In addition, the high water retention capacity of root exudates permits the hydraulic conductivity to remain elevated even at low potential conditions. The results of this modeling study suggest that hydraulic lift is an actively controlled adaptation mechanism that allows plants to remain active during long dry spells by acquiring nutrients from the dry near surface soils while relying on deep soil moisture reserves for transpiration.

  2. Collection of Wound Exudate From Human Digit Tip Amputations Does Not Impair Regenerative Healing

    Kisch, Tobias; Klemens, Julia Maria; Hofmann, Katharina; Liodaki, Eirini; Gierloff, Matthias; Moellmeier, Dirk; Stang, Felix; Mailaender, Peter; Habermann, Jens; Brandenburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The regrowth of amputated digit tips represents a unique regenerative healing in mammals with subcutaneous volume regrowth, restoration of dactylogram, and suppression of scar formation. Although factor analysis in amphibians and even in mice is easy to obtain, safety of harvesting biomaterial from human digit tip amputations for analysis has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate if recovering wound exudate does hamper clinical outcome or influence microbiologic or inflammation status. A predefined cohort of 18 patients with fresh digit tip amputations was randomly assigned to receive standard therapy (debridement, occlusive dressing) with (n?=?9) or without (n?=?9) collection of the whole wound exudate in every dressing change. Primary endpoint (lengthening) and secondary endpoints (regeneration of dactylogram, nail bed and bone healing, time to complete wound closure, scar formation, 2-point discrimination, microbiologic analysis, inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-4, and IL-6) were determined by an independent, blinded observer. Patients characteristics showed no significant differences between the groups. All patients completed the study to the end of 3 months follow-up. Exudate collection did not influence primary and secondary endpoints. Furthermore, positive microbiologic findings as well as pus- and necrosis-like appearance neither impaired tissue restoration nor influenced inflammatory factor release. Here, the authors developed an easy and safe protocol for harvesting wound exudate from human digit tip amputations. For the first time, it was shown that harvesting does not impair regenerative healing. Using this method, further studies can be conducted to analyze regeneration associated factors in the human digit tip. DRKS.de Identifier: DRKS00006882 (UTN: U1111-1166-5723). PMID:26469916

  3. Treatment of Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration: Focus on Aflibercept

    García-Layana, Alfredo; Figueroa, Marta S.; Araiz, Javier; Ruiz-Moreno, José M.; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arias-Barquet, Luis; Reiter, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    A formulation of aflibercept for intravitreal injection (Eylea) is approved for the treatment of patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Aflibercept has a significantly higher affinity for Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A compared with other monoclonal anti-VEGF antibodies. In addition to binding all VEGF-A isoforms, aflibercept also blocks other proangiogenic factors such as VEGF-B and placental growth factor. The VIEW 1 and 2 trials showed this drug achiev...

  4. Copepod Trajectory Characteristics in Thin Layers of Toxic Algal Exudates

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Recently documented thin layers of toxic phytoplankton (``cryptic blooms'') are modeled in a custom flume system for copepod behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical layers ensuring a close match to in situ bloom conditions and allowing for quantification of threshold dissolved toxin levels that induce behavioral responses. Assays with the copepods Acartia tonsa (hop-sinker) and Temora longicornis (cruiser) in thin layers of toxic exudates from the common dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (cell equivalent ~ 1 - 10,000 cells/mL) examine the effects of dissolved toxic compounds and copepod species on swimming trajectory characteristics. Computation of parameters such as swimming speed and the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional trajectory (F2D) allows for statistical evaluation of copepod behavioral responses to dissolved toxic compounds associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Changes in copepod swimming behavior caused by toxic compounds can significantly influence predator, prey, and mate encounter rates by altering the fracticality (``diffuseness'' or ``volume-fillingness'') of a copepod's trajectory. As trophic mediators linking primary producers and higher trophic levels, copepods can significantly influence HAB dynamics and modulate large scale ecological effects through their behavioral interactions with toxic blooms.

  5. Enhancing sorgoleone levels in grain sorghum root exudates.

    Uddin, Md Romij; Park, Kee Woong; Kim, Yong Kyoung; Park, Sang Un; Pyon, Jong Yeong

    2010-08-01

    Sorgoleone, found in the root exudates of sorghum [(Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], has been a subject of continued research. Sorgoleone production in grain sorghum roots was investigated under different growth conditions. Methanol was the most effective solvent for extracting sorgoleone from grain sorghum roots. Sorgoleone production is high in young developing plants. The maximum concentration (microg mg(-1) root dry weight) was produced in 5-d-old seedlings; beyond this age, production declined. However, considering both root weight and sorgoleone content per seedling, 10-d-old seedlings had the highest total amounts (microg). Compared with the control, sorgoleone content increased 6.1, 8.6, and 14.2 times when sorghum seeds were treated with auxins, Hoagland solution, and a combination of auxins and Hoagland solution, respectively. Among the innate immunity response elicitors, cellulose (an elicitor of plant origin) stimulated higher sorgoleone production than the others, and it produced 6.2 times more sorgoleone than the control. Combined treatment of sorghum seeds with half strength Hoagland solution and 5 microg ml(-1) of IBA significantly increased both root growth and sorgoleone content in sorghum seedlings. PMID:20614166

  6. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2014-03-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere. PMID:24271005

  7. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 M Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  8. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 M Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  9. Exudative retinal detachment following strabismus surgery in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Yu Cheol Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome underwent strabismus surgery (oculus sinister [OS] for the treatment of exotropia. The patient′s visual acuity (OS decreased to hand motion 10 days after the surgery. One month after the surgery, the patient′s visual acuity decreased to light perception, and a fundus examination showed total exudative retinal detachment (OS.

  10. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    AK Gregg; Hatay, M; AF Haas; NL Robinett; Barott, K.; MJA Vermeij; KL Marhaver; Meirelles, P.; Thompson, F.; F Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cult...

  11. Predictive factors in OCT analysis for visual outcome in exudative AMD

    Maria-Andreea Gamulescu; Georgios Panagakis; Carmen Theek; Horst Helbig

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reliable predictive factors for therapy outcome may enable treating physicians to counsel their patients more efficiently concerning probability of improvement or time point of discontinuation of a certain therapy. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 87 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who received three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Visual acuity before initiation of intravitreal therapy and 4–6 weeks after last intravitreal injecti...

  12. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  13. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  14. Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere

    Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

  15. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface

    Kemner, K.M.; O' Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

    2006-06-01

    The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

  17. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin and anthocyanin metabolites. We describe here the metabolites present in the root exudates using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) metabolomics approach. Using this approach, biased rhizosphere for another class of PGPR strains can now be created. In this case, lignin- and anthocyanin- utilizing strains will be selectively preferred. We have set up a platform to perform metabolomics of exudates at the root surface. This has allowed us to use the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) system using a Thermo Velos Pro Orbitrap-MS to identify differences in exudate profiles along the root system of Arabidopsis. This platform enables direct sampling and measurement from plant roots grown aeroponically. As the metabolites are extracted from root surface and directly injected into the mass spectrometer, there is minimal loss of sample in this process. This method will now allow us to further dissect rhizosphere properties from places such as young root apex, as well as from the more mature base of roots. Taken together, these resources of altered rhizosphere, nutrient utilization pathways in microbes and surface analysis technology will help in extending our understanding of the processes in the plant rhizosphere.

  18. PHOSPHORUS AND ALUMINUM INTERACTIONS IN SOYBEAN IN RELATION TO AL TOLERANCE: EXUDATION OF SPECIFIC ORGANIC ACIDS FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE INTACT ROOT SYSTEM

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency often coexist in acid soils to severely limit crop growth and production. Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant Al and P interactions is necessary to facilitate the development of acid tolerant crops. Here we studied the effects of Al and...

  19. Detection of Hard Exudates in Colour Fundus Images Using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine-Based Expert System.

    Jaya, T; Dheeba, J; Singh, N Albert

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Currently, there is a need for making decisions using intelligent computer algorithms when screening a large volume of data. This paper presents an expert decision-making system designed using a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) classifier to detect hard exudates in fundus images. The optic discs in the colour fundus images are segmented to avoid false alarms using morphological operations and based on circular Hough transform. To discriminate between the exudates and the non-exudates pixels, colour and texture features are extracted from the images. These features are given as input to the FSVM classifier. The classifier analysed 200 retinal images collected from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The tests made on the retinal images show that the proposed detection system has better discriminating power than the conventional support vector machine. With the best combination of FSVM and features sets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.9606, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 94.1% with a specificity of 90.0%. The results suggest that detecting hard exudates using FSVM contribute to computer-assisted detection of diabetic retinopathy and as a decision support system for ophthalmologists. PMID:25822397

  20. Inhibition of copepod feeding by exudates and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) derived from a Phaeocystis globosa dominated phytoplankton community

    Dutz, J.; Breteler, W.C.M.K.; Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if (1) dissolved compounds excreted by Phaeocystis globosa and (2) transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formed from carbohydrates excreted into the water affect the feeding of nauplii and females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis during a P. globosa bloom. Copepod grazing on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence of these possible grazing deterrents was measured during three successive weeks of a mesocosm study, simulating the development of a P. globo...

  1. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  2. Etiology, diagnosis and management of severe pericardial effusion: A single center experience

    Mehmet Aytürk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show etiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment options of patients with severe pericardial effusion determined after echocardiography. Methods: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed etiology, diagnosis and treatment options of 43 patients with severe pericardial effusions (i.e. effusions more than 20 mm either in front of the right ventricle or posterior to left ventricle as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The pericardiocentesis procedures were performed via subxiphoid approach. Glucose, protein, lactate dehydrogenase levels, polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis, cytological, microbiological examinations and cultures were obtained from pericardial fluid. Results: Cardiac tamponade was diagnosed in 23 patients (54% and pericardiocentesis was immediately performed in these cases. Twenty patients who were unresponsive to empirical treatment, underwent pericardiocentesis to evaluate etiology and treatment.. Pericardial fluid was found to be exudate in 36 patients (83.7% and transudate in 7 patients (16.2%. The most common causes were malignancy (26%, and uremia (16% while idiopathic cases constituted 23% of the patient group. While malignant pericardial effusion was more common in males, idiopathic etiology and uremia were more common in female patients. Conclusion: Pericardiocentesis is the gold standard for clarifying the etiology and is also a lifesaving measure for cardiac tamponade. Delineating the specific etiology is particularly important for cases that do not respond to empirical treatment. A thorough history and physical examination, together with pericardiocentesis in selected cases will enable the accurate diagnosis of specific etiology and starting the treatment for this etiology.

  3. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however one report in the literature describes the presence of viroi...

  4. Elicitors' influenced differential ginsenoside production and exudation into medium with concurrent Rg3/Rh2 panaxadiol induction in Panax quinquefolius cell suspensions.

    Biswas, Tanya; Kalra, Alok; Mathur, A K; Lal, R K; Singh, Manju; Mathur, Archana

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt nitrate, nickel sulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitroprusside, and culture filtrates of Pseudomonas monteili, Bacillus circularans, Trichoderma atroviridae, and Trichoderma harzianum were tested to elicit ginsenoside production in a cell suspension line of Panax quinquefolius. Abiotic elicitors preferentially increased panaxadiols whereas biotic elicitors upregulated the panaxatriol synthesis. Cobalt nitrate (50 μM) increased total ginsenosides content by twofold (54.3 mg/L) within 5 days. It also induced the Rc synthesis that was absent in the control cultures. Elicitation with P. monteili (2.5 % v/v, 5 days) also supported 2.4-fold enhancement in saponin yield. Elicitation by T. atroviridae or hydrogen peroxide induced the synthesis of Rg3 and Rh2 that are absent in ginseng roots. The highest ginsenosides productivity (3.2-fold of control) was noticed in cells exposed to 1.25 % v/v dose of T. atroviridae for 5 days. Treating cells with T. harzianum for 15 days afforded maximum synthesis and leaching (8.1 mg/L) of ginsenoside Rh1. PMID:26795963

  5. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R2=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  6. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    Okada, Susumu [Nippon Medical School, Inba, Chiba (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kato, Tomoyasu; Yamashita, Takashi [and others

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  7. Growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of Brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.

    Zeng, Ren Sen; Mallik, Azim U; Setliff, Ed

    2003-06-01

    Brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. They were found to inhibit VA mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. We tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. When roots and leaves of Brassicaceae plants and ECM fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (Brassica rapa), swede (B. napobrassica), cabbage (B. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (B. oleracea, var. italica Plenck), kohlrobi (B. caulorapa Pasq.), mustard (B. juncea), radish (Raphanus sativus), and choy (B. napus) significantly stimulated hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Root exudates of turnip and cabbage stimulated hyphal growth of Pisolithus tinctorius and two isolates of P. involutus. Colony area of P. involutus was increased by 452 and 414%, respectively, in the presence of turnip and cabbage germinants. Root exudates of turnip increased the biomass of P. involutus and P. tinctorius by 256 and 122% and cabbage by 220 and 82%, respectively. The stimulatory effect was not affected by autoclaving the root exudates. Root exudates had chemical reactions with glutathione and lysine, which resulted in a reduction of the growth stimulation of ECM fungi. Myrosinase enhanced further the stimulatory effects of turnip on the ECM colony diameter growth by 23%. Autoclaved roots and leaves of turnip did not stimulate fungal growth, but mechanically ground roots and leaves of turnip stimulated growth of P. involutus by 147 and 135%, respectively. After desulfuration with aryl sulphatuse, the glucosinolates (GLSs) in turnip roots and leaves were identified by HPLC. The major ones were indole GLSs. Prominent compounds identified were 1-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS and4-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS. The finding provides an opportunity to field test the use of Brassicaceae plants in enhancing ectomycorrhizal formation in conifers by interplanting conifers with Brassicaceae plants in forest tree nursery and agroforestry systems. PMID:12918920

  8. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  9. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 ?g/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  10. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH PLEURAL EFFUSIONS TO A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Lokeswara Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Cross Sectional study was carried out on 100 patients with pleural effusion from December 2013 to July 2015 at ASRAM Medical College and Hospital Department of Pulmonary Medicine,Eluru. In our study, Exudative effusion remains most common cause of pleural effusion.Tubercular effusion remains the commonest etiology of all exudative effusions, where as Congestive cardiac failure remains commonest cause among transudative effusions.Tubercular effusion affects most commonly young and is associated with cough and fever as the most common presenting symptom. Malignant effusions were seen in older age group with cough and dyspnoea as predominant symptoms.Massive effusion with hemorrhagic pleural fluid is commonly associated with malignant effusion while small to moderate effusions with straw colour pleural fluid is associated ubercular effusion where as empyema cases presented with pus. Right sided effusion was most common with male to female ratio of 3.54:1 ,with mean age of 40.5+11.3 years.Empyema was most commonly associated with high Leukocytes.Tubercular effusion was associated with lymphocytic predominant effusion where as neutophilic dominant effusion included empyema and parapneumonic effusion.Pleural fluid, with low glucose (2 was seen predominantly in empyemas .A pleural fluid ADA more than 70 IU/L was associated with nearly half of Tubercular effusions , where as others with ADA levels between 30 to 70 IU/L along with clinicoradiological findings suggestive of tubercular effusion. Thus proving diagnostic importance of ADA in TB effusions.Early intiation Anitubercular drugs in TB pleural effusion, early intervention and treatment in cases of empyema and parapneumonic effusion showed improvement and signs of recovery.

  11. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Basel T Ba′arah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  12. The effect of organic ligands exuded by intertidal seaweeds on copper complexation.

    Andrade, Santiago; Pulido, Maria Jesus; Correa, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Copper complexation in marine systems is mainly controlled by organic matter, partially produced by micro- and macroalgae that release exudates with the capacity to bind metals. This feature is important as it influences bioavailability, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and transport of copper through biological membranes. The release of Cu-complexing ligands by seaweeds cultured under copper excess was studied in the laboratory. Five macroalgae belonging to different functional groups were used, including the filamentous Chaetomorphafirma (Chlorophyta), the foliose Ulvalactuca (Chlorophyta) and Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta), the corticated Gelidium lingulatum (Rhodophyta), and the leathery Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The concentration of ligands and their copper-binding strength (logK') of exudates released by each species was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The selected algae released exudates in a wide range of concentration (42-117 nM) after 48h of culture, and addition of 157nM copper increased the production of ligands up to 8 times. A relationship between structural complexity or thallus thickness and the amount of ligands released was not observed. The binding strength (logK') varied among species from 7.6 to 8.9, a response that was not modified by exposure to sub-lethal copper excess. The kelp L. nigrescens showed a fast response to copper excess, releasing ligands that reduced toxicity of the metal in hours. Results suggest that intertidal and shallow subtidal macroalgae might have been overlooked regarding their role as producers of organic ligands and, therefore, as modulators of metal complexing capacity in coastal waters. PMID:19962173

  13. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the retinal hard exudates showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (P=0.019, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL (P=0.002 and TG (P=0.014 levels. The incidence of dyslipidemia varied from as high as nearly 70% among patients of Group 3 compared to as low as 18% among Group 1 patients. Conclusion: Serum cholesterol and LDL are independent risk factors for retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients who suffer from a remarkably high incidence of dyslipidemia.

  14. Panuveitis With Exudative Retinal Detachments After Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus.

    Dansingani, Kunal K; Suzuki, Mihoko; Naysan, Jonathan; Samson, C Michael; Spaide, Richard F; Fisher, Yale L

    2015-10-01

    A 20-year-old white woman presented with bilateral acute visual loss (visual acuity: 20/60), panuveitis, and exudative retinal detachments 3 weeks after a second dose of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. She was treated with oral prednisolone for 6 weeks and responded rapidly. By week 4, vision had normalized and clinical signs resolved. Uveitis after HPV4 vaccination has been reported in two cases. Although the differential diagnosis includes Harada disease, temporal correlation with HPV4 and definitive response to a short course of treatment implicate the vaccine in this case. Vaccine-induced uveitis is rare and difficult to distinguish from coincidental autoimmune disease. PMID:26469238

  15. Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and sulfur functional groups will dissolve Cd-containing mineral phases to a greater extent than exudates containing only oxygen functional groups, resulting in higher Cd concentrations in solution. Two different iron oxide mineral phases were utilized in a laboratory-scale model study system investigating the effects of low molecular weight, oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compounds on mineral dissolution. Goethite (α-FeOOH) was synthesized in the laboratory with 0, 2.4, 5, and 100 theoretical mol% Cd, and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) was prepared with 0, 10, and 25 theoretical mol% Cd. Phase identity of all minerals was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All minerals were reacted with 0.01 mM solutions containing one of four different organic ligands (oxalic acid, citric acid, histidine or cysteine) and aliquots of these solutions were sampled periodically over 40 days. Results from solution samples suggest that oxalic acid, citric acid, and histidine consistently increase mineral dissolution relative to the control (no organic compound present) while cysteine consistently inhibits dissolution relative to the control in all minerals. Increasing Cd substitution in the franklinite resulted in increased release of Fe and Zn to solution in the presence of these organic compounds, while increasing Cd substitution in the goethite generally limited Fe release to solution. In the case of cysteine, sulfur concentrations in solution decrease over time in the presence of Cd-containing minerals, indicating strong binding of the cysteine compound to the mineral surface, inhibiting Cd dissolution from the minerals. Our work indicates that amino acids present in biological soil exudates, in addition to organic acids, may have substantial impacts on iron oxide dissolution in soils, altering the availability of both bioessential (e.g., Fe and Zn) and non-essential, or potentially toxic, (e.g., Cd) elements.

  16. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    A. Engel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from ? =0.3 d?1 to ? =0.1 d?1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? =0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? =0.1 d?1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? =0.1 d?1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at ? =0.1 d?1 compared to ? =0.3 d?1. At ? =0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC by coagulation of exudates. Our results imply that greenhouse condition will enhance exudation processes in E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  17. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Modak, Brenda; Rojas, Macarena; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús; Luebert, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae) is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2)-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1) and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3) and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) were isolated and their structures were determined. Their a...

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Federico Luebert; Jesús Rodilla; René Torres; Macarena Rojas; Brenda Modak

    2007-01-01

    Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae) is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2)-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1) and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3) and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) were isolated and their structures w...

  19. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  20. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    OHNUKI,T.; OZAKI, T.; YOSHIDA, T.; NANKAWA, T.; KOZAI, N.; SAKAMOTO, F.; SUZUKI, Y.; FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-10-18

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed.

  1. Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

  2. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Pertl, Laura; Kern, Sabine; Weger, Martin; Hausberger, Silke; Trieb, Markus; Gasser-Steiner, Vanessa; Haas, Anton; Scharnagl, Hubert; Heinemann, Akos; Marsche, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported with regard to the associations of AMD with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study is the first to assess HDL composition and metrics of HDL function in patients with exudative AMD and control patients. Methods Blood samples were collected from 29 patients with exudative AMD and 26 age-matched control patients. Major HDL associated apolipoproteins were determined in apoB-depleted serum by immunoturbidimetry or ELISA, HDL-associated lipids were quantified enzymatically. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function, including cholesterol efflux capacity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities using apoB-depleted serum from study participants. Results In our study, we observed that the HDL associated acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly increased in AMD patients (p<0.01), whereas all other assessed apolipoproteins including ApoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-II, apoC-III and apoE as well as major HDL associated lipids were not altered. HDL efflux capacity, anti-oxidative capacity and arylesterase activity were not different in AMD patients when compared with the control group. The ability of apoB-depleted serum to inhibit monocyte NF-κB expression was significantly improved in AMD patients (mean difference (MD) -5.6, p<0.01). Moreover, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity, a marker of vascular inflammation, was decreased in AMD subjects (MD -24.1, p<0.01). Conclusions The investigated metrics of HDL composition and HDL function were not associated with exudative AMD in this study, despite an increased content of HDL associated SAA in AMD patients. Unexpectedly, anti-inflammatory activity of apoB-depleted serum was even increased in our study. Our data suggest that the investigated parameters of serum HDL function showed no significant association with exudative AMD. However, we cannot exclude that alterations in locally produced HDL may be part of the AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27171197

  4. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  5. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    Kittipol Wisaeng; Nualsawat Hiransakolwong; Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new metho...

  7. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  9. Video Assisted Rigid Thoracoscopy in the Diagnosis of Unexplained Exudative Pleural Effusion

    Samad Beheshtirouy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion is often a difficult diagnostic dilemma that needs further histological study for a definitive etiological diagnosis. Video assisted rigid thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure with a minor morbidity and mortality risk that could resolve this problem.Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2011, we performed thoracoscopy in 26 patients for diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Clinical and paraclinical data of patients were collected prospectively and analyzed.Results: Sole pleural effusion was the most common CT scan finding seen in 17 (65.4% patients. Thoracoscopy was diagnostic in 24 patients (92.3%. The pathologic findings were carcinoma (46.2%, tuberculosis (30.8% and chronic inflammation without a definitive microbiologic culture (15.4%. Surprisingly mean ADA level in the tuberculosis group was in normal range. No mortality or complication related to our operation was observed.Conclusion: Video assisted thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure with a high definitive diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of tuberculosis and malignant pleural effusions. Pulmonologist should refer these patients sooner to decrease the waiting period of diagnosis and treatment of such conditions.

  10. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  11. Ocular Risk Factors for Exudative AMD: A Novel Semiautomated Grading System.

    Marques, João Pedro; Costa, Miguel; Melo, Pedro; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Pires, Isabel; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Figueira, João; Silva, Rufino

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular risk factors in the conversion of the fellow eye of patients with unilateral exudative AMD, using a novel semiautomated grading system. Materials and Methods. Single-center, retrospective study including 89 consecutive patients with unilateral exudative AMD and ≥3 years of followup. Baseline color fundus photographs were graded using an innovative grading software, RetmarkerAMD (Critical Health SA). Results. The follow-up period was 60.9 ± 31.3 months. The occurrence of CNV was confirmed in 42 eyes (47.2%). The cumulative incidence of CNV was 23.6% at 2 years, 33.7% at 3 years, 39.3% at 5 years, and 47.2% at 10 years, with a mean annual incidence of 12.0% (95% CI = 0.088-0.162). The absolute number of drusen in the central 1000 and 3000  μ m (P < 0.05) and the absolute number of drusen ≥125 µm in the central 3000 and 6000 µm (P < 0.05) proved to be significant risk factors for CNV. Conclusion. The use of quantitative variables in the determination of the OR of developing CNV allowed the establishment of significant risk factors for neovascularization. The long follow-up period and the innovative methodology reinforce the value of our results. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00801541. PMID:24555130

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell free callus exudates of medicago sativa l

    The present study is designed to investigate the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using cell free callus exudates of Medicago sativa L. Explants are surface sterilized and then sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 percentage sucrose, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 1 mg/L BA. Cultured tissues are derived from hypocotyls, and then soaked in sterilized deionized water (8 h) on dark. The cell free exudates incubated with aqueous silver nitrate, at room temperature, showed change in the color of the mixture from colorless to yellow indicating the silver nanoparticles synthesis. Silver nanoparticles are formed with different shape and variable size. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles is influenced by the pH variation of silver nitrate solution, at pH 5, the results showed significant and insignificant differences on shape and on size respectively. FT-IR absorption spectra conclude that the stabilizing agent could be a polyphenol with amide group. The reducing agent was supposed to be a member of antioxidants. (author)

  13. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  14. Reduced Germination of Orobanche cumana Seeds in the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi or Their Exudates

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bcard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  15. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    LEONORA MENDOZA; BRENDA MODAK; RENE TORRES; MILENA COTORAS

    2008-01-01

    The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was analyzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compou...

  16. Evaluation of putative allelochemicals in rice root exudates for their role in the suppression of arrowhead root growth.

    Seal, Alexa N; Haig, Terry; Pratley, James E

    2004-08-01

    In previous studies, 15 putative allelopathic compounds detected in rice root exudates were quantified by GC/MS/MS. In this study, multiple regression analysis on these compounds determined that five selected phenolics, namely caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, from rice exudates were best correlated with the observed allelopathic effect on arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) root growth. Despite this positive association, determination of the phenolic acid dose-response curve established that the amount quantified in the exudates was much lower than the required threshold concentration for arrowhead inhibition. A similar dose-response curve resulted from a combination of all 15 quantified compounds. Significant differences between the amounts of trans-ferulic acid, abietic acid, and an indole also existed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice cultivars. The potential roles of these three compounds in rice allelopathy were examined by chemoassay. Overall, neither the addition of trans-ferulic acid nor 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to the phenolic mix significantly contributed to phytotoxicity, although at higher concentrations, trans-ferulic acid appeared to act antagonistically to the phytotoxic effects of the phenolic mix. The addition of abietic acid also decreased the inhibitory effect of the phenolic mix. These studies indicate that the compounds quantified are not directly responsible for the observed allelopathic response. It is possible that the amount of phenolic acids may be indirectly related to the chemicals finally responsible for the observed allelopathic effect. PMID:15537166

  17. Correlao da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentrao de lactato com a classificao de efuses em ces Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Paula Nunes Rosato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As efuses so problemas clnicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequncia de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuio da presso coloidosmtica intravascular, elevao da presso hidrosttica local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfticos. Dessa maneira, a avaliao laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clnicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possvel diagnstico e instituda ao teraputica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificao de uma efuso em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos crticos para a elucidao do diagnstico e conduo do caso clnico. Em Medicina Veterinria, o mtodo tradicional de classificao de uma efuso baseado na contagem celular e na concentrao de protenas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parmetros no so suficientes para a correta classificao de todas as efuses. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlao de outros parmetros bioqumicos com a diferenciao das efuses transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH das efuses, a relao de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentrao de lactato das efuses, o gradiente de concentrao de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentrao de protenas das efuses. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relao LDH efuso/soro, a concentrao de lactato e o gradiente de concentrao de lactato soro/efuso apresentam diferena estatisticamente significativa (PThe effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic vases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P<0.05, as well as a high correlation with the classification of an exudative effusion.

  18. The role of physical rehabilitation in the treatment of exudative pleurisy

    Milojević Momir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Exudates are due to a variety of diseases, the major and most common ones being tuberculosis, nonspecific inflammation and malignancy. They are usually treated conservatively, sometimes combined with surgery and physical treatment. Physical the-rapy includes positional exercises, breathing exercises and biostimulation. Aim of the study The study was aimed to find out the following: 1 Is lung function improved by physical therapy; 2 Can adhesions be diminished and mobility of the affected hemidiaphragm improved by physical treatment; 3 Is there a direct positive correlation between physical treatment and obtained improvement, or the same can be achieved in patients receiving medicamentous treatment only; 4 What are the effects of some factors we cannot influence (sex, age, effusion level, position of adhesions on lung function and diaphragm mobility improvement, that is on the efficiency of physical treatment; 5 How do the factors we can influence (the time interval before initiating the treatment and its duration affect improvement of the same lung function parameters, that is treatment efficacy? Material and methods Physical treatment of patients with exudative pleurisy was accomplished at the Department of Rehabilitation in our Institute and it consisted of directed breathing exercises and laser biostimulation. Its effects were examined in a group of 175 patients, who received both conservative and physical treatment, and results were compared with the control group patients, treated only conservatively (with antibiotics, antituberculotics, corticosteroids. RESULTS Comparative analysis confirmed a significant improvement of lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, PEF as well as of hemidiaphragm mobility on the affected side of the thorax in favour of the examined group. The severity of the lung function and diaphragm mobility impairments have been found to be in correlation with the localization of adhesions, whereas the degree of improvement correlated with the time interval before the treatment initiation, as well as with its duration. DISCUSSION and conclusion The applied physical therapy resulted in: 1 significant improvement of all examined lung function parameters in the examined group, which was not registered in the control group; 2 significant improvement of the diaphragm mobility in general; 3 factors such as sex, age and effusion level have no effects on the physical treatment results; 4 treatment results are affected by the time interval passed before the treatment initiation and its duration, as well as the localization of adhesions; anterior adhesions affected lung function and diaphragm mobility least, posterior ones more, while the influence of lateral adhesions was most significant. It is finally concluded that physical treatment should necessarily be included in the treatment of exudative pleurisy.

  19. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moiss; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P???0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P?experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672

  20. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H; Larsen, J R; Roed-Petersen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD: The......'s effect on the peri-ulcer area. Blood samples were analysed for silver content. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 25 patients completed the study. One ulcer healed and no wound infections occurred during the study period. A mean 56% reduction in ulcer area (from 15.6 to 6.9 cm2) was recorded during the four...... weeks, and there was a mean 25% reduction in granulation tissue from dull to healthy after one week. Wound odour reduced significantly after one week. Mean dressing wear time was 3.1 days, and there were only minimal incidences of leakage. Serum silver levels did not exceed reference values. CONCLUSION...

  1. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion

    Loganathan Nattusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. Patients and Methods: The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. Results: A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 14.1 years (range: 17-78 years. Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%], tuberculosis (TB [10 (20.83% patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5% patients and TB in 2 (4.17% patients. Fourteen (29.17% patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17% patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7% patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Conclusion: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.

  2. Evaluation of colloidal radioactive chromium phosphate retention in the articular exudates

    Isotope measurements were carried out in patients receiving intra-articular injection of colloidal solution of radioactive chromium phosphate for chronic synovial exudates in knee joints. The degree of isotope escape outside the joint and its accumulation in the inguinal lymph nodes and liver were evaluated. Twenty-three joints were studied, in 9 cases some escape of the isotope from the joint and absence of accumulation in lymph nodes was observed. In the remaining 14 cases the accumulation in lymph nodes was observed, in 12 of them the amount of isotope was below 1% of the administered dose, in 2 cases was about 2%. In these cases the amount of the isotope escaping from the joint was from several to over ten per cent. In one case some accumulation of the isotope was observed also in the liver. (author)

  3. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. PMID:22083980

  4. A calcium-insoluble 6.4 S protein derived from sea urchin cortical granule exudate.

    Justice, R W; Gottschling, C F; Carroll, E J; Nagel, G M

    1988-08-15

    A major protein component of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, cortical granule exudate has been purified and characterized. In the absence of divalent cations, the native, soluble protein has a sedimentation coefficient at infinite dilution of 6.4 S and a molecular weight from sedimentation equilibrium measurements of 2.8 +/- 0.3 X 10(5). These and other data indicate that the protein assumes an elongated, rod-like structure in solution. The protein is greater than 95% homogeneous as judged by agarose- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. In the latter experiments, the protein shows a relative molecular weight of 1.8 X 10(5) and is clearly distinct from the 11.6 S protein described earlier which shows two bands corresponding to 3.2 X 10(5) and 2.1 X 10(5). The 6.4 S protein is the major protein of the calcium-insoluble fraction of cortical granule exudate and contributes to the formation of the extracellular investments of the sea urchin embryo. Using a light-scattering assay, we show that the purified protein retains the ability to aggregate in the presence of divalent cations mirroring its assembly in vivo. Calcium ion alone is able to initiate this reaction and the rate of precipitation increases with calcium concentration. Magnesium alone is ineffective in this regard but, in combination, the two ions act synergistically. Strontium and barium can substitute for calcium, but higher concentrations of the former cations are required to produce an equivalent effect. PMID:2458068

  5. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  6. Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). Exudate production. Optimization of root exudation with a split-root system; Plant-Microbiele Brandstofcel (MFC). Exudate productie. Het optimaliseren van wortelexudatie met een split-root systeem

    Khodabaks, M.; Blok, C.; Van den Berg, C.C.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2009-11-15

    The Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFC) is a technology which, based on a new principle, is able to extract electricity or biofuels directly from a plant, without having to harvest it first. Living plants convert solar energy into energy-containing biomass by means of photosynthesis. Of the amount of carbon transported to the root system, the plant secretes a fraction of 50 to 70% to the soil in soluble form (exudates and secretions). The secreted organic substance can be partly converted into electricity by naturally existing micro-organisms. If this electricity is captured and used in some kind of way this is called MFC. [Dutch] De plant microbiele brandstofcel of Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFC) is een technologie die het op basis van een nieuw principe mogelijk maakt direct elektriciteit of biobrandstoffen aan een plant te ontrekken, zonder dat deze geoogst hoeft te worden. Levende planten zetten door fotosynthese zonne-energie om in energiehoudende biomassa. Van de hoeveelheid koolstof getransporteerd naar het wortelstelsel wordt door planten een fractie van 50 tot 70 % uitgescheiden naar de bodem in oplosbare vorm (exudaten en secreties). De uitgescheiden organische stof kan deels door natuurlijk voorkomende micro-organismen worden omgezet in elektriciteit. Als deze elektriciteit in de een of ander vorm wordt opgevangen en benut is er sprake van een MFC.

  7. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    LEONORA MENDOZA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was analyzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compound fihfohnyl senecionate was inactive in all the tested conditions. The extract of H'. filifolium and filifolinol retarded the germination of conidia of the fungus

  8. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    Petj, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  9. Correlao da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentrao de lactato com a classificao de efuses em ces / Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Paula Nunes, Rosato; Letcia Abraho, Anai; Aureo Evangelista, Santana.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As efuses so problemas clnicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequncia de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuio da presso coloidosmtica intravascular, elevao da presso hidrosttica local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linftic [...] os. Dessa maneira, a avaliao laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clnicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possvel diagnstico e instituda ao teraputica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificao de uma efuso em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos crticos para a elucidao do diagnstico e conduo do caso clnico. Em Medicina Veterinria, o mtodo tradicional de classificao de uma efuso baseado na contagem celular e na concentrao de protenas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parmetros no so suficientes para a correta classificao de todas as efuses. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlao de outros parmetros bioqumicos com a diferenciao das efuses transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH) das efuses, a relao de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentrao de lactato das efuses, o gradiente de concentrao de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentrao de protenas das efuses. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relao LDH efuso/soro, a concentrao de lactato e o gradiente de concentrao de lactato soro/efuso apresentam diferena estatisticamente significativa (P Abstract in english The effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic v [...] ases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P

  10. Shifts in banana root exudate profiles after colonization with the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162.

    Kurtz, Andreas; Schouten, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The non-pathogenic fungus Fusorium oxysporum strain Fo162 can efficiently colonize banana roots and reduce infecting by the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. It is assumed that the fungus triggers a systemic reaction in the plant, which is affecting the biochemical composition of the root exudates and is thus causing the reduction in nematode colonization. To characterize these shifts, a continuous flow experiment was set up to collect root metabolites on a matrix (XAD-4). Based on HPLC analysis, the extracts, collected from the XAD-4, showed no differences in the composition of the root exudates between plants colonized by the endophyte and the controls. However, the accumulation of several compounds differed significantly. When these extracts were used in a bioassay with Radopholus similis none of the sample-treatment combinations had a significant attracting or repelling effect on the nematodes. This experiment shows that non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 is able to upregulate the synthesis of at least some, so far unidentified compounds released by banana roots under hydroponic conditions. Further studies and optimization of the experimental setup are required to determine whether or not increase in metabolite concentration can affect nematode responses in vitro and ultimately in vivo. PMID:20222617

  11. Comparing the results of VATS pleurectomy and talc pleurodesis with small sized catheter in randomised patients with malign pleural effusion

    Bülent Tunçözgür

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural effusion occurs as a result of detoriationin equilibrium between absorption and secretion.We aimed to investigate the clinical responses of talkpleurodesis and pleurectomy with video assisted thoracoscopicsurgery (VATS in patients with malignant pleuraleffusion.Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with malignantpleural effusion between June 2007 and June 2008were included in this study. Thoracentesis was performedin order to study the biochemical, microbiologic, cytologicalanalysis. Glucose, total protein, albumin, lactic dehydrogenasesand cytological examination were studied ineffusion and blood sample simultaneously. Cases wereclassified into two groups; in group I (n=25, small calibratedcatheter and talk pleurodesis were performed. Ingroup II (n=20, VATS pleurectomy was performed.Results: There were 32 females and 13 males with meanage 51.58 (27-75 years. Diagnosis was made with cytologicexamination of pleural fluid that was aspirated withthoracentesis. Transudate- exudate discrimination wasdone according to Light’s criteria. Success rates of thegroups were as complete response; 84% (n=21 in groupI, 85% (n=17 in group II. Unsuccessful response was16% (n=4 in group I and 15% (n=3 in group II. Therewas no statistically significant difference between hospitalstay and tube duration of groups when compared to eachother.Conclusion: The treatment of malignant pleural effusionis palliative due to poor prognosis. The purpose isto eliminate dyspnea in patients with short survival time.There was no significant difference between the VATSpleurectomy and talc pleurodesis that has been known aseffective sclerosant agent. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:223-228

  12. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C0 (capacity factor, mg kg-1), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr-1), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  13. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    Koo, Bon-Jun [Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Chen Weiping, E-mail: wpchen@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Page, Albert L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Granato, Thomas C. [Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Dowdy, Robert H. [Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C{sub 0} (capacity factor, mg kg{sup -1}), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr{sup -1}), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  14. Exclusion of angiotensin I-converting enzyme as a candidate gene involved in exudative inflammatory resistance in F344/N rats.

    Jafarian-Tehrani, M.; Listwak, S.; Barrientos, R.M.; Michaud, A; Corvol, P.; Sternberg, E M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inbred LEW/N and F344/N rats respectively, are susceptible and relatively resistant to a broad range of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. We recently identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 10 that protects the F344/N rat from carrageenan-induced exudation in a dominant fashion. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the candidate genes located in this QTL region that plays an important role in inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from ...

  15. Some physico-chemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates.

    Fathi, Morteza; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to investigate some physicochemical properties of Prunus armeniaca L. gum exudates (PAGE). PAGE had, on average, 66.89% carbohydrate, 10.47% uronic acids, 6.9% moisture (w.b.), 2.91% protein, 4% ash and 1.59% fat. PAGE was composed of monosaccharides including l-arabinose, d-galactose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose in molar percentages of 41.52%, 23.72%, 17.82%, 14.40% and 2.54%, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that PAGE had high values of nutrients. FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methyl groups and glycoside bonds. The weight average molecular weight, number average molecular weight and polydispersity index were found to be approximately 5.69 × 10(5)g/mol, 4.33 g/mol and 1.31, respectively. Rheological measurement of PAGE solutions as a function of concentration (8, 10 and 12% (w/w)) and temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) demonstrated that the gum solutions had a non Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Intrinsic viscosity for PAGE in deionized water was 3.438 dl/g based on Kramer equation. PMID:26434520

  16. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  17. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest. PMID:23733822

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Federico Luebert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1 and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3 and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4 were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents and TRE (total reacting equivalents, where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  19. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. PMID:26213081

  20. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Kooren Joel A; Rhodus Nelson L; Tang Chuanning; Jagtap Pratik D; Horrigan Bryan J; Griffin Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs) would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-bas...

  1. Enzyme Partitioning Using PEG-Anacardium occidentale L. Exudate Gum Polysaccharide Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    E.B. Tambourgi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of PEG molecular weight, system polymer concentrations (tie-line lengths, pH and sodium chloride concentration, on the partition coefficient of trypsin in PEG-purified Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree exudate gum polysaccharide aqueous two-phase systems have been investigated. Changes in PEG molecular weight, tie-line length and pH, had relatively little effect on trypsin partitioning, with partition coefficients (Κ < 0.3, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the A. occidentale L. gum (lower phase. However, addition of sodium chloride (0.1 M resulted in dramatic increases in Κ values with increasing pH using the PEG 4000 (9% w/w-purified A. occidentale L. gum (18% w/w system, increasing to 3.70 at pH 7.0 and 9.77 at pH 8.0, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the PEG 4000 (upper phase. Relative trypsin activities in the phases were investigated for these systems (with different sodium chloride levels and high activities were obtained at pH 7.0 (70.9% and pH 8.0 (90.9% in 0.1 M sodium chloride, which in conjunction with their Κ values, clearly demonstrates their suitability as lower cost enzyme purification procedures (compared with PEG-dextran.

  2. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  3. Guaianolides and a seco-eudesmane from the resinous exudates of cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) and evaluation of their cytostatic and anti-inflammatory activity

    Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew D; Fretté, Xavier; Qu, Haiyan; Teglgaard Jensen, Katrine; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2015-01-01

    -ray crystallography. The crude extract exhibited moderate cytostatic activity against a breast cancer (MCF-7) and human colon cancer (HT-29) cell line with IC50 values of 9.3 and 18 μg/mL, respectively, and anti-inflammatory activity against the macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 with IC50 values of 3.9 and 6.1 μg...

  4. ROOT EXUDATE OF PMI TOMATO MUTANT M161 REDUCES AM FUNGAL PROLIFERATION IN VITRO

    Soluble factors released from roots of the pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) Myc- tomato mutant M161 were analyzed. This mutant resists colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi. Aseptic whole exudates from the M161 mutant retarded the proliferation of Glomus intraradices in vitro. When the...

  5. Two-year outcomes of pro re nata ranibizumab monotherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients

    Yamamoto A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Yamamoto,1 Annabelle A Okada,1 Atsuhiko Sugitani,1,2 Daisuke Kunita,1 Tosho Rii,1 Reiji Yokota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kugayama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To describe outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for treatment-naive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD, in Japanese patients over the first 2 years. Methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 48 eyes of 48 patients with treatment-naive exudative AMD who underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. After three monthly injections (induction, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed (pro re nata for any residual activity, by fundus biomicroscopy and imaging studies, regardless of severity. Results: Twenty-nine (60% of the patients were men, and 19 (40% were women; the mean age was 76.1 years. Of the 48 eyes evaluated, 17 (35% had findings consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and five (10% with retinal angiomatous proliferation. A mean of 6.0 ranibizumab injections were given in the first year, 3.5 in the second year, and 9.5 over the 2-year period. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution improved significantly, from 0.35 at baseline to 0.21 at 12 months (P < 0.01, and remained stable at 0.21 at 24 months (P < 0.01. The mean central macular thickness decreased significantly, from 355.4 µm at baseline to 237.9 µm at 12 months (P < 0.01 and 247.7 µm at 24 months (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Improved visual acuity and decreased central macular thickness were observed and maintained over a 2-year period, in a Japanese population receiving 3 monthly induction injections followed by a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab for exudative AMD. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal angiomatous proliferation

  6. Pleural Fluid Pentraxin-3 for the Differential Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions

    Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Jin Woo; Cho, Mi Ran; Kang, Ji Young; Kim, Seung Joon; Kim, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Haak; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Sang Ho; Park, Mi Sun; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Jong Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional biomarkers cannot always establish the cause of pleural effusions; thus, alternative tests permitting rapid and accurate diagnosis are required. The primary aim of this study is to assess the ability of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in order to diagnose the cause of pleural effusion and compare its efficacy to that of other previously identified biomarkers. Methods We studied 118 patients with pleural effusion, classified as transudates and exudates including malignant, tuberculo...

  7. Results of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Umut Karaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, we included forty-eight eyes of 43 age-related macular degeneration patients followed for at least twelve months. Mean age was 73.65±8.93 years and mean follow-up time was 14.2 months. All patients received three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections and then were followed up with clinical examination and optic coherence tomography monthly. Re-injection was executed as needed. Re sults: Twenty patients were male (46.5% and twenty-three patients were female (53.5%. The average number of ranibizumab injection was 3.7 (3-7 per eye. Twenty-six lesions (54.2% were classic (predominantly and minimally and twenty-two (45.8% were occult. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 46.8 letters with ETDRS chart at the initial examination and 55.5 letters at twelfth month. Mean central foveal thickness decreased from 320 microns to 269 microns. There was a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and central foveal thickness. On the other hand, this improvement was not significant between lesion types. During follow-up, there were no systemic or serious ocular complications determined. Dis cus si on: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is safe and effective, both anatomically and functionally, for age-related macular degeneration. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 25-9

  8. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14CO2, about 15% of the total 14C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  9. Strontium-90 brachytherapy for exudative, age related macular degeneration: a pilot study

    ARMD is the leading cause of visual loss in the 55 and older population. Recent data suggests that low dose external beam irradiation seems to have a beneficial effect in stabilizing the central visual acuity, by arresting or delaying the progression of the central scotoma. The authors decided to use a newly designed Strontium-90 Macular Applicator in a pilot study to ascertain its effectiveness in controlling exudative, age related macular degeneration. Two groups of 10 patients each were treated. The first group received a total dose of 10 Gy at 1.5 mm depth in a total time of 4 minutes and 20 seconds, fractionated in 4 applications of 1 minute and 5 seconds with 1 minute rest in between to allow blood perfusion. The second group was treated with 15 Gy at the same depth of 1.5 mm in a total time of 6 minutes, in 5 fractions of 1 minute and 20 seconds and 1 minute rest. The first group of patients had a mean follow-up time of 6.7 months, the visual acuity improved at least two Snellen gradations in one eye (10%), stabilized in six eyes (60%) and worsened in three eyes (30%). Among the nine eyes with fluorescein angiographic documentation at four and six months post treatment, the choroidal neovascular membrane remained stable in eight eyes (85%). Strontium-90 brachytherapy appears to be an effective treatment for stabilizing the extent of choroidal neovascular membrane growth on a short term basis. Whether this therapy stabilizes or improves visual acuity, as compared to the natural history of the untreated disease, remains uncertain. The second group will complete six months follow-up soon and the results will be discussed at the time of this presentation

  10. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  11. Is albumin gradient or fluid to serum albumin ratio better than the pleural fluid lactate dehydroginase in the diagnostic of separation of pleural effusion?

    Basran Gurnam S

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the accuracy of serum-effusion albumin gradient (SEAG and pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio (ALBR in the diagnostic separation of pleural effusion into transudate and exudate and to compare SEAG and ALBR with pleural fluid LDH (FLDH the most widely used test. Methods Data collected from 200 consecutive patients with a known cause of pleural effusion in a United Kingdom district general hospital. Results The median and inter quartile ranges (IQR for SEAG 93.5 (33.8 to 122.5 g/dl, ALBR 0.49 (0.42 to 0.62 and FLDH 98.5 IU/L(76.8 to 127.5 in transudates were significantly lower than the corresponding values for exudates 308.5 (171 to 692, 0.77 (0.63 to 0.85, 344 (216 to 695 all p Conclusion The discriminative value for SEAG and ALBR appears to be similar in the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates. FLDH is a superior test compared to SEAG and ALBR.

  12. Root Exudation by Aphid Leaf Infestation Recruits Root-Associated Paenibacillus spp. to Lead Plant Insect Susceptibility.

    Kim, Bora; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-03-28

    Aphids are a large group of hemipteran pests that affect the physiology, growth, and development of plants by using piercing mouthparts to consume fluids from the host. Based an recent data, aphids modulate the microbiomes of plants and thereby affect the overall outcome of the biological interaction. However, in a few reports, aboveground aphids manipulate the metabolism of the host and facilitate infestations by rhizosphere bacteria (rhizobacteria). In this study, we evaluated whether aphids alter the plant resistance that is mediated by the bacterial community of the root system. The rhizobacteria were affected by aphid infestation of pepper, and a large population of gram-positive bacteria was detected. Notably, Paenibacillus spp. were the unique gram-positive bacteria to respond to changes induced by the aphids. Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 was used as a rhizobacterium model to assess the recruitment of bacteria to the rhizosphere by the phloem-sucking of aphids and to test the effect of P. polymyxa on the susceptibility of plants to aphids. The root exudates secreted from peppers infested with aphids increased the growth rate of P. polymyxa E681. The application of P. polymyxa E681 to pepper roots promoted the colonization of aphids within 2 days of inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that aphid infestation modulated the root exudation, which led to the recruitment of rhizobacteria that manipulated the resistance of peppers to aphids. In this study, new information is provided on how the infestation of insects is facilitated through insect-derived modulation of plant resistance with the attraction of gram-positive rhizobacteria. PMID:26699743

  13. Effect of volatiles versus exudates released by germinating spores ofGigaspora margarita on lateral root formation.

    Sun, Xue-Guang; Bonfante, Paola; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi influence the root system architecture of their hosts; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Ectomycorrhizal fungi influence root architecture via volatiles. To determine whether volatiles also play a role in root system changes in response to AM fungi, spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita were inoculated on the same plate as either wild type (WT) Lotus japonicus, the L.japonicus mutant Ljcastor (which lacks the symbiotic cation channel CASTOR, which is required for inducing nuclear calcium spiking, which is necessary for symbiotic partner recognition), or Arabidopsis thaliana, separated by cellophane membranes (fungal exudates experiment), or on different media but with a shared head space (fungal volatiles experiment). Root development was monitored over time. Both germinating spore exudates (GSEs) and geminated-spore-emitted volatile organic compounds (GVCs) significantly promoted lateral root formation (LRF) in WT L.japonicus. LRF in Ljcastor was significantly enhanced in the presence of GVCs. GVCs stimulated LRF in A.thaliana, whereas GSEs showed an inhibitory effect. The expression profile of the genes involved in mycorrhizal establishment and root development were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Only the expression of the LjCCD7 gene, an important component of the strigolactone synthesis pathway, was differentially expressed following exposure to GVCs. We conclude that volatile organic compounds released by the germinating AM fungal spores may stimulate LRF in a symbiosis signaling pathway (SYM)- and host-independent way, whereas GSEs stimulate LRF in a SYM- and host-dependent way. PMID:26397199

  14. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des substances et particulierement dans le transport de l'or colloidal radioactif. Les fractions sanguines qui peuvent participer au transport de l'or colloidal sont les hematies, les leucocytes et elements histiocytaires, et le plasma. La repartition de la radioactivite dans ces elements est precisee en pratiquant des autoradiographies de coupes de culots de sang centrifuge et congele apres incubation avec de l'or colloidal. Cette etude montre l'importance du plasma dans le transport des particules radioactives. Nous avons alors recherche une fixation eventuelle de l'or colloidal 198 sur les diverses proteines seriques en appliquant certaines methodes de separation a savoir une filtration-exclusion sur colonne de gel de Sephadex G-200 et un fractionnement electrophoretique sur papier et sur acetate de cellulose gelatineux (cellogel). Nous avons etudie la liaison ''in vitro'' et ''in vivo'' des particules colloidales d'or 198 d'abord avec les proteines seriques de sujets sains puis avec les proteines des liquides d'epanchement d'origine pathologique, chez l'homme, ou du a une inflammation experimentale a la carragenine chez le rat. Les particules d'or colloidal 198 de 30 m{mu} (S-2) sont liees dans une certaine mesure aux {alpha}2 globulines sanguines ou ascitiques, celles de 5 m{mu} (S-6) sont liees aux {alpha}1 globulines de meme que les grains contenus dans l'or polydisperse. Cette liaison semble intervenir grace a la couche protectrice de macromolecules constituees par la gelatine. Seules les caracteristiques physicochimiques de grains colloidaux peuvent expliquer leur difference de localisation sur l'electrophoregramme. L'or sous forme ionique, par contre, est combine, aux seules albumines si la quantite de metal presente ne depasse pas une certaine limite. (auteur)

  15. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates

    Jandová, Kateřina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2015), s. 821-831. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ČR GAP504/10/0132 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : giant hogweed * root exudates * UHPLC–TOF-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  16. Root exudation of imazapyr by eucalypt, cultivated in soil Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por eucalipto cultivado em solo

    C.M.M. Silva; Ferreira, L.R.; Ferreira, F.A.; G. V. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Imazapyr has been used to control stump sprouting in stand of Eucalyptus plantations, where herbicide is applied to the tree trunk before cutting. The herbicide is applied exclusively on the stump to be killed, but little is known about the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr exudation via roots of eucalypt grown in soil as the substrate was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, 1.500, and 3.000 kg ha-1 a.i.) were applied on the aerial ...

  17. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    . chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an...... apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and...

  18. [Visual fixation features after treatment of exudative age macular degeneration].

    Surguch, V K; Surnina, Z V; Sizova, M V

    2011-01-01

    Changes of visual fixation in patients with choroidal neovascularitation (CNV) associated with age macular degeneration (AMD) after bevacizumab are studied. 45 patients (45 eyes) with active CNV treated with intravitreal bevacizumab were enrolled into the study. Visual fixation was studied before and 3-6 months after treatment using original method that included fundus foto and fluorescein angiography. Fixation relative to fovea and lesion was evaluated. Foveal fixation beyond lesion was found in 9%, foveal fixation within lesion--in 47%, extrafoveal fixation beyond lesion--in 18%, extrafoveal fixation within lesion--in 26% of patients. Changes of fixation localization after treatment was found in 24% patients. Examination of visual fixation may be useful for prognosis of anti-VEGF treatment efficacy in patients with CNV. PMID:21721271

  19. Amino acids in root exudates of Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Hohnová, Barbora; Moravcová, Dana; Figala, J.; Lvončík, S.; Lojková, Lea; Formánek, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2015), s. 1691-1691. ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins /14./. 03.08.2015-07.08.2015, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * GC-MS * SDS-PAGE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  20. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures......, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to...

  1. Characterization of exudates released by the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum exposed to copper stress: a 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.

    Herzi, Faouzi; Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Le Poupon, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Mounier, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    In a laboratory study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two free copper concentrations (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) on cell growth and on dissolved organic matter exudation by a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Throughout incubation, the growth kinetics and exudation of extracellular molecules (i.e. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the fluorescent organic matter) were determined. Results revealed an inhibition of S. costatum growth when the free copper level increased (from 10(-9) to 10(-8)). Furthermore, DOC release was more significant in cultures contaminated by 10(-9) M Cu(2+) than in control, suggesting a coping mechanism developed by this species. In this study, samples were daily analysed by 3D-fluorescence and PARAFAC algorithm, in order to compare the fluorescent material produced during growth under different contaminations. PARAFAC treatment revealed two main contributions: one related to the biological activity (C1), the other linked to the marine organic matter (C2). The third component C3 was typically protein-like. This fluorophore was considered as a tryptophan-like fluorophore, whereas the C1 and the C2 components were associated to marine production such as humic matter. PMID:23868094

  2. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata.

    Ammon, H P; Mack, T; Singh, G B; Safayhi, H

    1991-06-01

    Suspensions of rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) elicited with glycogen were stimulated by calcium and ionophore to produce leukotrienes and 5-HETE from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA). We investigated the effect of ethanolic extracts of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LTB4 and 5-HETE production by different charges of exudate extracts were found. All products of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOx) from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in PMNL were reduced to the same extent by the extracts tested. The ethanolic extract of the gum resin also decreased 5-LOx mediated metabolisation of exogenously added AA to LTB4 and 5-HETE. Since steroidal-type anti-inflammatory drugs do not exert an immediate effect in the test system used, we conclude that the activity of the 5-LOx itself represents the side of inhibition by the gum resin extract. Therefore, an inhibition of 5-LOx catalysed mediator synthesis might be involved in the previously reported anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. PMID:1654575

  3. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  4. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37C, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  5. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates.

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4??g/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site. PMID:26847810

  6. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  7. Echocardiography of isolated subacute left heart tamponade in a patient with cor pulmonale and circumferential pericardial effusion

    Salobir Barbara; Mikolavčič Helena; Marš Tomaž; Podbregar Matej

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension have often a chronic pericardial effusion. It is the result of increased transudation and impaired re-absorption due to elevated venous pressure. These patients have pre-existent symptoms and signs of chronic right heart failure. High degree of suspicion is required to detect of development of an atypical form of tamponade with isolated compression of left heart chambers as shown in present case report. Transthoracic ech...

  8. Evaluation of the coffee seeds viability by exudates/ Avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café por exsudatos

    Tumoru Sera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick evaluation of the germination quality of the seeds is very important for coffee growers. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coefficient between the germination and the liberation of brown exudates of coffee seeds with different times after preparation. Petri dishes and humid filter were used to place the seeds. The seeds were obtained from lots of seeds with several aging degrees. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with seven replications and plots constituted by 10 seeds. High negative correlations (P=0.01 were obtained between the germination and germinative vigour with the liberation of brown exudates at different times. The variance analyses indicated significant differences to germination among seeds of different aging degrees at different evaluation times. The advantage of this technique is to evaluate the germinative quality in six or twelve hours, without the use of specialized labour and expensive equipments.Existe uma grande necessidade de testes que possibilitem uma avaliação rápida e segura da qualidade das sementes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o coeficiente de correlação existente entre a germinação de sementes de café e a liberação de exsudato marrom. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri e papel-toalha umedecido onde foram colocadas as sementes. Os materiais foram obtidos de lotes de sementes com vários níveis de envelhecimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 7 repetições e parcelas constituídas de 10 sementes. Obtiveram-se correlações negativas altas e significativas a 1% entre a germinação e vigor germinativo com a liberação de exsudato marrom. As análises de variância indicaram diferenças significativas na germinação entre sementes de diferentes graus de envelhecimento em relação aos exsudatos marrons. A vantagem desta técnica é avaliar o poder germinativo em poucas horas, sem o uso de mão-de-obra especializada e equipamentos caros.

  9. Hatch and Reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum in Response to Tobacco, Tomato, or Black Nightshade

    Lamondia, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of broadleaf tobacco, tomato, and black nightshade on juvenile hatch and reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum were determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Root exudates from nightshade stimulated greater egg hatch than those from either 'Rutgers' tomato or '86-4' tobacco. Hatch was greater at higher proportions of root exudates for all three plant species. Root exudates from plants greater than 3 weeks old stimulated more hatch than younger plants. No regression ...

  10. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils of guggul (Commiphora wightii) collected from Madhya Pradesh

    Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (g...

  11. Spatial Distribution of Bacterial Communities and Phenanthrene Degradation in the Rhizosphere of Lolium perenne L.

    Corgié, S. C.; Beguiristain, T.; Leyval, C.

    2004-01-01

    Rhizodegradation of organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is based on the effect of root-produced compounds, known as exudates. These exudates constitute an important and constant carbon source that selects microbial populations in the plant rhizosphere, modifying global as well as specific microbial activities. We conducted an experiment in two-compartment devices to show the selection of bacterial communities by root exudates and phenanthrene as a function of distanc...

  12. Root Secretion of Defense-related Proteins Is Development-dependent and Correlated with Flowering Time*

    De-la-Peña, Clelia; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Brandão, Marcelo M.; Marcio C. Silva-Filho; Sumner, Lloyd W; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2010-01-01

    Proteins found in the root exudates are thought to play a role in the interactions between plants and soil organisms. To gain a better understanding of protein secretion by roots, we conducted a systematic proteomic analysis of the root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana at different plant developmental stages. In total, we identified 111 proteins secreted by roots, the majority of which were exuded constitutively during all stages of development. However, defense-related proteins such as chiti...

  13. Unilateral Hemithorax Opacification on Chest Radiograph : Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Chest Ultrasonography with CT

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography (CT) inpatients with opacification more than one third of unilateral hemithorax on chest radiograph (CXR). Chest US and CT scans from 41 consecutive patients with opacification more than one third of unilateral hemithorax on CXR were prospectively evaluated by two independent radiologists. Each radiologist recorded 1) the nature of pleural effusion (transudate vs. exudate), 2) presence or absence of pulmonary lesion, 3) the characteristic of pulmonary lesion (consolidation or atelectasis and tumor), and 4) presence of solid pleural tumor. The diagnostic accuracy of chest US was compared with CT scan in patients with pleural, pulmonary or other disease. In 32 patients with pleural effusion, differentiation between transudate and exudate was feasible in 27 (84%) patients with US and 26 (81%) patients with CT. In 32 patients with pulmonary and other pleural diseases, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US in lesion detection were 86%, 75% and 83% respectively when CT was regarded as a diagnostic gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of chest US is comparable to CT in patients with hemithorax opacification on CXR

  14. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99mTc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  15. Root exudation of imazapyr by eucalypt, cultivated in soil Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por eucalipto cultivado em solo

    C.M.M. Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has been used to control stump sprouting in stand of Eucalyptus plantations, where herbicide is applied to the tree trunk before cutting. The herbicide is applied exclusively on the stump to be killed, but little is known about the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr exudation via roots of eucalypt grown in soil as the substrate was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, 1.500, and 3.000 kg ha-1 a.i. were applied on the aerial parts of 8-month-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal seedlings, cultivated in pots with 18.0 dm³ of soil. Forty days after this treatment, the eucalypt plants were cut and a lateral opening in the containers was made and the plants inclined 90º, with plants sensitive to herbicide presence (sorghum and cucumber sown into the openings along the exposed soil surface. After 15-day sowing, toxicity symptoms on the shoots as well as the shoot and root system dry biomass of the bio-indicators were evaluated. The results suggest that eucalypt roots do exude imazapyr, and/or its metabolites, at concentrations high enough to cause toxicity to the bio-indicators. Toxicity effects were observed in all plants sown along the exposed soil profile of the container, with higher intensity at higher doses.O imazapyr tem sido utilizado para controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com Eucalyptus, por meio de sua aplicação no caule no pré-corte das árvores; dessa forma, o herbicida é aplicado exclusivamente na planta, porém há pouco conhecimento sobre o destino final da molécula. A exsudação radicular do imazapyr por eucalipto, cultivado em solo, foi avaliada em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se diferentes doses do herbicida (0,000; 0,375; 0,750; 1,125; 1,500; e 3,000 kg ha-1 i.a. sobre a parte aérea de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis, com oito meses de idade, as quais foram cultivadas em recipientes com 18,0 dm³ de solo. Quarenta dias após a aplicação do herbicida procedeu-se à recepa do eucalipto e abertura de uma das laterais do recipiente, a qual foi inclinada 90º, recebendo a semeadura de plantas indicadoras da presença do herbicida (sorgo e pepino ao longo da superfície exposta. Quinze dias após a semeadura, foi feita a avaliação dos sintomas de intoxicação na parte aérea, determinando-se a biomassa seca desta e do sistema radicular das plantas indicadoras. Os resultados evidenciaram que o eucalipto apresenta exsudação radicular do imazapyr e/ou de seus metabólitos em quantidade capaz de causar toxicidade nos bioindicadores, sendo esta observada em todas as plantas ao longo do vaso, com maior intensidade sob doses maiores.

  16. First isolation of oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants from the umbilical exudate of a paediatric patient with omphalitis.

    Kubota, Noriko; Kuzumoto, Kei; Hidaka, Eiko; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Yumoto, Kayoko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    An oleate-dependent Enterococcus faecalis isolate representing small-colony variants (SCVs) was isolated from the umbilical exudate of a 31-month-old Japanese male patient in Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino, Japan. The patient had been suffering from recurrent omphalitis since early infancy. The initial E. faecalis SCV isolate formed small colonies on sheep blood agar plates and tiny colonies on chocolate and modified Drigalski agar, although no visible growth was observed in HK-semi solid medium after 48 h incubation in ambient air. Moreover, the SCV isolate, the colonial morphology of which was reminiscent of Streptococcus species, could not be identified using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 and API 20 Strep systems, both of which yielded profile numbers that did not correspond to any bacterial species, probably as a result of insufficient growth of the isolate. The SCV isolate was subsequently identified as E. faecalis based on its morphological, cultural and biochemical properties, and this was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. Investigations revealed that the addition of oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid, enabled the isolate to grow on every medium with normal-sized colony morphology. Although it has long been known that long-chain fatty acids, especially unsaturated oleic acid, have a major inhibitory effect on the growth of a variety of microorganisms, including not only mycobacteria but also streptococci, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical isolation of an oleate-dependent E. faecalis SCV isolate. In addition, oleic acid might be considered to affect the cell membrane permeability of carbohydrates or antimicrobial agents such as β-lactams. PMID:24072765

  17. Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae

    Sychrová, E.; Štěpánkdová, T.; Nováková, K.; Bláha, Luděk; Giesy, J.P.; Hilscherová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2012), s. 134-140. ISSN 0160-4120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * endocrine disruption * estrogenicity * algae * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.248, year: 2012

  18. Amelioration of Pb and Mn toxicity to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices by maize root exudates

    Malcová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2003), s. 297-299. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : heavy metals * hyphal growth * Zea mays Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  19. Ecophysiological characterization of carnivorous plant roots: oxygen fluxes, respiration, and water exudation

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 247-255. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plants * soil anoxia * Genlisea traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  20. Methods of collection of plant root exudates in relation to plant metabolism and purpose: A review

    Vránová, V.; Rejšek, K.; Skene, K. R.; Janouš, Dalibor; Formanek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2013), s. 175-199. ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : allelochemical / CAM / C3 * C4 metabolism * retrieval * rhizodeposition * rhizosphere Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  1. TRANSGENIC PLANTS - INSECTICIDAL TOXIN IN ROOT EXUDATES FROM BT CORN. (R826107)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. High cytokine levels in perforated acute otitis media exudates containing live bacteria.

    Skovbjerg, S; Roos, K; Nowrouzian, F; Lindh, M; Holm, S E; Adlerberth, I; Olofsson, S; Wold, A E

    2010-09-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is an inflammatory response to microbes in the middle ear, sometimes associated with rupture of the tympanic membrane. Human leukocytes produce different patterns of inflammatory mediators in vitro when stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Here, we investigated the cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) responses in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from children with spontaneously perforated AOM, and related the mediator levels to the presence of pathogens detected by culture (live) or PCR (live or dead). Furthermore, the in vivo cytokine pattern was compared with that induced in leukocytes stimulated by dead bacteria in vitro. MEFs with culturable pathogenic bacteria contained more interleukin (IL)-1β (median: 110 μg/L vs. <7.5 μg/L), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (6.3 μg/L vs. <2.5 μg/L), IL-8 (410 μg/L vs. 38 μg/L) and IL-10 (0.48 μg/L vs. <0.30 μg/L) than culture-negative fluids, irrespective of PCR findings. IL-6 and PGE2 were equally abundant (69-110 μg/L) in effusions with live, dead or undetectable bacteria. Cytokine levels were unrelated to bacterial species and to the presence or absence of virus. Similar levels of TNF and IL-6 as found in the MEFs were obtained by in vitro stimulation of leukocytes, whereas 11 times more IL-1β and 3.5 times more IL-8 were produced in vivo, and 22 times more IL-10 was produced in vitro. Vigorous production of proinflammatory cytokines accompanies AOM with membrane rupture, regardless of the causative agent, but the production seems to cease rapidly once the bacteria are killed and fragmented. IL-6 and PGE2, however, remain after bacterial disintegration, and may play a role in the resolution phase. PMID:19832705

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.; Yancey, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    compounds, with MIC(90)s of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, 41.4% of the 99 strains tested were positive for beta-lactamase production. The MIC(90)s of erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin were >32.0 mu g/ml. Initial testing with sulfadiazine-trimethoprim yielded an MIC(90) of >64...... the two compounds at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs...

  4. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 104 cells cm-2 (diatoms) and 5 x 106 cells cm-2 (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10-21 mol to 17.9 x 10-21 mol of [3H]thymidine incorporated cell -1 h-1) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon

  5. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus.

    Ott, Brittany M; Dacks, Andrew M; Ryan, Kenneth J; Rio, Rita V M

    2016-05-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacteriumAeromonas veroniiis transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yetA. veroniican also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-boundA. veroniihad the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found thatA. veroniialters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporatesN-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  6. Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the chemiluminescence (CL) of murine peritoneal exudate cells

    Caren, L.D. (California State Univ., Northridge (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Stimulated PEC generate microbicidal free oxygen radicals which are potentially mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. The effects of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on oxygen radical production were measured in this study. A Helmholtz coil and parallel plate electrodes were utilized to provide uniform field characteristics. Effects were studied at combined field frequencies of 60, 600, and 6,000 Hz. Thioglycollate-elicited PEC were exposed to EMF or placed in a far corner of the lab (controls). Following the addition of zymosan, luminol-enhanced CL was measured. No differences in CL were found for exposures to 60 Hz for 18 hr; 600 Hz for 10 hr; or 6,000 Hz for 0.75 hr. PEC exposed to 6,000 Hz for 11 hr showed a 25% increase in CL over control PEC. At 600 and 6,000 Hz, the temperature of the air and a dish of saline in the EMF apparatus was 26C, vs. 25C where the controls were kept. At 60 Hz, there was no temperature difference. These preliminary experiments indicate that under these conditions, EMF fields do not have a significant effect on this immune function.

  7. Benzoxazinoids in Root Exudates of Maize Attract Pseudomonas putida to the Rhizosphere

    Neal, Andrew L.; Ahmad, Shakoor; Gordon-Weeks, Ruth; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), are secondary metabolites in grasses. In addition to their function in plant defence against pests and diseases above-ground, benzoxazinoids (BXs) have also been implicated in defence below-ground, where they can exert allelochemical or antimicrobial activities. We have studied the impact of BXs on the interaction between maize and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a competitive coloniser of the maize rhizosphere w...

  8. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Gbor Fbin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  9. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS; asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS. Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The plants were cultivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  10. Inoculação do feijoeiro com Rhizobium tropici associada à exsudato de Mimosa flocculosa com diferentes doses de nitrogênio Rhizobium tropici associated with Mimosa flocculosa exudates inoculation effect on bean plants under different nitrogen rates

    Eulene Francisco da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de rizóbio, associada à adição de exsudatos de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa, e/ou de N-mineral nas características agronômicas do feijoeiro, em sucessão à soja e ao milho. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas sub-subdivididas. As culturas soja e milho antecessoras à cultura do feijoeiro formaram as parcelas. As subparcelas foram constituídas pelos tratamentos: testemunha sem inoculação, inoculação de Rhyzobium tropici, estirpes CIAT 899 e PRF 81 e a associação deste com os exsudados das sementes de Mimosa flocculosa. As sub-subparcelas constituiram-se de quatro doses de N aplicadas em cobertura: 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. A inoculação de rizóbio associada à adição de exsudato de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa contribuiu para o melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea do feijoeiro. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu, de forma linear, a nodulação do feijoeiro. O milho como cultura antecessora ao feijão contribuiu para o aumento do peso de 100 grãos e a adição de N combinado não contribuiu para o aumento do número de vagens por planta e produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro, independente da dose utilizada.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Rhizobium inoculation, associated with seed exudates of Mimosa flocculosa, under different rates of nitrogen fertilization was evaluated in bean crops following soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and corn (Zea mays L.. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, with treatments arranged in sub-divided parcels. The parcels were constituted of two summer crops preceding the common bean crop: soybean and corn. In the sub-parcels three treatments involving inoculation of the common bean seeds were considered: control treatment without inoculation; bean seeds inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, strains CIAT 899 and PRF 81, and the association of Rhizobium with the exudates of the Mimosa flocculosa seeds. The sub-subparcels received of four doses of nitrogen fertilization applied on covering: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 N. The inoculation of Rhizobium associated with the addition of exudates of Mimosa flocculosa seeds resulted in higher shoot dry weight. Besides that, the nitrogen fertilization, on the tested doses, reduced, in a linear way, the nodulation of the bean plant. It was also verified that corn as a preceding crop for bean has contributed to the increase of the weight of 100 grains, while the addition of combined N did not contribute to the improvement on the number of beans per plant, neither of the grain yield of bean plants, independent of the dose that was used.

  11. PORFIRIA AGUDA: REPORTE DE CASO Y REVISIÓN DE TEMA URINOTÓRAX: REPORTE DE UM CASO E REVISÃO DA LITERATURA URINOTHORAX: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    JORGE SALINAS P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El urinotórax es una causa inusual de derrame pleural, que implica la presencia de orina en el espacio pleural, asociado generalmente a uropatía obstructiva bilateral, o a trauma del sistema urinario. Las características bioquímicas del derrame están en relación directa con las características de la orina y sufren una ligera, pero sustancial modificación, tras su paso al espacio pleural, donde se entremezcla con el líquido pleural. Característicamente, el líquido pleural es un transudado con un pH O urinotórax é uma causa infreqüente de derrame pleural, que implica a presença de urina no espaço pleural, associado geralmente a uropatía obstrutiva bilateral, ou a trauma do sistema urinário. As características bioquímicas do derrame estão em relação direta com a urina e sofrem uma ligeira, mas substancial modificação, depois do seu passo ao espaço pleural, onde se mistura com o líquido pleural. Caracteristicamente, o líquido pleural é um transudado com um PH The urinothorax is an uncommon cause of pleural effusion; it involves the presence of urine in the pleural space, generally associated with bilateral obstructive uropathy or trauma of the urinary system. The biochemical characteristics of the effusion are related with to those of urine and they suffer a slight, but substantial modification as it passes into the pleural space where it mixes with the pleural fluid (PF. Characteristically, the PF is a transudate, with a pH < 7,3; however there have been publications where it has been classified as an exudate, associated with high LDH levels. In general, glucose and proteins levels are low (glucose levels < 60 mg/dl, while LDH levels are very high. The accepted biochemical parameter for the diagnosis of urinothorax is a ratio higher than 1 between pleural fluid creatinine and serum creatinine. To date, only few cases have been reported worldwide, probably due to misdiagnosis, to a low index of suspicion and the quick resolution of the pleural effusion with the removal of the urinary tract obstruction. In this study we review one case of urinothorax in a patient with bilateral obstruction of the urinary system by bladder cancer. She was admitted to the Internal Medicine Service of the Hospital Militar Central in Bogotá. It is important that physicians familiarize themselves with this pathology to be able to establish an early diagnosis and provide adequate treatment.

  12. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an unknown solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose

  13. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F. [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  14. The role of iron species on the competition of two coastal diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassosira weissflogii

    Li, S.-X.; Liu, F.-J.; Zheng, F.-Y.; Zuo, Y.-G.; Huang, X.-G.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to macronutrient (N and P) and Fe enrichment. However, how these exposures influence on Fe biogeochemical cycle and then on diatom interspecific competition is unknown. In this study, two non-toxic coastal diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassosira weissflogii were exposed to N, P, and Fe enrichment for four-day. The growth of algae was co-controlled by macronutrient and Fe species (Fe (III)-EDTA, Fe(OH)3, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate Fe from culture medium). The influence of Fe species on algal cell density was more significant than macronutrient. When S. costatum coexisted with T. weissflogii, their cell density ratios were ranged between 5.57-7.03 times, indicating that S. costatum was more competitive than T. weissflogii. There were not significant correlation between cell density ratio and iron requirement, including iron adsorption and absorption per cell, iron adsorption and absorption by all algal cells. As Fe complexing ligands, algal exudates can promote diatom growth itself and such promotion on S. costatum was more obvious than that on T. weissflogii. Iron species was a key determinant on interspecific competition of coastal diatom, and the degree of bioavailability was described as follows: dissolved iron from own exudates > colloidal iron from own exudates > particulate iron from own exudates > particulate iron from another algal exudates > colloidal iron from another algal exudates > dissolved iron from another algal exudates > Fe (III)-EDTA> Fe (OH)3.

  15. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated

  16. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical.59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers KL1 and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  17. Imazapyr root exudation from eucalypt seedlings cultivated in nutritive solution Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por mudas de eucalipto cultivadas em solução nutritiva

    Carlos Magno Magalhães da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has been used in Brazilian eucalypt cultivation for the maintenance of clearings and coppicing control in areas undergoing stand reform. However, inquiries have been made as to the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr root exudation in eucalypt plants was evaluated through a bioassay under greenhouse conditions, by applying different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, and 1.500 kg ha-1 a.i. on Eucalyptus grandis seedlings derived from vegetative propagation, hydroponically cultivated in 2.500 ml vases. Forty-day-old seedlings of the same clone were used as bioindicators, transplanted to the vases two days after herbicide application. After a period of 13 days of coexistence, the sprayed plants were removed and discarded; ten days later, the visual symptoms of toxicity were evaluated and the total dry biomass (aerial part and roots of the bioindicators were determined. The lowest herbicide dose (0.375 kg ha-1 a.i. affected the total biomass and growth, being most evident in the aerial part, with larger I50 for root dry biomass. The E. grandis seedlings exuded imazapyr, and/or its metabolites, in concentrations capable of affecting the growth of plants of the same species.Na eucaliptocultura brasileira, vem-se utilizando o imazapyr para manutenção de aceiros e erradicação de cepas e brotações em áreas de reforma dos povoamentos. Entretanto, têm sido levantadas indagações quanto ao destino final da molécula. A exsudação radicular de imazapyr em plantas de eucalipto foi avaliada por meio de bioensaios em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se diferentes doses do herbicida (0,000; 0,375; 0,750; 1,125; e 1,500 kg ha-1 i.a. sobre mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, provenientes de propagação vegetativa e cultivadas em sistema hidropônico, em vasos de 2.500 mL. Como bioindicador, empregaram-se mudas do mesmo clone com 40 dias de idade, as quais foram transplantadas para os vasos dois dias após a aplicação do herbicida. Depois de um período de 13 dias de convivência, retiraram-se as plantas que receberam a aplicação, descartando-as; 10 dias após, foram avaliados os sintomas visuais de toxicidade e determinadas as biomassas secas de parte aérea e raízes das mudas do bioindicador. A menor dose do herbicida (0,375 kg ha-1 i.a. afetou o crescimento e a produção de biomassa total, sendo mais pronunciado na parte aérea, com maior valor de I50 na biomassa seca de raiz. As mudas de E. grandis exsudam o imazapyr e, ou, seus metabólitos, em concentrações capazes de afetar o crescimento de plantas da mesma espécie.

  18. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  19. A physiological and molecular approach to study organic acid exudation and development of cluster roots in Lupinus albus L

    Langlade, Nicolas Bernard; E. Martinoia

    2004-01-01

    Les racines protéoïdes sont des structures en écouvillon, développées par des centaines d'espèces végétales (principalement de la famille des Protéacées, mais aussi de la légumineuse Lupinus albus, L.). Induites par des stress nutritifs, spécialement le phosphore, ces structures sont caractérisées par une forte capacité d'exsuder le citrate (jusqu'à 7 µmol .h-1 .g-1) et le malate dans la rhizosphère et donc d'augmenter la disponibilité du P, Fe et Mn. De plus, une grande variété de réponses à...

  20. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó; Gervásio Henrique Bechara; Fernando Queiroz Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this a...

  1. Method of separating and recovering uranium and impurities by adsorption

    As the method of exuding uranium from uranium ore, for the reason of the economy and the easiness of operation, sulfuric acid exudation has been generally adopted. The uranium which was exuded in sulfuric acid exudation liquid is separated from impurities by solvent extraction process or ion exchange resin process, the concentration of the uranium is heightened, thereafter, the uranium is recovered as yellow cake. The processing method using chelate resin which can selectively separate and recover the uranium in sulfuric acid exudation liquid and also the valuable metals in impurities was developed. This process is that of separating and recovering uranium, molybdenum and nickel from the sulfuric acid exudation liquid for uranium ore, of which the main compositions are uranium, nickel and arsenic, and the subcompositions are molybdenum, iron and aluminum. The separation and recovery process is explained. On the adsorption process of uranium and molybdenum, the elution of uranium and molybdenum, the regeneration process of RCSP resin, the recovery of molybdenum from the elution liquid, the production of yellow cake, and the separation and recovery of nickel from the liquid passed through the RCSP column, the experimental results are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Diagnostic value of phage typing, antibiogram typing and plasmid profiling of Staphylococcus hyicus from piglets with exudative epidermitis

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1993-01-01

    individual piglets, with an average of 1.9 phage type per piglet. Antibiogram patterns of 384 isolates from 40 randomly selected piglets with EE showed a mean of 2.3 different antibiograms per investigated piglet, ranging from 1 to 6 antibiograms per piglet. Plasmid profiles of 248 S. hyicus isolates from 25...... randomly selected piglets showed an average of 2.8 different plasmid profiles per piglet. Seven EE outbreaks in pig herds vaccinated with autogenous vaccine were investigated. In all these herds, strains recovered from the present outbreak differed by two or more type markers to the strains from the...

  3. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, spectral slope, florescence index, excitation-emission matrices, and surface tension. Significant differences on character were observed between the harvested exudates and the AREs, as well as between the raw and metabolized exudates. Naphthalene desorption from an aged soil was enhanced in the presence of raw exudates. The surface tension in samples containing raw harvested exudates was reduced compared to samples containing the metabolized exudates. Plant root exudates may therefore facilitate phytoremediation by enhancing contaminant desorption and improving bioavailability. Overall, this research concludes that heavily planted bioretention systems are a sustainable solution to mitigating stormwater hydrocarbon pollution as a result of likely enhanced contaminant desorption, and improved biodegradation and plant uptake in such systems.

  4. UTILIZATION OF DOC FROM SEAGRASS RHIZOMES BY SEDIMENT BACTERIA: 13C TRACER EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING

    Seagrasses are widely recognized as contributing to net ecosystem primary production and to supporting heterotrophy in estuarine systems. We investigated the linkage between seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) rhizosphere carbon exudation and sediment bacteria. In microcosms, we si...

  5. Immunocytochemical identification and quantitation of the mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, and brain during acute viral meningoencephalitis

    1984-01-01

    The mononuclear cells of the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response were characterized in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), meningeal exudate, and brain parenchyma of mice 3-14 d after infection with Sindbis virus. The inflammatory infiltrate in CSF peaked and resolved before that of the parenchyma or meningeal exudate. Immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies identified CSF inflammatory cells to be almost exclusively T cells, while inflammatory cells in the brain parenchymal...

  6. Discoveries on the chemical and genetic bases of bioluminescence in gelatinous zooplankton

    Francis, Warren Russell

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I will discuss three projects aimed to explore different aspects of bioluminescence and genetics in marine animals. The first project describes a series of experiments on the chemistry in the novel bioluminescent system of the marine worms of the genus Tomopteris. These luminous worms release glowing exudate when agitated, and this exudate was rich in a fluorescent pigment. The structure was determined to be an anthraquinone and the possible origins and chemical roles are discu...

  7. Evaluación in vitro de las propiedades de seis apósitos para la cura en ambiente húmedo de heridas exudativas Evaluation in vitro of the properties of six dressings for the healing wet environments of exudative wounds

    Joan Rius Tarruella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Dentro de los apósitos destinados a la cura en ambiente húmedo, las espumas constituyen un tipo de apósito especialmente indicado para el tratamiento de heridas altamente exudativas debido a su gran capacidad de absorción. Son apósitos atraumáticos que protegen la zona perilesional y mantienen el lecho húmedo favoreciendo la epitelización y aliviando el dolor, por lo que ocupan un espacio muy específico en el cuidado de las úlceras vasculares y por presión. Material y método: Estudio experimental in vitro para evaluar las características de 6 tipos de apósitos de espuma polimérica: SKINFOAM no adhesivo (SF1 y adhesivo (SF2, ALLEVYN no adhesivo (A1 y adhesivo (A2 y BIATAIN no adhesivo (B1 y adhesivo (B2. Las características valoradas fueron: capacidad de absorción y control de exudados, caracterización de la superficie en contacto, capacidad de transpiración, conformabilidad y protección antimicrobiana. Resultados: Las pruebas de absorción y control de exudados muestran cómo los apósitos SF1 y SF2 obtienen la mayor absorción por unidad de peso mientras que los modelos B1 y B2 se deforman de manera evidente; incluso en el caso del apósito adhesivo B2 la almohadilla de foam se despegó del film adhesivo. El experimento por goteo no pudo realizarse con los apósitos A1 y A2 por no retener las gotas de solución, ya que la capa adherente de contacto interna evita la retención. Las medidas de rugosidad mostraron la excelente suavidad de los apósitos SF1 y SF2, comportamiento que influirá directamente sobre el síntoma del dolor. Las tasas de transpiración de vapor de agua, más altas, particularmente para los modelos adhesivos, fueron para los apósitos SF2 y B1. El apósito más fácilmente extensible fue el SF1 y la protección bacteriana fue similar en todos los apósitos. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran que los apósitos SF1 entre los no adhesivos y SF2 entre los adhesivos (modelos SKINFOAM son los que mejor comportamiento global tienen de las propiedades estudiadas. Respecto a los otros modelos, cabe destacar la capacidad de absorción por unidad de superficie de los modelos A1 y B2, la retención de exudados bajo presión y la mínima cantidad de agua libre del modelo B1 y los resultados en la prueba de transpiración del modelo A2.Introduction: Of the dressings used for healing in wet environments, foam is a type of dressing that is particularly indicated for the treatment of highly exudative wounds due to its great absorption capacity. They are atraumatic dressings that protect the perilesional area and keep the bed moist promoting epithelialization and providing pain relief, thus occupying a very specific space in the care of vascular and pressure ulcers. Material and method: In vitro experimental study to evaluate the characteristics of 6 types of polymeric foam dressings: Non-adhesive (SF1 and adhesive (SF2 SKINFOAM, non-adhesive (A1 and adhesive (A2 ALLEVYN and non-adhesive (B1 and adhesive (B2 BIATAIN. The characteristics assessed were: exudate absorption and control capacity, characterisation of the contact surface, transpiration, conformability and antimicrobial protection capacity. Results: The exudate absorption and control tests show how dressings SF1 and SF2 obtain greater absorption per unit of weight while models B1 and B2 are evidently deformed, and even in the case of the adhesive B2 dressing, the foam padding detached from the adhesive film. The drip experiment could not be carried out with dressings A1 and A2 as the drops of solution could not be retained since the internal contact adherence layer prevents retention. The roughness measurements demonstrated the excellent softness of the SF1 and SF2 dressings, a behaviour that will have a direct impact on pain symptoms. The highest water vapour transpiration rates, particularly for adhesive models, were for dressings SF2 and B1. The easiest-to-extend dressing was the SF1, and bacterial protection was similar in all the dressings. The dressings with the greatest absorption capacity were model B1 by unit of surface and model A1 by unit of weight. The maximum exudate retention under pressure was that of dressing C1 among the non-adhesives (96.79% and A2 among the adhesives (97.13%. Dressings C1 and C2 presented the lowest amount of free water. The highest rates of water vapour transpiration corresponded to dressings C1 and A2, respectively. Dressing A1 presented the best surface characteristics. All the models had a similar behaviour in all the microbiological tests. Conclusions: The results show that the SF1 dressings from among the non-adhesives and the SF2 from among the adhesives (Skinfoam models present the best overall behaviour in terms of the properties studied. Regarding the other models, mention must be made of the absorption capacity per unit of surface of models A1 and B2, the retention of exudates under pressure and the minimum amount of free water of model B1 and the results of model A2 in the transpiration test.

  8. Incidence and natural course of symptomatic central serous chorioretinopathy in pregnant women in a maternity hospital in Kuwait

    Khaled Said-Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In pregnant women, CSR can present with or without retinal exudates and completely resolves in either case. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to investigate the risk factors in pregnant women.

  9. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na, calcio (Ca, magnesio (Mg y potasio (k por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS. Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zabila. Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  10. Uptake, translocation and distribution of 14C-carpropamid in rice

    Full text: When applied through seed, root or foliage, 14C-carpropamid was readily absorbed and translocated apoplastically to untreated plant parts in rice. A substantial amount of fungicide was exuded out on the surface of leaves of 21-day old rice seedlings raised from carpropamid treated seeds. This exuded fungicide was probably responsible for its antipenetrant activity against rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea. (author)

  11. Resolvin D3 and Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D3 Are Potent Immunoresolvents

    Dalli, Jesmond; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Colas, Romain A.; Arnardottir, Hildur; Chien-Yee C. Cheng; Chiang, Nan; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Resolvins are a new family of n-3 lipid mediators initially identified in resolving inflammatory exudates that temper inflammatory responses to promote catabasis. Here, temporal metabololipidomics with self-limited resolving exudates revealed that resolvin (Rv) D3 has a distinct time frame from other lipid mediators, appearing late in resolution phase. Using synthetic materials prepared by stereocontrolled total organic synthesis and metabololipidomics, we established complete stereochemistry...

  12. Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcusaureus isolated from skin exudates

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al2O3 nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al2O3 NPs (2O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700–3,400 μg/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 μg/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al2O3 NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al2O3 NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al2O3 NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al2O3 NPs in medical application

  13. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium.

    Tepfer, D; Goldmann, A; Pamboukdjian, N; Maille, M.; Lepingle, A; Chevalier, D.; Dénarié, J.; Rosenberg, C.

    1988-01-01

    Our objectives were to identify substances produced by plant roots that might act as nutritional mediators of specific plant-bacterium relationships and to delineate the bacterial genes responsible for catabolizing these substances. We discovered new compounds, which we call calystegins, that have the characteristics of nutritional mediators. They were detected in only 3 of 105 species of higher plants examined: Calystegia sepium, Convolvulus arvensis (both of the Convolvulaceae family), and ...

  14. Scrotal Hydrocele in a Dog with Dirofilaria Infestation and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    D. H. Yu, Y. S. Roh, H. Park, G. H. Woo1, S. Ejaz2, K. Lee, C. W. Lim, J. Park and B. Kim*

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-year-old male Saint Bernard dog with a scrotal hydrocele was referred with a history of scrotal swelling and emaciation. Physical and hematological evaluation revealed dirofilaria infestation and liver function abnormalities. Ultrasonography showed fluid collection in each peritesticular area and in the peritoneal cavity. The dog survived only 10 days after the initial presentation. At necropsy, umbilicated nodular masses in the liver, hemorrhagic ascites, heart dirofilariasis, and accumulated transudate in the scrotum were observed. Histopathologic and immunofluorescence examination revealed cholangiocarcinoma in the liver, indicating the cause of liver failure and ascites accumulation. Severe edema was seen in the mediastinal connective tissue of spermatic cord and heartworm DNA from the spermatic cord tissue was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. In the present case, it was suspected that the acquired hydrocele might have been caused by ectopic migration of filarial worms or by severe hypoproteinemia induced by liver failure.

  15. Allelopathic exudates of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica): implications for the performance of native pine savanna plant species in the southeastern US.

    Hagan, Donald L; Jose, Shibu; Lin, Chung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a greenhouse study to assess the effects of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) rhizochemicals on a suite of plants native to southeastern US pine savanna ecosystems. Our results indicated a possible allelopathic effect, although it varied by species. A ruderal grass (Andropogon arctatus) and ericaceous shrub (Lyonia ferruginea) were unaffected by irrigation with cogongrass soil "leachate" (relative to leachate from mixed native species), while a mid-successional grass (Aristida stricta Michx. var. beyrichiana) and tree (Pinus elliottii) were negatively affected. For A. stricta, we observed a 35.7 % reduction in aboveground biomass, a 21.9 % reduction in total root length, a 24.6 % reduction in specific root length and a 23.5 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length, relative to the native leachate treatment. For P. elliottii, there was a 19.5 % reduction in percent mycorrhizal colonization and a 20.1 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length. Comparisons with a DI water control in year two support the possibility that the treatment effects were due to the negative effects of cogongrass leachate, rather than a facilitative effect from the mixed natives. Chemical analyses identified 12 putative allelopathic compounds (mostly phenolics) in cogongrass leachate. The concentrations of most compounds were significantly lower, if they were present at all, in the native leachate. One compound was an alkaloid with a speculated structure of hexadecahydro-1-azachrysen-8-yl ester (C23H33NO4). This compound was not found in the native leachate. We hypothesize that the observed treatment effects may be attributable, at least partially, to these qualitative and quantitative differences in leachate chemistry. PMID:23334457

  16. Detection of the complement fragment C5a in inflammatory exudates from the rabbit peritoneal cavity using radioimmunoassay

    1983-01-01

    We describe a radioimmunoassay for rabbit C5a and its use to obtain evidence of extravascular C5a generation in two inflammatory reactions in the peritoneal cavity. These observations, together with the potent activity of C5a in inducing increased microvascular permeability involving circulating PMN leukocytes, strengthen the case for considering C5a an important inflammatory mediator. These findings offer an explanation for the many different experimental inflammatory reactions where oedema ...

  17. Investigating the Effects of Plant Root Exudates on PAHs Bioavailability to Soil Microorganisms in Contaminated Brownfields : Research Methodology.

    Davin, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Colinet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    As a result of heavy industrial past activities, an estimated 6,000 brownfields require remediation in Wallonia. This number rises to over 3.5 million in Europe. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent 17% of treated pollutants in Wallonia (Aldric et al., 2011). Current remediation techniques are rather expensive and technically demanding (Megharaj et al., 2011). Based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants (Cheema et al., 2010), the PhD ai...

  18. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  19. Lack of biological significance of in vitro Brugia malayi microfilarial cytotoxicity mediated by Propionibacterium acnes ("Corynebacterium parvum")-and Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated macrophages.

    Fanning, M M; Kazura, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of nonspecific activation of host macrophages by Propionibacterium acnes ("Corynebacterium parvum") or Mycobacterium bovis BCG on Brugia malayi microfilariae was determined by in vitro and in vivo studies. Intraperitoneal injection of C. parvum or BCG stimulated peritoneal exudate cells, which were toxic to microfilariae. Microfilariae were equally susceptible to damage by C57BL/6J or BALB/cJ peritoneal exudate cells. Furthermore, inhibitors of oxidative metabolism and arginine sup...

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  1. Study on the release routes of allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., and its anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Ye, Jinyun; Zhong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Allelochemicals in Pistia stratiotes Linn. have a strong anti-cyanobacteria effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. To further determine the release routes of allelochemicals in P. stratiotes and understand their anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms, we aimed to systematically investigate the allelopathic effects of leaf leachates, leaf volatilization, root exudates, and residue decomposition of P. stratiotes on M. aeruginosa. The influences of P. stratiotes allelochemicals on the physiological properties of M. aeruginosa were also studied. Root exudates of P. stratiotes exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. The residue decomposition and leaf leachates exhibited a relatively strong inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. By contrast, the leaf volatilization stimulated M. aeruginosa growth. Therefore, root exudation was determined to be the main release route of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes. The mixed culture experiment of P. stratiotes root exudates and M. aeruginosa showed that the allelochemicals released from root exudation had no effect on the electron transfer of M. aeruginosa photosynthetic system II. However, it reduced the phycocyanin (PC) content and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin (PC/APC) ratio in the photosynthetic system. As the root exudates concentration increased, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical (O2(*-)) values in the M. aeruginosa culture fluid increased significantly, indicating that the allelochemicals released from the root of P. stratiotes inhibited algae growth by affecting the PC and PC/APC levels in photosynthesis, destroying the cell membrane, and increasing O2(*-) content to result in oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa. PMID:26233747

  2. Physiological responses in roots of the grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri subjected to Fe deficiency and Fe-heme nutrition.

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Rodrigues Moreira, Erica; Donnini, Silvia; Bombai, Giuseppe; Filippini, Gianfranco; Pisi, Annamaria; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe)-heme containing fertilizers can effectively prevent Fe deficiency. This paper aims to investigate root physiological responses after a short period of Fe-heme nutrition and Fe deficiency under two pH conditions (with or without HEPES) in the Fe chlorosis-tolerant grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri. Organic acids in root exudates, Fe reduction capacity, both roots and root exudates contributions, together with other physiological parameters associated to plant Fe status were evaluated in plants grown in hydroponics. Analyses of root tips by SEM, and Raman and IR spectra of the precipitates of Fe-heme fertilizers were performed. The physiological responses adopted by the tolerant 140 Ruggeri to the application of Fe-heme indicated an increased Fe reduction capacity of the roots. This is the first report showing oxalic, tartaric, malic and ascorbic as major organic acids in Vitis spp. root exudates. Plants reacted to Fe deficiency condition exuding a higher amount of ascorbic acid in the rhizosphere. The presence of HEPES in the medium favoured the malic acid exudation. The lowest concentration of oxalic acid was found in exudates of plants subjected to Fe-heme and could be associated to a higher accumulation in their root tips visualized by SEM analysis. PMID:26276277

  3. Echocardiography of isolated subacute left heart tamponade in a patient with cor pulmonale and circumferential pericardial effusion

    Salobir Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension have often a chronic pericardial effusion. It is the result of increased transudation and impaired re-absorption due to elevated venous pressure. These patients have pre-existent symptoms and signs of chronic right heart failure. High degree of suspicion is required to detect of development of an atypical form of tamponade with isolated compression of left heart chambers as shown in present case report. Transthoracic echocardiography provides a rapid access to the correct diagnosis, a prompt relief of symptoms following the ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis and important diagnostic tool for regular follow up of patients thereafter as shown in our case report.

  4. MASSIVE PLEURAL EFFUSION: A CASE REPORT

    Putu Bayu Dian Tresna Dewi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusion is abnormal fluid accumulation within pleural cavity between the parietal pleura and visceralis pleura, either transudation or exudates. A 47 year-old female presented with dyspneu, cough, and decreased of appetite. She had history of right lung tumor. Physical examination revealed asymmetric chest movement where right part of lung was lagged during breathing, vocal fremitus on the right chest was decreased, dullness at the right chest, decreased vesicular sound in the right chest, enlargement of supraclavicular and colli dextra lymph nodes, and hepatomegali. Complete blood count showed leukocytosis. Clinical chemistry analysis showed hipoalbumin and decreased liver function. Blood gas analysis showed hypoxemia. Pleural fluid analysis showed an exudates, murky red liquid color filled with erythrocytes, number of cells. Cytological examination showed existence of a non-small cell carcinoma tends adeno type. From chest X-ray showed massive right pleural effusion. Based on history, physical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with massive pleural effusion et causa suspected malignancy. She had underwent pleural fluid evacuation and treated with analgesics and antibiotics.

  5. Small red bean (azuki) sheds biologically active substances as a prerequisite step for germination, one of which displays the antiviral activity against the rabies virus infectivity and infections in culture.

    Kawai, Akihiko; Fujita, Kimie

    2007-01-01

    When small red beans (azuki bean; Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) were soaked and warmed in water or saline, the beans began to absorb water to swell and exuded kinds of substances probably as a prerequisite step for seed germination. Such exudate fluids displayed strong antiviral activity against the rabies virus infections in culture. On the other hand, little anti-rabies activity was detected in the aqueous extracts from the red beans when tested soon after the extraction from powdered beans, while low titers of antiviral activity appeared gradually in the extracts during cold storage. In contrast, no antiviral activity was detected in the exudate fluids from non-colored azuki beans (white azuki), implicating that a certain anthocyanin-related substance is involved in the antiviral activity of red beans. Production of antiviral and cytotoxic activities were affected differently depending on the bean-soaking conditions. In addition, the antiviral activity resisted to 10 min-heating in boiling water, while the cytotoxicity was greatly weakened by the heating, suggesting that different substances are involved in the antiviral and cytotoxic activities. Further studies on the antiviral activity of the exudate fluids demonstrated that anti-rabies activity of the bean exudates affected not only the very early phase of infection cycle, but the viral infectivity was also affected similarly, implicating a possible application of azuki bean exudate fluids to post-exposure treatment of rabid dog-bite injuries in combination with vaccination. PMID:18037784

  6. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa en canales de cerdo Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative to meat in porcine carcasses

    Wilson E Castrillón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET® a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (pThe presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474 were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p<0.01 between pH45 and variables as density, food, type of truck, genetic and the resting time. The sex and the time of transportation also had significant association (p<0.05, but only with pH45 . Additionally, differences between genetic, sex (highest values of pH45 to males and food (p<0.05 were found. Also, there were interactions between: sex - fasting, sex - food, sex - resting and sex - transportation (p<0.05. According to the results, PSE condition is not a unicausal phenomenon and consequently it needs an integral managment.

  7. Pleuropericardial effusion associated with minoxidil administration

    Webb, D B; Whale, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A patient on minoxidil developed pericardial and pleural effusions with a high protein content. This finding is not compatible with the view that such effusions in patients taking minoxidil are transudates.

  8. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was significantly higher than that of YM42. In conclusion, intercropping influenced the microbial activity and substrate utilization of soil microorganisms, altered the microbial community diversity in rhizosphere of faba bean, reduced the amount of F. oxysporum and disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt, and promoted faba bean growth. Effects of intercropping on disease control were influenced by the intercropped wheat variety, suggesting that the differences of root exudates of wheat were important factors that affected soil-borne diseases control in intercropping. PMID:25345048

  9. Influence of Zn and Pb on Rhizopogon roseolus mycelium - energy dispersion spectroscopy and cytochemical investigation

    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycelium isolated from fruitbodies of Rhizopogon roseolus, collected from calamine wastes in Poland, was cultivated on agar media supplemented with Zn or Pb salts. The stimulation of exudate production by the aerial mycelium and the mycelium growing on the surface of the media, accompanied by the change of mycelium pigmentation, was found as a result of Zn application. The presence of Pb resulted mainly in the stimulation of crystalloid production on the surface of mycelium, in direct contact with the medium. Exudate droplets formed on the surface of mycelium cultivated on media with and without the Zn addition, were investigated by means of cytochemical tests (PATAg and Gomori-Swift reaction. In the control media most droplets gave a diffused, positive reaction to both tests. In media supplemented with Zn salts, besides the droplet-like material described in the control also another kind of exudate was observed. It was characterized by the collar showing apositive Gomori-Swift reaction, while the rest of the exudate had an oily appearance and gave a faint or no reaction to both tests. Comparative research by means of scanning electron microscopy accompanied by energy dispersion spectroscopy, was carried out showing the differences in exudate and in mycelia composition as a result of the Zn and Pb presence in the medium.

  10. Retinal Image Analysis Using Morphological Process and Clustering Technique

    R.Radha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the Retinal image analysis through efficient detection of exudates an d recognizes the retina to be normal or abnormal. The contrast image is enhanced by curvelet transform. Hence, morphology operators are applied to the enha nced image in order to find the retinal image ridge s. A simple thresholding method along with opening and closing operation indicates the remained ridges belonging to vessels. The clustering method is used for effective detection of exudates of eye. Experi mental result proves that the blood vessels and exudates c an be effectively detected by applying this method on the retinal images. Fundus images of the retina were co llected from a reputed eye clinic and 110 images we re trained and tested in order to extract the exudates and blood vessels. In this system we use the Proba bilistic Neural Network (PNN for training and testing the p re-processed images. The results showed the retina is normal or abnormal thereby analyzing the retinal im age efficiently. There is 98% accuracy in the detec tion of the exudates in the retina .

  11. Movement of elements into the atmosphere from coniferous trees in subalpine forests of colorado and Idaho

    Curtin, G.C.; King, H.D.; Mosier, E.L.

    1974-01-01

    Exudates from conifer trees, presumably consisting largely of volatile materials, were sampled at 19 subalpine localitites in Colorado and Idaho where anomalous amounts of several metals were determined in vegetation and mull during previous geochemical testing. The trees sampled were lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The condensed exudates were passed through No. 40 Whatman filters, and through 5-micron, 0.45-micron, and 0.05-micron average-pore-diameter membrane filters, evaporated to dryness, and each residue was ashed and analyzed by a semiquantitative spectrographic method. The ashed residues of the exudates contain lithium, beryllium, boron, sodium, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, arsenic, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, silver, lead, bismuth, cadmium, tin, antimony, barium, and lanthanum. The presence of these elements suggests that volatile exudates from vegetation are a medium for the transport of elements in the biogeochemical cycle in subalpine environments. Thus, air sampling and analysis of aerosols derived from volatile exudates may be a useful tool in geochemical exploration. ?? 1974.

  12. Volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil and maize cultivars with different susceptibilities to fusariosis and smut.

    Catsk, V; Vancura, V

    1980-01-01

    The effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil cultivars more and less susceptible to fusariosis on the germination of spores of Mucor racemosus, Trichoderma viride, Verticillium dahliae and Botrytis cinerea was found to depend rather on the fungal genus than on the lentil cultivar. However, spores of Fusarium oxysporum reacted more sensitively during germination to the presence of exudates of both cultivars, when the more susceptible lentil displayed a stimulation, the less susceptible one an inhibition of spore germination. The greatest difference in the effect of exudates was observed in the more and less susceptible maize cultivars with respect to the germination of chlamydospores of Ustilago maydis, especially during the first hours of seed germination. Analysis of the exudates of germinating seeds showed the release of a greater amount of ethanol and methanol with acetaldehyde by the more susceptible cultivars of lentil and particularly maize. PMID:7189738

  13. Determinación de germanio en muestras de exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm . f. (zábila, mediante la espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica Determination of germanium in leaves exudate samples of Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de la planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ± 2.33 μg/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS. The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infections, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 μg/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD% was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  14. Mycelial colonization by bradyrhizobia and azorhizobia

    Gamini Seneviratne; H S Jayasinghearachchi

    2003-03-01

    This study examines mycelial colonization of common soil fungi by bradyrhizobia and an azorhizobial strain, resulting in the forming of biofilms. The effects of the fungal exudates on a bradyrhizobial strain have also been investigated. Bradyrhizobia gradually colonized the mycelia for about 18 days, after which the biofilm structures collapsed with the release of the rhizobial cell clusters to the culture medium. The azorhizobial strain showed differential colonization of the mycelia. In general, there were no considerable mycotoxin effects of the fungal exudates on the bradyrhizobial strain used, instead the rhizobial strain utilized the exudates as a source of nutrition. This study indicates that the present microbial association with biofilm formation has important implications in the survival of rhizobia under adverse soil conditions devoid of vegetation. Further, it could have developed an as yet unidentified nitrogen fixing system that could have contributed to the nitrogen economy of soils.

  15. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia.

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host. PMID:25670708

  16. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Psoralea glandulosa and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Terpenoids and the Resin

    Alejandro MADRID

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Otholobium glandulosum (L. J.W. Grimes (= Psoralea glandulosa L. (Fabaceae es un arbusto resinoso que crece en Chile. La composición química de su exudado resinoso fue determinada por primera vez. Tres meroterpenos: bakuchiol (8, 3-hidroxibakuchiol (11, 12-hidroxiisobakuchiol (12 y un nuevo compuesto kuchiol (13 fueron aislados y sus estructuras fueron determinadas espectroscópicamente. La actividad antioxidante de los compuestos terpénicos y la resina se evaluó mediante tres métodos antioxidantes DPPH, Poder Reductor de Hierro III (FRAP y Capacidad Antioxidante Total (TRAP.

  17. Iron uptake and translocation by macrocystis pyrifera

    Manley, S.L.

    1981-10-01

    Parameters of iron uptake have been determined for blade tissue of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. These include the effects of iron concentration, light, various inhibitors, and blade type. All experiments were conducted in the defined artificial seawater Aquil. Iron uptake is light independent, energy dependent, and dependent on the reduction from Fe/sup 3+/ to Fe/sup 2+/. Iron is concentrated in the sieve tube exudate; exudate analysis revealed the presence of other micronutrients. Iron and other micronutrient translocation is discussed.

  18. Combined use of an ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing and silver dressing on infected leg ulcers

    Jorgensen, B.; Gottrup, F.; Karlsmark, T.; Bech-Thomsen, N.; Sibbald, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and safety of an ibuprofen-releasing foam (Biatain-Ibu, Coloplast A/S) combined with an ionised silver-releasing wound contact layer (Physiotulle Ag, Coloplast A/S) on painful, infected venous leg ulcers. METHOD: This open non-comparative study involved 24...... patients with painful, exuding, locally infected, and stalled venous leg ulcers. Persistent pain and pain at dressing change were monitored using a 11-point numerical box scale (NBS). The composition of the wound bed, the dressing combination's ability to absorb exudate and minimise leakage, ibuprofen...... dressing application, the mean concentration of ibuprofen in the wound exudate reached a constant level of 35 +/- 21 microg/ml.After 31 days, the relative wound area had reduced by 42%, with an associated decrease in fibrin and an increase in granulation tissue.The number of patients with wound malodour...

  19. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  20. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  1. Ultrasonographyin diagnosis of thoracic diseases

    Stević Ruža

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chest sonography was used until recently mainly for diagnosis of pleural diseases. High resolution ultrasound machines enable ultrasound application not only in pleural diseases detection, but in diagnosing peripheral lung and mediastinal lesions. Ultrasonography can define the origin and structure of the lesion of thoracic wall, pleural and peripheral lung lesions and mediastinal lesions. Pleural lesions. Ultrasonography is very useful in diagnosing pleural effusion and distinguishing pleural fluid and pleural thickening. This method can also differentiate transudate from exudates and tumor mass from pleural thickening. Lung lesions. Ultrasonography can reveal the cause of white hemithorax differentiating pleural effusion from large tumor mass or atelectasis. Peripheral pulmonary lesions, extending into visceral pleura can be visualized by ultrasonography and differentiation solid tumor from inflammation is possible. Mediastinal lesions. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance are methods of choice in diagnosing mediastinal diseases. Ultrasonography is useful in distinguishing normal thymus from tumor mass and for ultras onographyguided biopsy. Conclusion. Ultrasonography is a very useful second line method in diagnosis of chest disease. The advantages of this method include bed side availability, absence of radiation, and guided aspiration of fluid-filled areas and solid tumors.

  2. CT of ascites

    The author made a comprehensive study on the role of CT for the diagnosis of ascites. 100 consecutive cases were investigated, in which CT showed ascites and its cause was established. Additional 19 cases, in which CT scans were obtained from the upper abdomen to the pelvis, were also analyzed to investigate the distribution of ascitic fluid. The study was focussed on (1) preponderant site for ascites, (2) relationship between the amount of ascites and the underlying disease, (3) specific CT features for each disease causing ascites, (4) attenuation values of ascites, and (5) diseases (or conditions) to be distinguished from ascites. Ascites was most often first noticed in the pouch of Douglas and right subphrenic space. Ascites was observed in the Morrison's pouch only after when there was a certain amount of accumulation. The amount of ascites showed no significant difference between benign and malignant diseases. There were a number of specific CT features for each disease. Liver cirrhosis and hepatoma as causes of ascites were often diagnosed by CT alone. CT was also useful in the diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei, peritoneal mesothelioma and peritonitis carcinomatosa. Attenuation value of exudate was higher than that of transudate. Finally, cystic neoplasm, lymphangioma, fluid collection caused by pancreatitis, pleural effusion, lymphocele and hematoma were listed as diseases which could closely mimic ascites. (author)

  3. Peculiarities of X-ray picture of lingering lung edema in myocardial infarction

    An X-ray appearance of alveolar lung edema in 104 patients with myocardial infarction was analysed. Depending on the period of edema new peculiarities of its signs were marked and 3 stages of this pathological condition singled out. The 1st stage of edema (140 patients) was observed in the first 2-3 days of the desease and corresponded to a classical description of the X-ray signs of noticeably cardiac insufficiency. At the 2nd stage of edema (26 patients) lasting 5-7 days more intense and restricted zones of consolidation appearing gradually in the root and posterior lung area were noted. The 3rd stage of edema (12 patients) lasted over 2-3 weeks and was characterized by a higher transparence of the pulmonary fields with a simultaneous increase in the intensity of lung mottling resulting from the appearance of the alveolar contents. According to the results of roentgenomorphological correlations, X-ray changes were determined by the replacement of alveolar transudate for exudate with shedding the fibrin alveoli in the lumen and a subsequent progress to diffuse focal pneumosclerosis

  4. Newly diagnosed exudative age-related macular degeneration treated with pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in US community-based practices: medical chart review study

    Xu Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that early detection and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD can delay vision loss and blindness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy/safety of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed NV-AMD and to gain insight into characteristics of lesions treated in community-based practices. Methods From seven private US practices, charts were retrospectively reviewed on 73 subjects with previously untreated subfoveal choroidal NV-AMD treated with their first dose of pegaptanib monotherapy on/after 4/1/2005 through 6/5/2006, receiving ≥4 treatments at 6-week intervals over 21 weeks. Primary endpoint: mean visual acuity (VA change from baseline to month 6. Results 75% of lesions were occult, and 82% were subfoveal. From baseline to month 6, mean VA change was -0.68 lines; 58% and 16% gained ≥0 and ≥3 lines of VA, and 70% were responders ( Conclusion Pegaptanib is effective in real-world patients with treatment-naïve NV-AMD in uncontrolled community-based retina practices.

  5. Antibacterial potential of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcusaureus isolated from skin exudates

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam, E-mail: azammicro@gmail.com; Khan, Haris M. [Aligarh Muslim University, Nanotechnology and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital (India); Khan, Aijaz A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital (India); Pal, Ruchita [Jawaharlal Nehru University, Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (India); Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh [CSIR, Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) (India)

    2013-10-15

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (<50 nm) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci by various methods. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700-3,400 {mu}g/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 {mu}g/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs in medical application.

  6. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    F.A.M. Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto, Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo, Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão Amaranthus deflexus (caruru, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa.In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The samples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  7. Ischemic necrosis and osteochondritis

    Osteonecrosis indicates that ischemic death of the cellular constituents of bone and marrow has occurred. Historically, this first was thought to be related to sepsis in the osseous segments. However, continued studies led to the use of the term aseptic necrosis. Subsequent observations indicated that the necrotic areas of bone were not only aseptic, but were also avascular. This led to the terms ischemic necrosis, vascular necrosis and bone infarction. Ischemic necrosis of bone is discussed in this chapter. It results from a significant reduction in or obliteration of blood supply to the affected area. The various bone cells, including osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, usually undergo anoxic death in 12 to 48 hours after blood supply is cut off. The infarct that has thus developed in three-dimensional and can be divided into a number of zones: a central zone of cell death; an area of ischemic injury, most severe near the zone of cell death, and lessening as it moves peripherally; an area of active hyperemia and the zone of normal unaffected tissue. Once ischemic necrosis has begun, the cellular damage provokes an initial inflammatory response, which typically is characterized by vasodilatation, transudation of fluid and fibrin, and local infiltration of flammatory cells. This response can be considered the first stage in repair of the necrotic area

  8. Saliva and viral infections.

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases. PMID:26662485

  9. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation plays an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al tolerance genes, here shown to encode an Al-activ...

  10. BIOFILM DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS ISOLATES

    Sudha Rani; Ravindra; Kondal Rao

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . AIMS : To detect biofilm among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . MATERIAL AND METHODS : 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were collected from clinical samples like blood, IV catheter tips, catheterized urine, wound swabs and exudates received from various clinical departments. Biofilm formation was studied in these isolates. The study was carried out over a period o f one ...

  11. Comparative genomics of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Staphylococcus hyicus

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Andresen, Lars Ole; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2016-01-01

    The most common causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs is Staphylococcus hyicus. S. hyicus can be grouped into toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains based on their ability to cause EE in pigs and specific virulence genes have been identified. A genome wide comparison between non...

  12. Absorption and swelling characteristics of silver (I) antimicrobial wound dressings

    An important characteristic of moist wound dressings is their ability to swell and absorb exudates from the wound, while maintaining a moist atmosphere at the wound site. At the Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC), we have previously developed antimicrobial silver-sodium-carboxymethylated (CM)-...

  13. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  14. [Effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil microbes and related factors].

    Li, Yang; Huang, Guohong; Shi, Yi

    2003-12-01

    This paper summarized the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on soil microbes and their related factors, including soil microflora, soil respiration, soil microbial biomass, and higher plant-microbe symbiosis. The factors related to soil microbic activity such as litter decomposition, root exudates, soil nutrient availability, nutrient use efficiency and soil fauna were also affected by the CO2 enrichment. PMID:15031943

  15. Correlations between endotoxin and clinical symptoms or radiolucent areas in infected root canals.

    Horiba, N; Maekawa, Y; Abe, Y; Ito, M; Matsumoto, T; Nakamura, H

    1991-04-01

    Samples were collected from the root canals of 30 teeth of patients with apical periodontitis and assayed for endotoxin content. The detection rates of endotoxin and endotoxin content were higher in symptomatic teeth, teeth with radiolucent areas, and teeth with exudation than in those without them. PMID:2052336

  16. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 2. Interactive effects on phenolic pool and assessment of metal binding capacity of phlorotannin.

    Connan, Solène; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish in laboratory experiments a quantitative link between phenolic pool (production, composition and exudation) in Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and their potential to bind metals. Additionally, the copper binding capacity of purified phlorotannin was investigated. A reduction in salinity decreased total phenolic contents, altered phenolic composition by increasing proportion of cell-wall phenolics, and also increased phenolic exudation of the two seaweed species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, the inhibition of photosynthesis observed previously for A. nodosum coincided with the high exudation of phenolic compounds into the surrounding water of the seaweed tips which resulted in a significant reduction of phenolic contents. Increased copper concentration also reduced total phenolic contents, changed phenolic composition (increase in proportion and level of cell-wall phenolics), and positively affected phenolic exudation of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus. A decrease in salinity enhanced the copper toxicity and caused the earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. An involvement of phlorotannins in copper binding is also demonstrated; purified phlorotannins from A. nodosum collected from a site with little anthropogenic activity contained all four metals tested. When placed in copper-enriched water, as for the seaweed material, copper contents of the phenolics increased, zinc and cadmium contents decreased, but no change in chromium content was observed. The use of cell-wall phenolic content as biomarker of copper contamination seems promising but needs further investigation. PMID:21543047

  17. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 2. Interactive effects on phenolic pool and assessment of metal binding capacity of phlorotannin

    Connan, Solene, E-mail: solene.connan@gmail.com [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Stengel, Dagmar B., E-mail: dagmar.stengel@nuigalway.ie [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to establish in laboratory experiments a quantitative link between phenolic pool (production, composition and exudation) in Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and their potential to bind metals. Additionally, the copper binding capacity of purified phlorotannin was investigated. A reduction in salinity decreased total phenolic contents, altered phenolic composition by increasing proportion of cell-wall phenolics, and also increased phenolic exudation of the two seaweed species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, the inhibition of photosynthesis observed previously for A. nodosum coincided with the high exudation of phenolic compounds into the surrounding water of the seaweed tips which resulted in a significant reduction of phenolic contents. In