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Sample records for exudates and transudates

  1. Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions

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    Mohammed Sanad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs into exudates and transudates in children.Methods:Pleural fluid (PF and serum Angiopoietin (Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012. PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P< 0.001. PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01. PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P< 0.003. PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P< 0.001. Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively.Conclusion:Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

  2. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 ?g/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudand PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 ?g/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  3. A Study of Uric Acid - A New Biochemical Marker For the Differentiation Between Exudates and Transudates in a Pleural Effusion Cases

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    Ashish Jain, Raina Jain, Sudhakar B Petkar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Neeraj Khare, Jusmita Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the space lies between the lung and chest wall i.e. pleural space. In normal condition, pleural space contains 0.1–0.3 ml/kg body weight of fluid (near about of 10 ml of fluid on each side between the parietal and visceral pleura. Objectives: To investigate whether uric acid measurement in fluid is more sensitive and specific marker for differentiating between exudates and transudates, as confirmed clinically. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients with diverse etiologies having pleural effusion were selected for the study. Results: Increase Uric acid level was observed in pleural fluid of transudative pleural effusion than exudative pleural effusion. It was also observed that the level of uric acid was more in pleural fluid than serum and ratio (pleural fluid / serum of uric acid was ? 1 in transudative conditions but in case of exudative condition the this ratio was < 1. The optimum cut-off level for P uric acid was 5.5 mg/dl with sensitivity of 94.00% and specificity of 83.00%. The optimum cut-off levels for P/S uric acid ratio was 1.0 with sensitivity of 96.00% and specificity of 92.16%. Conclusion: Routine measurement of pleural fluid uric acid value and the calculation of fluid to serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ratios will aid in differentiating exudates from transudates.

  4. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

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    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  5. Plasma exudation. Correlation between Evans blue dye and radiolabeled albumin in guinea pig airways in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We quantified the tissue exudation and luminal transudation of two plasma markers, Evans blue (EB) dye and [125I]-human serum albumin (HSA), into the airways of the anesthetized guinea pig in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). There was a highly significant correlation between the tissue content of EB and [125I]-HSA in all airways studied. Significant correlation for transudation of the two markers was limited to high rates of plasma leakage. [125I]-HSA was the more sensitive marker for the association between exudation and transudation and the effect of PAF on transudation. EB was the better marker for assessing the relationship between the dose of PAF and plasma exudation

  6. Transudative chylothorax associated with sclerosing mesenteritis.

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    Rice, Brenda L; Stoller, James K; Heresi, Gustavo A

    2010-04-01

    Transudative chylothorax is an uncommon type of chylous pleural effusion, typically secondary to chyle leak and a coexisting disorder such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis. Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare inflammatory disease of the small bowel mesentery, and has once previously been reported as a cause of chylothorax. We present the case of an 81-year-old man with a right-side transudative chylothorax associated with congestive heart failure and sclerosing mesenteritis. We discuss potential mechanisms. PMID:20406516

  7. Studies on the constancy of transudated and locally produced proteins in human seminal plasma.

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    Lizana, J; Eneroth, P; Byström, B; Bygdeman, M

    1987-01-01

    An overall constancy in the total protein profile of human seminal plasma (HSP) as determined by gel filtration chromatography and high-resolution electrophoresis was found in six healthy volunteers. Thirteen different proteins were identified by double immunodiffusion in five individual HSP samples each previously subjected to gel filtration. It was also found that comparatively large amounts of yet unidentified low-molecular-weight (less than 12,000) compounds occurred in all HSP samples. Of eight specific proteins in consecutive samples collected from one individual, large intra-individual variations were found in some of the proteins. The largest variations (about 100%), for both concentration and total amount, were noted for alpha 1-antitrypsin, transferrin, IgA, and secretory IgA. Albumin and lactoferrin were rather stable and varied less than 20% between samples. It is suggested that HSP-albumin may be used as a reliable marker of transudation of serum proteins to the genital tract. Likewise, lactoferrin could be used as a marker for the secretion of seminal vesicle proteins, since it reflects the functional status of these glands. PMID:2880820

  8. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

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    SØrensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14.47-19.92) g/cm(2) hour (mean, 95% CI) in smokers and 13.89 (9.46-18.33) in never smokers (p<0.01). In abstinent smokers TEWL was 18.95 (15.20-22.70)(p<0.01, when compared with smokers). In smokers, MMP-8 was 36.4 (24.3-48.5) ng/mL (mean, 95% CI) and 15.2 (1.4-30.2) ng/mL in never smokers (p<0.01). Abstinent smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation.

  9. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

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    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  10. Analysis of immunoglobulin G antibody responses after administration of live and inactivated influenza A vaccine indicates that nasal wash immunoglobulin G is a transudate from serum.

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    Wagner, D. K.; Clements, M. L.; Reimer, C. B.; Snyder, M.; Nelson, D. L.; Murphy, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    Following intranasal administration of live influenza A virus vaccine or parenteral inoculation of inactivated influenza virus vaccine, immunoglobulin antibody to the influenza virus hemagglutinin was detected in nasal wash specimens from adult volunteers. Several observations supported the suggestion that this immunoglobulin G hemagglutinin nasal wash antibody appeared to be mainly derived from the serum by a process of passive transudation.

  11. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

  12. Repellency of oral exudate to eastern and western spruce budworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

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    Poirier, L M; Borden, J H

    1996-05-01

    A two-choice feeding bioassay was used to investigate the intra-specific repellency of the larval oral exudate of eastern and western spruce budworms,Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) andC. occidentalis Free., respectively. Results of the bioassay indicated that feeding behavior on artificial diet-drop feeding stations was modified in the presence of exudate, with feeding stations treated with conspecific exudate being avoided when an untreated station was available 3 cm away. Feeding was suppressed when a single, exudate-treated station was provided, or when the treated and untreated stations were separated by only 1 cm. The repellent effect functioned both inter- and intraspecifically. When induced to produce exudate,C. occidentalis larvae were not immediately repelled by either their own or other individuals' exudate. However, 24 hr after induction, test larvae were repelled by exudate from either source. In both species, larval oral exudate probably functions to repel conspecific competitors. PMID:24227614

  13. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

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    Karlovsky Petr; Steingrobe Bernd; Ratzinger Astrid; Hettwer Ursula; Khorassani Reza; Claassen Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrom...

  14. Excessive Myopia and Anisometropia Associated with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

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    Meng-Ling Yang

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To describe associations between familial exudative vitreoretinopathy(FEVR and refractive status.Methods: We conducted retrospective studies of patients with clinical diagnoses offamilial exudative vitreoretinopathy from June 1986 through September2000. All patients had cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity with correction,and underwent fundus examination. Ocular history since early childhood wasdescribed.Results: Nine patients were recruited. All had excessive myopia, which was notedsince early childhood. Amblyopia was noted in seven of the nine patients.Asymmetric FEVR was found in four of the nine patients. In all fourpatients with asymmetric FEVR, anisometropia equal to or greater than 2.5Dwas noted. Myopia was higher and amblyopia was more severe in the eyemore severely affected with FEVR.Conclusion: Excessive myopia, anisometropia and amblyopia were more likely to occurin eyes with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Patients with asymmetricdisease tended to have higher myopia in the eye with more severe degree ofFEVR as compared with the paired eye and thus correlated with anisometropia.

  15. Influence of meat exudates on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork.

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    Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the accumulated exudates released from pork loin of itself on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork during cold storage was investigated. Pork loins were divided into four groups (fresh pork with exudates, fresh pork without exudates, freeze-thawed pork with exudates and freeze-thawed pork without exudates) and stored at 1.0°C for 7 days. Exudate amount increased due to freeze-thawing and with storage, and most quality traits such as drip loss, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness, redness, and moisture content were affected by freeze-thawing (p<0.05). Freeze-thaw increased drip loss but decreased moisture content, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness and redness of meat (p<0.05). Microbial growth was solely affected by exudate removal and the removal of initial exudates decreased microbial growth (p<0.05). Exudates were positively correlated with total protein content and total plate count but negatively correlated with pH and cooking loss. Therefore, removing meat exudates and avoiding freeze can slow down the quality deterioration of pork during cold storage. PMID:23747625

  16. Changes in crested wheatgrass root exudation caused by flood, drought, and nutrient stress.

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    Henry, Amelia; Doucette, William; Norton, Jeanette; Bugbee, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Root exudates can chelate inorganic soil contaminants, change rhizosphere pH, and may increase degradation of organic contaminants by microbial cometabolism. Root-zone stress may increase exudation and enhance phytoremediation. We studied the effects of low K+, high NH4+/NO3- ratio, drought, and flooding on the quantity and composition of exudates. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) was grown in Ottawa sand in sealed, flow-through glass columns under axenic conditions for 70 d. Root exudates were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and organic acid content to compare treatment effects. Plants in the low K+ treatment exuded 60% more TOC per plant per day (p = 0.01) than the unstressed control. Drought stress increased cumulative TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 71% (p = 0.05). The flooded treatment increased TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 45%, although this was not statistically significant based on the two replicate plants in this treatment. Exudation from the high NH4+/NO3- ratio treatment was 10% less than the control. Exudation rates in this study ranged from 8 to 50% of rates in four other published studies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that malic acid was the predominant organic acid exuded. Fumaric, malonic, succinic, and oxalic acids were also detected in the exudates of all treatments. These results demonstrate that nutrient and water stress have significant effects on the quantity and composition of root exudates. Cultural manipulations to induce stress may change the quantity of root exudates and thus increase the effectiveness of phytoremediation. PMID:17485723

  17. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management

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    Shukla Dhananjay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

  18. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

  19. The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

  20. The haemorrhagic exudate and its possible relationship to neurogenic inflammation.

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    Malucelli, B E; Mariano, M

    1980-03-01

    The morphological effects of an aqueous solution of Nistatin, of Clostridium septicum and Tityus serrulatus toxins, of Bothrops jararaca and Agkistrodon piscivorus venoms on the vessels of the tendinous portion of the diaphragm were investigated in guinea-pigs. It was demonstrated that all these substances, when injected intrapleurally induced not only an increase in the permeability of venules but also haemorrhages originating at this segment of the microcirculation. Red cells were shown to escape from venules either by diapedesis or from restricted areas of these vessels which showed intense ultrastructural disorganisation of the vessel wall. Previous treatment of the animals with steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or with anticoagulants and chemotherapeutic drugs did not abolish the effect of these irritants. Electrical or chemical stimulation of the phrenic nerve had effects on the microcirculation of the diaphragm similar to those of Nistatin, toxins and venoms. Because of these findings and because Nistatin when injected intrapleurally induces an intense perineuritis of the phrenic nerve, a tentative hypothesis is proposed linking haemorrhagic exudation to the antidromic stimulation of sensitive nerves. PMID:7400880

  1. Fungal Growth Stimulation by CO2 and Root Exudates in Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

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    Be?card, G.; Piche?, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Transformed roots of carrot were used to determine the effects of root metabolites on hyphal development from spores of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. Hyphal growth of this obligately biotrophic symbiont was greatly stimulated by a synergistic interaction between volatile and exudated factors produced by roots. Root volatiles alone provided little stimulation, and root exudates alone had no effect. For the first time, carbon dioxide was demonstrated to be a c...

  2. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

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    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  3. Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

  4. Organic Acids and Ionic Balance in Xylem Exudate of Wheat during Nitrate or Sulfate Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, E W; Barnett, N M; Blevins, D G

    1980-04-01

    Experiments were designed to study the importance of organic acids as counterions for K(+) translocation in the xylem during excess cation uptake. A comparison was made of xylem exudate from wheat seedlings treated 72 hours with either 1.0 millimolar KNO(3) or 0.5 millimolar K(2)SO(4), both in the presence of 0.2 millimolar CaSO(4). Exudation from KNO(3) plants had twice the volume and twice the K(+) and Ca(2+) fluxes or rate of delivery to shoots, as K(2)SO(4) plants. Malate flux was 25% higher in K(2)SO(4) than in KNO(3) exudate. Malate was the principal anion accompanying K(+) or Ca(2+) in K(2)SO(4) treatment, while in the KNO(3) treatment, NO(3) (-) was the principal anion. The contribution of SO(4) (2-) was negligible in both treatments. In a second experiment, exudate was collected every 4 hours during the daytime throughout a 72-hour treatment with KNO(3). Malate was the only anion present in exudate at first, just after the CaSO(4) pretreatment had ended. Malate concentration decreased and NO(3) (-) concentration increased with time and these concentrations were negatively correlated. By 62 hours, NO(3) (-) represented 80% of exudate anions. K(+) and NO(3) (-) concentrations in exudate were strongly correlated with K(+) and NO(3) (-) uptake, respectively. The first 36 hours of absorption from KNO(3) solution resembled the continuous absorption of K(2)SO(4), in that malate was the principal counterion for translocation of K(+). PMID:16661248

  5. [Exudative onycholysis and acute bacterial paronychia related to BIBF-1120 and paclitaxel: response to topical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites-Martínez, Azael; Martinez-Sánchez, Diego; de Pablo, Nieves Puente; Calderón-Komaromy, Angélica; Córdoba, Susana; Burbujo, Jesús

    2014-03-01

    A case of a 50 years-old breast cancer patient treated with weekly paclitaxel and BIBF 1120 is reported herein. At the end of the twelfth cycle of chemotherapy, the patient developed distal onycholysis with intense hyponychium serous exudates, pain and malodor in all her fingernails. It was treated with topical fusidic acid and 1% methylprednisolone aceponate two times daily, with an excellent clinical response from the first three days of treatment. Bacterial paronychia with nail plate loss of the fifth left fingernail was observed a week after the topical therapy was started, with positive cultures for Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. There are few reported cases of exudative onycholysis associated with chemotherapy. However, these are especially related to paclitaxel. No recurrences of nail disturbances were observed weeks after the end of chemotherapy. Topical corticosteroids and fusidic acid could be considered as a therapeutic option when exudative onycholysis related to paclitaxel is established PMID:24758102

  6. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. E.; Darby, B. A.; Giasson, M.-A.; Kramer, M. A.; Phillips, R. P.; Finzi, A. C.

    2013-02-01

    Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N) content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics") containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10) through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization). The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  7. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization. The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  8. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

  9. Isoliquiritigenin, a strong nod gene- and glyceollin resistance-inducing flavonoid from soybean root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kape, R; Parniske, M; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1992-01-01

    Isoflavonoid signal molecules from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed and root exudate induce the transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this study, a new compound with symbiotic activity was isolated from soybean root exudate. The isolated 2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin) is characterized by its strong inducing activity for the nod genes of B. japonicum. These genes are already induced at concentrations 1 order of magnitude below those required of the previously described isoflavonoid inducers genistein and daidzein. Isoliquiritigenin is also a potent inducer of glyceollin resistance in B. japonicum, which renders this bacterium insensitive to potentially bactericidal concentrations of glyceollin, the phytoalexin of G. max. No chemotactic effect of isoliquiritigenin was observed. The highly efficient induction of nod genes and glyceollin resistance by isoliquiritigenin suggests the ecological significance of this compound, although it is not a major flavonoid constituent of the soybean root exudate in quantitative terms. PMID:1622242

  10. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

  11. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation – insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exo-enzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The causal role of exudation, however, is difficult to isolate with in-situ observations, given the complex nature of the rhizosphere environment. We investigated the potential effects of root exudation on microbial and exo-enzyme activity using a theoretical model of decomposition and a field experiment, with a specific focus on the stoichiometric constraint of nitrogen (N availability. The field experiment isolated the effect of exudation by pumping solutions of exudate mimics through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils over two 50-day periods. Using a combined model-experiment approach, we tested two hypotheses: (1 exudation alone is sufficient to stimulate microbial and exo-enzyme activity in rhizosphere soils, and (2 microbial response to C-exudates (carbohydrates and organic acids is constrained by N-limitation. Experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exo-enzymes that decompose labile components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exo-enzymes that degrade recalcitrant SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. However, delivery of C-only exudates had no effect on microbial biomass or overall exo-enzyme activity, and only increased microbial respiration. The theoretical decomposition model produced complementary results; the modeled microbial response to C-only exudates was constrained by limited N supply to support the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exo-enzymes, while exuding C and N together elicited an increase in modeled microbial biomass, exo-enzyme activity, and decomposition. Thus, hypothesis (2 was supported, while hypothesis (1 was only supported when C and N compounds were exuded together. This study supports a cause-and-effect relationship between root exudation and enhanced microbial activity, and suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  12. Differences in root exudation among P-starved mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes and its relationship with P-uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus acquisition by plant is affected by the release of high and low molecular weight exudates by roots. These exudates alter the nutrient dynamics in the soil and improve the availability of sparingly soluble or immobile nutrients by bringing them in the solution. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between root exudation and P-acquisition among two mungbean genotypes, PS-16 and Pusa-105, raised under P deficient conditions. The genotypes showed differences in magnitude of degree of root exudation and its sugar and amino acid content. Interspecies differences were also observed in P-uptake studies using 32P. Uptake efficiency of the genotypes was positively related to exudation levels of roots. Compared to genotypes PS-16, Pusa-105 possessed traits that were better suited for P-deficient conditions. (author)

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing by Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent and Western Blot Assays Using Serum, Gingival-Crevicular Transudate, and Urine Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez, Prudencio Marti?nez; Torres, Antonio Rodri?guez; Ortiz Lejarazu, Raul; Montoya, Ana; Marti?n, Jose? Francisco; Eiros, Jose? Mari?a

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and...

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing by enzyme-linked fluorescent and western blot assays using serum, gingival-crevicular transudate, and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P M; Torres, A R; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R; Montoya, A; Martín, J F; Eiros, J M

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97. 4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:10074532

  15. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  16. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  17. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  18. An Efficient Integrated Approach for the Detection of Exudates and Diabetic Maculopathy in Colour fundus Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Ramasubramanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a major cause of blindness. Exudates are one of the primary signs ofdiabetic retinopathy which is a main cause of blindness that could be prevented with an early screeningprocess In this approach, the process and knowledge of digital image processing to diagnose exudatesfrom images of retina is applied. An automated method to detect and localize the presence of exudatesand Maculopathy from low-contrast digital images of Retinopathy patient’s with non-dilated pupils isproposed. First, the image is segmented using colour K-means Clustering algorithm. The segmentedimage along with Optic Disc (OD is chosen. To Classify these segmented region, features based oncolour and texture are extracted. The selected feature vector are then classified into exudates and nonexudatesusing a Support Vector Machine (SVM Classifier. Also the detection of Diabetic Maculopathy,which is the severe stage of Diabetic Retinopathy is performed using Morphological Operation. Using aclinical reference standard, images with exudates were detected with 96% success rate. This methodappears promising as it can detect the very small areas of exudates.

  19. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

  20. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

    1331-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  1. [TRALI and TACO: diagnostic and clinical management of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M

    2009-05-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the inflammatory, exudative form and Transfusion-associated cardiac overload (TACO) is the hydrostatic, transudative form of transfusion-induced acute pulmonary edema. The distinction between these two entities may be difficult, but important because of different clinical management strategies and different implications. There is no unique diagnostic tool. The diagnostic search should gather several clinical information and may be helped by various techniques listed in this article. PMID:19442558

  2. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problem...

  3. A simple, reliable and reproductive method to obtain experimental pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiów, Tomasz; Xiong, Youling L

    2013-03-01

    The inferior quality and economic risk of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork warrant continuing research. However, such research efforts are often hindered by the challenge to obtain reliable PSE muscle samples with similar quality characteristics. The objective of this study was to establish a reliable and convenient method to produce PSE-like pork. A PSE condition was induced by incubation of 30-min postmortem Longissimus muscle at 35 °C for 7 h followed by chilling to 4 °C. Compared to normal red, firm and non-exudative (RFN) pork (kept at 4 °C), PSE muscle had consistently lower pH(2h) (5.46 vs. 5.74) and pH(4h) (5.35 vs. 5.52), higher L* (lightness) value (56.5 vs. 51.0), and reduced protein solubility and thermal stability (enthalpy and temperature) than RFN muscle (Pconsistent method to produce PSE pork. PMID:23273455

  4. [Usefulness of lactate dehydrogenase concentration in thoracic and abdominal fluid of dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D; Neiger, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the usefulness of LDH measurement in effusions in dogs to classify the fluid as exudate or transudate and to classify the fluid based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In thoracic (n = 107) and abdominal (n = 199) fluid of dogs cell count, protein and LDH concentrations were measured. The fluid was retrospectively categorized into exudate (group A), protein-poor (B) or protein-rich transudate (C) as well as based on pathophysiology into the following five groups (group 1 - 5): hemorrhagic, chylous, inflammatory, oncotic and congestive. In thoracic and abdominal fluid LDH concentrations were significantly higher in group A compared to group B and C. There was a significant difference of LDH concentration between the groups 1 to 5 in both thoracic and abdominal fluid, however there was a large overlap between the five groups. While fluid LDH measurement in dogs is helpful to distinguish exudate from transudate it is only of little help to elucidate the pathophysiological cause. PMID:25497563

  5. Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substances in the root exudates and biological nitrogen fixation capacity. Through this study we have identified, the bioinoculants consortium improves the colonization potential, sustainability within the inoculants and enhances crop growth. We hypothesize that microbial consortium enhances plant growth positively by a multitude of synergistic mechanisms when compared to single inoculants application.

  6. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasun; Adholeya, Alok

    2009-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro. PMID:18800194

  7. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

    2009-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

  8. Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, P.; Uma, S.; Gopal, H.; Govindarajan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substa...

  9. Biochemical properties of polymorphonuclear neutrophils from venous blood and peritoneal exudates of rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Takamori, K.; Yamashita, T.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical properties of polymorphonuclear neutrophils from blood and peritoneal exudates of rabbits were compared. All enzymes measured showed almost identical activities in both types of cells, except for alkaline phosphodiesterase, the activity of which was seven times higher in peritoneal neutrophils. During phagocytosis, blood and peritoneal beta-glucuronidases were released in very similar fashions. Lysozyme, one of the enzymes concerned with killing of bacteria, as well as beta-gl...

  10. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation – insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, R. P.; Kramer, M. A.; -a Giasson, M.; Darby, B. A.; Drake, J. E.; Finzi, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N) content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the ex...

  11. Associative Nitrogen Fixation and Root Exudation - What is Theoretically Possible in the Rhizosphere?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. L.; Farrar, J.; Giller, K. E.

    2003-01-01

    Root exudation is a key driver of many rhizosphere processes including nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria residing in the soil. We critically review our knowledge of rhizosphere carbon flow and determine the extent to which rhizodeposition could fuel associative N2 fixation by soil microorganisms. We conclude that most estimates of rhizosphere C flow are fundamentally flawed due to the use of inappropriate methodology combined with a poor mechanistic understanding of root C flow. Usin...

  12. Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

  13. Root Exudation of Phytochemicals in Arabidopsis Follows Specific Patterns That Are Developmentally Programmed and Correlate with Soil Microbial Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Bakker, Matthew G.; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis rev...

  14. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

  15. Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

    2012-12-15

    The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

  16. Identification and quantitation of compounds in a series of allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Alexa N; Pratley, James E; Haig, Terry; An, Min

    2004-08-01

    An investigation of the chemical basis for rice allelopathy to the rice weed arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) was undertaken using GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques. Twenty-five compounds were isolated and identified from the root exudates of both allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice varieties. Phenolics, phenylalkanoic acids, and indoles were among the chemical classes identified. Two indoles previously unreported in rice were detected in the exudates, 5-hydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Several other compounds identified in this study have not previously been reported in rice root exudates, namely mercaptoacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 4-vinylphenol. The levels of 15 compounds present in the exudates were quantified using GC/MS/MS. Six of the seven most abundant compounds were phenolic acids. Significant differences exist between the allelopathic and non-allelopathic cultivars in their production of three of these six compounds. Greater amounts of trans-ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid were detected in the exudates of allelopathic cultivars. The seventh compound, abietic acid, was significantly higher in the non-allelopathic cultivars. PMID:15537165

  17. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk. PMID:20308406

  18. Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

    2011-12-01

    The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  19. Effects of polyphosphate additives on the pH of processed chicken exudates and the survival of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Nereus W; He, Yiping; Fratamico, Pina

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. are nutritionally fastidious organisms that are sensitive to normal atmospheric oxygen levels and lack homologues of common cold shock genes. At first glance, these bacteria seem ill equipped to persist within food products under processing and storage conditions; however, they survive in numbers sufficient to cause the largest number of foodborne bacterial disease annually. A mechanism proposed to play a role in Campylobacter survival is the addition of polyphosphate-containing marinades during poultry processing. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains incubated in chicken exudates collected from poultry treated with a marinade demonstrated considerable survival advantages (1 to 4 log CFU/ml) over the same strains incubated in chicken exudate from untreated birds. Polyphosphates, which constitute a large portion of the commercial poultry marinades, were shown to account for a majority of the observed influence of the marinades on Campylobacter survival. When six different food grade polyphosphates (disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, pentasodium triphosphate, sodium polyphosphate, monosodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate) were utilized to compare the survival of Campylobacter strains in chicken exudate, significant differences were observed with regard to Campylobacter survival between the different polyphosphates. It was then determined that the addition of polyphosphates to chicken exudate increased the pH of the exudate, with the more sodiated polyphosphates increasing the pH to a greater degree than the less sodiated polyphosphates. It was confirmed that the change in pH mediated by polyphosphates is responsible for the observed increases in Campylobacter survival. PMID:22004823

  20. Separated components of root exudate and cytosol stimulate different morphologically identifiable types of branching responses by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David

    2007-04-01

    Two morphologically distinct hyphal branching responses by the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices, were stimulated by separated components of carrot root exudate. Complex branching up to the sixth order was induced by compounds most soluble in 35% methanol, whereas the formation of more lateral branches (second order) was stimulated by compounds most soluble in 70% methanol. This same 70% alcohol soluble fraction also stimulated a completely different type of branching pattern in another fungus, Gigaspora gigantea. This pattern consisted of a very periodic distribution of dense clusters of hyphal branches that had a very high degree of complexity. In contrast to exudate components, separated cytosolic components of carrot roots did not stimulate any of the observed hyphal branching patterns. Alcohol-soluble fractions actually inhibited hyphal tip growth of G. gigantea and induced the formation of "recovery" branches that were identical to those induced by an inhibitor found in the exudate of Chard (Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla), a non-host plant. PMID:17544057

  1. [Differential cytological diagnosis of pleural exudate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iathyna, M F; Opanasenko, N S; Liskina, I V; Kuchugura-Kucherenko, L V; Klimenko, V I; Zagaba, L M

    2002-09-01

    Results of cytological investigation of pleural exudates were analyzed in 644 patients for the 2000-2000 yrs period. Meticulous description of principal kinds of pleural exudates is presented, differential signs of cytologic composition in patients with nonspecific, tuberculous, stagnant and oncologic pleuritis were delineated. The changes in cytological composition of exudates in lingering of the disease course are depicted. High diagnostic value of cytological investigation of pleural fluid, especially in presence of contraindications, was established. PMID:12440211

  2. Exudate Segmentation on Retinal Atlas Space

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sharib; Adal, Kedir; Sidibe?, De?sire?; Karnowski, T. P.; Edward Chaum, M. D.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema is characterized by hard exudates. Presence of such exudates cause vision loss in the affected areas. We present a novel approach of segmenting exudates for screening and follow-ups by building an ethnicity based statistical atlas. The chromatic distribution in such an atlas gives a good measure of probability of the pixels belonging to the healthy retinal pigments or to the abnormalities (like lesions, imaging artifacts etc.) in the retinal fundus image. Post-processin...

  3. Vibrational, 1H-NMR spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, P; Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Dallavalle, E; Zechini D'Aulerio, A

    2002-01-01

    Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) and IR (FTIR) and (1)H-NMR spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (Spic Span and White Prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. This work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. Spectroscopic analysis showed that White Prosperity root exudate differs from Spic Span root exudate by a higher relative amount of the aromatic-phenolic and sugarlike components and a lower relative amount of carbonylic and aliphatic compounds. DSC analysis confirmed the spectroscopic results and showed that White Prosperity root exudate is characterized by an aromatic component that is present in a higher amount than in the Spic Span root exudate. The results are discussed in relation to the spore germination tests showing that White Prosperity, which is characterized by a remarkable resistance toward F. oxysporum gladioli, exudes substances having a negative influence on microconidial germination of the pathogen; root exudates from Spic Span, one of the most susceptible cultivars to F. oxysporum gladioli, proved to have no effect. White Prosperity's ability to inhibit conidial germination of F. oxysporum gladioli can be mainly related to the presence of a higher relative amount of aromatic-phenolic compounds. PMID:12209451

  4. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nausch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

  5. Induction of macrophage DNA synthesis in vitro by non-immunological inflammatory exudates: effect of irradiation and thymus or bone marrow cell reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acute inflammatory exudate possesses mitogenic activity in that it is able to induce both DNA synthesis and proliferation of macrophages in vitro. This activity is reduced however if the inflammatory exudate is obtained from irradiated rats (900 r). Transfer of bone marrow syngeneic cells into irradiated rats does not reverse this reduction. On the contrary the decrease of mitogenic activity is more pronounced. On the other hand transfer of thymic syngeneic cells not only restores the mitogenic activity of inflammatory exudate from irradiated rats but increases it. Transfer of both types of cell together fully restores the mitogenic activity of inflammatory exudate. It is postulated that the mitogenic activity of inflammatory exudate could be related to thymic cells and that T lymphocytes may be involved in non-specific inflammatory reactions. (author)

  6. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  7. Segmentation and texture analysis with multimodel inference for the automatic detection of exudates in early diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and may cause blindness if not treated at an early stage. Exudates are the primary sign of DR. Currently there is no fully automated method to detect exudates in the literature and it would be useful in large scale screening if fully automatic method is available. In this paper we developed a novel method to detect exudates that based on interactions between texture analysis and segmentation with mathematical morphological technique by using multimodel inference. The texture analysis involves three components: they are statistical texture analysis, high order spectra analysis, and fractal analysis. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy using the public data DIARETDB1. Our results show that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 95.7%, 97.6% and 98.7% (SE = 0.01, respectively. It is shown that the proposed method can be run automatically and also improve the accuracy of exudates detection significantly over most of the previous methods.

  8. Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-avaimedia and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

  9. SEPARATED COMPONENTS OF ROOT EXUDATES AND CYTOSOL STIMULATE DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGICALLY IDENTIFIABLE TYPES OF BRANCHING RESPONSES BY ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Components found specifically in the exudates of carrot roots and not found in the cytoplasm, were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Six bands, which stimulated hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora gigantea, were initially separated by single dimension TLC. T...

  10. Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Giacomini; A., Bisio; E., Giacomelli; S., Pivetti; S., Bertolini; D., Fraternale; D., Ricci; G., Romussi; N., De Tommasi.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated wi [...] th the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity) and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90). Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM).

  11. Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Handan; S?zmaz, Selçuk; Altan-Yayc?o?lu, Rana; Sar?türk, Ça?la; Y?lmaz, Gürsel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease. Materials and methods Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed. Results There were 43 female (48.9%) and 45 males (51.1%). The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19) months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009). The mean central retinal thickness (CRT) decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 ?m at baseline to 250.85±45.48 ?m at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 ?m at baseline to 268.61±53.51 ?m at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001). Conclusion Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment. PMID:24453484

  12. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GünterNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  13. Exudative ascites complicating infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, A R; Lanse, S B; Garsten, J J; Thornton, G F; Antopol, S C; Gannon, D

    1986-09-01

    A case of Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis with the unusual complication of exudative ascites is presented. The patient was a 22-yr-old man with the typical symptoms and physical findings of hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis. Extensive evaluation including liver biopsy, failed to show another cause for the patient's ascites. The ascites and hepatitis disappeared with resolution of the acute mononucleosis infection. He is well 12 months after this illness with no evidence for chronic liver disease. This case adds to the list of causes for exudative ascites associated with acute hepatitis. PMID:3752045

  14. Plant latex and other exudates as plant defense systems: roles of various defense chemicals and proteins contained therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Kotaro

    2011-09-01

    Plant latex and other exudates are saps that are exuded from the points of plant damage caused either mechanically or by insect herbivory. Although many (ca. 10%) of plant species exude latex or exudates, and although the defensive roles of plant latex against herbivorous insects have long been suggested by several studies, the detailed roles and functions of various latex ingredients, proteins and chemicals, in anti-herbivore plant defenses have not been well documented despite the wide occurrence of latex in the plant kingdom. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made. Several latex proteins, including cysteine proteases and chitin-related proteins, have been shown to play important defensive roles against insect herbivory. In the mulberry (Morus spp.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) interaction, an old and well-known model system of plant-insect interaction, plant latex and its ingredients--sugar-mimic alkaloids and defense protein MLX56--are found to play key roles. Complicated molecular interactions between Apocynaceae species and its specialist herbivores, in which cardenolides and defense proteins in latex play key roles, are becoming more and more evident. Emerging observations suggested that plant latex, analogous to animal venom, is a treasury of useful defense proteins and chemicals that has evolved through interspecific interactions. On the other hand, specialist herbivores developed sophisticated adaptations, either molecular, physiological, or behavioral, against latex-borne defenses. The existence of various adaptations in specialist herbivores itself is evidence that latex and its ingredients function as defenses at least against generalists. Here, we review molecular and structural mechanisms, ecological roles, and evolutionary aspects of plant latex as a general defense against insect herbivory and we discuss, from recent studies, the unique characteristics of latex-borne defense systems as transport systems of defense substances are discussed based on recent studies. PMID:21450319

  15. Differential gene expression between normal and pale, soft, and exudative turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, Y; Tempelman, R J; Sporer, K R B; Ernst, C W; Velleman, S G; Reed, K M; Strasburg, G M

    2013-06-01

    In response to high consumer demand, turkeys have been intensively selected for rapid growth rate and breast muscle mass and conformation. The success in breeding selection has coincided with an increasing incidence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat defect, especially in response to heat stress. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism responsible for the development of PSE meat arises from differences in expression of several critical genes. The objective of this study was to determine differential gene expression between normal and PSE turkey meat using a 6K turkey skeletal muscle long oligonucleotide microarray. Breast meat samples were collected from Randombred Control Line 2 turkeys at 22 wk of age, and classified as normal or PSE primarily based on marinade uptake (high = normal, low = PSE). Total RNA was isolated from meat samples with the highest (normal, n = 6) and the lowest (PSE, n = 6) marinade uptake. Microarray data confirmation was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR. Selection of differentially expressed genes for pathway analysis was performed using a combination of fold change (FC) ranking (FC 1.66) and false discovery rate (meat defect. PMID:23687159

  16. Chalcones and other compounds from the exudates of Angelica keiskei and their cancer chemopreventive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ukiya, Motohiko; Kimura, Yumiko; Enjo, Fumio; Suzuki, Takashi; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2006-01-01

    Three new chalcones, xanthoangelol I (1), xanthoangelol J (2), and deoxydihydroxanthoangelol H (3), were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of exudates of the stems of Angelica keiskei, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Nine aromatic compounds of known structure, 4-12, and a diacetylene, 13, were also isolated and identified from this same fraction. On evaluation of these compounds for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, 1, 2, 4, and 9-12 showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction. In addition, upon evaluation of the inhibitory effects against activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, six compounds, namely, 1, 2, 4, 9, 11, and 12, exhibited potent inhibitory effects. Further, isobavachalcone (4) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. PMID:16441065

  17. Chalcones, coumarins, and flavanones from the exudate of Angelica keiskei and their chemopreventive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ukiya, Motohiko; Iizuka, Masao; Schneider, Stefan; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Mukainaka, Teruo; Iwatsuki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takashi; Nishino, Hoyoku

    2003-11-25

    From an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the exudate obtained from the stems of Angelica keiskei (Umbelliferae), 17 compounds, viz. five chalcones (1-5), seven coumarins (6-12), three flavanones (13-15), one diacetylene (16), and one 5-alkylresorcinol (17), were isolated. These compounds were evaluated with respect to their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, which is known to be a primary screening test for antitumor-promoters. With the exception of three compounds (10, 16, and 17), all other compounds tested showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction (92-100% inhibition at 1x10(3)mol ratio/TPA). In addition, upon evaluation of these compounds for the inhibitory effects against activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxy-imino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, as a primary screening test for antitumor-initiators, two chalcones (2 and 3) and six coumarins (6-11) exhibited potent inhibitory effects. PMID:14607326

  18. Skeletal muscle calcium channel ryanodine and the development of pale, soft, and exudative meat in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paião, F G; Ferracin, L M; Pedrão, M; Kato, T; Shimokomaki, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) breast fillet meat has become an economic burden for the poultry industry worldwide. PSE meat results in 1.0-1.5% loss in moisture and carcass weight, and a 2010 estimate of the Brazilian annual production put the economic loss due to PSE at over US$30 million. In the USA, PSE has caused an annual loss of up to US$200 million to the poultry industries. The underlying causes of the color abnormality in PSE meat are not fully understood. However, the likely physiological origin of PSE broiler meat is an excessive release of Ca(2+) promoted by a genetic mutation of the ryanodine receptor (RYR), a Ca(2+)-channel protein in the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. In pigs, the genetic cause of PSE meat has been identified as a point mutation in the RYR1 gene at nucleotide 1843, which causes an amino acid substitution (Arg615 to Cys615) in the RYR. This mutation leads to an alteration in Ca(2+) homeostasis, hypermetabolism, intense muscle contraction, and malignant hyperthermia in pigs susceptible to porcine stress syndrome. An understanding of this process represents the basis for breeding strategies aimed at eliminating the RYR1 mutation from global pig populations, a strategy that the poultry industry intends to emulate. The aim of this study was to review the subject, with an emphasis on the most recent developments in the field. PMID:24065657

  19. Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease.Materials and methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed.Results: There were 43 female (48.9% and 45 males (51.1%. The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19 months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009. The mean central retinal thickness (CRT decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 µm at baseline to 250.85±45.48 µm at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 µm at baseline to 268.61±53.51 µm at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ranibizumab, visual acuity

  20. Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L. and Lupinus luteus L. as affected by phosphorus supply

    OpenAIRE

    Egle, Komi; Ro?mer, Wilhelm; Keller, Holger

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of $P$ fertilizer application on the quality and quantity of organic acid exuded by six cultivars of three lupin species: Lupinus albus L. (cultivars Minori and Nelly), Lupinus angustifolius L. (cultivars Borweta and Bordako) and Lupinus luteus L. (cultivars Borsaja and Borselfa). We also investigated the influence of the exudate collection medium (deionized water, 0.05 mM CaCl$_2$ solution) on the composition and the intensity of...

  1. Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

    2010-11-26

    Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused our study on identifying the bacteria capable of rice root exudate assimilation on anodes of planted SMFCs. Using stable isotope probing (SIP) with {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} combined with high throughput sequencing, we detected that labeled bacteria belonged to {beta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae indicating their relevance in root exudate degradation. The main current producing bacteria, belonging to {delta}-proteobacteria were not able to assimilate root exudates. A microbial ''food chain'' combining activities of anode reducing bacteria with root exudate degrading bacteria is necessary for current production. However, we cannot dismiss the possibility that some bacteria might be able to directly use root exudates for current production. In the last part, we found that by submerging an anode into rice field soil up to 50% methane emission was reduced compared with open circuit controls. This mitigation could not only be explained by competition for common electron donors like acetate. We suggest that the anode, even in non-current controls, can be used as electron acceptor capturing electrons and transferring them from one part of the sediment to a spatially distant one, communicating biogeochemical processes occurring in different parts of the sediment. Our work is a first approach in understanding the microbial diversity on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudation and their potential as methane emission mitigation strategy. (orig.)

  2. Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Rani, T. Swaroopa; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells e...

  3. Managing exudate associated with venous leg ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jane

    2012-06-01

    This review highlights the challenges associated with highly exuding venous leg ulcers for both the patient and the clinician. The main focus of the author's article is the management of heavy exudate levels, and key to this is the assessment process, which is discussed. The wide range of products and treatments available for managing high exudate levels are also explored. Despite these options, patients continue to suffer distress and the indignities of soiling of clothes, social embarrassment and reduced quality of life. The definition and composition of exudate is given, with particular emphasis on the damaging effects of chronic wound exudate. Reasons for high exudate and the priority of treating the underlying cause are discussed. Common themes examined are the assessment process, treating the underlying aetiology, the use of dressings and skin care. Complications of poor exudate management include a negative effect on the patient's quality of life, wound bed and periwound damage, increased risk of infection, increased costs to the health service and a delay in healing (Vowden and Vowden, 2003). Primary research and reviews are summarised, evaluating their significance to the various themes explored. PMID:22875033

  4. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  5. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

  6. Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2014-07-17

    A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at ? 101.6, ? 75.5, ? 73.9, ? 72.5, and ? 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1?4)-linked ?-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration. PMID:24702919

  7. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for Potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Owens, Robert; Baker, C Jacyn; Deahl, Kenneth; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2014-03-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however, one report in the literature describes the presence of viroid RNA in the xylem ring of potato tubers. In this study, a modified method based on an EDTA-mediated phloem exudation technique was applied for detection of PSTVd in the phloem of infected tomato plants. RT-PCR, nucleic acid sequencing, and Southern blot analyses of RT-PCR products verified the presence of viroid RNA in phloem exudates. In addition, the guttation fluid collected from the leaves of PSTVd-infected tomato plants was analyzed revealing the absence of viroid RNA in the xylem sap. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSTVd RNA detection in phloem exudates obtained by the EDTA-mediated exudation technique. PMID:24388932

  8. A case of MPO-ANCA-positive polyarteritis nodosa complicated by exudative otitis media, mononeuritis multiplex, and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Matsuda, Jun; Kadoya, Hiroyuki; Mori, Daisuke; Ito, Daisuke; Namba, Tomoko; Takeji, Masanobu; Fukunaga, Megumu; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    In December 2008, a 69-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology because of hearing impairment due to bilateral exudative otitis media, and was discharged without complete recovery despite conventional treatment. Two weeks later, she was readmitted for worsened deafness, numbness, gait disturbance, and general fatigue. She was referred to our department for general investigation. On admission, laboratory examination revealed severe inflammatory signs and active nephritic urinary sediments. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed progressive exudative otitis media and sinusitis. Initially, Wegener's granulomatosis was suspected. Nasal cavity biopsy, however, showed no granuloma formation or vasculitis. Serology revealed high titer of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA), suggestive of microscopic polyangitis (MPA). However, contrast CT identified stenosis of a celiac artery, and renal biopsy showed tubulointerstitial changes with minor glomerular abnormalities. Therefore, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) was suspected and treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. However, a lacunar infarct developed followed by cerebral hemorrhage, and the patient died 19 days after readmission. Autopsy revealed fibrinoid necrosis, neutrophilic infiltration, and giant cell reaction in small to medium-sized arteries in multiple organs. These findings led to diagnosis of systemic vasculitis anatomically compatible with PAN. This was a rare case of a patient with MPO-ANCA-positive PAN who may have developed bilateral exudative otitis media and hearing loss as the initial manifestation of PAN. PMID:21611757

  9. Generation of a complement-derived chemotactic factor for tumor cells in experimentally induced peritoneal exudates and its effect on the local metastasis of circulating tumor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, F. W.; Mokashi, S.; Delikatny, J.

    1982-01-01

    A chemotactic factor for tumor cells was found in inflammatory exudate fluids induced by giving intraperitoneal injections of glycogen to Sprague-Dawley rats. The quantity of chemotactic activity and the period of time during which it could be detected correlated with the inflammatory reaction, measured by the cellular composition of the exudates and their content of protein and lysosomal enzymes. In gel filtration the chemotactic factor behaved mainly as a molecule having a molecular weight ...

  10. Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids. We believe this new test will change the current clinical practice for management of pleural effusions and will become a new standard for clinical practice. PMID:25072840

  11. Copper complexing properties of exudates and metabolites of macroalgae from the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Sakellari, Aikaterini; Strme?ki, Sla?ana; Plavši?, Marta; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae are a significant source of extracellular organic material in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean, including organic ligands which serve as modulators of metal complexing capacity. This paper examines the release of copper-complexing ligands by 24 macroalgal species, including chlorophyta, rhodophyta, ochrophyta as well as Posidonia oceanica, common throughout the Mediterranean. Metabolites isolated from the algae Dictyota dichotoma and Pterocladiella capillacea were examined for the first time regarding their Cu-complexing properties. The concentration of ligands (LT) and the copper-binding strength (logKapp) of exudates and metabolites were determined by electrochemical methods. All algal species released ligands giving LT concentrations ranging from 109 to 744 nM in unfiltered samples. An increase in the concentration of ligands up to 15 times in comparison to the blank was observed after 48 h of culturing macroalgae in artificial seawater. The binding strength (log Kapp) varied among species from 7.0 to 8.6, except for the metabolites for which it was lower (log Kapp=6). Most of the ligands released were in the dissolved phase, with the contribution of particulate and/or colloidal organic matter (up to 46% of total ligands) appearing to be important only in specific macroalgal species. PMID:23352148

  12. Self-assembly of marine exudate particles and their impact on the CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, S.; Zimmermann, K.; Ryder, O. S.; Campbell, N.; Collins, D. B.; Gianneschi, N.; Bertram, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous self-assembly of marine exudate particles has previously been observed in filtered seawater samples. The chemicophysical properties of these particles may alter the chemical composition and CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol, yet to date simultaneous measurement of seawater exudate particle formation rates and number distributions, with aerosol particle formation rates and CCN activity are lacking. Here, we use a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) system to experimentally mimic a phytoplankton bloom via sequential addition of biological surrogates, including sterol, galactose, lipopolysaccharide, BSA protein, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Nascent sea-spray aerosol are generated in the MART system via a continuous plunging waterfall. Exudate particle assembly in the water is monitored via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain both the assembly kinetics of the particles as well as particle number distributions Simultaneous characterization of both particle production rates and super-saturated particle hygroscopicity are also discussed. This study permits analysis of the controlling role of the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon in setting the production rates of colloidal material in the surface oceans.

  13. A Study and Comparison of Automated Techniques for Exudate Detection Using Digital Fundus Images of Human Eye: A Review for Early Identification of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ramaswamy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy which is the major cause of blindness in patients with diabetes. If the exudates extend into the macular area, vision loss can occur. Automated early detection of the presence of exudates can assist ophthalmologists to prevent the spread of the disease more efficiently. Hence, detection of exudates is an important diagnostic task. Exudates are found using their high grey level variation. The detection of the optic disc is indispensable in the exudates detection process since they both are similar in terms of color, contrast, etc. Here a study of various techniques like morphological approach, region growing approach, fuzzy c-means clustering technique, k-means clustering techniques is made to suggest a technique for automatic early identification of diabetic retinopathy. These four techniques are implemented and their performances are evaluated based on various metrics like sensitivity, specificity, etc. These algorithms are tested on a small image data base and their accuracies are analyzed with respect to expert ophthalmologist’s hand-drawn ground-truths.

  14. Findings and use of CT for pleural empyemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiographs and CT images of 25 patients with pleural empyemas were compared retrospectively with those of 20 patients with pleural exudates and transdudates in order to determine criteria for differential diagnosis and to define the place of CT in the diagnosis of pleural empyemas. The sign which was most suggestive of an empyema on a chest radiograph was an encapsulated effusion in an atypical position (18/25); this was found in only 4 out of 20 exudates and in none of the transudates. On CT, changes in the pleura, the subcostal tissues and the configuration and position of the fluid were suggestive of an empyema. In nearly all patients with a pleural empyema there was thickening and increased contrast uptake of the parietal pleura (22/25) and thickening and increased density oft the subcostal tissues (23/25). Usually, empyemas were encapsulated and biconvex (20/25). None of the patients with pleural transudates showed any of these changes. In the presence of some pleural exudates, pleural (14/20) or thoracic (11/20) changes were noted. In part, these changes were due to previous treatment (sclerotherapy) or tumour infiltration (7/20). An attempt to correlate the CT findings with changes in the pleura and subcostal tissues with the clinical empyema stages I-III, according to Light, showed that CT was unable to distinguish between early and late empyemas. Consequently, diagnostic aspiration remains necessary for correct treatment. (orig.) treatment. (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of semirigid thoracoscopy in exudative pleural effusions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willendrup, Fatin; BØdtger, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and the safety of medical thoracoscopy (MT) performed with the semirigid thoracoscope. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent MT with semirigid thoracoscope under local anesthesia for unexplained exudative pleural effusion from March 1, 2009 to September 1, 2013 in Denmark. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were retrospectively studied. In 13 patients it was not possible to perform the scheduled MT, in 9 cases due to an insufficient pneumothorax, in 3 due to an insufficient pleural effusion, and in 1 due to a purulent pleuritis. In 56 patients in whom MT was completed, the procedure was diagnostic in 44 cases: malignancy was reported in 26 patients and a benign diagnosis in 18. In the remaining 12 patients a definite diagnosis was not reached, and further testing was required.In an "intention-to-treat analysis" (69 patients in total), the diagnostic accuracy of MT was 63%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 59% [95% confidence interval (CI)=43%-73%], the specificity was 100% (95% CI=86%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.41 (95% CI=0.29-0.58). Considering the 56 patients in whom it was possible to complete the procedure, the diagnostic accuracy was 78%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 74% (95% CI=54%-87%), the specificity was 100% (95% CI=83.75%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.27 (95% CI=0.15%-0.45%). No mortality was reported. CONCLUSIONS: MT performed under local anesthesia with a semirigid scope is a simple and safe procedure with an acceptable sensitivity for malignancy.

  16. Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skorupska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

  17. Fluid collections in the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal spaces: comparison of MR and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.M.; Weinreb, J.C.; Maravilla, K.R.

    1985-06-01

    Fourteen patients with abnormal subdiaphragmatic fluid collections were examined with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR and CT provided equivalent information concerning the presence and extent of fluid collections in 13 of the 14 cases. Image acquisitions with two different repetition times (TRs) and two echo times (TEs) were necessary, in most cases, to detect and discriminate between different types of pathologic fluids. Transudative ascites demonstrated long T1 and T2 relaxation times, whereas abscesses, phlegmon, pancreatic pseudocyst, exudative pancreatitis, and chronic hematoma demonstrated an intermediate or short T1 and a long T2.

  18. The Composition of Root Exudates from Two Different Resistant Peanut Cultivars and Their Effects on the Growth of Soil-Borne Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; Zhao, Ling; Han, Zheng-min

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China. PMID:23412138

  19. Evaluation of pleural and pericardial effusions by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR examinations of 36 patients with pleural and/or pericardial effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine of MR imaging is capable of differentiating between pleural and pericardial effusions of different compositions using standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and nongated spin echo pulse sequences. Additional data was obtained from experimental pleural effusions in 10 dogs. The results of this study indicate that old haemorhages into the pleural or pericardial space can be differentiated from other pleural or pericardial effusions. However, further differentiation between transudates, exudates and sanguinous effusions is not possible on MR images acquired with standard spin echo pulse sequences. (orig./MG)

  20. Comparison of an occlusive and a semi-occlusive dressing and the effect of the wound exudate upon keratinocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M R; Nolan, E; Finkelstein, J L; Yurt, R W; Smeland, J; Goodwin, C W; Hefton, J; Staiano-Coico, L

    1989-07-01

    Three consecutive studies were performed in 58 patients evaluating the effect of occlusion on the healing of partial-thickness wounds. Mirror-image donor sites were covered with the occlusive hydrocolloid dressing (HCD) (DuoDerm) and compared to fine mesh gauze, and the HCD was subsequently compared to a semi-occlusive dressing of polyurethane film, (Op-site). In addition, partial-thickness burn wounds were covered with the HCD and the remaining burn wound was treated with silver sulfadiazine. The donor sites and burn wounds treated with HCD healed significantly faster than those covered with fine mesh gauze or silver sulfadiazine (p less than 0.001) and with less pain. The HCD and polyurethane film were equivalent. There were no clinical infections with the wounds that were occluded. The exudate collected beneath the DuoDerm and Op-site on donor sites was added to the tissue culture system and resulted in a modest increase in keratinocyte proliferation. However, the exudate from burn wounds under HCD resulted in a marked increase in cell proliferation (p less than 0.001). PMID:2473215

  1. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nausch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 ?atm, medium (380 ?atm, and high (780 ?atm CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 ?atm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 ?g Xeq L?1 compared to 269 ?g Xeq L?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. We hypothesise from our results that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

  2. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 - Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, S.; Unger, J.; Wannicke, N.; Nausch, M.; Voss, M.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 ?atm), medium (380 ?atm), and high (780 ?atm) CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 ?atm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment-related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 ?g Xeq L-1 compared to 269 ?g Xeq L-1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. We hypothesise from our results that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

  3. Automated detection of circinate exudates in retina digital images using empirical mode decomposition and the entropy and uniformity of the intrinsic mode functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a new automated system to detect circinate exudates in retina digital images. It operates as follows: the true color image is converted to gray levels, and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is applied to it before undergoing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The entropies and uniformities of the first two IMFs are then computed to form a feature vector that is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The experimental results using a set of 45 images (23 normal images and 22 images with circinate exudates taken from the STARE database) and tenfold cross-validation indicate that the proposed approach outperforms previous works found in the literature, with perfect classification. In addition, the image processing time was <4 min, making the presented circinate exudate detection system fit for use in a clinical environment. PMID:24615482

  4. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Fabrício Marchi; Alexandre Oba; Iris Lamberti Ziober; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Elza Iouko Ida; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-...

  5. Microvascular exudative hyperresponsiveness in human coronavirus-induced common cold.

    OpenAIRE

    Greiff, L.; Andersson, M.; Akerlund, A.; Wollmer, P.; Svensson, C.; Alkner, U.; Persson, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The inflammatory response of the airway microcirculation in rhinitis and asthma may be recorded as luminal entry of plasma macromolecules (mucosal exudation). This study examines the exudative responsiveness of the subepithelial microvessels in subjects with and without common cold after inoculation with coronavirus. METHODS--The airway mucosa was exposed to exudative concentrations of histamine (40 and 400 micrograms/ml) before and six days after inoculation. To assess whether mu...

  6. Depollution potential of three macrophytes: exudated, wall-bound and intracellular peroxidase activities plus intracellular phenol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Wang, Runying; Mévy, Jean-Philippe

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of three macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) for detoxication of xenobiotics, and to study their variations with seasons or concentrations of sewage sludge from the food industry. For this purpose, some aspects of the green liver concept were explored through peroxidase measurements in three compartments in roots: intracellular, cell wall and extracellular. In addition, phenol concentrations were also measured in order to assess heavy metal detoxication potential. Enzyme activities and phenol concentrations were overall lower in winter according to the phenological stages and some sludge effects occurred. Results show that P. australis roots exuded and contained more peroxidase in all seasons: 17 U/g (1373 U/g protein), 0.8 U/g (613 U/g protein) and 4.8 U/g (1329 U/g protein) in intracellular compartments, cell wall and exudates, respectively. In contrast, the highest phenol concentration was found in I. pseudacorus roots: 3.58 mg eq. [corrected] gallic acid/g. Hence, in constructed wetlands, P. australis is suitable for organic waste water treatment, while I. pseudacorus should be used in the case of waters highly charged with heavy metals. PMID:20570142

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substratess as primary substrates

  8. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  9. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  10. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato–crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5–2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  11. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  12. Vegetable Exudates as Food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae): Exploratory Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Zanuncio, Jose? Cola; Serra?o, Jose? Eduardo; Silva, Ita Oliveira; Boere, Vanner

    2014-01-01

    Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest frag...

  13. [Physicochemical properties of medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Li, Hong-Lian; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of Polyporus umbellatus sclerotial exudate. Morphological characteristics of the sclerotia and its exudate were observed during different stages of sclerotial formation. The pH of the exudate was detected at different time during cultivation. A phenol-sulfuric acid method was employed to determine the polysaccharide content of P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate during cultivating time. Additionally, the protein content was measured by means of BCA protein assay. Furthermore, CAT content was detected using ultraviolet absorption method. That the protein content of the exudate and CAT specific activity rose gradually during the passage of the cultivating time indicated a high level of oxidative stress during P. umbellatus sclerotial exudate formation. The results showed that the pH of the exudate increased gradually and then dropped down during sclerotial formation. That the pH of the exudate maintained the acidity state during the cultivation indirectly indicated that acidic environment would help sclerotial formation. The exudate produced gradually and was absorbed by the sclerotia itself. PMID:24754165

  14. Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Maloso, Ramos; Eduardo Francisquine, Delgado.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of [...] pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i) investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii) the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

  15. 14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  16. INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATES AND BACTERIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY ON APPARENT CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER FREQUENCIES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCLORA CRUSGALLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

  17. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2013-01-01

    Lauric acid is a bioactive root exudate component in crown daisy. Mi-flp-18 is a pivotal gene regualting nematode chemotaxis and infection. Lauric acid regulates the nematode chemotaxis and disrupts the Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner

  18. Diffuse choroidal hemangioma associated with exudative retinal detachment in a Sturge-Weber syndrome case: Photodynamic therapy and intravitreous bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Pava, Edwin J; Saenz-Bocanegra, Carlos H; Flores-Trejo, Alejandro; Castro-Santana, Norma A

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with a diffuse choroidal hemangioma (DCH) and glaucoma as part of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and symptomatic retinal detachment that was treated successfully with photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). The patient was treated with a single session of PDT, a 689-nm laser was used to deliver 50J/cm(2) with a maximum spot size of 6400?m, for 166s. IVB was administered 3 days later. The exudative retinal detachment (ERD), macular edema and visual acuity improved one week after treatment. The patient was followed for 18 months with no recurrence of ERD, and her visual acuity was preserved. PDT followed by IVB may be an effective treatment option for visual deterioration due to ERD in patients with DCHs, as are found in SWS. PMID:25560419

  19. Evaluating a super absorbent dressing (Flivasorb) in highly exuding wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrall, Debby; Coulborn, Anna; Bree-Aslan, Cathie

    This article reports an observational evaluation of 19 patients with highly exuding wounds. Flivasorb was used as a super absorbent dressing that could remove the harmful exudate fluid and promote a healthy wound bed. The outcomes demonstrated that Flivasorb is successfully absorbs large amounts of fluid, reduces the number of dressing changes required and therefore, reduces the cost of the patient's care. PMID:20505605

  20. Detection of Exudates in Retinal Images Using Fuzzy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohanapriya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is a major cause for blindness, identified early by the formation of exudates in the retina. The conventional method followed by opthalmogists is the regular supervision of the retina. As this method takes time and energy of the opthalmogists, a new feature based classification for the detection of exudates in color fundus image is proposed in this study. This method reduces the professionals work to examine on every fundus image rather than only on abnormal image. The exudates are separated from the fundus image by thresholding and removal of optic disk using morphological operation and connected component analysis. The features are extracted from processed image and fuzzy technique is used for classification of images as exudates and non-exudates.

  1. Chemical Analysis of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Phenolics Components and the Resin in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available H. taltalense (Phil. Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids – naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol – were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

  2. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  3. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    Al-sherif, E.; Hegazy, A. K.; Gomaa, N. H.; Hassan, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytoto...

  4. Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

  5. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  6. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2005-08-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

  7. How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N

    2013-02-01

    Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus". PMID:23347972

  8. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy / Associação entre vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar subclínica e distrofia de cones e bastonetes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdullah, Ilhan; Umit, Yolcu; Fatih Cakir, Gundogan; Fahrettin, Akay.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Um homem caucasiano de 21 anos foi avaliado com queixa de nictalopia. A acuidade visual era 20/20 em ambos os olhos. Biomicroscopia do segmento anterior era normal. A fundoscopia revelava zonas avasculares periféricas, exsudação mínima dos vasos retinianos periféricos da retina, telangiectasias da r [...] etina periférica com anastomoses em ambos os olhos e deslocamento vascular da retina em direção a periferia temporal em ambos os olhos. O eletrorretinograma (ERG) de campo total apresentava respostas de bastonetes praticamente indetectáveis e redução das respostas de cones. A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) macular mostrava estrutura normal em AO. As alterações vasculares foram atribuídas à forma subclínica da vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar. Este é um caso interessante com a associação de vitreoretinopatia exsudativa familiar e distrofia de cones e bastonetes (RCD). Abstract in english A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal t [...] elangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

  9. Deep transcriptome sequencing reveals differences in global gene expression between normal and pale, soft, and exudative turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, Y; Carr, K M; Ernst, C W; Velleman, S G; Reed, K M; Strasburg, G M

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that differential expression of genes between normal and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) turkey is associated with development of the PSE syndrome. However, a detailed understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this meat defect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to extend and complement our previous work by using deep transcriptome RNA sequence analysis to compare the respective transcriptome profiles and identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the etiology of PSE turkey meat. Turkey breasts (n = 43) were previously classified as normal or PSE using marinade uptake as an indicator of quality (high = normal; low = PSE). Total RNA from breast muscle samples with the highest (n = 4) and lowest (n = 4) marinade uptake were isolated and sequenced using the Illumina GA(IIX) platform. The results indicated differential expression of 494 loci (false discovery rate < 0.05). Changes in gene expression were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and signaling pathways regulating actin cytoskeleton structure as well as carbohydrate metabolism and energy production in PSE samples. Dysregulation of postmortem glucose oxidation in PSE turkey was suggested by both dramatic downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) mRNA, the most downregulated gene, and a decrease in the protein product (P = 0.0007) as determined by immunoblot analysis. These results support the hypothesis that differential expression of several genes and their protein products contribute to development of PSE turkey. PMID:24496837

  10. Widespread choroidal thickening and abnormal midperipheral fundus autofluorescence characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tan, Xue; Obata, Ryo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical findings that characterize exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (CVH). Design Retrospective comparative study. Participants Forty-eight consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of Tokyo University Hospital between May 2013 and July 2013. Methods The presence or absence of CVH was determined with indocyanine green angiography performed at the latest visit. When CVH was observed, the eye was categorized as CVH(+) AMD, otherwise it was categorized as CVH(-) AMD. Using high-penetration optical coherence tomography, we measured choroidal thickness at the fovea and at four midperipheral areas (mean choroidal thickness at points on 6- and 9-papilla diameter circles superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea). Ultrawide field retinal imaging was used to investigate abnormalities in midperipheral fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Choroidal thickness and the proportion of FAF abnormalities were compared between the CVH(+) AMD and CVH(?) AMD eyes and between eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and typical AMD. Multiple regression analysis was used to control for treatment history and other characteristics. Results CVH was observed in 17 cases. Choroidal thickness was higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes at the fovea (325 ?m versus 229 ?m, respectively; P=0.0010, t-test), superior point (277 ?m versus 215 ?m, respectively; P=0.0021, t-test), inferior point (225 ?m versus 161 ?m, respectively; P=0.0002, t-test), and nasal point (202 ?m versus 165 ?m, respectively; P=0.042, t-test). The significance was maintained after controlling for possible confounders. The choroid was thicker at the fovea and at the inferior point in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy than in typical AMD. The rate of midperipheral FAF abnormality was significantly higher in the CVH(+) AMD eyes than in the CVH(?) AMD eyes (82% versus 48%, respectively; P=0.031). Conclusion AMD with CVH is associated with widespread choroidal thickening and peripheral FAF abnormalities. PMID:25709392

  11. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)?, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. RESULTS: We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFN? were low and not associated with AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNF? can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells.

  12. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for exudative age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, J. B.; Kreissig, I.; Hugger, P.; Sauder, G.; Panda-jonas, S.; Degenring, R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on the visual acuity of patients with exudative age related macular degeneration, to assess the duration of a possible effect, and to evaluate clinical side effects of the treatment.

  13. Looking deep inside: detection of low-abundance proteins in leaf extracts of Arabidopsis and phloem exudates of pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Andreas; Gaupels, Frank; Sarioglu, Hakan; Holzmeister, Christian; Spannagl, Manuel; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The field of proteomics suffers from the immense complexity of even small proteomes and the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations within a given sample. Most protein samples contain a few major proteins, which hamper in-depth proteomic analysis. In the human field, combinatorial hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLL; such as ProteoMiner) have been used for reduction of the dynamic range of protein concentrations; however, this technique is not established in plant research. In this work, we present the application of CPLL to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf proteins. One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed a decrease in high-abundance proteins and an enrichment of less abundant proteins in CPLL-treated samples. After optimization of the CPLL protocol, mass spectrometric analyses of leaf extracts led to the identification of 1,192 proteins in control samples and an additional 512 proteins after the application of CPLL. Upon leaf infection with virulent Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, CPLL beads were also used for investigating the bacterial infectome. In total, 312 bacterial proteins could be identified in infected Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore, phloem exudates of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) were analyzed. CPLL prefractionation caused depletion of the major phloem proteins 1 and 2 and improved phloem proteomics, because 67 of 320 identified proteins were detectable only after CPLL treatment. In sum, our results demonstrate that CPLL beads are a time- and cost-effective tool for reducing major proteins, which often interfere with downstream analyses. The concomitant enrichment of less abundant proteins may facilitate a deeper insight into the plant proteome. PMID:22555880

  14. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Silveira Simões

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

  15. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  16. Analysis of trichome exudate from mite-resistant geraniums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, D L; Craig, R; Mumma, R O

    1984-05-01

    Trichome exudate from mite-resistant geraniums (Pelargonium horlorum) was analyzed, principally by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The exudate was found to consist of two anacardic acid derivatives,o-pentadecenylsalicylic acid ando-heptadecenylsalicylic acid. Bioassays established a moderate toxicity of these compounds to the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae. The production of these compounds in geraniums was correlated with the two complementary dominant genes previously reported for host resistance to spider mites. PMID:24318735

  17. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Dacryodes Edulis and Raphia Hookeri Mann and Wendl Exudates used in Herbal Medicine in South Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okwu, D. E.; Nnamdi, Fred U.

    2008-01-01

    The phytochemical contents and medicinal values of Dacroydes edulis and Raphia hookeri exudates were investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant showed that they contain the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins (2.08–3.98mg 100g?1), alkaloids (0.28–0.49 mg 100g?1), tannins (0.47–0.72 mg 100g?1), flavonoids (0.26–0.39 mg 100g?1), and phenolic compounds (0.01–0.05 mg 100g?1). The carbohydrates, lipids and protein content were 77.42–78.90%, 2.02–4.18...

  18. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots to aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amino acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes

  19. [Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

    2003-01-01

    Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM. PMID:13677026

  20. Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-12-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

  1. Broiler transportation conditions in a Brazilian commercial line and the occurrence of breast PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meat

    OpenAIRE

    Roselane Oliveira de Souza Langer; Gislaine Silveira Simões; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alexandre Oba; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of road transportation conditions on the occurrence of broiler PSE-(Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meats in the Brazilian commercial slaughterhouse plant. Samples of Pectoralis major m from 47-day-old broilers of commercial lineage were analyzed. The results indicated that water-bathing birds just before journey over 3.0km promoted the occurrence of 46.0% of PSE and 4.0% of DFD-like meat, while birds under non-wat...

  2. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source (60Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  3. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy / Associação entre vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar subclínica e distrofia de cones e bastonetes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdullah, Ilhan; Umit, Yolcu; Fatih Cakir, Gundogan; Fahrettin, Akay.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um homem caucasiano de 21 anos foi avaliado com queixa de nictalopia. A acuidade visual era 20/20 em ambos os olhos. Biomicroscopia do segmento anterior era normal. A fundoscopia revelava zonas avasculares periféricas, exsudação mínima dos vasos retinianos periféricos da retina, telangiectasias da r [...] etina periférica com anastomoses em ambos os olhos e deslocamento vascular da retina em direção a periferia temporal em ambos os olhos. O eletrorretinograma (ERG) de campo total apresentava respostas de bastonetes praticamente indetectáveis e redução das respostas de cones. A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) macular mostrava estrutura normal em AO. As alterações vasculares foram atribuídas à forma subclínica da vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar. Este é um caso interessante com a associação de vitreoretinopatia exsudativa familiar e distrofia de cones e bastonetes (RCD). Abstract in english A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal t [...] elangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

  4. Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

  5. Impact of root exudates and plant defense signaling on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Doornbos, R. F.; Loon, L. C.; Bakker, P. A. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances in crop protection, plant diseases cause a 20% yield loss in food and cash crops worldwide. Therefore, interactions between plants and pathogens have been studied in great detail. In contrast, the interplay between plants and non-pathogenic microorganisms has received scant attention, and differential responses of plants to pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms are as yet not well understood. Plants affect their rhizosphere microbial...

  6. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fabrício Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

  7. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Alexandre, Oba; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

  8. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and myelocyte/metamyelocyte (MC/MM) stages of development. These 135 miRNAs were divided into six clusters according to the pattern of their expression. Several miRNAs demonstrate a pronounced increase or reduction at the transition between MB/PM and MC/MM, which is associated with cell cycle arrest and the initiation of terminal differentiation. Seven miRNAs are differentially up-regulated between peripheral blood PMNs and extravasated PMNs and only one of these (miR-132) is also differentially regulated during granulopoiesis. The study indicates that several different miRNAs participate in the regulation of normal granulopoiesis and that miRNAs might also regulate activities of extravasated neutrophils. The data present the miRNA profiles during the development and activation of the neutrophil granulocyte in healthy humans and thus serves as a reference for further research of normal and malignant granulocytic development.

  9. Potato spindle tuber viroid detection in phloem exudates and guttation fluid of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a single-stranded, non protein-encoding, covalently-closed circular RNA molecule (359nt) that infects many horticultural and agricultural crops. PSTVd is mechanically transmitted, replicates in the nucleus, and moves cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata. Though i...

  10. Intravitreal Combination of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate and Bevacizumab in The Treatment of Exudative AMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, N; Echiadis, G; Pervena, A; Deligiannis, I; Kavalarakis, E; Giannikakis, S; Papaefthymiou, I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) combined with bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this non comparative case study, 30 eyes of 27 patients with CNV due to AMD received intravitreal DSP (0.2?mg) and bevacizumab (1.25?mg) during a 6-month PRN (pro re nata) dosing regimen. Visual acuity, macular thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP) were monitored and recorded. After 6 months, mean retinal thickness decreased from 423.5 ± 75.3 to 228.2 ± 34.5 and mean visual acuity improved from 0.9 ± 0.39 logMAR to 0.53 ± 0.34 (p = 0.001) logMAR. During the trial period, 81 intravitreal injections were performed in 30 eyes, thus the mean number of injections per eye was 2.7 ± 1.1. 86.7% of the eyes required 3 or less injections while only 13.3% needed 4 or more injections. None of the patients, phakic or pseudophakic, manifested an elevation of IOP during the treatment, ranging between 12 and 22?mmHg. Combined DSP and bevacizumab offers encouraging results in the challenge of AMD treatment, providing immediate response of macular edema, reduced number of intravitreal injections and stabilization or improvement of visual acuity. PMID:25720826

  11. Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Al-Obaisi, Saif; Al-Sheikh, Osama; Galvez, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein, we present a case of unilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young male who presented with chief complaints of painful decreased vision which was attributed to optic neuritis and macular edema as a result of scleritis. Imaging studies were helpful in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and patient's complaints improved with administration of systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23961032

  12. Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-obaisi, Saif; Al-sheikh, Osama; Galvez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein...

  13. Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporters in root exudation of phytoalexins, signals, and disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organ-isms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3...

  14. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  15. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of florfenicol in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, P; Rassouli, A; Illambas, J; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

    2014-06-01

    Florfenicol was administered subcutaneously to 10 calves at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) integration and modelling of the data were undertaken using a tissue cage model, which allowed comparison of microbial growth inhibition profiles in three fluids, serum, exudate and transudate. Terminal half-lives were relatively long, so that florfenicol concentrations were well maintained in all three fluids. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined in vitro for six strains each of the calf pneumonia pathogens, Mannhemia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. An PK-PD integration for three serum indices provided mean values for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, of 12.6 and 10.4 for Cmax /MIC, 183 and 152 h for AUC0-24 h /MIC and 78 and 76 h for T>MIC. Average florfenicol concentrations in serum exceeded 4 × MIC and 1.5 × MIC for the periods 0-24 and 48-72 h, respectively. Ex vivo growth inhibition curves for M. haemolytica and P. multocida demonstrated a rapid (with 8 h of exposure) and marked (6 log10 reduction in bacterial count or greater) killing response, suggesting a concentration-dependent killing action. During 24-h incubation periods, inhibition of growth to a bacteriostatic level or greater was maintained in serum samples collected up to 96 h and in transudate and exudate samples harvested up to 120 h. Based on the sigmoidal Emax relationship, PK-PD modelling of the ex vivo time-kill data provided AUC0-24 h /MIC serum values for three levels of growth inhibition, bacteriostatic, bactericidal and 4 log10 decrease in bacterial count; mean values were, respectively, 8.2, 26.6 and 39.0 h for M. haemolytica and 7.6, 18.1 and 25.0 h for P. multocida. Similar values were obtained for transudate and exudate. Based on pharmacokinetic and PK-PD modelled data obtained in this study and scientific literature values for MIC distributions, Monte Carlo simulations over 100 000 trials were undertaken to predict once daily dosages of florfenicol required to provide 50% and 90% target attainment rates for three levels of growth inhibition, namely, bacteriostasis, bactericidal action and 4 log10 reduction in bacterial count. PMID:24341543

  16. Chromium(VI) Bioremoval by Pseudomonas Bacteria: Role of Microbial Exudates for Natural Attenuation and Biotreatment of Cr(VI) Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N Mercan Dogan; C Kantar; S Gulcan; C Dodge; B Coskun Yilmaz; M Ali Mazmanci

    2011-12-31

    Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

  17. Chromium(VI) bioremoval by pseudomonas bacteria: role of microbial exudates for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, N.M.; Dodge, C.; Kantar, C.; Gulcan, S.; Yilmaz, B.C.; Mazmanci, M.A.

    2011-02-14

    Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

  18. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  19. Localization of Hard Exudates in Retinal Fundus Image by Mathematical Morphology Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Pourreza; Mehdi Ghafourian Fakhar Eadgahi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Detection of hard exudates is an important step for early diagnosis in eye diseases such as Macular Edema(ME). If hard exudates were segmented precisely, laser treatments can be applied more effective for patients by surgeons. The possibility of blindness is very high when the hard exudates are very close to Macula region or Optic disc. Therefore, fast and accurate segmentation is one of the most important factors i...

  20. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53 of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36 for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

  1. Vegetable Exudates as Food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae): Exploratory Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Boere, Vanner

    2014-01-01

    Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH) and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp.) and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates. PMID:25372137

  2. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1?cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400?mg, ibuprofen tablets (400?mg, NAC (400?mg/ibuprofen (200?mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- ?, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p?=?0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p?=?0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p?=?0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of inflammatory markers in lung cancer-associated pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyza, Jaromir; Havel, David; Vrzalová, Jindra; Kulda, Vlastimil; Pesek, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Besides massive expression in inflammatory pleural effusions, inflammatory markers are also present in cancerinduced pleural effusions. Recent advances in cancer biology point to a role of inflammatory signaling in cancer and encourage reconsidering the diagnostic and prognostic value of inflammatory markers. Here an attempt was made to relate protein levels of inflammatory markers to underlying malignant processes in the pleural space. Pleural effusions from lung cancer patients (n=116) were subjected to a multifactorial analysis covering 13 inflammatory markers. The composition of tumor-associated effusions was compared with that of parainflammatory pleural effusions (n=30), transudates (n=18), and serum values, and evaluated in relation to cancer origin, histology, cytology, pleural involvement, treatment history, and survival time. Inflammatory markers were significantly expressed in pleural effusions of paraneoplastic origin when compared to transudates and most serum levels. Values in pleura-invading and metastatic tumor-associated effusions were typically higher than those of other tumors. Many markers correlated negatively with survival, most prominently IL-8 (r=-0.36, p=0.001) and VEGF (r=-0.35, p=0.001). It appears that most inflammatory markers are highly expressed in tumor-associated pleural effusions, reflecting to some extent tumor origin and localization. Despite the lower efficacy of inflammatory markers in the differentiation between exudative pleural effusions, some inflammatory markers may represent potential prognostic markers of malignant processes in the pleural space. PMID:20306450

  4. Day-night periodicity of exudation in detopped tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A; Ashcroft, R T; Lunt, O R

    1967-02-01

    Exudate was collected periodically from the root systems of detopped tobacco plants. Volume, cations, and (42)K or (86)Rb transfer were measured. According to measurements of K by (42)K and by the flame photometer, when concentrations of KCl and KNO(3) were lower than 10(-2)m, the K in the exudate came mostly from a pool in the plant rather than from the external solution. With higher external KNO(3) solutions, within a few hours nearly all of the K in the exudate came directly from the external solutions. Studies with (86)Rb lead to the same conclusion. In contrast the maximum proportion of K in the exudate that came from KCl in the external solution was reached usually in many hours after detopping and amounted to from 50 to 75%. The higher the external concentration the faster it was reached. These data for KCl are indicative of the (42)K passing through a K pool in the root cells. K and Rb from high concentrations of KNO(3) and RbNO(3), however, may not pass through such a pool. The addition of 10(-2)m KNO(3) into the external solution during exudation essentially eliminated the effect of periodicity at least for a period of time and under the conditions of the experiments. Hydrochloric acid, mercuric chloride, anaerobiosis, and 2,4-dinitrophenol had the same effect and each resulted in a massive final exudation that usually persisted for 1 to 3 days before stopping. These results all lead to a hypothesis that periodicity is regulated at the tonoplast. PMID:16656500

  5. Sequence Analysis of Staphylococcus hyicus ATCC 11249T, an Etiological Agent of Exudative Epidermitis in Swine, Reveals a Type VII Secretion System Locus and a Novel 116-Kilobase Genomic Island Harboring Toxin-Encoding Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Adkins, Pamela R F; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus is the primary etiological agent of exudative epidermitis in swine. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of the type strain revealed a locus encoding a type VII secretion system and a large chromosomal island harboring the genes encoding exfoliative toxin ExhA and an EDIN toxin homolog. PMID:25700402

  6. Influence of oxalic and malic acids in chickpea leaf exudates on the biological activity of CryIAc towards Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Surekha; Sharma, Hari C; Rao, P Arjuna

    2013-04-01

    Efforts are being made to express toxin genes from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in chickpea for minimizing the losses due to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. However, there is an apprehension that acidic exudates in chickpea leaves may influence the protoxin-toxin conversion in the insect midgut, and thus, reduce the efficacy of Bt toxins. Therefore, we studied the influence of organic acids (oxalic acid and malic acid) present in the trichome exudates of chickpea on the biological activity and binding of Bt ?-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the pod borer, H. armigera. Oxalic and malic acids in combination at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not influence the biological activity of Bt toxin Cry1Ac towards H. armigera larvae. Amounts of Cry1Ac protein in the midgut of insects reared on diets with organic acids were similar to those reared on artificial diet without the organic acids. However, very high concentrations of the organic acids reduced the amounts of Cry1Ac in the midgut of H. armigera larvae. Organic acids in the artificial diet also increased the excretion of Cry1Ac in the fecal matter. Organic acids reduced the amount of protein in the BBMV of insects reared on diets with Cry1Ac, possibly because of reduced size of the larvae. Oxalic and malic acids at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not affect the biological activity of Cry1Ac, but it will be desirable to have high levels of expression of Cry1Ac toxin proteins in chickpea for effective control of the pod borer, H. armigera. PMID:23391855

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  9. Comparison of protein degradation, protein oxidation, and ?-calpain activation between pale, soft, and exudative and red, firm, and nonexudative pork during postmortem aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Zhang, W G; Zhou, G H; Guo, B

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in protein modifications between pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and red, firm, and nonexudative (RFN) pork during postmortem (PM) aging. Longissimus dorsi (LD) including 8 PSE and 8 RFN muscles were individually removed from 16 carcasses. These 16 LD muscles were vacuum packaged at 24 h after slaughter and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5 d. The centrifugation loss, drip loss, color, protein solubility, protein oxidation, protein degradation including desmin, troponin T, and integrin, and ?-calpain activation were determined. The pH of PSE samples was significantly lower than that of RFN samples at both 1 and 24 h PM (P PSE pork were significantly greater than that of RFN pork at different time point during PM storage (P PSE samples at d 1 was extremely greater than samples from RFN pork (P PSE pork were significantly greater than that from RFN pork (P PSE and RFN pork samples (P > 0.05). In addition, PSE pork presented a lower solubility of sarcoplasmic protein, myofibrillar protein, and total protein than RFN pork except the solubility of myofibrillar protein at d 1 (P PSE pork at d 3 and 5 were significantly greater than that in RFN pork (P PSE pork at d 5 was greater than that in RFN pork (P PSE pork compared to that of RFN pork at d 1 (P PSE pork (P PSE pork could contribute to its low water holding capacity during PM storage. PMID:24987073

  10. Management of pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyeon

    2011-03-01

    Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed. PMID:22379278

  11. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  12. [Characteristics of peritoneal exudate microflora in children with appendicular peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, B M

    1997-01-01

    Bacteriological investigation of peritoneal exudate was conducted in 131 children with peritonitis. The greatest quantity of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic Escherichias and bacteroids was revealed in March, April and September. In summer peritonitis was caused by pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic Escherichias in association with enterobacterias, staphylococci and other microorganisms. PMID:9615011

  13. Broiler transportation conditions in a Brazilian commercial line and the occurrence of breast PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselane Oliveira de Souza Langer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of road transportation conditions on the occurrence of broiler PSE-(Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry meats in the Brazilian commercial slaughterhouse plant. Samples of Pectoralis major m from 47-day-old broilers of commercial lineage were analyzed. The results indicated that water-bathing birds just before journey over 3.0km promoted the occurrence of 46.0% of PSE and 4.0% of DFD-like meat, while birds under non-water bathing conditions presented 14.7 and 2.0%, respectively. For a distance of 68.0km, the occurrences of PSE-and DFD-like meat were 44.0 and 0.0% under water bathing conditions, and 52.0 and 0.0% without water bathing, respectively. Water bathing at the farm was a critical manoeuvre for increasing the unfavourable truck microenvironment for short journey, whereas conversely for longer journey it was less stressful influencing the broiler breast meat quality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito das condições do transporte na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e a-DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry de frangos nas condições brasileiras em uma planta de um frigorífico comercial. Foram analisadas amostras de peito de frango (Pectoralis major m. da ave de 47 dias de linhagem comercial. Os resultados indicaram que o banho dos frangos imediatamente antes da viagem de 3,0km promoveu a ocorrência de 46,0% de PSE e 4,0% de a-DFD enquanto que frangos sem banho apresentaram 14,7 e 2,0%, respectivamente. Para uma distância de 68,0km, a ocorrência de carnes PSE e a-DFD foram 44,0 e 0,0%, respectivamente, de aves que sofreram banho e 52,0 e 0,0% sem banho, respectivamente. O banho ainda na granja foi uma atividade crítica aumentando as condições desfavoráveis no microambiente do caminhão para curtas distâncias e contrariamente para distâncias longas foi menos estressante influenciando na qualidade do peito do frango.

  14. Root exudate impact on gene expression of Sporisorium reilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S K; Panjakeh, N; Salary, M

    2009-01-01

    Sporisorium reilianum f.sp zeae, a basidiomycetous fungus belonging to Ustilaginaceae, is the causal agent of the maize head smut disease. This soilborne pathogen infects the host plant at the seedling stage by penetrating roots. The infection is systemic, and disease symptoms become apparent only after the onset of flower development when the fungal sori replace male or female inflorescences. In order to investigate the mechanism of infection, we analysed the transcriptome of the fungus in response to root exudates during the previous phase of infection. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to generate cDNA libraries representing genes differentially expressed in haploid cell forms of the fungus exposed to root exudates Leading to 960 ESTs. By using cDNA macroarray hybridization, we identified 36 ESTs which were differentially expressed in response to exudates application. In this first transcriptomic analysis realized on S. reilianum, we show that maize root exudates may affect gene expression of the fungus involved in cell respiration, cell wall development, metabolism and hypothetical proteins during the previous step of infection and could play an important role in fungi growth promotion and plant pathogenesis. PMID:20222576

  15. Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens for HIV testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children in Chimanimani district, Zimbabwe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson, Mashange; Stella May, Gwini; Stanford T, Mahati; Stephen S, Buzuzi; Chenjerai K, Mutambanengwe; Shungu, Munyati; Brian, Chandiwana; Simbarashe, Rusakaniko; Exnevia, Gomo.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of oral mucosal transudate (OMT) specimens for HIV testing in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted asThe overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV part of a community-based behavioura [...] l and HIV sero-status survey testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis of adults and children in the Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe. by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV Dried blood spot (DBS) and OMT samples were collected from testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV children aged between 2 and 14 years, inclusive. Both samples were prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and tested for HIV using the Vironostika Uniform II plus O kits. The oral hygiene could have influenced the results. main study outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of OMT samples, with DBS as the gold-standard specimen. RESULTS: Paired DBS and OMT specimens were available from 1 274 (94.4%) of the 1 350 children enrolled. Using the DBS, HIV prevalence was 3.2%. Overall sensitivity of OMT was 48.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.3 - 64.5), and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI 97.7 - 99.1). CONCLUSION: The overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and oral hygiene could have influenced the results.

  16. Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: Bile, ascitic and pleural fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayantha Arnold, Arvind Sangwaiya, Vijay Manglam, Frank Geoghegan, Mark Thursz, Mark Busbridge

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine body fluids such as ascitic fluid (AF, saliva, bile and pleural effusions for the presence of hepcidin using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA.METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (mean age: 36 ± 11.9 years, 11 males, 14 females. In addition bile was obtained from 12 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (mean age: 66.9 ± 16.7 years, M:F = 5:7. Saliva was collected from 17 healthy volunteers (mean age: 35 ± 9.9 years, M:F = 8:9. Pleural and AF were collected from 11 and 16 patients [(mean age: 72 ± 20.5 years, M:F = 7:4 and (mean age: 67.32 ± 15.2 years, M:F = 12:4], respectively. All biological fluid samples (serum, exudative and transudative fluids were tested for the presence of hepcidin-25 molecule using RIA.RESULTS: Hepcidin-25 was detected in all biological fluids tested. The mean ± SD hepcidin-25 in serum was 15.68 ± 15.7 ng/mL, bile 7.37 ± 7.4 ng/mL, saliva 3.4 ± 2.8 ng/mL, exudative fluid 65.64 ± 96.82 ng/mL and transudative fluid 14.1 ± 17.8 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: We provide clear evidence that hepcidin-25 is present in bile, saliva, pleural and ascitic fluids. Hepcidin is likely to play a role here in innate immunity.

  17. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Trujillo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  18. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawaraya, Keitaro; Horie, Ryota; Saito, Saki; Wagatsuma, Tadao; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P L-1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159), 13% (26/203) and 9% (20/212) of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency. PMID:25032978

  19. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L?1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  20. Localization of Hard Exudates in Retinal Fundus Image by Mathematical Morphology Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourreza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Detection of hard exudates is an important step for early diagnosis in eye diseases such as Macular Edema(ME. If hard exudates were segmented precisely, laser treatments can be applied more effective for patients by surgeons. The possibility of blindness is very high when the hard exudates are very close to Macula region or Optic disc. Therefore, fast and accurate segmentation is one of the most important factors in elimination of hard exudates. In this paper, a method is proposed for segmentation of hard exudates in retinal color image based on morphological operation. In the proposed method, the retinal images preprocessed and optic disc and the blood vessels identified primarily and then they eliminate from the image. Finally, the Hard Exudates (HEs are segmented by mixture of morphological operation such as Top-hat, Bottom-hat and reconstruction operations. The proposed method was tested on DIARETDB1 database and 78.28% of sensitivity was obtained. Comparing to other recent automatic method available in the literature, our proposed method can obtain acceptable exudates detection result in term of sensitivity.

  1. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

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    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  2. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  3. Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paul O., Ameh; Anduang O., Odiongenyi; Nnabuk O., Eddy.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 [...] M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the respective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

  4. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  5. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  6. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Keitaro Tawaraya; Ryota Horie; Saki Saito; Tadao Wagatsuma; Kazuki Saito; Akira Oikawa

    2014-01-01

    Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P L?1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). R...

  7. Proteins as nitrogen source for plants: A short story about exudation of proteases by plant roots

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Bartosz; Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Godlewski, Miros?aw

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the problem of plant nitrogen nutrition is increasing. Certain plants can use not only inorganic nitrogen but also intact amino acids and short peptides. According to our studies, the roots of several agricultural and wild-living plants are able to exude proteases and use them to create a pool of accessible N. This mini-review offers an overview of the problem of protease exudation by plant roots and its potential role in plant nitrogen nutrition.

  8. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

  9. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress / Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo D., Mariano; Renato A., Jorge; Willem G., Keltjens; Marcelo, Menossi.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO) de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al) presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes [...] celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande quantidade de exsudatos radiculares de plantas geneticamente modificadas pode causar, especialmente na microbiota do solo, é discutido. Abstract in english Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the [...] root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering pla

  10. Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Atefeh Arabzadeh; Mehdi Ajdari Tafti; Gholamreza Kordafshari; Arman Zargaran; Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Traditional Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts authored by medieval Persian scholars offer not only accumulation of traditional medical systems knowledge, but also contain collection of ingenious studies that provide vast information in the field of medicinal herbs application. One of the most cited derivative compositions of medicinal herbs are exudates. A large group of these compounds along with their different clinical and pharmacological applications can be foun...

  11. Ontogenetic variation of four cytokinins in soybean root pressure exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, J C; Carlson, D R; Brun, W A; Brenner, M L

    1982-12-01

    Cytokinins exported from the root may be involved in the correlative control of plant development. To test this hypothesis in soybean ((Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. McCall, cv Chippewa 64, and cv Hodgson 78), cytokinins were intercepted en route from the root to the shoot by collecting root pressure exudate from detopped roots. The quantities of four cytokinins in the exudate were studied throughout the development of plants grown in the field and in controlled environment chambers. Zeatin, zeatin riboside, and their dihydro derivatives, dihydrozeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside, were isolated and quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography.Cytokinin fluxes (pmoles per plant per hour) were independent of exudate flux (grams per plant per hour). All fluxes are averages for a 6- or 8-h collection period. The ribosides accounted for the majority of the observed cytokinin transport. The fluxes of zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside increased from low levels during vegetative growth to maxima during late flowering or early pod formation. Before the seeds began rapid dry matter accumulation, zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside fluxes decreased and remained at low levels through maturation. The fluxes of zeatin and dihydrozeatin were low throughout development.No correlation was found between cytokinin fluxes and nodule dry weight or specific nodule activity (acetylene reduction).The timing of distinct peaks in zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside fluxes during flowering or pod formation suggests that cytokinins exported from the root may function in the regulation of reproductive growth in soybean. PMID:16662731

  12. Ranibizumab Combined With Low-Dose Sorafenib for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Diago, Teresa; Pulido, Jose S.; Molina, Julian R.; Collet, Lucienne C.; Link, Thomas P.; Ryan, Edwin H.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a common factor in the pathogenesis of cancer and in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Therefore, angiogenesis inhibition has been developed as a therapeutic strategy. We report 2 cases of recurrent exudative AMD in which oral sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for cancer, was added to intravitreal ranibizumab, an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor. These 2 patients were followed up by determination of visual acuity, fluorescein angiogr...

  13. An ABC Transporter Mutation Alters Root Exudation of Phytochemicals that Provoke an Overhaul of Natural Soil Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Arabidopsis root exudates can support the fungal community in native soils but not in non-native soils and recent evidence demonstrates the involvement of ABC transporters in the root secretion of phytochemicals. In this paper we examined differences in the root exudate profil...

  14. BENZODIHYDROFURANS IN THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM DIPLOSTEPHIUM CINEREUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO URZÚA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new benzodihydrofurans have been isolated from the resinous exudate of Diplostephium cinereum. Their structures were elucidated by high-resolution spectroscopic methods as 13-(2-methylpropanoyloxytoxol (2 and 13-[(R-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyloxy]toxol (3Del exudado resinoso de Diplostephium cinereum, se han aislado dos benzodihidrofuranos. Sus estructuras fueron determinadas por espectroscopía de alta resolución como: 13-(2-metilpropanoiloxitoxol (2 y 13[(R-3-hidroxi-3-fenilpropanoiloxi]toxol (3

  15. Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Zarshenas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts authored by medieval Persian scholars offer not only accumulation of traditional medical systems knowledge, but also contain collection of ingenious studies that provide vast information in the field of medicinal herbs application. One of the most cited derivative compositions of medicinal herbs are exudates. A large group of these compounds along with their different clinical and pharmacological applications can be found in the manuscripts of Persian medicine. Methods and Materials: This work is a literature research on some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of Alhavi, Canon of Medicine, the book of Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan ol advieh. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered by searching in Medline/PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: According to the investigated manuscripts, thirty-one substances, incorporating plant exudates relating to sixteen plant families, were used to combat simple to sophisticated ailments. Mostly exudates were derived from herbs of family, Asteraceae, Apiaceae with six and five citations, respectively. Other than the reported clinical applications for herbs, which were defined as a source for gummy compositions, numerous pharmacological approaches were also remarked for the secreted gums. Conclusion: Application of ethnobotanical findings on simple remedies offers rational criteria to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of medicinal plants.

  16. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal changes when injected in experimental piglets. The results showed that both virulent and avirulent strains were present simultaneously on diseased piglets. This constitutes a diagnostic problem. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine virulent strains injected in the skin of healthy piglets produced a crusting reaction in all piglets. Acanthosis was observed in the histopathological examination of the crustaceous skin. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine avirulent strains produced no macroscopic or microscopic skin changes. Protein profiles from all virulent strains and seven out of nine avirulent strains showed a high degree of protein band homology. An approximately 30 kDa protein present in all concentrated culture supernatants capable of producing skin changes, could not be detected in samples that did not produce skin changes. No other protein showed a similar association. It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin.

  17. Proteolytic enzyme activities in rat peritoneal exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, M; Fischer, J; Nagy, Z; Sohár, I

    1991-01-01

    Proteinase activities in rat thioglycollate elicited peritoneal cells and the cell-free supernatant (lavage fluid) were measured by using the following substrates: Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-Methyl-Coumarin-Amide (for cathepsin G or chymase), Suc-Ala-Ala-Ala-AMC (for elastase or elastase-like), Z-Arg-Arg-AMC (for cathepsin B), haemoglobin (for cathepsin D) and Ala-AMC (for alanine-aminopeptidase: AAP). The enzyme activities were correlated to the quantitative distribution of various cell types in the exudate from 0 to 192 nd h. In the supernatant all the examined activities showed a higher value at 72nd h. In the cells activity of chymase and AAP proved to be very high at 0 h but after four h the activities were dropped. From this time all enzyme activities started to elevate till the 24th h. At the 96th h only the activity of cathepsin B and AAP had a high value. We conclude that the intracellular activation and secretion of proteolytic enzymes characteristic for the various peritoneal cell types involved in the acute and chronic inflammatory reaction can be followed by activity measurements using enzyme-specific substrates and inhibitors. PMID:1688230

  18. The predictive value of subjective symptoms and clinical signs for the presence of treatment-requiring exudative age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Larsen, Dorte Ancher

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has increased the referral rates of AMD patients with visual symptoms to treating centres considerably. However, a large proportion of the referred patients do not qualify for treatment implying that considerable resources could be saved if these patients could be identified on the basis of the clinical data available in the referring nonspecialized setting.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipol Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for identification of exudates in low-resolution retinal image. In this study a fuzzy mathematical morphology based on fuzzy logical operator and mathematical morphology method is presented. The color retinal image are segmented by using fuzzy logical operator following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. Afterward, a segmentation using mathematical morphology method was applied in this step. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the methods can achieve good performance even on low-resolution retinal images. Respect to the experimental results, the results obtained with fuzzy mathematical morphology better than the ones obtained with the fuzzy logical operator only method.

  20. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; N., Obi-Egbedi.

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition effici [...] ency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-exudative synergism between dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Romero, Maria Asunción; Puig, Margarita M

    2012-06-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated antinociceptive synergism between dexketoprofen (DEX) and tramadol (TRM) in acute animal models of nociception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the type of interaction between DEX and TRM in a chronic musculoskeletal pain model in mice, which fairly replicates the characteristics of chronic osteoarticular pain in humans. Inflammation was induced by a subplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male CF1 mice. Nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate, the nocifensive spontaneous behavior and the acetone tests, while plasma extravasation (PE) was assessed with Evan's blue. We used the following experimental groups: control (no inflammation), acute (1 day after CFA injection), and chronic inflammation (7 days after CFA). Dose-response curves for DEX and TRM, individually and combined in a 1 : 1 proportion based on their potency were obtained, and the doses that produced a 50% inhibition calculated. The isobolographic analysis revealed that in all groups of study (no inflammation, acute, and chronic inflammation), the combination of DEX : TRM was synergistic, for both the inhibition of nociception and the PE. The results suggest that the DEX : TRM (1 : 1) combination could be useful in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal pains in humans; in addition, the synergistic interaction between the drugs observed both during acute and chronic inflammation suggests that less doses would be required of each drug to obtain effective analgesia. PMID:22081874

  2. Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

    2014-07-01

    The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally. PMID:24438182

  3. EXPERIMENTAL PLEURISY-RESOLUTION OF A FIBRINOUS EXUDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, E L

    1907-07-17

    Fibrinous pleurisy produced by a sterile inflammatory irritant offers opportunity for study of the part taken by enzymes of leucocytes in the resolution of a fibrinous exudate. When turpentine is injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the dog, an abscess results, but when an equal quantity of turpentine is injected into the pleural cavity, there is abundant exudation of coagulable fluid and the serous surfaces are covered by a layer of fibrin. Accumulation of fluid which can be followed during life by percussion of the animal's chest reaches a maximum at the end of three days, and then gradually subsides, so that at the end of six days, in most instances, the cavity contains no fluid. Fibrin, though diminished in amount at the time when fluid has been absorbed, is still present, and gradually disappears; at the end of two or three weeks the cavity has returned to the normal, save for a few organized adhesions. Turpentine injected into the right pleural cavity may cause serofibrinous pleurisy on the left side; this inflammation may reach a maximum intensity at a time when pleurisy on the right side is subsiding. During the early stage of inflammation fibrinous exudate, freed from the serum by washing in salt solution, undergoes digestion when suspended in an alkaline (0.2 per cent. sodium carbonate) or in an acid medium (0.2 per cent. acetic acid). At the end of five days, at a time when fluid is disappearing from the pleural cavity, digestion fails to occur in an alkaline medium, but occurs with much activity in the presence of acid. During the first stage of the inflammatory reaction, when fluid is abundant and the fibrin which is present digests in alkali, thus indicating the presence of leucoprotease, polynuclear leucocytes are very numerous in the meshes of the fibrin. In the second stage, the exuded fibrin contains only one enzyme digesting in the presence of acid. At this time polynuclear leucocytes have disappeared and only mononuclear cells are embedded in the fibrin. Products of proteolytic digestion, namely, peptone and albumose, absent in the exuded fluid during the first day or two days of inflammation, are present after three days and are found in less quantity at a later period. The exuded fluid does not at any stage of the inflammatory reaction lose it spower to inhibit both enzymes contained in the leucocytes. The exudate remains alkaline throughout the period of inflammation, but its alkalinity is less than that of the blood and diminishes slightly with the progress of inflammation. Since the acids, which in vitro favor the action of the enzyme, present alone during the second stage of the inflammatory reaction, do not occur in the body, the possibility has suggested itself that carbon-dioxide brings this enzyme into action. If carbon-dioxide is passed through normal salt solution in which strips of such fibrin are suspended, digestion is greatly hastened. The normal inhibition exerted by blood serum upon the enzyme is overcome by carbon-dioxide and in the presence of a small quantity of blood serum, carbon-dioxide causes greater enzymotic activity than in the presence of salt solution alone. PMID:19867099

  4. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures. PMID:21190090

  5. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat

    OpenAIRE

    Gislaine Silveira Simões; Alexandre Oba; Tiemi Matsuo; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*). Results sho...

  6. Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat in female lineage broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Fabrício Marchi; Marco Antônio Trindade; Alexandre Oba; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Elza Iouko Ida; José Bento Sterman Ferraz; Tércio Michelan Filho; Iris Lamberti Ziober; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one or both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+), while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-). The results showed that of 298...

  7. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. PMID:25194775

  8. Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos GD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A and serous PED (Group B in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05. In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01. The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

  9. [In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

    2009-08-15

    A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

  10. Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat in female lineage broilers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Marco Antônio, Trindade; Alexandre, Oba; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Tércio, Michelan Filho; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo e [...] nrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+) e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-). Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105) e HAL+ (n=13) em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b*) foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one o [...] r both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+), while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-). The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105) and HAL+ (n=13) birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.

  11. Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat in female lineage broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fabrício Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one or both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+, while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-. The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105 and HAL+ (n=13 birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+ e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-. Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105 e HAL+ (n=13 em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b* foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais.

  12. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  13. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial / Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magali Bernardes, Maganhini; Bruno, Mariano; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Paulo D., Guarnieri; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, [...] resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades. Abstract in english The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 9 [...] 46 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  14. The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 ?m nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

  15. [Signal transudation pathways in parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchenko, L I; Drobins'ka, O V; Cha?ka, V O; Bohun, L I; Bohdanova, O V; Kot, L I; Ha?da, L M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the presented work was the research of signal transduction mechanism in the rat gastric parietal cells under stomach ulcer conditions. In these cells activation of adenylate cyclase (increase of cAMP level and proteinkinase A activity) and phosphoinositide (increases [Ca2+]i; cGMP and phoshatidylinocitole levels; proteinkinase C, proteinkinase G, and calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase activity) of signals pathway was shown. An increase of plasma membrane phospholipids (PC, PS, PE, PI, LPC) level was shown. Under conditions of influence of the stress factor the membran enzymes activity (H+, K+ -ATPase, 5'-AMPase, Na+, K+ -ATPase, Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase and H+, K+ -ATPase) was considerably increased. The intensification of lipid peroxidation processes in rats was demonstrated. PMID:19873882

  16. Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment. PMID:23652766

  17. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

  18. Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Schalchli; F, Pardo; E, Hormazábal; R, Palma; J, Guerrero; E, Bensch.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to prote [...] ct the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1). IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

  19. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Diabetic Retinopathy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is globally the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. Retinal image is essential and crucial for ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Many of technique can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that the retinal images in Thailand are low-quality images. The existing algorithm cannot detect low-quality image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for detection of exudates in low quality retinal image. Approach: In this study, we presented a new method towards the development for detecting exudates pathologies of DR. The color retinal images are segmented using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering and morphological methods and following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, remove noise and color space selection. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the algorithm can achieve good performance even on low-quality retinal images. Result/Conclusion: The result shows that accuracy values increase when the FCM clustering is combined with morphological methods techniques. If any applications need to detect maximum number of exudates pixels or require execution speed, the FCM clustering technique could be used in isolation. However, if the applications require higher accuracy, the FCM clustering combined with morphological methods should be chosen. This system intends to help ophthalmologists in DR screening process to detect symptoms faster and more easily. This is not a final result application but it can be a preliminary diagnosis tool or decision support system for ophthalmologists. Human ophthalmologists are still needed for the cases where detection results are not very obvious.

  20. [Value of a standard exudate in the in vitro study of antiseptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremieux, A; Bonnaveiro, N; Chevalier, J

    1987-06-01

    Bactericidal activity of antiseptics is generally determined in France according the AFNOR norms the principles of which have recently been reconsidered by the Pharmacopoeias. These norms preconize the use of either hard water (12 Ca++ milliequivalents) or a mixture of proteins (albumin-yeast extract) to appreciate any loss of activity by interference. However these two interfering substances are very different from exudates on wounds or burns. This is why we have prepared a standard exudate composed of dried bovine albumin (Cohn fraction V for bacteriology) 4% m/V; Ca++ 0.01% m/V and Mg++ 0.003% m/V. These protein and ion concentrations correspond to the percentage of these elements in plasma. A first sequence of assays on two antiseptics, one with a chlorhexidine base, the second with a iodine polyvidon base allowed us to study individually the interference of proteins, of ions, and that of the standard exudate. The first results showed that for the iodine polyvidon the effect of ions was slight compared with the effect of proteins whereas for chlorhexidine the effect of ions was a strong as that of proteins. Therefore we have used this standard exudate in the study of other antiseptics according to the protocol of the norms NF T 72-170. Results showed that the standard exudate strongly inhibits the bactericidal activity of antiseptics. We propose that its use be generalised in the in vitro study of antiseptics destined for cutaneous or mucous lesions. PMID:3309835

  1. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Al-Sherif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

  2. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

  3. Partial HELLP syndrome with unilateral exudative retinal detachment treated conservatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A.V.; Rao, Sonali; Ramesh Kumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum vision loss, an uncommon, often reversible complication of pregnancy usually occurs in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. This is a rare case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the Partial HELLP syndrome that occurred after delivery in a 23-year-old Indian woman. The retinal detachment subsequently reattached with good visual improvement under conservative treatment. This case highlights the importance of early intervention by the ophthalmologist when pregnant women complain about visual symptoms. PMID:25473354

  4. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  5. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  6. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showe...

  7. Altered profile of secondary metabolites in the root exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette transporter mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Badri, D. V.; Loyola-vargas, V. M.; Broeckling, C. D.; De-la-pen?a, C.; Jasinski, M.; Santelia, D.; Martinoia, E.; Sumner, L. W.; Banta, L. M.; Stermitz, F.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Following recent indirect evidence suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length ABC transporters and a half-size transporter for in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses. We compared the exuded root phytochemical profiles of these seven ABC transporter mutants to...

  8. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  9. Metabolite fingerprinting of exudates from carrot roots grown under phosphorus stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To see if differences in the metabolite content of exudates obtained from cultured carrot roots grown in the presence and absence of phosphorus could be detected, crude samples were analyzed via Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The highly accurate masses and elemental compo...

  10. Nitrification inhibition activity, a novel trait in root exudates of rice

    OpenAIRE

    Pariasca Tanaka, Juan; Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Screening numerous genotypes for nitrification inhibition activity provides first evidence that root exudates of rice can slow the nitrification of ammonium to nitrate in soil. This offers promising possibilities for exploiting molecular and genetic tools to improve nitrogen use efficiency by inhibiting wasteful nitrification.

  11. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24972380

  12. Hierarchical Detection of Hard Exudates in Color Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the common causes of blindness, and hard exudates (HEs are the primary and early clinical signs of DR. Thus, a reliable detection of HEs is significant for clinical diagnosis and preventing vision loss of patients. In this paper, a novel method is presented to detect HEs automatically in color retinal images. The method consists of two stages: coarse level and fine level. In coarse level, we extract HEs candidate regions by combining histogram segmentation with morphological reconstruction. While in fine level, we define44 representative features for each candidate region, and train a support vector machine (SVM model to classify HEs and non-HEs. We evaluate the proposed method on the public DIARETDB1 database and yield a sensitivity of94.7% and a positive predictive value of 90.0%. Experiment results show that our method can detect HEs efficiently.

  13. [Terpenoids in root exudates of different allelopathic rice varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibin; He, Huaqin; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xiangxu; Jia, Xiaoli; Xiong, Jun; Shen, Lihua; Liang, Yiyuan

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a strong allelopathic rice variety PI312777 and a weak allelopathic rice variety Lemont were used as test materials, and the root exudates of two rice varieties grown in the media of sand and soil were respectively collected by using circulation system approach. The terpenoids in ether-extracts were detected by GC-MS, and characterized by spectrum database. The results showed that some terpenoids such as limonene oxide, limonene dioxide, carvone oxide, carveol, and cedrol were detected in the ether-extracts. Different rice varieties had the similar kinds of terpenoids, but their existing modes and quantities were different. The differences between different various cultural methods and between rice varieties were further discussed. PMID:16011177

  14. Potential Abiotic Functions of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Cycling of Soil Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots are the primary source of C in mineral horizons and can significantly accelerate the rate of soil organic matter mineralization in rhizosphere soils. While a portion of this acceleration results from stimulation of microbial enzymatic capacities (the 'priming effect') - abiotic responses also play a significant role in rhizosphere cycling of soil organic matter (SOM). For example, exudate-stimulated mobilization and dissolution of metal species may release previously complexed SOM, or could affect Fe mobility via redox changes associated with microbially-driven O2 depletion. We have investigated the abiotic response of rhizosphere microenvironments, using additions of several 13C-enriched low molecular weight (LMW) root exudates and 13C-plant detritus to controlled microcosms. We hypothesized that certain abiotic effects are triggered by specific exudate compounds and that the magnitude of the effect depends on the soil physiochemical properties. Using a combination of microsensor measurements, solid-phase extractions, X-ray and IR spectroscopy, we measured how root exudates differ in their potential to create reducing microenvironments, alter metal chemisty and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM in the rhizosphere. High resolution X-ray microscopy (STXM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses illustrate the physical fate of the added isotope tracers in both pore water and on mineral surfaces. Our results suggest that certain root exudates facilitate abiotic reactions that increase the pool of bioavailable SOM and stimulate its microbial decomposition in the rhizosphere. In particular, the contrasting ecological functions of LMW organic acids and simple sugars in facilitating SOM breakdown in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

  15. Vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar: nuestra experiencia Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Piñero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evidenciar la variabilidad de la presentación inicial de la vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar (VREF y la importancia de su diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Así como, valorar la respuesta al tratamiento de los diferentes estadios clínicos. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo, intervencional y descriptivo de 11 pacientes (17 ojos afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar tratados en nuestro centro. Resultados: De los pacientes afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar, un 33,3% se encontraban en el estadio I, un 16,6% en el estadio II y el 50% restante en estadio III. Los resultados tras el tratamiento fueron los siguientes. En los estadios I y II, la agudeza visual se mantuvo estable (agudeza visual media 0,8 y 0,4 respectivamente. En el estadio III se observó un empeoramiento de la agudeza visual. Conclusiones: El tratamiento en estadios iniciales puede mejorar el pronóstico visual y evitar complicaciones como la exudación subfoveal crónica y la contracción y fibrosis en la interfase retino vítrea periférica que pueden provocar ectopia macular.Purpose: To describe our experience in the diagnosis of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR at its different clinical stages. We also report our outcomes in early treatment of this inherited disorder. Methods: Retrospective interventional and descriptive case series of 11 patients (17 eyes affected by FEVR evaluated and treated in our hospital. Results: In our series, 33.3% of patients were classified as stage I, while 16.7% and 50% were classified as stage II and III, respectively. Visual acuity (VA remained stable after treatment in stages I and II (mean VA was 0.8 and 0.4, respectively but decreased in stage III. Conclusions: Early treatment of FERV may improve the visual prognosis and avoid complications such as subfoveal chronic exudation and vitreoretinal peripheral interphase contraction and fibrosis.

  16. Vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar: nuestra experiencia / Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy: our experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Piñero; J., Sempere; J., Nadal; J., Elizalde-Montagut.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evidenciar la variabilidad de la presentación inicial de la vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar (VREF) y la importancia de su diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Así como, valorar la respuesta al tratamiento de los diferentes estadios clínicos. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo, [...] intervencional y descriptivo de 11 pacientes (17 ojos) afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar tratados en nuestro centro. Resultados: De los pacientes afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar, un 33,3% se encontraban en el estadio I, un 16,6% en el estadio II y el 50% restante en estadio III. Los resultados tras el tratamiento fueron los siguientes. En los estadios I y II, la agudeza visual se mantuvo estable (agudeza visual media 0,8 y 0,4 respectivamente). En el estadio III se observó un empeoramiento de la agudeza visual. Conclusiones: El tratamiento en estadios iniciales puede mejorar el pronóstico visual y evitar complicaciones como la exudación subfoveal crónica y la contracción y fibrosis en la interfase retino vítrea periférica que pueden provocar ectopia macular. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe our experience in the diagnosis of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) at its different clinical stages. We also report our outcomes in early treatment of this inherited disorder. Methods: Retrospective interventional and descriptive case series of 11 patients (17 eyes) [...] affected by FEVR evaluated and treated in our hospital. Results: In our series, 33.3% of patients were classified as stage I, while 16.7% and 50% were classified as stage II and III, respectively. Visual acuity (VA) remained stable after treatment in stages I and II (mean VA was 0.8 and 0.4, respectively) but decreased in stage III. Conclusions: Early treatment of FERV may improve the visual prognosis and avoid complications such as subfoveal chronic exudation and vitreoretinal peripheral interphase contraction and fibrosis.

  17. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  18. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  19. Interleukin 3 (IL 3) regulates the in vitro proliferation of both blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages: synergism between a macrophage lineage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and IL 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of interleukin 3 (IL 3) on regulation of macrophage proliferation was examined. Although IL 3 alone stimulates the colony formation in bone marrow cells, it fails to stimulate the colony formation by both peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and blood monocytes. However, IL 3 greatly enhances the proliferative capacity of both PEM and monocytes in responding to suboptimal concentrations of CSF-1. At supraoptimal concentrations of CSF-1, IL 3 did not increase the number of colonies, but greatly increased colony size. Kinetic studies showed that IL 3 enhances CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation by shortening the cell doubling time. Monocytes were more sensitive to the action of IL 3 and possessed higher proliferative potential than PEM. Binding studies with radioactive labeled CSF-1 (125I-CSF-1) showed that IL 3 treatment induced an increased expression of CSF-1 receptor activity by PEM which appears to be a result of increased number of available receptor sites. The effect of IL 3 on the expression of receptor activity is both dose- and time-dependent. IL 3 also augments the rate of receptor-mediated CSF-1 endocytosis by PEM which appears to be a direct result of increased expression of CSF-1 binding sites. These results demonstrate that, in addition to stimulating the growth and differentiation of several blood cell lineages by hemopoietic stem cells, IL 3 also possesses the ability to modulate CSF-1 receptors, thereby affecting proliferation of more mature blood monocytes and tissue-derived macrophages

  20. Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by germinating seeds of two edaphic ecotypes of Silene nutans L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Van Rossum, Fabienne; Ström, Lena

    2001-12-01

    Two parapatric ecotypes of Silene nutans, exhibiting distinct allozyme patterns, morphology and autecology were investigated for differences in exudation of low molecular weight organic acids from germinating seeds, and for differences in seed phosphorus content. The calcicolous ecotype is restricted to calcareous soils, and the silicicolous one predominantly occurs on acid soils, and sometimes, although less frequently, on neutral to alkaline soils. No clear difference was found between ecotypes. However, within the silicicolous ecotype seed samples showed marked differences in exudation pattern and seed phosphorus content depending on origin along the soil acidity gradient. Seeds of low-pH origin exuded more dicarboxylic acids (malic + succinic acid, oxalic acid) and had a lower phosphorus content than seeds of high pH origin. The exudation of dicarboxylic acids from seeds of low pH origin is probably an adaptation to adverse conditions (aluminium toxicity) on acid soils. The pattern is similar to that found among different cultivars of wheat. It is contrasted to the pattern found on comparison of a suite of calcifugous and calcicolous species, where exudation of di- and tricarboxylic acids is associated with solubilisation of recalcitrantly bound phosphorus and iron in calcareous soils.

  1. Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from the root in this soil was significantly reduced. The experiments demonstrated that mucilage increased the hydraulic conductance of the root-soil continuum and facilitated the extraction of water from dry soils. The increase in conductivity resulted from the higher water content of the soil near the roots. Mucilage has a lower surface tension than pure water and a higher viscosity, resulting in a slower penetration of mucilage into the soil. After mucilage was placed into the soil, it did not spread into the bulk soil, but it remained near the roots, maintaining the rhizosphere wetter and more conductive than the bulk soil. However, as mucilage dried, it turned water repellent and reduced the back flow of water from the root to soil. We hypothesize that mucilage exudation is a plant strategy to locally and temporally facilitate water uptake from dry soils. After drying, mucilage becomes water repellent and may limit the local uptake of water after irrigation. On the other hand, mucilage water repellency may as well be a strategy to reduce water loss from roots to dry soils.

  2. A study of the concentration of orally administered sparfloxacin found in exudates from suture wounds beneath occlusive dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsuyanagi, T; Urushidate, S; Yokoi, K; Sawada, Y; Suno, M; Ohkubo, T

    1998-12-01

    The concentration of orally administered sparfloxacin (SPFX), an antimicrobial agent, in exudates from the suture wounds beneath occlusive dressings has been measured. Twenty-one patients who received oral therapy with 100 mg of SPFX prior to surgery and 200 mg/day of SPFX after surgery were studied. During the operations, the suture wounds were covered by occlusive film. 48h post-operation, wound exudates under the dressings were drawn and measured using high performance liquid chromatography. SPFX values were 0.801+/-0.340 microg/ml (mean+/-SD). The results suggest that wound exudates beneath the occlusive dressing have concentrations of SPFX high enough to prevent infection in most cases when administered orally. PMID:9915677

  3. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Kissel; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and co...

  4. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  5. Root-exuded malic acid versus chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in four plant species under different phosphorus levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y. Y, Wu; K, Zhao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of root-exuded malic acid and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence; the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) in four plant species (Broussonetia papyrifera, Morus alba, Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) at different phosphorus levels was [...] studied. A linear equation presents the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) or the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the amount of root-exuded malic acid. Broussonetia papyrifera and Orychophragmus violaceus easily adapted to a low-phosphorus environment. A low-cost method was used for assessing plant adaptability to a low-phosphorus environment when no chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was available.

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BRENDA, MODAK; RENÉ, TORRES; MARCELA, WILKENS; ALEJANDRO, URZÚA.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and [...] the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

  7. Cyclic fatty acyl glycosides in the glandular trichome exudate of Silene gallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-08-01

    Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate from Silene gallica L. (Caryophyllaceae) resulted in isolation of 10 cyclic fatty acyl glycosides (gallicasides A-J). The cyclic structures were characterized by a glycosidic linkage of the glucose moiety to either the C-12 or the C-13 position of the octadecanoyl moiety, and by an ester linkage between the C-2 hydroxy group of the glucose moiety and the carboxyl group of the oxygenated octadecanoic acid. The structures of the cyclic fatty acyl glycosides were further distinguished from one another by acetylation and/or malonylation on the glucose moiety. Of these compounds, the 1,2'-cyclic ester of 12(R)-(6-O-acetyl-3-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)octadecanoic acid (gallicaside J) was the most abundant (30.7%). These secondary metabolites were found specifically in the glandular trichome exudate rather than in other aerial parts. PMID:20541780

  8. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  9. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    OpenAIRE

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam; Aruna Devaraj

    2011-01-01

    The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange), T. erecta (var. Yellow) significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s) in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) of water soluble extract from th...

  10. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla Dhananjay; Ramasamy Kim

    2007-01-01

    We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200) secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the t...

  11. Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Randy Trinity Nijkamp; Somporn Na Nakorn

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root...

  12. Acute retinal periphlebitis mimicking frosted branch angiitis associated with exudative retinal detachment after blunt eye trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloun, Rim; Abroug, Nesrine; Ammari, Wafa; Mahmoud, Anis; Jelliti, Bechir; Ben Yahia, Salim; Khairallah, Moncef

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of a 14-year-old otherwise healthy patient who developed acute retinal periphlebitis mimicking frosted branch angiitis inferotemporally and associated exudative retinal detachment in the left eye following blunt trauma. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed filling of inferotemporal branch retinal vein and late leakage of sheathed retinal venules, and late pooling in the area of exudative retinal detachment. Indocyanine green angiography showed a crescent-shaped hypofluorescent streak concentric to the optic disk inferiorly highly suggestive of choroidal rupture. The patient was treated with oral prednisone, with gradual tapering over a period of 15 days. One month after presentation, retinal vein sheathing and exudative retinal detachment had resolved, with the development of peripapillary subretinal fibrosis, macular atrophy, pseudomacular hole, and epiretinal membrane. The acute perivenular sheathing in our patient might be related to autoimmune-mediated reaction induced by retinal vascular damage caused by severe ocular trauma. Fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography findings might suggest that the retinal detachment could be caused by leakage from choroid through Bruch's membrane and retinal pigment epithelium rupture or by transient dysfunction of the outer or inner blood-retinal barrier. PMID:24912935

  13. Characteristics of pale, soft, exudative broiler breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laack, R L; Liu, C H; Smith, M O; Loveday, H D

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize pale breast meat, compare it with normal colored breast meat, and determine whether it should be considered pale, soft, and exudative (PSE). Characteristics of 20 normal and 20 pale broiler breasts, obtained at a commercial slaughter plant, were evaluated. Compared with normal meat, the pale breast meat had a significantly (P marinade uptake (31.2 vs. 44.3%), and lower cooking yields (95.2 vs. 105.8%). Protein solubility in pale samples was slightly (P marinade uptake (r = 0.64), sarcoplasmic protein solubility and L* value (r = -0.71), and sarcoplasmic protein solubility and moisture uptake (r = 0.66) and cooking yield (r = 0.66) were significant (P < 0.05). Correlations between total protein solubility and moisture uptake or cooking yields were not significant. The low ultimate pH of pale breast muscle appears to be the main determinant of its low water-holding capacity (WHC). This lower pH was unrelated to a higher lactate concentration or glycolytic potential of the pale muscle. Further research is needed to determine the causes of the low pH and possible measures to increase the pH (and functionality) of pale broiler breast muscle. Because the pale breast muscle has a low WHC, it can be considered PSE. PMID:10901210

  14. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  15. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  16. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  17. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  18. Plasma exudation in the skin measured by external detection of conversion electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karambatsakidou, A. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Bergh, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Ahlgren, L. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Strand, S.E. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, O. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Greiff, L. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Wollmer, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    A novel technique for measurement of plasma exudation in the skin is described. Transferrin labelled in vivo with indium-113m is used as a plasma tracer. The conversion electrons from {sup 113m}In are detected with a polystyrene crystal mounted on a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the short range of the electrons in tissue, background radiation from tracer circulating in underlying tissue will be very small, allowing plasma exudation in the skin to be detected with a high signal to noise ratio. The characteristics of the detector system are described in model experiments using sheets of mylar to simulate soft tissue. The acute inflammatory response to histamine provocation was studied in guinea pig skin. A dose-related increase in count rate representing vasodilatation and plasma exudation was detected over the skin after histamine provocation. The electron radiation system appears suitable for detection of low levels of superficial radioactivity and for pathophysiological studies of the skin. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Plasma exudation in the skin measured by external detection of conversion electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique for measurement of plasma exudation in the skin is described. Transferrin labelled in vivo with indium-113m is used as a plasma tracer. The conversion electrons from 113mIn are detected with a polystyrene crystal mounted on a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the short range of the electrons in tissue, background radiation from tracer circulating in underlying tissue will be very small, allowing plasma exudation in the skin to be detected with a high signal to noise ratio. The characteristics of the detector system are described in model experiments using sheets of mylar to simulate soft tissue. The acute inflammatory response to histamine provocation was studied in guinea pig skin. A dose-related increase in count rate representing vasodilatation and plasma exudation was detected over the skin after histamine provocation. The electron radiation system appears suitable for detection of low levels of superficial radioactivity and for pathophysiological studies of the skin. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Preslaughter resting and hot-fat trimming effects on the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork and ham processing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, B L; Montgomery, J L; Ramsey, C B; Miller, M F

    2000-03-01

    Effects of preslaughter rest (0, 1, 2 or 3 h) and hot-fat trimming (HFT, one side) on muscle quality characteristics of hams and loins were tested with 120 pigs. Center-cut loins from each carcass side were vacuum packaged and stored for 7 or 14 days at 2°C. Pigs not rested before slaughter had a skin temperature 3°C higher and ham muscle temperatures 1°C higher than pigs rested 1-3 h (P<0.05). Three hour muscle pH was highest if pigs were rested for 1 h. HFT significantly accelerated carcass chilling rate, but did not affect rate of muscle pH decline. After 14 days of aging, pigs not rested had lower sensory panel ratings for juiciness, tenderness, flavor and overall mouthfeel of loin chops than pigs rested 1 or 2 h. Percentage bound water of hams was highest (P<0.05) if pigs rested 1 or 2 h rather than a shorter or longer times. Pigs should be rested 1 h before slaughter and HFT carried out to allow more rapid carcass chilling and improve muscle quality. PMID:22060692

  1. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin and anthocyanin metabolites. We describe here the metabolites present in the root exudates using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) metabolomics approach. Using this approach, biased rhizosphere for another class of PGPR strains can now be created. In this case, lignin- and anthocyanin- utilizing strains will be selectively preferred. We have set up a platform to perform metabolomics of exudates at the root surface. This has allowed us to use the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) system using a Thermo Velos Pro Orbitrap-MS to identify differences in exudate profiles along the root system of Arabidopsis. This platform enables direct sampling and measurement from plant roots grown aeroponically. As the metabolites are extracted from root surface and directly injected into the mass spectrometer, there is minimal loss of sample in this process. This method will now allow us to further dissect rhizosphere properties from places such as young root apex, as well as from the more mature base of roots. Taken together, these resources of altered rhizosphere, nutrient utilization pathways in microbes and surface analysis technology will help in extending our understanding of the processes in the plant rhizosphere.

  3. Copper and cadmium effects on growth and extracellular exudation of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella: 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Faouzi; Jean, Natacha; Zhao, Huiyu; Mounier, Stéphane; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2013-10-01

    In this study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper and cadmium on the growth of the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and on the production of dissolved organic matter (Dissolved Organic Carbon: DOC; Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter: FDOM). This species was exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu(2+) (9.93 × 10(-10)-1.00 × 10(-7)M) or Cd(2+) (1.30 × 10(-8)-4.38 × 10(-7)M), to simulate polluted environments. The drastic effects were observed at pCu(2+)=7.96 (Cu(2+): 1.08 × 10(-8)M) and pCd(2+)=7.28 (Cd(2+): 5.19 × 10(-8)M), where cyst formation occurred. Lower levels of Cu(2+) (pCu(2+)>9.00) and Cd(2+) (pCd(2+)>7.28) had no effect on growth. However, when levels of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) were beyond 10(-7)M, the growth was totally inhibited. The DOC released per cell (DOC/Cell) was different depending on the exposure time and the metal contamination, with higher DOC/Cell values in response to Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), comparatively to the control. Samples were also analyzed by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, using the Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) algorithm to characterize the FDOM. The PARAFAC analytical treatment revealed four components (C1, C2, C3 and C4) that could be associated with two contributions: one, related to the biological activity; the other, linked to the decomposition of organic matter. The C1 component combined a tryptophan peak and a characteristic humic substances response, and the C2 component was considered as a tryptophan protein fluorophore. The C3 and C4 components were associated to marine organic matter production. PMID:23928326

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies two susceptibility loci for exudative age-related macular degeneration in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Satoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Hosono, Naoya; Aoi, Tomomi; Yasuda, Miho; Oshima, Yuji; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Tsuchihashi, Takashi; Mori, Keisuke; Honda, Shigeru; Negi, Akira; Arakawa, Akira; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kubo, Michiaki

    2011-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world, is a complex disease caused by multiple environmental and genetic risk factors. To identify genetic factors that modify the risk of exudative AMD in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study and a replication study using a total of 1,536 individuals with exudative AMD and 18,894 controls. In addition to CFH (rs800292, P = 4.23 × 10(-15)) and ARMS2 (rs3750847, P = 8.67 × 10(-29)) loci, we identified two new susceptibility loci for exudative AMD: TNFRSF10A-LOC389641 on chromosome 8p21 (rs13278062, combined P = 1.03 × 10(-12), odds ratio = 0.73) and REST-C4orf14-POLR2B-IGFBP7 on chromosome 4q12 (rs1713985, combined P = 2.34 × 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.30). Fine mapping revealed that rs13278062, which is known to alter TNFRSF10A transcriptional activity, had the most significant association in 8p21 region. Our results provide new insights into the pathophysiology of exudative AMD. PMID:21909106

  5. Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

  6. Growth stimulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi by root exudates of Brassicaceae plants: role of degraded compounds of indole glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ren Sen; Mallik, Azim U; Setliff, Ed

    2003-06-01

    Brassicaceae plants are nonmycorrhizal. They were found to inhibit VA mycorrhizal infection in their host plants. We tested if they can influence growth of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. When roots and leaves of Brassicaceae plants and ECM fungi were cultured together in the same petri dishes, the root exudates of turnip (Brassica rapa), swede (B. napobrassica), cabbage (B. oleracea, var. capitata), broccoli (B. oleracea, var. italica Plenck), kohlrobi (B. caulorapa Pasq.), mustard (B. juncea), radish (Raphanus sativus), and choy (B. napus) significantly stimulated hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. Root exudates of turnip and cabbage stimulated hyphal growth of Pisolithus tinctorius and two isolates of P. involutus. Colony area of P. involutus was increased by 452 and 414%, respectively, in the presence of turnip and cabbage germinants. Root exudates of turnip increased the biomass of P. involutus and P. tinctorius by 256 and 122% and cabbage by 220 and 82%, respectively. The stimulatory effect was not affected by autoclaving the root exudates. Root exudates had chemical reactions with glutathione and lysine, which resulted in a reduction of the growth stimulation of ECM fungi. Myrosinase enhanced further the stimulatory effects of turnip on the ECM colony diameter growth by 23%. Autoclaved roots and leaves of turnip did not stimulate fungal growth, but mechanically ground roots and leaves of turnip stimulated growth of P. involutus by 147 and 135%, respectively. After desulfuration with aryl sulphatuse, the glucosinolates (GLSs) in turnip roots and leaves were identified by HPLC. The major ones were indole GLSs. Prominent compounds identified were 1-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS and4-methoxy-3-indolymethyl GLS. The finding provides an opportunity to field test the use of Brassicaceae plants in enhancing ectomycorrhizal formation in conifers by interplanting conifers with Brassicaceae plants in forest tree nursery and agroforestry systems. PMID:12918920

  7. Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos, en dos cuencas lecheras de México / Phenotypic and molecular strain characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle nasal exudate from two dairy complexes in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Manuel, Campuzano Ocampo; Alma Delia, González Rodríguez; Rigoberto, Hernández Castro; Francisco, Suárez Güemes; Francisco José, Trigo Tavera; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo Arango.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron 250 cepas de P. multocida aisladas de exudado nasal, 182 cepas de bovinos clínicamente sanos y 68 cepas de bovinos clínicamente enfermos de neumonía, de dos complejos lecheros, uno en la región de Tizayuca estado de Hidalgo (n = 81), y otro en la Región Lagunera de los estados de Coahu [...] ila y Durango (n = 169), México. Las cepas fueron identificadas mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el sistema comercial API 20NE. La tipificación capsular se realizó por medio de las pruebas de hiauloronidasa y acrifavina, así como por medio de una PCR múltiple para la amplificación de los genes hyaD-hyaC y dcbF. Los resultados globales mediante la prueba de hialuronidasa mostraron que 90.4% (226/250) de las cepas fueron del tipo capsular A y por medio de la prueba de acrifavina, 9.6% (24/250) fue del tipo capsular D. Por medio de la PCR múltiple, 92% (230/250) fue tipo capsular A y 8% (20/250) fue tipo capsular D. La comparación de los resultados entre las pruebas bioquímicas y la técnica de PCR concuerdan en la identificación de las cepas del tipo capsular A, pero no así con las del tipo capsular D. Se corrobora que en México el tipo capsular predominante de P. multocida es el A. Abstract in english Two hundred and fifty strains of P. multocida isolated from nasal exudate were obtained, 182 clinically healthy bovine strains and 68 clinically ill with pneumonia bovine strains, from two dairy complexes, one in the Tizayuca region of Hidalgo state (n = 81), and another in the Region Lagunera of th [...] e states of Coahuila and Durango (n = 169), Mexico. Strains were identifed by conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE commercial system. Capsular typing was performed by testing hyauloronidase and acrifavine, as well as by a multiplex PCR for amplification of genes hyaC-hyaD and dcbF. The overall results of hyaluronidase by the test showed that 90.4% (226/250) of the strains were capsular type A and through the acrifavine test 9.6% (24/250) was capsular type D. Using the multiplex PCR, 92% (230/250) was capsular type A and 8% (20/250) was capsular type D. The comparison of results between biochemical tests and PCR are consistent in identifying strains of capsular type A but not with the capsular type D. It was possible to confrm that capsular type A of P. multocida is predominat in Mexico.

  8. Neural network based detection of hard exudates in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María; Sánchez, Clara I; López, María I; Abásolo, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Automatic recognition of DR lesions in fundus images can contribute to the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this study is to automatically detect one of these lesions, hard exudates (EXs), in order to help ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. We propose an algorithm which includes a neural network (NN) classifier for this task. Three NN classifiers were investigated: multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM). Our database was composed of 117 images with variable colour, brightness, and quality. 50 of them (from DR patients) were used to train the NN classifiers and 67 (40 from DR patients and 27 from healthy retinas) to test the method. Using a lesion-based criterion, we achieved a mean sensitivity (SE(l)) of 88.14% and a mean positive predictive value (PPV(l)) of 80.72% for MLP. With RBF we obtained SE(l)=88.49% and PPV(l)=77.41%, while we reached SE(l)=87.61% and PPV(l)=83.51% using SVM. With an image-based criterion, a mean sensitivity (SE(i)) of 100%, a mean specificity (SP(i)) of 92.59% and a mean accuracy (AC(i)) of 97.01% were obtained with MLP. Using RBF we achieved SE(i)=100%, SP(i)=81.48% and AC(i)=92.54%. With SVM the image-based results were SE(i)=100%, SP(i)=77.78% and AC(i)=91.04%. PMID:18778869

  9. Contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates to the biostimulation of PAH degradation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Técher, Didier; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Henry, Sonia; Bennasroune, Amar; Formanek, Pavel; Martinez-Chois, Claudia; D'Innocenzo, Marielle; Muanda, François; Dicko, Amadou; Rejšek, Klement; Falla, Jairo

    2011-09-15

    Phytoremediation is considered as a promising and cost-effective method to enhance bioremediation of polluted soils. Exudation of plant root secondary metabolites similar to organic pollutants may induce the expression of microbial degradative enzymes and favour cometabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates in the biostimulation of PAH-degradation. This perennial grass was chosen because of its capability to grow on polluted soils and its high biomass production for non-food purposes. First, the impact of cometabolism phenomena was evaluated on the selective enrichment of pyrene-degrading bacterial consortia. The identification of each isolated strains following incubation with pyrene only, "pyrene+phenanthrene", "pyrene+salycilate" or "pyrene+diesel fuel" showed a varying bacterial diversity and pyrene-degrading ability, depending on the co-substrate used. Then, a microplate assay was designed, based on the simultaneous measurement of bacterial consortia growth and degradation activity, in the presence of PAH and total root exudates. Results showed that i) the addition of root exudates was efficient for promoting bacterial growth, ii) but a selective enrichment of PAH-degraders compared to aliphatic ones could be clearly demonstrated, thereby conducing to an enhanced PAH catabolism. The identification of plant secondary metabolites showed the presence of a broad range of flavonoid-derived compounds that could play a role in cometabolic processes. Microplate assays with the two major molecules, quercetin and rutin, suggested a partial involvement of these compounds in biostimulation processes. Further investigations with the other identified secondary metabolites (apigenin, isovitexin, catechin, gallic and caffeic acid) should provide more information on the exudate-PAH cometabolic degradation phenomenon. PMID:21782215

  10. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 ?g/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  11. Low pH, aluminum and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity and low phosphorus (P) often coexist in acid soils where crops need to cope with these multiple limiting factors. In this study we found that P addition to acid soils alleviates Al toxicity and enhanced soybean adaptation to acid soils, especially for the P-efficient g...

  12. CO2 evolution and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of bacterial communities in soil following addition of low molecular weight substrates to simulate root exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Falchini, L.; Naumova, N.; Kuikman, P. J.; Bloem, J.; Nannipieri, P.

    2003-01-01

    Simulating the evolution of both 14C and 12C-CO2 in the rhizoplane was monitored during the diffusion of 14C-labelled glucose, oxalic acid, or glutamic acid into soil from a filter placed on the surface of a sandy loam. After 3 and 7 d, soil was sampled from four layers (0¿2, 2¿4, 4¿6, and 6¿14 mm) to determine residual 14C in each layer. The mineralisation pattern of oxalic acid was characterised by a lag phase probably due to the presence, in the early stages of exposure, of a few micro...

  13. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  14. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth) / Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André G. da, Silva; Judith F., Rodrigues; Regina Célia M. de, Paula.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma [...] nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+) foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5) g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4) g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4) g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro. Abstract in english A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysac [...] charide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+) were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5) g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4) g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4) g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  15. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however one report in the literature describes the presence of viroi...

  16. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman?s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman?s correlation test, the retinal hard exudates showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (P=0.019, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL (P=0.002 and TG (P=0.014 levels. The incidence of dyslipidemia varied from as high as nearly 70% among patients of Group 3 compared to as low as 18% among Group 1 patients. Conclusion: Serum cholesterol and LDL are independent risk factors for retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients who suffer from a remarkably high incidence of dyslipidemia.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds, with MIC(90)s of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, 41.4% of the 99 strains tested were positive for beta-lactamase production. The MIC(90)s of erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin were >32.0 mu g/ml. Initial testing with sulfadiazine-trimethoprim yielded an MIC(90) of >64.0 mu g/ml, but subsequent testing with thymidine phosphorylase-supplemented medium yielded an MIC(90) of 0.06 mu g/ml. Both lincomycin and spectinomycin were relatively inactive against the S. hyicus strains tested, with MIC(90)s of > 64.0 and > 128.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, the combination of the two compounds at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Furthermore, the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin was more active than the individual compounds against the strains tested.

  18. The effect of organic ligands exuded by intertidal seaweeds on copper complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Santiago; Pulido, Maria Jesus; Correa, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Copper complexation in marine systems is mainly controlled by organic matter, partially produced by micro- and macroalgae that release exudates with the capacity to bind metals. This feature is important as it influences bioavailability, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and transport of copper through biological membranes. The release of Cu-complexing ligands by seaweeds cultured under copper excess was studied in the laboratory. Five macroalgae belonging to different functional groups were used, including the filamentous Chaetomorphafirma (Chlorophyta), the foliose Ulvalactuca (Chlorophyta) and Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta), the corticated Gelidium lingulatum (Rhodophyta), and the leathery Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The concentration of ligands and their copper-binding strength (logK') of exudates released by each species was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The selected algae released exudates in a wide range of concentration (42-117 nM) after 48h of culture, and addition of 157nM copper increased the production of ligands up to 8 times. A relationship between structural complexity or thallus thickness and the amount of ligands released was not observed. The binding strength (logK') varied among species from 7.6 to 8.9, a response that was not modified by exposure to sub-lethal copper excess. The kelp L. nigrescens showed a fast response to copper excess, releasing ligands that reduced toxicity of the metal in hours. Results suggest that intertidal and shallow subtidal macroalgae might have been overlooked regarding their role as producers of organic ligands and, therefore, as modulators of metal complexing capacity in coastal waters. PMID:19962173

  19. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LEONORA, MENDOZA; BRENDA, MODAK; RENE, TORRES; MILENA, COTORAS.

    1436-14-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was anal [...] yzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compound fihfohnyl senecionate was inactive in all the tested conditions. The extract of H'. filifolium and filifolinol retarded the germination of conidia of the fungus

  20. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONORA MENDOZA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was analyzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compound fihfohnyl senecionate was inactive in all the tested conditions. The extract of H'. filifolium and filifolinol retarded the germination of conidia of the fungus

  1. Sinorhizobium meliloti chemoreceptor McpU mediates chemotaxis toward host plant exudates through direct proline sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Hildreth, Sherry; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis is an important attribute that aids in establishing symbiosis between rhizobia and their legume hosts. Plant roots and seeds exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil to attract their bacterial symbionts. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses eight chemoreceptors to sense its environment and mediate chemotaxis toward its host. The methyl accepting chemotaxis protein McpU is one of the more abundant S. meliloti chemoreceptors and an important sensor for the potent attractant proline. We established a dominant role of McpU in sensing molecules exuded by alfalfa seeds. Mass spectrometry analysis determined that a single germinating seed exudes 3.72 nmol of proline, producing a millimolar concentration near the seed surface which can be detected by the chemosensory system of S. meliloti. Complementation analysis of the mcpU deletion strain verified McpU as the key proline sensor. A structure-based homology search identified tandem Cache (calcium channels and chemotaxis receptors) domains in the periplasmic region of McpU. Conserved residues Asp-155 and Asp-182 of the N-terminal Cache domain were determined to be important for proline sensing by evaluating mutant strains in capillary and swim plate assays. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpU (McpU40-284) with proline and the importance of Asp-182 in this interaction. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we determined that proline binds with a Kd (dissociation constant) of 104 ?M to McpU40-284, while binding was abolished when Asp-182 was substituted by Glu. Our results show that McpU is mediating chemotaxis toward host plants by direct proline sensing. PMID:24657863

  2. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D from D = 0.3 d?1 to D = 0.1 d?1 (D = ? induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP × 100 averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d?1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d?1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d?1, the contribution (mol % C of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  3. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Contreras, M Leonor; González-Nilo, Fernando; Torres, René

    2005-01-17

    Relationships between the structural characteristics of flavonoids isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium sinuatum and their antioxidant activity were studied. Radical formation energies, DeltaH of dehydrogenation and spin densities were calculated using DFT methods (B3LYP/6-31G*). Results show that studied flavonoids can be divided into two sets according to their activity. It has been found that antioxidant activity depends both on substitution pattern of hydroxyl groups of the flavonoid skeleton and the presence of an unsaturation at the C2-C3 bond. A good tendency between DeltaH of dehydrogenation and antioxidant activity was established. PMID:15603945

  4. Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and sulfur functional groups will dissolve Cd-containing mineral phases to a greater extent than exudates containing only oxygen functional groups, resulting in higher Cd concentrations in solution. Two different iron oxide mineral phases were utilized in a laboratory-scale model study system investigating the effects of low molecular weight, oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compounds on mineral dissolution. Goethite (?-FeOOH) was synthesized in the laboratory with 0, 2.4, 5, and 100 theoretical mol% Cd, and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) was prepared with 0, 10, and 25 theoretical mol% Cd. Phase identity of all minerals was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All minerals were reacted with 0.01 mM solutions containing one of four different organic ligands (oxalic acid, citric acid, histidine or cysteine) and aliquots of these solutions were sampled periodically over 40 days. Results from solution samples suggest that oxalic acid, citric acid, and histidine consistently increase mineral dissolution relative to the control (no organic compound present) while cysteine consistently inhibits dissolution relative to the control in all minerals. Increasing Cd substitution in the franklinite resulted in increased release of Fe and Zn to solution in the presence of these organic compounds, while increasing Cd substitution in the goethite generally limited Fe release to solution. In the case of cysteine, sulfur concentrations in solution decrease over time in the presence of Cd-containing minerals, indicating strong binding of the cysteine compound to the mineral surface, inhibiting Cd dissolution from the minerals. Our work indicates that amino acids present in biological soil exudates, in addition to organic acids, may have substantial impacts on iron oxide dissolution in soils, altering the availability of both bioessential (e.g., Fe and Zn) and non-essential, or potentially toxic, (e.g., Cd) elements.

  5. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from ? =0.3 d?1 to ? =0.1 d?1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? =0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP × 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? =0.1 d?1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? =0.1 d?1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at ? =0.1 d?1 compared to ? =0.3 d?1. At ? =0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC by coagulation of exudates. Our results imply that greenhouse condition will enhance exudation processes in E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  6. Role of the modification in root exudation induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on the intraradical growth of Phytophthora nicotianae in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioussanne, L; Jolicoeur, M; St-Arnaud, M

    2009-08-01

    We studied the role of modification in root exudation induced by colonization with Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae in the growth of Phytophthora nicotianae in tomato roots. Plants were grown in a compartmentalized plant growth system and were either inoculated with the AM fungi or received exudates from mycorrhizal plants, with the corresponding controls. Three weeks after planting, the plants were inoculated or not with P. nicotianae growing from an adjacent compartment. At harvest, P. nicotianae biomass was significantly reduced in roots colonized with G. intraradices or G. mosseae in comparison to non-colonized roots. Conversely, pathogen biomass was similar in non-colonized roots supplied with exudates collected from mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal roots, or with water. We cannot rule out that a mycorrhiza-mediated modification in root exudation may take place, but our results did not support that a change in pathogen chemotactic responses to host root exudates may be involved in the inhibition of P. nicotianae. PMID:19488792

  7. Anterior chamber exudative mass due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous intraocular infection of fungal etiology is extremely rare in an immunocompetent individual. Usually, an antecedent history of trauma, surgery, intravenous drug abuse or an immunocompromized state can be elicited. Scedosporium apiospermum is a known cause of keratomycosis after traumatic implantation and can cause fatal disseminated infection in immunocompromized patients. However, cases of S. apiospermum intraocular infection in immunocompetent individuals have been very rarely reported in literature. We report here a case of an anterior chamber exudative mass due to S. apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual which was managed successfully with anterior chamber wash and intravitreal injection of voriconazole.

  8. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

  9. Findings and use of CT for pleural empyemas; Befunde und Stellenwert der Computertomographie beim Pleuraempyem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, E. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Gueckel, C. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Kaim, A. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Steinbrich, W. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1994-11-01

    Chest radiographs and CT images of 25 patients with pleural empyemas were compared retrospectively with those of 20 patients with pleural exudates and transdudates in order to determine criteria for differential diagnosis and to define the place of CT in the diagnosis of pleural empyemas. The sign which was most suggestive of an empyema on a chest radiograph was an encapsulated effusion in an atypical position (18/25); this was found in only 4 out of 20 exudates and in none of the transudates. On CT, changes in the pleura, the subcostal tissues and the configuration and position of the fluid were suggestive of an empyema. In nearly all patients with a pleural empyema there was thickening and increased contrast uptake of the parietal pleura (22/25) and thickening and increased density oft the subcostal tissues (23/25). Usually, empyemas were encapsulated and biconvex (20/25). None of the patients with pleural transudates showed any of these changes. In the presence of some pleural exudates, pleural (14/20) or thoracic (11/20) changes were noted. In part, these changes were due to previous treatment (sclerotherapy) or tumour infiltration (7/20). An attempt to correlate the CT findings with changes in the pleura and subcostal tissues with the clinical empyema stages I-III, according to Light, showed that CT was unable to distinguish between early and late empyemas. Consequently, diagnostic aspiration remains necessary for correct treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Thoraxroentgenaufnahmen und Computertomogramme (CT) von 25 Patienten mit pleuralen Empyemen und - vergleichend - von jeweils 20 Patienten mit pleuralen Exsudaten und Transsudaten wurden retrospektiv ausgewertet, um differentialdiagnostische Befundkriterien und den Stellenwert der CT bei der Diagnostik des Pleuraempyems aufzuzeigen. Das wichtigste, auf ein Empyem verdaechtige Zeichen der Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme war der abgekapselte, in atypischer Lage gefangene Erguss (18/25), wie er sich nur bei 4/20 Exsudaten und bei keinem der Transsudate fand. Computertomographisch erwiesen sich Veraenderungen der Pleurablaetter, des subkostalen Gewebes und die Konfiguration und Lage des Pleuraempyems als differentialdiagnostisch wegweisend. Bei nahezu saemtlichen Patienten mit Pleuraempyem fanden sich eine Verbreitung und eine vermehrte Kontrastmittelaufnahme der Pleura parietalis (22/25) und eine Verdickung und Verdichtung des subkostalen Gewebes (23/25). Die Empyeme waren in der Regel abgekapselt und bikonvex konfiguriert (20/25). Keiner der Patienten mit pleuralem Transsudat zeigte eine dieser Veraenderungen. Bei einigen pleuralen Exsudaten konnten entsprechende Pleura- (14/20) oder Thoraxwandveraenderungen (11/20) nachgewiesen werden. Zum Teil waren die Veraenderungen dabei allerdings auf einen vorangegangenen therapeutischen Eingriff (Sklerotherapie) oder eine Tumorinfiltration (7/20) zurueckzufuehren. Eine Koorelation der computertomographischen Befunde der Pleura und des subkostalen Gewebes mit den klinischen Empyemstadien I-III nach Light liess fuer das CT keine sicheren Unterschiede zwischen fruehen und spaeten Empyemformen erkennen. Deshalb ist zur stadiengerechten Therapie weiterhin eine diagnostische Punktion notwendig. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of a fucoarabinogalactan, the main polysaccharide from the gum exudate of Croton urucurana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Begoña; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2002-08-01

    A fucoarabinogalactan (CU-1), the main component of the gum exudate of the medicinal plant Croton urucurana, has been isolated by precipitation and subsequent dialysis and finally purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The estimated average molecular weight of CU-1 by gel permeation chromatography was approximately 2.48 x 10(6) Da. CU-1 was found to contain 1.0% proteins and 93.7% total sugars, mainly fucose, arabinose, and galactose (molar ratio: 7.8, 8.1, 19.0), and minor quantities of mannose, xylose, glucose, and uronic acids (molar ratio: 2.2, 1.0, 0.3, 3.0). Among the uronic acids, glucuronic acid was identified and the presence of mannuronic acid could be also presumed. Methylation analysis of this polysaccharide revealed high proportions of 1,3-linked, 1,2,3-linked, and 1,2,3,6-linked galactose, 1-linked fucose, and 1-linked arabinose. This suggests that CU-1 is constituted by a principal skeleton of (1-->3)-linked galactopyranose units, with some of these galactose units branched at the 2-position or at both the 2- and 6-positions, and with mainly terminal fucopyranosyl and arabinofuranosyl residues in the side chains. This is the first report on the polysaccharide constitution of a gum exudate from a Croton species. PMID:12193018

  11. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  12. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-03-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. PMID:25382456

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Karlovi?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  14. Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Trinity Nijkamp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del. Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root dry weight was observed. Expression of Striga seed germination in % g-1 root dry weight (GIC was found a suitable solution as stable values for GIC were obtained despite considerable variation in root dry weight. GIC was significant for 25 species and highest with Commelina forskalaei and Sesamum alatum (9.91; 9.78 % g-1 dry root, respectively. Striga seeds did not germinate following application of exudates from Mitracarpus scaber and Phyllanthus pentrandus. These results show that a substantial number of indigenous weed species may serve as alternative trap crops to control the parasites seed bank. Furthermore, the timing of weeds in the cropping system may provide a (partial explanation for the erratic infestation levels found across fields and years that have dazed researchers for many years.

  15. Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal bevacizumab injection have been reported. However, the therapeutic effect of intravitreal injection with ranibizumab for PEHCR is unclear. A 70-year-old woman visited our department because of sudden loss of superior visual field in her left eye. She had a history of surgical removal of hematoma due to subretinal hemorrhage associated with age-related macular degeneration 5 years ago. Peripheral subretinal hemorrhage was observed in the left eye, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revealed choroidal neovascularization in the subretinal hemorrhagic region. PEHCR was diagnosed. Considering her past history, intravitreal ranibizumab injection was used for treatment. After three injections in the left eye, subretinal hemorrhage and choroidal neovascularization resolved completely. No recurrence was observed during 1 year of follow-up. This case demonstrates that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab is an effective treatment for PEHCR with subretinal hemorrhage.Keywords: peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy, ranibizumab, intravitreal injection, choroidal neovascularization

  16. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kittipol Wisaeng; Nualsawat Hiransakolwong; Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new metho...

  18. Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTwith retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC.METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere used to observe the curative effects.RESULTS: Visual acuity were improved in 5 eyes(36%, remained stable in 8 eyes(57%and declined in 1 eye(7%after treatment. The macular hemorrhage and exudation were reduced significantly in 12 eyes. FFA showed that the fluorescein leakage ceased or decreased in 7 eyes, unchanged in 5 eyes, and enlarged in 2 eyes. The macular edema of 12 eyes in OCT was reduced unequally.CONCLUSION: Low power TTT combined with retrobulbar injection of TA shows good therapeutic effect on CEC.

  19. [The assessment of the effectiveness of fenspiride (erespal) for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'chinski?, A N; Vasilenko, D Iu; Kiseleva, G V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the effectiveness and safety of combined anti-inflammatory therapy of exudative otitis media with the use of fenspiride (erespal). The study included 75 patients of whom 35 (group 1) were given standard therapy supplemented by erespal (80 mg thrice daily); the remaining patients receiving standard therapy alone formed group 2 (control). The patients treated with erespal reported the subjective improvement of hearing and reduced congestion on days 7 - 8. Similar changes in group 2 occurred on day 10. It is concluded that the use of erespal for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with exudative otitis media reduces the duration of hospital stay, accelerates recovery, and promotes rapid normalization of hearing. PMID:24429863

  20. Exsudação radicular do glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto e na respiração microbiana do solo Root exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants and microbial soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar a exsudação radicular por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto cultivadas em solo e em solução nutritiva; e quantificar a respiração microbiana no solo em diferentes manejos com o herbicida glyphosate. Vasos com 8,0 L de solução nutritiva, contendo cinco perfurações na tampa, receberam uma muda de Eucalyptus grandis e quatro mudas de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, sendo cada vaso considerado como parcela experimental. As plantas de eucalipto e braquiária permaneceram em consórcio na solução hidropônica por 30 dias, sendo as plantas de braquiária podadas aos 15 dias após o transplante, visando estimular o perfilhamento. Após esse período foram aplicados os tratamentos correspondentes a 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate sobre as plantas de braquiária. No experimento em solo, mudas de E. grandis foram plantadas em 72 vasos de 10 L, 36 contendo solo arenoso e 36 solo argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com seis repetições, montado em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (dois tipos de solo e seis combinações de manejo. Após o plantio das mudas de eucalipto, 48 vasos (24 de cada solo receberam cinco mudas por vaso de Brachiaria decumbens, sendo estas cultivadas em consórcio com a muda de eucalipto. O restante dos vasos de eucalipto foi cultivado em monocultivo. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária (testemunha; 2 - eucalipto sem braquiária + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate aplicado no solo; 3- eucalipto com braquiária cortada após pulverização com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate; 4, 5 e 6 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária pulverizada respectivamente com 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. A aplicação foi feita sobre as plantas de braquiária nos tratamentos 4, 5 e 6, protegendo a planta de eucalipto do contato com o herbicida. O tratamento 2 recebeu a aplicação do glyphosate diretamente no solo. No tratamento 3, os vasos de eucalipto receberam a parte aérea de plantas de braquiária cortadas, sete dias após estas terem sido pulverizadas com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos dois ensaios houve controle acima de 95% da gramínea por todas as doses testadas, não sendo verificados sintomas de toxidez nas plantas de eucalipto. A atividade microbiana foi maior no solo arenoso, principalmente com o aumento das doses de glyphosate aplicadas nas plantas de braquiária.This study aimed to evaluate root exudation of the herbicide glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt cultivated in soil and in nutritive solution; and to quantify microbial respiration in soil under different managements. One Eucalyptus grandis and four Brachiaria decumbens seedlings were planted in pots with lids with five perforations holding 8.0 L of the nutritive solution. A randomized block design in six replications was used, each pot being considered an experimental plot. The eucalypt and brachiaria plants were interplanted in a hydroponic solution for 30 days. Fifteen days after the transplant, the brachiaria plants were pruned to stimulate tillering. After this period, glyphosate treatments of 0, 720, 1440, 2160, and 2880 g a.e. ha-1 were applied to the brachiaria plants. In the soil experiment, E. grandis seedlings were planted in 72 10-liter pots, half containing sandy soil and half clayey soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme (two soil types and six management combinations. Following the eucalypt seedlings, five Brachiaria decumbens seedlings per pot were planted in 48 pots (24 of each soil, and interplanted with a eucalypt seedling. The remaining eucalypt pots were cultivated in monoculture. The tested treatments were: 1- interplanted eucalypt and brachiaria (control; 2- Eucalypt without brachiaria + 1440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate applied in the soil; 3- interplanted eucalypt

  1. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Interleukin-13 Production from CD11b-Positive, M2-Polarized Exudative Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yutein; Hong, Jun Young; Lei, Jing; Chen, Qiang; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2015-02-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) causes asthma exacerbations. Previously, we showed that adherent bronchoalveolar cells from allergen-treated mice produce IL-13 when stimulated with RV ex vivo, implicating cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in viral-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that RV infection of allergen-treated mice results in IL-13 production by CD11b+ exudative macrophages in vivo. We sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA), after which mice were inoculated with RV or sham HeLa cell lysate. After 1 day, lungs were harvested, and cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. We repeated this process in IL-13 reporter mice, CD11b-DTR mice in which diphtheria toxin selectively depletes CD11b+ cells, and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) null mice. We found that lungs of mice infected with RV alone showed increases in CD45+, CD68+, F4/80+, Ly6C+, and CD11b(high) cells, indicating an influx of inflammatory monocytes and exudative macrophages. The combination of OVA and RV had synergistic effects on the exudative macrophage number. However, CD11b+ cells from OVA-treated, RV-infected mice showed M2 polarization, including expression of CD206 and CD301 and production of IL-13. Similar results were obtained in IL-13 reporter mice. Diphtheria toxin depleted CD11b+, IL-13-producing cells in OVA-treated, RV-infected, CD11b-DTR mice, decreasing airway inflammation and responsiveness. CD11b+, Ly6C+ cells were reduced in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that, in contrast to naive mice, RV infection of mice with allergic airways disease induces an influx of IL-13-producing CD11b+ exudative macrophages bearing M2 macrophage markers. This finding further implicates alternatively activated macrophages in RV-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:25029349

  2. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-soon; Yi, Hwe-su; Ryu, Choong-min

    2013-01-01

    Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the p...

  3. An ABC transporter mutation alters root exudation of phytochemicals that provoke an overhaul of natural soil microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Badri, D. V.; Quintana, N.; El Kassis, E. G.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Sugiyama, A.; Verpoorte, R.; Martinoia, E.; Manter, D. K.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Root exudates influence the surrounding soil microbial community and recent evidence demonstrates the involvement of ABC transporters in root secretion of phytochemicals. In this study, we examined effects of seven Arabidopsis ABC transporter mutants on the microbial community in native soils. After two generations, only the Arabidopsis abcg30 (Atpdr2) mutant had significantly altered both the fungal and bacterial communities compared with the wild type using automated ribosomal intergenic sp...

  4. Systemic defense priming by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in maize depends on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Andrew L.; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    Exudation of benzoxazinoid metabolites from roots of young maize seedlings recruits the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from the soil to the rhizosphere. In this study, we have investigated whether these rhizobacteria are beneficial for maize by eliciting systemic defense priming. Root colonization of the maize hybrid cultivar Delprim by P. putida primed wound- and jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible emission of aromatic and terpenoid volatiles, but not the emission of the green leaf...

  5. Inhibition of neurogenic plasma exudation in guinea-pig airways by CP-96,345, a new non-peptide NK1 receptor antagonist.

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Y. H.; Barnes, P. J.; Rogers, D. F.

    1992-01-01

    A new non-peptide tachykinin antagonist, CP-96,345, inhibited airway plasma exudation induced in guinea-pigs by i.v. substance P in a dose-dependent manner with dose-ratios in the main bronchi of 5 at 1 nmol kg-1 and 19 at 100 nmol kg-1. At 100 nmol kg-1, CP-96,345 completely inhibited plasma exudation induced by either electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerves or i.v. capsaicin, indicating inhibition of the effects of endogenous tachykinins, but did not inhibit the bronchoconstrict...

  6. Expressão dos genes nod de Rhizobium tropici, R. etli e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli e estabelecimento da nodulação do feijoeiro na presença de exsudatos de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa e Leucaena leucocephala / Expression of nod genes in Rhizobium tropici, R. etli, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli and bean nodulation in the presence of Mimosa flocculosa and Leucaena leucocephala seed exudates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. M., Mercante; A. A., Franco.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na etapa inicial da troca de sinais moleculares entre macro e microssimbiontes, a interação do feijoeiro e estirpes de Rhizobium tropici, R. etli e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli foi avaliada pela expressão dos genes nod de estirpes bacterianas, contendo a fusão nodA::gusA. Esta avaliação foi efetuad [...] a por meio da atividade da enzima ß-glucuronidase, utilizando, como indutores, exsudatos liberados pelas sementes de Mimosa flocculosa e Leucaena leucocephala. Além disso, avaliou-se o efeito da adição desses exsudatos no estabelecimento da nodulação do feijoeiro, cv. Carioca. Nos testes "in vitro", a mistura de exsudatos de sementes de feijoeiro e M. flocculosa promoveu aumentos sinergísticos significativos na expressão dos genes nod, tanto das estirpes de R. tropici (CIAT 899/pGUS 32 e F 98.5/pGUS 32) quanto de R. etli (CFN 42/pGUS 32). Em condições controladas, a adição dos exsudatos, tanto de M. flocculosa quanto de L. leucocephala, proporcionou aumento significativo na nodulação inicial do feijoeiro, quando foi inoculada a estirpe CFN 42 (R. etli). A nodulação do feijoeiro cultivado em vasos com solo não foi inibida pelo suprimento de N-mineral, quando se inoculou a estirpe CIAT 899 (R. tropici) e foram fornecidos exsudatos de sementes de M. flocculosa. Abstract in english The first steps of molecular signal exchange between the bean plant and its Rhizobium spp. microsymbionts were studied. The effects on nodulation of the addition of seed exudates of two different leguminous tree plants, Mimosa flocculosa or Leucaena leucocephala, in the presence of R. tropici, R. et [...] li or R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli were studied. The expression of nod genes was also measured "in vitro" by the activity of ß-glucuronidase on different genetically modified strains possessing the fusion nodA::gusA, using as inducers seed exudates from both leguminous trees. In general, a very complex interaction among the different inducers was observed. Seed exudates, both from Mimosa and Leucaena, led to a significant raise on initial nodulation of the bean plant when inoculated with the strain of R. etli CFN 42 but not when inoculated with R. tropici or R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli. Mixed beans and Mimosa seed exudates presented a sinergistic effect on the expression of nod genes, measured by the activity of ß-glucuronidase, on strains of R. tropici (CIAT 899/pGUS 32, F 98.5/pGUS 32) and R. etli (CFN 42/pGUS 32). The addition of nitrogen did decrease common bean nodulation except when the plants were inoculated with the strain CIAT 899 (R. tropici) and supplied with seed exsudates from M. flocculosa.

  7. An active factor from tomato root exudates plays an important role in efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shubin; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Lingling; Liao, Dehua; Gu, Mian; Ren, Lixuan; Kapulnik, Yoram; Xu, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF) that is present in the root exudates of wild-type tomato, but absent in those of M161. A complementation assay using the dual root organ culture system showed that the AF could induce fungal growth and branching at the pre-infection stage and, subsequently, the formation of viable new spores in the M161 background. Since the AF-mediated stimulation of hyphal growth and branching requires the presence of the M161 root, our data suggest that the AF is essential but not sufficient for hyphal growth and branching. We propose that the AF, which remains to be chemically determined, represents a plant signal molecule that plays an important role in the efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses. PMID:22927963

  8. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-? was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications. PMID:25857980

  9. Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akara Sopharak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early detection can potentially reduce the risk of blindness. An automatic method to detect exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils using a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering is proposed. Contrast enhancement preprocessing is applied before four features, namely intensity, standard deviation on intensity, hue and a number of edge pixels, are extracted to supply as input parameters to coarse segmentation using FCM clustering method. The first result is then fine-tuned with morphological techniques. The detection results are validated by comparing with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR and accuracy are used to evaluate overall performance. It is found that the proposed method detects exudates successfully with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, PLR and accuracy of 87.28%, 99.24%, 42.77%, 224.26 and 99.11%, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of putative allelochemicals in rice root exudates for their role in the suppression of arrowhead root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Alexa N; Haig, Terry; Pratley, James E

    2004-08-01

    In previous studies, 15 putative allelopathic compounds detected in rice root exudates were quantified by GC/MS/MS. In this study, multiple regression analysis on these compounds determined that five selected phenolics, namely caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, from rice exudates were best correlated with the observed allelopathic effect on arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) root growth. Despite this positive association, determination of the phenolic acid dose-response curve established that the amount quantified in the exudates was much lower than the required threshold concentration for arrowhead inhibition. A similar dose-response curve resulted from a combination of all 15 quantified compounds. Significant differences between the amounts of trans-ferulic acid, abietic acid, and an indole also existed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice cultivars. The potential roles of these three compounds in rice allelopathy were examined by chemoassay. Overall, neither the addition of trans-ferulic acid nor 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to the phenolic mix significantly contributed to phytotoxicity, although at higher concentrations, trans-ferulic acid appeared to act antagonistically to the phytotoxic effects of the phenolic mix. The addition of abietic acid also decreased the inhibitory effect of the phenolic mix. These studies indicate that the compounds quantified are not directly responsible for the observed allelopathic response. It is possible that the amount of phenolic acids may be indirectly related to the chemicals finally responsible for the observed allelopathic effect. PMID:15537166

  11. Does the evaluation of coagulation factors contribute to etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Alexandre Costa, Vaz; Francisco Suso, Vargas; Felipe Costa de Andrade, Marinho; Élbio Antonio, D' Amico; Tânia Rubia Flores, Rocha; Lisete Ribeiro, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION: Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. T [...] he coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates). RESULTS: The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates), there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  12. Using Genetic Algorithm for Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romany Fouad Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels in ophthalmoscope images play an important role in diagnosis of some serious pathology on retinal images. Hence, accurate extraction of vessels is becoming a main topic of this research area. In this paper, a new hybrid approach called the (Genetic algorithm and vertex chain code for blood vessel detection. And this method uses geometrical parameters of retinal vascular tree for diagnosing of hypertension and identified retinal exudates automatically from color retinal images. The skeletons of the segmented trees are produced by thinning. Three types of landmarks in the skeleton must be detected: terminal points, bifurcation and crossing points, these points are labeled and stored as a chain code. Results of the proposed system can achieve a diagnostic accuracy with 96.0% sensitivity and 98.4% specificity for the identification of images containing any evidence of retinopathy.

  13. Nitric oxide production inhibitory activity of flavonoids contained in trunk exudates of Dalbergia sissoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Suraj Prakash; Amano, Yuri; Narukawa, Yuji; Takeda, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of trunk exudates of Dalbergia sissoo yielded two new open-chain neoflavonoids (1, 2), a new flavonoid (3), a new flavanone (4), and 26 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses. The ability of the isolated compounds to prevent nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated J774.1 cells was also studied. All of the isolated compounds except 4, formononetin, and zenognosin B exhibited significant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 2 and 3 were among the most potent NO production inhibitors, with IC50 values of 3.19 and 6.22 microM, respectively, and compound 1 had an IC50 of 31.6 microM. PMID:18154272

  14. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. PMID:22083980

  15. [Eye manifestations in borreliosis--bilateral panuveitis with exudative retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, W

    1989-01-01

    Lyme disease, a tick-borne infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can lead to various different organ manifestations. Severe ocular effects however, have until now been rare. The case of a 20-year-old woman is reported, who developed systemic illness (headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea) and severe bilateral panuveitis with exudative retinal detachment about 2-3 weeks after several insect bites. The case history, clinical course, and serological examinations suggest an infection with B. burgdorferi. Later on, the fluorescein angiography results and clinical picture were suggestive of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). The etiology of this disease is unknown so far, but it may be possible that infections with B. burgdorferi are of etiological significance. PMID:2625295

  16. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ?G° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively. PMID:24941285

  17. De novo amino acid biosynthesis contributes to salmonella enterica growth in Alfalfa seedling exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Barak, Jeri

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. PMID:25416761

  18. Comportamiento de Malassezia furfur en medios de cultivo con base en los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin: Producción de lipasa extracelular / Growth of Malassezia furfur in Media With Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin Gum Exudates: Production of Extracellular Lipase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Mila, Mesa C; Octoban, Urdaneta; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Viluzca, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto; Rafael, Villalobos.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de las levaduras del género Malassezia requiere condiciones especiales, estos hongos que producen afecciones en la piel, son generalmente cultivados en el medio Dixon. Se ensayaron los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin como sustratos para Malassezia furfur. Se evalu [...] ó también la producción de lipasa. Se determinó la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado intervalo de tiempo (0-168h), y a diferente concentración (0,5; 1%) y pH (4,5; 6,0). La biomasa obtenida para la levadura probada demostró que los sustratos preparados con los exudados gomosos son adecuados para su desarrollo. La mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular se observó al tiempo inicial de estudio (18h) en ambos sustratos, en las condiciones usadas: concentración (0,5 y 1%) y pH (4,5 y 6,0). Estas especies botánicas, ampliamente localizadas en Venezuela, especialmente en los Estados Zulia y Falcón, producen abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la obtención de un nuevo sustrato, que pueda competir con el medio Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia, y para la producción de lipasa. Abstract in english The development of genus Malassezia yeasts requires special conditions. This fungus, which produces skin diseases, is generally cultivated in the Dixon medium. Gum exudates from Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin were tested as substrates for Malassezia furfur. Lipase production was also evaluated. [...] The growth kinetic was determined for a given time range (0-168h) at different concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH levels (4.5; 6.0). The biomass obtained for the tested yeast showed that substrates prepared with S. dulcis and S.mombin gum exudates are suitable for its development. The highest extracellular lipase activity was observed at 18h on both substrates at given concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH (4.5; 6.0). These botanical species, widely located in Venezuela, especially in the States of Zulia and Falcon, yield abundant gum. Findings may be useful for obtaining new substrates that could compete with the Dixon medium for isolation and characterization of Malassezia species and for lipase production.

  19. [Effectiveness criteria for the topical application of glucocorticosteroids to the treatment of exudative otitis media associated with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakova, S D; Popova, E A

    2010-01-01

    We undertook comparative analysis of ciliotoxic effect of glucocorticosteroids frequently used for catheterization of the eustachian tube in patients presenting with exudative otitis media and concomitant allergic rhinitis. It was shown that the recovery of transport function of ciliary epithelium and appreciable clinical effect of the treatment were achieved by the application of mometasone furoate. Dexamethasone was next to mometasone in terms of efficiency whereas hydrocortisone produced much lower beneficial effect. It is concluded that, taking into account high bioavailability of dexametasone and hydrocortisone (> 80%) and contraindications to their intranasal administration, the preference should be given to medications with lower bioavailability. PMID:21191349

  20. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at pre-specified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (correlation coefficients=0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to four years after the first vaccine dose.

  1. COLOMBIAN BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA) ATTRACTED TO TREE EXUDATES / MARIPOSAS COLOMBIANAS ATRAÍDAS POR EXUDACIONES DE CORTEZAS DE ÁRBOLES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julián A., Salazar-E..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se publica una lista preliminar de especies de mariposas frugívoras, que se alimentan de exudados segregados por las cortezas de siete especies de árboles existentes en varias regiones de Colombia. Adicionalmente, se suministran datos de los tipos de secreciones, composición, hábitos [...] de las mariposas y de otros insectos que comparten dicho fenómeno. Abstract in english A preliminary checklist is presented of fruit-feeding butterflies that visit the exudation of seven species of trees observed in several zones of Colombia. Additional data on secretion types, composition, butterfly behavior and the other insects sharing the same phenomena are included. [...

  2. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  3. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors - small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell.  We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor.  Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars.  The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process.  Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we further discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots.  We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.   PMID:22301958

  4. Systemic defense priming by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 in maize depends on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew L; Ton, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Exudation of benzoxazinoid metabolites from roots of young maize seedlings recruits the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from the soil to the rhizosphere. In this study, we have investigated whether these rhizobacteria are beneficial for maize by eliciting systemic defense priming. Root colonization of the maize hybrid cultivar Delprim by P. putida primed wound- and jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible emission of aromatic and terpenoid volatiles, but not the emission of the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Furthermore, root colonization by P. putida primed stress-inducible transcription of the JA-dependent gene SerPIN, whereas JA-dependent induction of the MPI gene was unaffected. Systemic priming of SerPIN by P. putida only occurred in benzoxazinoid-producing plants, and was absent in benzoxazinoid-deficient plants. The results from this study suggest that root colonization by P. putida primes a selection of JA-dependent defenses in Maize, which is reliant on benzoxazinoid exudation from the roots. PMID:23221758

  5. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  6. Regulation of macrophage populations. The immunologic induction of exudates rich in Ia-bearing macrophages is a radiosensitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluted some of the conditions regulating the selective augmentation of the Ia-positive macrophage population within immunologically induced exudates. Antigen-stimulated T cells secrete a protein referred to as macrophage- (Ia-positive) recruiting factor (MIRF), which when injected i.p. stimulates a 10- to 20-fold increase in the number of Ia-positive exudate macrophages. This response is totally abrogated when mice are lethally irradiated before injection of MIRF or immune T cells. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells to irradiated mice substantially restores their abillity to respond to the immunologic stimuli, even if the transferred bone marrow has itself been depleted of Ia-positive cells. It was also found that the high level of Ia-positive macrophages induced by MIRF requires a renewable stem cell source in oder to be maintained. Finally, even when macrophages were elicited by injecting thioglycollate before irradiation, Ia-positive cells were not induced in response to MIRF. These findings suggest that the target of MIRF in vivo may be restricted to a developmentally young cell within or recently derived from a stem cell compartment such as the bone marrow, and that Ia-positive and Ia-negative macrophages ultimately derive from a potentially common Ia-negative stem cell

  7. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon-Jun [Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Chen Weiping, E-mail: wpchen@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Page, Albert L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Granato, Thomas C. [Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Dowdy, Robert H. [Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C{sub 0} (capacity factor, mg kg{sup -1}), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr{sup -1}), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  8. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C0 (capacity factor, mg kg-1), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr-1), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  9. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  10. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kooren Joel A; Rhodus Nelson L; Tang Chuanning; Jagtap Pratik D; Horrigan Bryan J; Griffin Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs) would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-bas...

  11. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by some trees in sierra leone: I. hydraulic conductivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Egbenda, P. O.; Yormah, T. B. R.

    1995-01-01

    Gums exuded by two trees viz., Anacardium occidentale and Parkia bicolor growing widely in Sierra Leone have each been applied in various concentrations to two local soils with poor structure. Changes in the value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of each soil sample, brought about by the application of the gums, have been used as the index for determining soil conditioning effect; the K of a carefully selected loamy soil (untreated with conditioner) is used as reference. Poly(vinyl...

  12. Proteomics of Vitreous Humor of Patients with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael Janusz; Hoffmann, Janosch; Nguyen, Nauke; Pfister, Marcel; Mischak, Harald; Mullen, William; Husi, Holger; Rejdak, Robert; Koch, Frank; Jankowski, Joachim; Krueger, Katharina; Bertelmann, Thomas; Klein, Julie; Schanstra, Joost P.; Siwy, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    Background There is absence of specific biomarkers and an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods and Findings Eighty-eight vitreous samples (73 from patients with treatment naïve AMD and 15 control samples from patients with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed with capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry in this retrospective case series to define potential candidate protein markers of AMD. Nineteen proteins were found to be upregulated in vitreous of AMD patients. Most of the proteins were plasma derived and involved in biological (ion) transport, acute phase inflammatory reaction, and blood coagulation. A number of proteins have not been previously associated to AMD including alpha-1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain and prostaglandin H2-D isomerase. Alpha-1-antitrypsin was validated in vitreous of an independent set of AMD patients using Western blot analysis. Further systems biology analysis of the data indicated that the observed proteomic changes may reflect upregulation of immune response and complement activity. Conclusions Proteome analysis of vitreous samples from patients with AMD, which underwent an intravitreal combination therapy including a core vitrectomy, steroids and bevacizumab, revealed apparent AMD-specific proteomic changes. The identified AMD-associated proteins provide some insight into the pathophysiological changes associated with AMD. PMID:24828575

  13. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1?4)-linked ?-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked ?-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked ?-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of ?-Araf, ?-Arap, ?-Galp, and ?-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of ?-GlcpA O-3 linked at ?-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, ?-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. PMID:23544593

  14. The exudate from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus induces nitric oxide accumulation in Medicago truncatula roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Cristina; Novero, Mara; Genre, Andrea; Bonfante, Paola; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2012-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. While there is evidence for NO accumulation during legume nodulation, almost no information exists for arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). Here, we investigated the occurrence of NO in the early stages of Medicago truncatula-Gigaspora margarita interaction, focusing on the plant response to fungal diffusible molecules. NO was visualized in root organ cultures and seedlings by confocal microscopy using the specific probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Five-minute treatment with the fungal exudate was sufficient to induce significant NO accumulation. The specificity of this response to AM fungi was confirmed by the lack of response in the AM nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana and by analyzing mutants impaired in mycorrhizal capacities. NO buildup resulted to be partially dependent on DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 functions within the so-called common symbiotic signaling pathway which is shared between AM and nodulation. Significantly, NO accumulation was not induced by the application of purified Nod factor, while lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli, known to elicit defense-related NO production in plants, induced a significantly different response pattern. A slight upregulation of a nitrate reductase (NR) gene and the reduction of NO accumulation when the enzyme is inhibited by tungstate suggest NR as a possible source of NO. Genetic and cellular evidence, therefore, suggests that NO accumulation is a novel component in the signaling pathway that leads to AM symbiosis. PMID:21744141

  15. Enzyme Partitioning Using PEG-Anacardium occidentale L. Exudate Gum Polysaccharide Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Tambourgi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of PEG molecular weight, system polymer concentrations (tie-line lengths, pH and sodium chloride concentration, on the partition coefficient of trypsin in PEG-purified Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree exudate gum polysaccharide aqueous two-phase systems have been investigated. Changes in PEG molecular weight, tie-line length and pH, had relatively little effect on trypsin partitioning, with partition coefficients (? < 0.3, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the A. occidentale L. gum (lower phase. However, addition of sodium chloride (0.1 M resulted in dramatic increases in ? values with increasing pH using the PEG 4000 (9% w/w-purified A. occidentale L. gum (18% w/w system, increasing to 3.70 at pH 7.0 and 9.77 at pH 8.0, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the PEG 4000 (upper phase. Relative trypsin activities in the phases were investigated for these systems (with different sodium chloride levels and high activities were obtained at pH 7.0 (70.9% and pH 8.0 (90.9% in 0.1 M sodium chloride, which in conjunction with their ? values, clearly demonstrates their suitability as lower cost enzyme purification procedures (compared with PEG-dextran.

  16. Is albumin gradient or fluid to serum albumin ratio better than the pleural fluid lactate dehydroginase in the diagnostic of separation of pleural effusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Basran Gurnam S; Badrinath Padmanabhan; Joseph Jose; Sahn Steven A

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the accuracy of serum-effusion albumin gradient (SEAG) and pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio (ALBR) in the diagnostic separation of pleural effusion into transudate and exudate and to compare SEAG and ALBR with pleural fluid LDH (FLDH) the most widely used test. Methods Data collected from 200 consecutive patients with a known cause of pleural effusion in a United Kingdom district general hospital. Results The median and inter quartile ranges (IQR) for SEAG...

  17. Why you do or do not need thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Janssen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracoscopy is an old but still very valuable technique for the evaluation of pleural pathology and, especially for the further investigation of the aetiology of pleural fluid. It remains of great importance, since it is able to not only provide an exact diagnosis, but also can have therapeutic potential. In this review, the differential diagnostic aspects of transudate versus exudate are further elaborated, and the role of thoracoscopy is compared to closed pleural biopsy and image guided biopsy.

  18. Bilateral chylothorax: an unusual complication of cervical rib resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Imran; Johnson, Brian; Greenstone, Michael A.; Kastelik, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral chylothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusions. Here we report an unusual acute presentation of bilateral chylothorax following thoracic outlet surgery. Unique to this case was the disparate characteristics of pleural fluid analyses with an exudate on the left and a transudate on the right. This report describes the recognition and management of bilateral chylothoraces, an uncommon but potentially serious complication of this frequently performed surgical procedure. PMID:25553240

  19. Validity of pleural lactate dehydrogenase measurements in assessment of pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisna Syahruddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pleural effusions are classified into transudates and exudates based on Light’s criteria, but the main disadvantage of Light’s criteria is the misclassification of transudates as exudates in about 20% of cases. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of various biochemical parameters to differentiate pleural exudates and transudates. Methods An observational study to evaluate diagnostics tests was conducted at the emergency department of Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, from September 2010 until December 2011. In total, 119 patients with pleural effusion were evaluated. Simultaneous pleural effusion and blood samples were examined for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, total protein, cholesterol and albumin, with the clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. Results There were 104 exudative and 15 transudative pleural effusions. Light’s criteria achieved a higher overall accuracy (sensitivity 97%, specificity 80%, accuracy 95%. The optimum cut off values were pleural fluid to serum ratio of LDH 0.4 (sensitivity 95%, specificity 87%, accuracy 94% and pleural fluid LDH of 178 IU/L (sensitivity 92%, specificity 87%, accuracy 92%. Pleural fluid cholesterol was 50 mg/dL (sensitivity 89%, specificity 53%, accuracy 85%, pleural fluid to serum cholesterol ratio 0.41 (sensitivity 75%, specificity 53%, accuracy 72% and serum-effusion albumin gradient 1.3 g/dL (sensitivity 91%, specificity 73%, accuracy 89%. Combination of biochemical tests did not improve sensitivity or accuracy. Conclusions Light’s criteria remain superior to other biochemical tests, but the new cut off values of LDH pleural fluid to serum ratio of 0.4 and pleural fluid LDH of 178 IU/L appears to yield a slight improvement in diagnostic accuracy.

  20. ROOT EXUDATE OF PMI TOMATO MUTANT M161 REDUCES AM FUNGAL PROLIFERATION IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble factors released from roots of the pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) Myc- tomato mutant M161 were analyzed. This mutant resists colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi. Aseptic whole exudates from the M161 mutant retarded the proliferation of Glomus intraradices in vitro. When the...

  1. Two-year outcomes of pro re nata ranibizumab monotherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Yamamoto,1 Annabelle A Okada,1 Atsuhiko Sugitani,1,2 Daisuke Kunita,1 Tosho Rii,1 Reiji Yokota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kugayama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To describe outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for treatment-naive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD, in Japanese patients over the first 2 years. Methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 48 eyes of 48 patients with treatment-naive exudative AMD who underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. After three monthly injections (induction, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed (pro re nata for any residual activity, by fundus biomicroscopy and imaging studies, regardless of severity. Results: Twenty-nine (60% of the patients were men, and 19 (40% were women; the mean age was 76.1 years. Of the 48 eyes evaluated, 17 (35% had findings consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and five (10% with retinal angiomatous proliferation. A mean of 6.0 ranibizumab injections were given in the first year, 3.5 in the second year, and 9.5 over the 2-year period. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution improved significantly, from 0.35 at baseline to 0.21 at 12 months (P < 0.01, and remained stable at 0.21 at 24 months (P < 0.01. The mean central macular thickness decreased significantly, from 355.4 µm at baseline to 237.9 µm at 12 months (P < 0.01 and 247.7 µm at 24 months (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Improved visual acuity and decreased central macular thickness were observed and maintained over a 2-year period, in a Japanese population receiving 3 monthly induction injections followed by a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab for exudative AMD. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal angiomatous proliferation

  2. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14CO2, about 15% of the total 14C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  3. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallak Angela Maria Gattás

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL, was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.

  4. Detection of hard exudates in retinal images using a radial basis function classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María; Sánchez, Clara I; Poza, Jesús; López, María I; Hornero, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important causes of visual impairment. Automatic recognition of DR lesions, like hard exudates (EXs), in retinal images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of the disease. The aim of this study was to automatically detect these lesions in fundus images. To achieve this goal, each image was normalized and the candidate EX regions were segmented by a combination of global and adaptive thresholding. Then, a group of features was extracted from image regions and the subset which best discriminated between EXs and retinal background was selected by means of logistic regression (LR). This optimal subset was subsequently used as input to a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, some noisy regions were eliminated by an innovative postprocessing of the image. The main novelty of the paper is the use of LR in conjunction with RBF and the proposed postprocessing technique. Our database was composed of 117 images with variable color, brightness and quality. The database was divided into a training set of 50 images (from DR patients) and a test set of 67 images (40 from DR patients and 27 from healthy retinas). Using a lesion-based criterion (pixel resolution), a mean sensitivity of 92.1% and a mean positive predictive value of 86.4% were obtained. With an image-based criterion, a mean sensitivity of 100%, mean specificity of 70.4% and mean accuracy of 88.1% were achieved. These results suggest that the proposed method could be a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the screening for DR. PMID:19430906

  5. Injection marination strategies for remediation of pale, exudative broiler breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2003-08-01

    Pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) breast meat is caused by a rapid postmortem pH decline while carcass temperatures are still warm. The resulting protein denaturation leads to a pale color and a decrease in water-holding capacity, causing excessive yield losses to producers. If some of this protein damage could be prevented or reversed, and water-holding capacity increased, these excessive yield losses could be avoided. Therefore, this study evaluated the use of prerigor injection of broiler breast fillets with sodium phosphates (STPP) and sodium bicarbonate to determine the effects on PSE and normal meat. A total of 200 prerigor broiler breast fillets were collected at 2 h postmortem (PM) at a commercial processing plant and were classified by L* value as pale (L* >54) or normal (L*marinade uptake, water-holding capacity, and expressible moisture were evaluated. As expected, the pale fillets had lower pH and higher L* values at 2 h postmortem and lower water-holding capacity than the normal fillets. Prerigor marination with NaCl and STPP (pH 9) reduced cook loss in breast fillets. The pH 11 marinade increased 24 h pH of pale fillets compared to that of normal fillets and reduced cook loss. Sodium bicarbonate increased pH at 24 h PM of pale fillets but not to that of normal fillets. These results indicate that marinating prerigor PSE meat with the high-pH phosphate marinade used in this study can improve PSE meat quality. PMID:12943306

  6. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for crossection but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  7. Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2003-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV ...

  8. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des substances et particulierement dans le transport de l'or colloidal radioactif. Les fractions sanguines qui peuvent participer au transport de l'or colloidal sont les hematies, les leucocytes et elements histiocytaires, et le plasma. La repartition de la radioactivite dans ces elements est precisee en pratiquant des autoradiographies de coupes de culots de sang centrifuge et congele apres incubation avec de l'or colloidal. Cette etude montre l'importance du plasma dans le transport des particules radioactives. Nous avons alors recherche une fixation eventuelle de l'or colloidal 198 sur les diverses proteines seriques en appliquant certaines methodes de separation a savoir une filtration-exclusion sur colonne de gel de Sephadex G-200 et un fractionnement electrophoretique sur papier et sur acetate de cellulose gelatineux (cellogel). Nous avons etudie la liaison ''in vitro'' et ''in vivo'' des particules colloidales d'or 198 d'abord avec les proteines seriques de sujets sains puis avec les proteines des liquides d'epanchement d'origine pathologique, chez l'homme, ou du a une inflammation experimentale a la carragenine chez le rat. Les particules d'or colloidal 198 de 30 m{mu} (S-2) sont liees dans une certaine mesure aux {alpha}2 globulines sanguines ou ascitiques, celles de 5 m{mu} (S-6) sont liees aux {alpha}1 globulines de meme que les grains contenus dans l'or polydisperse. Cette liaison semble intervenir grace a la couche protectrice de macromolecules constituees par la gelatine. Seules les caracteristiques physicochimiques de grains colloidaux peuvent expliquer leur difference de localisation sur l'electrophoregramme. L'or sous forme ionique, par contre, est combine, aux seules albumines si la quantite de metal presente ne depasse pas une certaine limite. (auteur)

  9. Drug-induced Liver Injury with Serious Multiform Exudative Erythema following the Use of an Over-the-counter Medication Containing Ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Abe, Masanori; Tada, Fujimasa; Aritomo, Kanako; Ochi, Hironori; Koizumi, Yohei; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Hirooka, Masashi; Kumagi, Teru; Ikeda, Yoshio; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old Japanese woman took over-the-counter (OTC) medication for headaches for 20 days. Subsequently, five days after discontinuing the medication, a skin rash developed over the patient's upper and lower limbs and face, in addition to a fever, brown urine and serious liver dysfunction. Drug lymphocyte stimulation tests implicated ibuprofen, a main component of the OTC drugs, which has the potential to induce this pathology, and a diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury with multiform exudative erythema was made. The patient's symptoms and liver function tests returned to normal following treatment with systemic steroids. PMID:25748955

  10. Quantification of the relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in rice under varying levels of nirtrogen and phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, M.; Charnikhova, T.; Cardoso, C.; Jamil, T.; Ueno, K.; Verstappen, F. W. A.; Asami, T.; Bouwmeester, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Strigolactone exudation, as well as Striga hermonthica germination and attachment, was studied under different levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in two cultivars of rice (IAC 165 and TN 1). Exudation of strigolactones by rice was the highest under mineral-deficient conditions, whereas increasing N and P dose reduced the amount of strigolactones in the exudates. Deficiency of P led to the highest strigolactone exudation, when compared with N or NP deficiency. Production of strigolacton...

  11. Determination of proline concentration, an abiotic stress marker, in root exudates of excised root cultures of fruit tree rootstocks under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mari?n Vela?zquez, Juan Antonio; Andreu Puyal, Pilar; Carrasco, A.; Arbeloa Matute, Arancha

    2010-01-01

    Root exudates have important, yet incompletely known, roles in plant physiology, mainly in rhizosphere interactions with other organisms. Proline might play a critical role in protecting plants under stress, particularly under saline conditions. However, as far as we know, no attempts have been made to determine the proline content of root exudates. Here, we present preliminary results of the quantification of proline in root exudates of excised root cultures of Prunus rootstocks. ...

  12. Characterization of exudates released by the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum exposed to copper stress: a 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Faouzi; Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Le Poupon, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Mounier, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    In a laboratory study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two free copper concentrations (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) on cell growth and on dissolved organic matter exudation by a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Throughout incubation, the growth kinetics and exudation of extracellular molecules (i.e. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the fluorescent organic matter) were determined. Results revealed an inhibition of S. costatum growth when the free copper level increased (from 10(-9) to 10(-8)). Furthermore, DOC release was more significant in cultures contaminated by 10(-9) M Cu(2+) than in control, suggesting a coping mechanism developed by this species. In this study, samples were daily analysed by 3D-fluorescence and PARAFAC algorithm, in order to compare the fluorescent material produced during growth under different contaminations. PARAFAC treatment revealed two main contributions: one related to the biological activity (C1), the other linked to the marine organic matter (C2). The third component C3 was typically protein-like. This fluorophore was considered as a tryptophan-like fluorophore, whereas the C1 and the C2 components were associated to marine production such as humic matter. PMID:23868094

  13. [Visual fixation features after treatment of exudative age macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surguch, V K; Surnina, Z V; Sizova, M V

    2011-01-01

    Changes of visual fixation in patients with choroidal neovascularitation (CNV) associated with age macular degeneration (AMD) after bevacizumab are studied. 45 patients (45 eyes) with active CNV treated with intravitreal bevacizumab were enrolled into the study. Visual fixation was studied before and 3-6 months after treatment using original method that included fundus foto and fluorescein angiography. Fixation relative to fovea and lesion was evaluated. Foveal fixation beyond lesion was found in 9%, foveal fixation within lesion--in 47%, extrafoveal fixation beyond lesion--in 18%, extrafoveal fixation within lesion--in 26% of patients. Changes of fixation localization after treatment was found in 24% patients. Examination of visual fixation may be useful for prognosis of anti-VEGF treatment efficacy in patients with CNV. PMID:21721271

  14. Evaluation of Natural Exudate Gum from Sterculia urens as Gelling Agent in Culture Media for In vitro Regeneration of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) Shoot Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspreet Singh; Amritpal Kaur; Balwinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Natural exudate gum (sterculia gum) has been successfully used as gelling agent in culture media with an aim to reduce the production cost of tissue culture raised plants. Shoot tips were cultured on agar and sterculia gum gelled media to study the difference in shoot and root regeneration response. Initially, shoot tips were cultured on agar gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP), Kinetin (KN) and Naphthalene acetic ac...

  15. Chemodiversity Studies on Exudate Flavonoids of Cleomaceae species (Brasicales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven species of the genus Cleome were examined to determine the makeup of the fatty waxy deposit that appears on the outer surfaces of the leaves. Rinsing the leaves with an organic solvent allowed this external, fatty material to be removed and subsequently separated into individual substances th...

  16. Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar simulando doença de Coats: relato de caso / Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy simulating Coats disease: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Mendes, Lavezzo; Alan Kardec, Barreira Jr; Leandro Cabral, Zacharias; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente de sete anos, nascido a termo, sem intercorrências perinatais, encaminhado ao Setor de Retina/Vítreo para elucidação diagnóstica. Apresentava história de redução da acuidade visual à esquerda, de caráter insidioso/progressivo, há quatro anos. Ao exame, apre [...] sentava diminuição do diâmetro corneano e corectopia do olho direito (OD), sem alterações à biomicroscopia do olho esquerdo (OE). A fundoscopia do OD revelava descolamento de retina (DR) total e, do OE, inicialmente, mostrava alterações vasculares retinianas periféricas e exsudação retiniana, associado à tração vitreorretiniana no setor temporal. As tomografias e ressonâncias de crânio/órbitas não apresentavam anormalidades, com exceção de achados sugestivos de DR antigo no OD, confirmado pela ultrassonografia do globo ocular, que também demonstrou microftalmia. Diante disso, aventou-se a hipótese diagnóstica de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar, doença rara de caráter autossômico dominante e relacionada com casamentos consanguíneos, inicialmente simulando doença de Coats. O paciente foi tratado com fotocoagulação a laser diodo na periferia temporal do OE, com melhora das áreas de tração vitreorretiniana. Abstract in english We report the case of a seven year-old male patient, born at term without any perinatal complications, referred to the Retina/Vitreous Service for diagnostic elucidation. He had a history of progressive visual acuity loss on his left eye that started four years ago. On examination, he had decreased [...] corneal diameter and corectopia of the right eye (OD), without any noteworthy findings on the biomicroscopy of the left eye (OS). The fundus of the OD revealed total retinal detachment, and the OS initially showed peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities and retinal exudation, associated with retinal vitreous traction on the temporal sector. The CT and MRI of the brain/orbits showed no abnormalities, except for findings suggestive of an old retinal detachment on the OD, confirmed by ultrasonography, which also showed microphthalmia of the OD. The diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease of autosomal dominant inheritance and related to consanguineous marriages, that can initially simulate Coats disease, was proposed. The patient was treated with diode laser photocoagulation in the temporal periphery of the OS, with improvement in the areas of vitreoretinal traction.

  17. Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar simulando doença de Coats: relato de caso Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy simulating Coats disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes Lavezzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente de sete anos, nascido a termo, sem intercorrências perinatais, encaminhado ao Setor de Retina/Vítreo para elucidação diagnóstica. Apresentava história de redução da acuidade visual à esquerda, de caráter insidioso/progressivo, há quatro anos. Ao exame, apresentava diminuição do diâmetro corneano e corectopia do olho direito (OD, sem alterações à biomicroscopia do olho esquerdo (OE. A fundoscopia do OD revelava descolamento de retina (DR total e, do OE, inicialmente, mostrava alterações vasculares retinianas periféricas e exsudação retiniana, associado à tração vitreorretiniana no setor temporal. As tomografias e ressonâncias de crânio/órbitas não apresentavam anormalidades, com exceção de achados sugestivos de DR antigo no OD, confirmado pela ultrassonografia do globo ocular, que também demonstrou microftalmia. Diante disso, aventou-se a hipótese diagnóstica de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar, doença rara de caráter autossômico dominante e relacionada com casamentos consanguíneos, inicialmente simulando doença de Coats. O paciente foi tratado com fotocoagulação a laser diodo na periferia temporal do OE, com melhora das áreas de tração vitreorretiniana.We report the case of a seven year-old male patient, born at term without any perinatal complications, referred to the Retina/Vitreous Service for diagnostic elucidation. He had a history of progressive visual acuity loss on his left eye that started four years ago. On examination, he had decreased corneal diameter and corectopia of the right eye (OD, without any noteworthy findings on the biomicroscopy of the left eye (OS. The fundus of the OD revealed total retinal detachment, and the OS initially showed peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities and retinal exudation, associated with retinal vitreous traction on the temporal sector. The CT and MRI of the brain/orbits showed no abnormalities, except for findings suggestive of an old retinal detachment on the OD, confirmed by ultrasonography, which also showed microphthalmia of the OD. The diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease of autosomal dominant inheritance and related to consanguineous marriages, that can initially simulate Coats disease, was proposed. The patient was treated with diode laser photocoagulation in the temporal periphery of the OS, with improvement in the areas of vitreoretinal traction.

  18. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats Efeito dos adesivos dentais na fase exsudativa do processo inflamatório em tecido subcutâneo de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Nagem-Filho; César Roberto Monteiro; Haline Drumond Nagem; José Luiz Lage-Marques

    2003-01-01

    The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step) was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control) and Furacin (positive control), during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed an...

  19. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

  20. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

  1. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  2. In-depth Proteomic Analysis of Six Types of Exudative Pleural Effusions for Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Jun; Chen, Chi-De; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Lee, Chien-Wei; Huang, Lien-Hung; Yu, Jau-Song; Chang, Yu-Sun; Wu, Chih-Ching; Yu, Chia-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Pleural effusion (PE), a tumor-proximal body fluid, may be a promising source for biomarker discovery in human cancers. Because a variety of pathological conditions can lead to PE, characterization of the relative PE proteomic profiles from different types of PEs would accelerate discovery of potential PE biomarkers specifically used to diagnose pulmonary disorders. Using quantitative proteomic approaches, we identified 772 nonredundant proteins from six types of exudative PEs, including three malignant PEs (MPE, from lung, breast, and gastric cancers), one lung cancer paramalignant PE, and two benign diseases (tuberculosis and pneumonia). Spectral counting was utilized to semiquantify PE protein levels. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Gene Ontology of cellular process analyses revealed differential levels and functional profiling of proteins in each type of PE. We identified 30 candidate proteins with twofold higher levels (qdiagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer-MPE. Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that MET overexpression in lung cancer cells would contribute to the elevation of soluble MET in MPE. Our results collectively demonstrate the utility of label-free quantitative proteomic approaches in establishing differential PE proteomes and provide a new database of proteins that can be used to facilitate identification of pulmonary disorder-related biomarkers. PMID:25638566

  3. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  4. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

  5. Wheat bulb fly (Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) larval response to hydroxamic acid constituents of host-plant root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C D; Evans, K A

    2013-06-01

    Wheat bulb fly (WBF, Delia coarctata, Fallén, Diptera: Anthomyiidae) is a pest of commercial importance in wheat, barley and rye, with attacked crops failing to produce full potential yields. Females do not oviposit in association with a host-plant; therefore, prompt location of a suitable host is critical to the survival of the newly hatched larvae. The objective of this study was to conduct choice test bioassays to assess the attraction of WBF larvae to specific chemical constituents of WBF host-plant root exudates, the hydroxamic acids DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one). The larval response to four concentrations of each test compound was assessed in arena bioassays. Analysis using a Rayleigh test of uniformity of the final resting positions of larvae in response to these chemicals indicated attraction. These results go some way to explaining the mechanisms by which WBF larvae locate host plants, giving the potential to develop semiochemical based control strategies. PMID:23340388

  6. Physiology and pathophysiology of pleural fluid turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, L

    2002-12-01

    Tight control of the volume and composition of the pleural liquid is necessary to ensure an efficient mechanical coupling between lung and chest wall. Liquid enters the pleural space through the parietal pleura down a net filtering pressure gradient. Liquid removal is provided by an absorptive pressure gradient through the visceral pleura, by lymphatic drainage through the stomas of the parietal pleura, and by cellular mechanisms. Indeed, contrary to what was believed in the past, pleural mesothelial cells are metabolically active, and possess the cellular features for active transport of solutes, including vesicular transport of protein. Furthermore, the mesothelium was shown, on the basis of recent experimental evidence, both in vivo and in vitro, to be a less permeable barrier than previously believed, being provided with permeability characteristics similar to those of the microvascular endothelium. Direct assessment of the relative contribution of the different mechanisms of pleural fluid removal is difficult, due to the difficulty in measuring the relevant parameters in the appropriate areas, and to the fragility of the mesothelium. The role of the visceral pleura in pleural fluid removal under physiological conditions is supported by a number of findings and considerations. Further evidence indicates that direct lymphatic drainage through the stomas of the parietal pleura is crucial in removing particles and cells, and important in removing protein from the pleural space, but should not be the main effector of fluid removal. Its importance, however, increases markedly in the presence of increased intrapleural liquid loads. Removal of protein and liquid by transcytosis, although likely on the basis of morphological findings and suggested by recent indirect experimental evidence, still needs to be directly proven to occur in the pleura. When pleural liquid volume increases, an imbalance occurs in the forces involved in turnover, which favours fluid removal. In case of a primary abnormality of one ore more of the mechanisms of pleural liquid turnover, a pleural effusion ensues. The factors responsible for pleural effusion may be subdivided into three main categories: those changing transpleural pressure balance, those impairing lymphatic drainage, and those producing increases in mesothelial and capillary endothelial permeability. Except in the first case, pleural fluid protein concentration increases above normal: this feature underlies the classification of pleural effusions into transudative and exudative. PMID:12503717

  7. Urinothorax—An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Dyspnea: Report of a Bilateral and of an Ipsilateral Urinothorax Case

    OpenAIRE

    Laskaridis, Leonidas; Kampantais, Spyridon; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Chachopoulos, Basileios; Perdikis, Ioannis; Tahmatzopoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Urinothorax (UT) is a rare and often undiagnosed condition, defined as the presence of urine in the pleural cavity due to the retroperitoneal leakage of urine accumulation, known as urinoma, into the pleural space. UT usually is a transudative pleural effusion that presents in patients with obstructive uropathy and it may occur following surgical procedures in the ureter or kidney such as ESWL, PCNL, and URS. Its diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion since the respiratory sym...

  8. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in rodents in an area with sympatric existence of the hard ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi Cornelia; Woll Dietlinde; Mahling Monia; Pfister Kurt; Pfeffer Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) has been described in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus and rodents as well as in some severe cases of human disease. The aims of this study were to identify DNA of CNM in small mammals, the ticks parasitizing them and questing ticks in areas with sympatric existence of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany. Methods Blood, transudate and organ samples (spleen, kidney, liver, skin) of 91 small mammals and host-attached tic...

  9. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats / Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo, Scognamillo-Szabó; Gervásio Henrique, Bechara; Fernando de Queiroz, Cunha.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração d [...] e neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura. Abstract in english Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual ac [...] upuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.

  10. Use of nepafenac (Nevanac® in combination with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration requiring monthly injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, Matthew S Benz, Richard H Fish, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Rosa Y Kim, James C MajorRetina Consultants of Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of combining topical nepafenac with monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series of patients with exudative macular degeneration requiring maintenance therapy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF injections at least every 6 weeks, who were started on topical nepafenac. Despite frequent anti-VEGF dosing, all patients included in the study had persistence of any combination of the following: intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Patients underwent pinhole visual acuity, clinical exam, and optical coherence tomography (OCT at baseline and every follow-up visit. Response to therapy was graded by reviewing quantitative and qualitative OCT data, and statistical analysis was done with paired Student’s t-test.Results: Twenty-five patients (average age 77; 14 male and 11 female were reviewed; the mean number of previous injections was 17.4 (range 3–31. Baseline mean visual acuity was 20/55, and final mean visual acuity after 3 months of treatment was 20/51 (P = 0.13. Monthly mean central foveal thickness measurements were 248, 250, 257, and 247 µm (P = 0.53 at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. By the end of the 3-month time point, qualitative OCT findings on 13 patients treated with nepafenac were classified as stable, 10 as better, and 2 as worse.Conclusions: There was no significant change in visual acuity or quantitative OCT measurements, but there appeared to be a mild trend toward improved anatomy and qualitative OCT findings when topical nepafenac was added to monthly anti-VEGF injections in patients with persistent intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be warranted.Keywords: anti-VEGF, combination therapy, exudative macular degeneration, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, optical coherence tomography 

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW AROMATIC GERANYL DERIVATIVE IN THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUM (BORAGINACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO URZÚA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A new aromatic geranyl derivative was isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium filifolium. The structure was elucidated by high-resolution spectroscopic methods as filifolinyl senecionate. The compound has shown antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K-12. After irradiation of a solution of filifolinyl senecionate with UV at 366 nm, the antibacterial activity was enhanced by 100%Del exudado resinoso de Heliotropium filifolium, se aisló un nuevo derivado aromático geranilado. Este compuesto se identificó por métodos espectrópicos de alta resolución como filifolinil senecionato. El compuesto mostró actividad antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli K-12. Esta actividad se vio incrementada en un 100% después de irradiar una solución de filifolinil senecionato con UV a 366 nm

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW AROMATIC GERANYL DERIVATIVE IN THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUM (BORAGINACEAE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRO, URZÚA; BRENDA, MODAK; RENE, TORRES.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Del exudado resinoso de Heliotropium filifolium, se aisló un nuevo derivado aromático geranilado. Este compuesto se identificó por métodos espectrópicos de alta resolución como filifolinil senecionato. El compuesto mostró actividad antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli K-12. Esta actividad se vio i [...] ncrementada en un 100% después de irradiar una solución de filifolinil senecionato con UV a 366 nm Abstract in english A new aromatic geranyl derivative was isolated from the resinous exudate of Heliotropium filifolium. The structure was elucidated by high-resolution spectroscopic methods as filifolinyl senecionate. The compound has shown antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K-12. After irradiation of a s [...] olution of filifolinyl senecionate with UV at 366 nm, the antibacterial activity was enhanced by 100%

  13. Impact of changes in sugar exudate created by biological damage to tomato plants on the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruscavage, Daniel; Phelan, P Larry; Lee, Ken; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-05-01

    The survival of enteric pathogens on vegetable leaves improves due to presence of phytopathogens. Phytopathogen damage alters the microenvironment on the leaf surface. The objective of this study was to identify differences in sugar concentrations in tomato leaves damaged by biotropic plant pathogens and determine if these differences affect Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival. E. coli O157:H7 survived better on tomato plants damaged by Xanthomonas campestris than on healthy plants (P = 0.012). The most common sugars and sugar alcohols in the damaged leaf exudate were glucose, fructose, inositol, and sucrose. The abundance of sucrose and inositol differed between the healthy and infected plants (P coli O157:H7 to proliferate. Keeping plants free from biological damage can limit the amount of leaching of sugars that could allow human pathogens to proliferate. There is the possibility of increasing food safety of vegetable products by limiting phytopathogenic damage to plants. PMID:20546408

  14. In vivo assessment of protease dynamics in cutaneous wound healing by degradomics analysis of porcine wound exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Fabio; Hermes, Olivia; Egli, Fabian E; Kockmann, Tobias; Schlage, Pascal; Croizat, Pierre; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Smola, Hans; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    Proteases control complex tissue responses by modulating inflammation, cell proliferation and migration, and matrix remodeling. All these processes are orchestrated in cutaneous wound healing to restore the skin's barrier function upon injury. Altered protease activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of healing impairments, and proteases are important targets in diagnosis and therapy of this pathology. Global assessment of proteolysis at critical turning points after injury will define crucial events in acute healing that might be disturbed in healing disorders. As optimal biospecimens, wound exudates contain an ideal proteome to detect extracellular proteolytic events, are noninvasively accessible, and can be collected at multiple time points along the healing process from the same wound in the clinics. In this study, we applied multiplexed Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates (TAILS) to globally assess proteolysis in early phases of cutaneous wound healing. By quantitative analysis of proteins and protein N termini in wound fluids from a clinically relevant pig wound model, we identified more than 650 proteins and discerned major healing phases through distinctive abundance clustering of markers of inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and re-epithelialization. TAILS revealed a high degree of proteolysis at all time points after injury by detecting almost 1300 N-terminal peptides in ?450 proteins. Quantitative positional proteomics mapped pivotal interdependent processing events in the blood coagulation and complement cascades, temporally discerned clotting and fibrinolysis during the healing process, and detected processing of complement C3 at distinct time points after wounding and by different proteases. Exploiting data on primary cleavage specificities, we related candidate proteases to cleavage events and revealed processing of the integrin adapter protein kindlin-3 by caspase-3, generating new hypotheses for protease-substrate relations in the healing skin wound in vivo. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with identifier PXD001198. PMID:25516628

  15. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. (Zábila Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Saavedra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. (zábila mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolectadas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz.The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was used 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  16. Mutations in LRP5 or FZD4 Underlie the Common Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy Locus on Chromosome 11q

    OpenAIRE

    Toomes, Carmel; Bottomley, Helen M.; Jackson, Richard M.; Towns, Katherine V.; Scott, Sheila; Mackey, David A.; Craig, Jamie E.; Jiang, Li; Yang, Zhenglin; Trembath, Richard; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Gregory-evans, Cheryl Y.; Gregory-evans, Kevin; Parker, Michael J.; Black, Graeme C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited blinding disorder of the retinal vascular system. Autosomal dominant FEVR is genetically heterogeneous, but its principal locus, EVR1, is on chromosome 11q13-q23. The gene encoding the Wnt receptor frizzled-4 (FZD4) was recently reported to be the EVR1 gene, but our mutation screen revealed fewer patients harboring mutations than expected. Here, we describe mutations in a second gene at the EVR1 locus, low-density-lipoprotein recepto...

  17. Concomitant bilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Prince Davis, R.; Schefler, Amy C.; Murray, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    R Prince Davis, Amy C Schefler, Timothy G MurrayBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To report the outcomes of same-day, bilateral intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for a consecutive series of patients treated for exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).Methods: A consecutive series of 254 eyes of 127 patients received bilateral, same-day anti-VEGF injections ...

  18. Evaluation of exudated gum produced by Acacia siamea as coagulant in the clarification of the waters for human consumption / Evaluación del exudado gomoso de Acacia siamea como coagulante en la clarificación de las aguas para consumo humano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreína, Fernández1; Francisco, Herrera; Marielba, Mas y Rubí3; Donaldo, Mejías; Altamira, Diaz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish La utilización de sustancias de origen natural como agentes coagulantes en el proceso de la clarificación del agua se ha incrementado en los países latinoamericanos, debido al carácter inocuo que representan para la salud humana. La presente investigación evaluó la aplicación del exudado gomoso deri [...] vado del árbol Acacia siamea, como agente coagulante, con la finalidad de seleccionar la dosis óptima para la clarificación de las aguas naturales y determinar el potencial de reducción de microorganismos no deseados en agua tratada. Con la aplicación de 50 mg/L de exudado gomoso de A. siamea, como dosis óptima, se alcanzó una disminución en los niveles de turbiedad (NTU) de 80-95%. La alcalinidad total y el pH no presentaron variaciones significativas, por lo cual no se adicionaron sustancias químicas para la regulación del carácter físico-químico del agua tratada. Los resultados obtenidos con las pruebas microbiológicas indican el potencial del exudado gomoso de esta planta en la remoción del 98% de microorganismos patógenos. Se concluye que el exudado gomoso de A. siamea puede ser empleado como agente coagulante natural en la potabilización de las aguas destinadas a consumo humano. Abstract in english Utilization of the natural origin substances as coagulant in the water clarification process have been increased in Latin American countries, due to present innocuous character for the human health. The present investigation evaluated the application of the exudates gum derived from the tree Acacia [...] siamea (A. siamea), as coagulant with the purpose to determinate the optimal dosage for the clarification of natural waters and to achieve the potential of the reduction for not desirable microorganisms in treated water. The application of 50 mg/L of exudates gum of A. siamea, as optimal dosage, was reached to reduction the turbidity (NTU) level between 80 to 95%. The total alkalinity and pH did not presented significant Magaly Chávez2variations, thus did not add chemical substances for the regulation of the physical-chemistry charapter of the treated water. The results obtained with the microbiological tests indicate the potential of the exudates gum to use in this treatment plant to remove 98% for pathogenic microorganisms. One concludes that the gummed exudates of A. siamea can be used as natural coagulant for drinking water.

  19. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS; asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS. Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The plants were cultivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  20. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS); asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS). [...] Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza) encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias. Abstract in english In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The plants were cult [...] ivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  1. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. (Zábila) / Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. Exudate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Saavedra; Carlos, Rondón; Máximo, Gallignani; Carlos, Ayala; Margarelli, Nicola.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (zábila) mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolect [...] adas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz. Abstract in english The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was use [...] d 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  2. Evaluation of oral mucosal transudate for immunodiagnosis of Chagas´ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARROS Maria das Neves D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (isotipo IgG foram detectados no transudato da mucosa oral (TMO através de um ensaio imunoenzimático. Foram estudados 21 indivíduos com doença de Chagas crônica comprovada através de diagnóstico clínico, eletrocardiográfico, epidemiológico e sorológico: 10 com forma cardíaca, 2 com forma digestiva, 6 com forma mista e 3 com forma assintomática. Sete indivíduos de área endêmica, com sorologia negativa, constituiram o grupo controle. O soro destes grupos foi armazenado a -20 oC. A coleta de TMO de ambos os grupos foi realizada com o dispositivo OraSureâ seguindo orientação do fabricante (OraSureâ , Epitope Inc., Beaverton, OR, USA. As amostras de TMO foram diluídas (1:2 e testadas em duplicata através de um ensaio imunoenzimático da Abbott Laboratories para detectar anticorpos IgG contra doença de Chagas. Vinte dos vinte e um pacientes chagásicos apresentaram densidade óptica acima do limiar de reatividade e foram considerados positivos para doença de Chagas. Nenhuma das amostras provenientes de indivíduos soronegativos foi positiva. A sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 95% e 100%, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam que TMO poderá ser utilizado como um fluido biológico alternativo para o diagnóstico da doença de Chagas. Nós estamos aumentando o número de indivíduos para validar estes resultados incluindo a análise comparativa entre amostras de TMO e soro.

  3. Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi of Sorghum Leads to Reduced Germination and Subsequent Attachment and Emergence of Striga hermonthica

    OpenAIRE

    Lendzemo, V. W.; Kuyper, T. W.; Matusova, R.; Bouwmeester, H. J.; Ast, A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sorghum cultivars: the Striga-tolerant S-35 and the Striga-sensitive CK60-B were grown with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and with or without phosphorus addition. At 24 and 45 days after sowing (DAS) of sorghum, root exudates were collected and tested for effects on germination of preconditioned Striga hermonthica seeds. Root exudates from AM sorghum plants induced lower germination of S. hermonthica seeds than exudates from non-mycorrhizal sorghum. The magnitude of this e...

  4. Long-lasting effects of anti-VEGF/photodynamic combination therapy in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration: a retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Garcia, Rosemary; McLellan, Colleen; Shaya, Fadi S; Small, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential long-term benefit of an anti-VEGF/photodynamic therapy (PDT) combination on patients treated for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on 29 eyes (subjects) from 26 patients (eight male and 18 female) that showed sustained, positive response to combination therapy for exudative AMD for a minimum of 1 year. Collected data included: visual acuity, central retinal thickness, intraocular pressure and history of glaucoma, wet AMD onset and treatment history, concomitant use of anticoagulants and past history or development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease while receiving combination therapy. Results Subjects underwent an average of five injections and two PDT treatments in total over 16 months before the choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) stabilized and became inactive for at least 1 year. Prior to the effective anti-VEGF/PDT combination therapy the median Snellen visual acuity ranged from 20/200 to 20/250 and presented at no worse than 20/200 at 1 year after treatment. Some subjects were followed for up to 5 years and remained inactive. Conclusion Combination therapy can cause long-lasting closure of the CNVM, even with advanced disease resistant to anti-VEGF monotherapy. PMID:25548512

  5. The effects of low salt concentrations on the mechanism of adhesion between two pieces of pork semimembranosus muscle following tumbling and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Carlier, Martine; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain deeper insight into the effect of salt content on the adhesion between pieces of semimembranosus pork muscle bound by a tumbling exudate gel. Hydrophobic site number, free thiol and carbonyl content were measured in tumbling exudate and meat protein to evaluate the protein-protein interactions involved in the adhesion process. Proteins were far more oxidized in exudate than in meat, and under our experimental conditions, salt content increased protein bonding in the exudate but not in the meat. Breaking stress increased between non-salted meat and 0.8%-salted meat but did not depend on the protein physicochemical properties of the tumbling exudate. Modifying the meat surface by tumbling alone, tumbling and salting, or scarification had no effect on breaking stress. It is suggested that the break between the meat pieces occurred between the tumbling exudate and the meat surface due to weaker chemical bonds at this location. PMID:23896131

  6. 2D DIGE proteomic analysis of early post mortem muscle exudate highlights the importance of the stress response for improved water-holding capacity of fresh pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Alessio; Elia, Giuliano; Hamill, Ruth; Mullen, Anne Maria

    2013-05-01

    Variation in water-holding capacity (WHC), which presents a major economic burden to the swine industry, is considered to be underpinned by variation at a molecular and biochemical level. High-resolution 2D DIGE followed by MS analysis and Western blot were used to unravel the proteome of muscle exudate, collected following centrifugation, in the pH 4-7 range. A first 2DE-based protein map of this substrate was produced where 89 spots were successfully characterised. Two phenotypes divergent for WHC plus one intermediate were compared with a view to deciphering the biochemical processes impacting on variation in WHC. Twenty spots were observed to be altered across the phenotypes. Of these, 14 represented sixteen proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress response proteins and structural proteins. Triosephosphate isomerase and transferrin showed a major difference between the two extreme phenotypes, and may have potential as biological markers for WHC prediction. Several members of the HSPs family were highlighted. This proteomic study makes an important contribution towards a more detailed molecular view of the processes behind WHC and will provide a valuable resource for future investigations. PMID:23456991

  7. Hatch and Reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum in Response to Tobacco, Tomato, or Black Nightshade

    OpenAIRE

    Lamondia, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of broadleaf tobacco, tomato, and black nightshade on juvenile hatch and reproduction of Globodera tabacum tabacum were determined in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Root exudates from nightshade stimulated greater egg hatch than those from either 'Rutgers' tomato or '86-4' tobacco. Hatch was greater at higher proportions of root exudates for all three plant species. Root exudates from plants greater than 3 weeks old stimulated more hatch than younger plants. No regression ...

  8. Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, M. Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (gre...

  9. 051. Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakala, Elena; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spiratos, Dionisios; Papaioannou, Antonis; Kostanta, Soultana; Vlogiaris, Eleftherios; Lampaki, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    A pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity. Pleural effusion is a common manifestation in a wide range of diseases, including pleural, pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disorders, where the most frequent of these are congestive heart failure, pneumonia and malignancy. This review provides a systematic approach to manage the patient with pleural effusion in order to have a correct diagnosis quickly and without additional invasive methods beginning with medical history, clinical examination, radiology, pleural fluid analysis and finally, if there is a need, a pleural biopsy and/or thoracoscopy. The first step of the fluid analysis includes differentiation transudate from exudates based on Light’s criteria and after that suggests the tests which are necessary for the further investigation of exudates (biochemical characteristics, cultivation, cytology, test for tuberculosis, immunological tests). These steps are very important because early diagnosis improves prognosis and minimizes complications.

  10. Root Secretion of Defense-related Proteins Is Development-dependent and Correlated with Flowering Time*

    OpenAIRE

    De-la-pen?a, Clelia; Badri, Dayakar V.; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Branda?o, Marcelo M.; Silva-filho, Marcio C.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins found in the root exudates are thought to play a role in the interactions between plants and soil organisms. To gain a better understanding of protein secretion by roots, we conducted a systematic proteomic analysis of the root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana at different plant developmental stages. In total, we identified 111 proteins secreted by roots, the majority of which were exuded constitutively during all stages of development. However, defense-related proteins such as chiti...

  11. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) associated with infantile osteoporosis: case report / Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar (FEVR) associada à osteoporose infantil: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laurentino, Biccas Neto; Arthur Silva de, Mesquita; Iuri Drumond, Louro.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Relato de um caso incomum de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar (FEVR) bilateral em criança do sexo feminino portadora de grave osteoporose infantil. A paciente foi submetida a vitrectomias sucessivas para correção de descolamentos tracionais maculares em ambos os olhos. O quadro foi complicado [...] em um olho por uveíte difusa de difícil controle, que estimulava o aparecimento de proliferação vitreorretiniana de difícil abordagem, responsável por redescolamentos sucessivos da retina. Discute-se sobre o potencial pró-inflamatório de drogas usadas no controle da osteoporose, em contraste com a atividade inflamatória inerente à doença. Abstract in english Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited blinding condition characterized by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature. The authors describe a rare case of the disease associated with severe infantile osteoporosis in a young female patient. The patient was submitted to multi [...] ple vitreoretinal procedures in both eyes due to tractional macular detachments. The case was complicated by diffuse uveitis of difficult control in one eye, which stimulated proliferative vitreoretinopathy and retinal redetachment. The inflammatory potential of drugs used in the control of the osteoporosis, in contrast with the inherent inflammatory activity the disease, are discussed.

  12. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR associated with infantile osteoporosis: case report Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar (FEVR associada à osteoporose infantil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentino Biccas Neto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is an inherited blinding condition characterized by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature. The authors describe a rare case of the disease associated with severe infantile osteoporosis in a young female patient. The patient was submitted to multiple vitreoretinal procedures in both eyes due to tractional macular detachments. The case was complicated by diffuse uveitis of difficult control in one eye, which stimulated proliferative vitreoretinopathy and retinal redetachment. The inflammatory potential of drugs used in the control of the osteoporosis, in contrast with the inherent inflammatory activity the disease, are discussed.Relato de um caso incomum de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar (FEVR bilateral em criança do sexo feminino portadora de grave osteoporose infantil. A paciente foi submetida a vitrectomias sucessivas para correção de descolamentos tracionais maculares em ambos os olhos. O quadro foi complicado em um olho por uveíte difusa de difícil controle, que estimulava o aparecimento de proliferação vitreorretiniana de difícil abordagem, responsável por redescolamentos sucessivos da retina. Discute-se sobre o potencial pró-inflamatório de drogas usadas no controle da osteoporose, em contraste com a atividade inflamatória inerente à doença.

  13. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of cefquinome against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Yang, F; Wang, J; Ding, H; He, L; Zeng, Z

    2014-04-01

    The cephalosporin antimicrobial drug cefquinome was administered to yellow cattle intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of cefquinome in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of cefquinome in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. A concentration-independent antimicrobial activity of cefquinome was confirmed for levels lower than 4 × MIC. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the time that drug levels remain above the MIC (T > MIC) in serum was 14.10 h after intravenous and 14.46 h after intramuscular dosing, indicating a likely high level of effectiveness in clinical infections caused by P. multocida of MIC 0.04 ?g/mL or less. These data may be used as a rational basis for setting dosing schedules, which optimize clinical efficacy and minimize the opportunities for emergence of resistant organisms. PMID:23980645

  14. Inoculação do feijoeiro com Rhizobium tropici associada à exsudato de Mimosa flocculosa com diferentes doses de nitrogênio Rhizobium tropici associated with Mimosa flocculosa exudates inoculation effect on bean plants under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulene Francisco da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de rizóbio, associada à adição de exsudatos de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa, e/ou de N-mineral nas características agronômicas do feijoeiro, em sucessão à soja e ao milho. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas sub-subdivididas. As culturas soja e milho antecessoras à cultura do feijoeiro formaram as parcelas. As subparcelas foram constituídas pelos tratamentos: testemunha sem inoculação, inoculação de Rhyzobium tropici, estirpes CIAT 899 e PRF 81 e a associação deste com os exsudados das sementes de Mimosa flocculosa. As sub-subparcelas constituiram-se de quatro doses de N aplicadas em cobertura: 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. A inoculação de rizóbio associada à adição de exsudato de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa contribuiu para o melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea do feijoeiro. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu, de forma linear, a nodulação do feijoeiro. O milho como cultura antecessora ao feijão contribuiu para o aumento do peso de 100 grãos e a adição de N combinado não contribuiu para o aumento do número de vagens por planta e produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro, independente da dose utilizada.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Rhizobium inoculation, associated with seed exudates of Mimosa flocculosa, under different rates of nitrogen fertilization was evaluated in bean crops following soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and corn (Zea mays L.. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, with treatments arranged in sub-divided parcels. The parcels were constituted of two summer crops preceding the common bean crop: soybean and corn. In the sub-parcels three treatments involving inoculation of the common bean seeds were considered: control treatment without inoculation; bean seeds inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, strains CIAT 899 and PRF 81, and the association of Rhizobium with the exudates of the Mimosa flocculosa seeds. The sub-subparcels received of four doses of nitrogen fertilization applied on covering: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 N. The inoculation of Rhizobium associated with the addition of exudates of Mimosa flocculosa seeds resulted in higher shoot dry weight. Besides that, the nitrogen fertilization, on the tested doses, reduced, in a linear way, the nodulation of the bean plant. It was also verified that corn as a preceding crop for bean has contributed to the increase of the weight of 100 grains, while the addition of combined N did not contribute to the improvement on the number of beans per plant, neither of the grain yield of bean plants, independent of the dose that was used.

  15. Characterization of HIV-related periodontitis in AIDS patients: HIV-infected macrophage exudate in gingival crevicular fluid as a hallmark of distinctive etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Tai, H; Yoshie, H; Jeannel, D; Fournier, S; Dupont, B; De Thé, G; Hara, K

    1997-05-01

    In an attempt to clarify the immunobiological events featuring periodontitis lesions of AIDS patients in the late stage of the disease, peripheral blood (PB) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) leucocytes from periodontitis lesions of 23 late-stage AIDS patients were analysed by three-colour flow cytometry for detection and identification of intracytoplasmic p24+ cell fractions. The cells were reacted with CD14 and CD68 for mononuclear phagocytes or with CD4 and CD14 for Th cells, then with anti-p24 MoAb. To detect HIV proviral sequences and intracellular p24 RNA sequences, genomic DNA and cellular RNA from leucocytes were extracted for semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. CD68+/p24+ and CD14+/CD68+/p24+ fractions were larger in GCF than in PB (PCD14+/p24+ fraction was lower in GCF than in PB (P CD14+/CD68+ cells were higher in GCF than in PB (P CD14+ macrophages did not differ. The p24 FI of CD68+ macrophages in GCF correlated with CD4+ lymphocyte counts in PB (P CD14+ monocytes in GCF and PB significantly correlated (P < 0.02), whereas that of CD68+ macrophages did not. PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR of cellular DNA and RNA yielded positive signals, demonstrating viral integration and production in GCF leucocytes. These results show that periodontitis lesions in AIDS patients can be characterized by a rapid macrophage turnover, and these HIV-infected macrophage exudates in GCF may be considered as a within-mouth source of virus. PMID:9158094

  16. Evaluation of Natural Exudate Gum from Sterculia urens as Gelling Agent in Culture Media for In vitro Regeneration of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush. Shoot Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural exudate gum (sterculia gum has been successfully used as gelling agent in culture media with an aim to reduce the production cost of tissue culture raised plants. Shoot tips were cultured on agar and sterculia gum gelled media to study the difference in shoot and root regeneration response. Initially, shoot tips were cultured on agar gelled Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP, Kinetin (KN and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. Maximum percentage of cultures showing shoot regeneration (63.19% was observed on agar gelled MS medium containing BAP 1.5, KN 0.5 and NAA 0.5 mg L-1. Sterculia gum and agar were then evaluated at different concentrations and combinations. The media gelled with sterculia gum was equally transparent as that of liquid medium. The shoot regeneration response on media gelled with 25 and 30 g L-1 sterculia gum were 49.99 and 61.11% respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on agar gelled MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA, NAA and Indole -3-butyric acid (IBA, 0.5-2.5 mg L-1. Maximum rooting response (56.94% was observed with IBA 2.0 mg L-1. Same medium when evaluated for rooting response using sterculia gum (30 g L-1 as gelling agent, 56.24% cultures showed root regeneration. The difference in regeneration response obtained with agar (8 g L-1 and sterculia gum (30 g L-1 was statistically insignificant. This study indicates that sterculia gum can be used as alternative gelling agent in place of agar for the development of cost effective micropropagation protocol.

  17. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) associated with infantile osteoporosis: case report Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar (FEVR) associada à osteoporose infantil: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Laurentino Biccas Neto; Arthur Silva de Mesquita; Iuri Drumond Louro

    2009-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an inherited blinding condition characterized by abnormal development of the retinal vasculature. The authors describe a rare case of the disease associated with severe infantile osteoporosis in a young female patient. The patient was submitted to multiple vitreoretinal procedures in both eyes due to tractional macular detachments. The case was complicated by diffuse uveitis of difficult control in one eye, which stimulated proliferative vitreore...

  18. Combined treatment of exudative age related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy and intravitreal triamcinolone

    OpenAIRE

    Amp Ordf Ruiz-moreno, Jos Amp Eacute M.; Montero, Javier A.

    2008-01-01

    José Mª Ruiz-Moreno1,2, Javier A Montero21Department of Ophthalmology, Miguel Hernández University School of Medicine, Alicante, Spain; 2Vitreo-Retinal Unit, Alicante Institute of Ophthalmology, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age related macular degeneration is among the leading causes of legal blindness in developed countries. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin induces CNV closure causing little damage to healt...

  19. Comprehensive proteomic study of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 and its response to plant root exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Kierul, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 ist ein frei lebendes Bakterium, das Pflanzenwurzeln besiedelt und das Pflanzenwachstum durch viele verschiedene Wirkmechanismen anregt. In dieser Arbeit wurden die molekularen Grundlagen dieser positiven Wirkungen, die dieses „Pflanzenwachstum fördernde Rhizobakterium“ (PGPR) auf seine Wirte ausübt, untersucht. Um den gegenseitigen Austausch von B. amyloliquefaciens und seinen Wirtspflanzen zu entschlüsseln, wurden umfangreiche Proteomstudien durchgef?...

  20. Methods of collection of plant root exudates in relation to plant metabolism and purpose: A review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vránová, V.; Rejšek, K.; Skene, K. R.; Janouš, Dalibor; Formanek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 176, ?. 2 (2013), s. 175-199. ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : allelochemical / CAM / C3 * C4 metabolism * retrieval * rhizodeposition * rhizosphere Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  1. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa en canales de cerdo Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative to meat in porcine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson E Castrillón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET® a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (pThe presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474 were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p<0.01 between pH45 and variables as density, food, type of truck, genetic and the resting time. The sex and the time of transportation also had significant association (p<0.05, but only with pH45 . Additionally, differences between genetic, sex (highest values of pH45 to males and food (p<0.05 were found. Also, there were interactions between: sex - fasting, sex - food, sex - resting and sex - transportation (p<0.05. According to the results, PSE condition is not a unicausal phenomenon and consequently it needs an integral managment.

  2. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa) en canales de cerdo / Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) to meat in porcine carcasses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson E, Castrillón; Jorge A, Fernández; Luis F, Restrepo.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa) en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Sci [...] entific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET®) a 45 minutos (pH45) y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (p Abstract in english The presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative) condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The ai [...] m of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474) were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 ) and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p

  3. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na, calcio (Ca, magnesio (Mg y potasio (k por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS. Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zabila. Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  4. Lucentis® using Visudyne® study: determining the threshold-dose fluence of verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Matthew S Benz, Eric Kegley, Joel Cox, Richard H Fish, Rosa Y KimRetina Consultants of Houston, Texas, USAPurpose: Combination verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy may decrease the need for injections while maintaining visual acuity in exudative age-related macular degeneration. This pilot study was designed to determine the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (the dose required to demonstrate an effect on choroidal perfusion combined with ranibizumab.Methods: Seven patients were randomized to sham vPDT (two patients, 20% fluence vPDT (two patients, or 40% fluence vPDT (three patients in combination with three-monthly intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injections. Intravitreal ranibizumab was reinjected if disease activity was seen on fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, or clinical examination. Indocyanine green-determined choroidal hypoperfusion was graded in a masked fashion.Results: Patients with 20% vPDT had mild hypoperfusion defects at seven days that resolved by week 4 (threshold dose; patients with 40% fluence vPDT had marked hypoperfusion at seven days that persisted as long as 12 months. Recruitment was stopped after limited efficacy was observed. One patient with 20% fluence vPDT lost 19 letters at one year; no other patient lost or gained >10 letters. Central retinal thickness decreased in six of seven patients, but ranibizumab injections did not decrease.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (when combined with ranibizumab is approximately 20% standard fluence, and that mild and transient choroidal hypoperfusion can occur. Forty percent fluence vPDT causes a more prolonged and striking hypoperfusion. Despite hypoperfusion, no decrease in visual acuity or injections required was noted, suggesting that even higher fluence levels of vPDT may be necessary to decrease the number of anti-VEGF injections.Keywords: neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal hypoperfusion, threshold dose, verteporfin photodynamic therapy

  5. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila) es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de [...] hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na), calcio (Ca), magnesio (Mg) y potasio (k) por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS). Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zabila). Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It w [...] as no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572) of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  6. [Complex endoscopy-assisted treatment for pleural malignancies with concomitant exudative pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsen'ev, A I; Levchenko, E V; Barchuk, A S; Gel'fond, M L; Klimenko, V N; Senchik, K Iu; Shcherbakov, A M; Cha?ka, O V

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with complex treatment for pleural malignancies with concomitant effusions. Cytoreduction and abatement of effusion, protein loss, inflammation, intoxication and pain syndrome were reported after argon-plasma electrocoagulation of the pleura followed by photodynamic therapy and hyperthermal intrapleural chemoperfusion. Stable effusion abatement effect was confirmed in all eight cases by X-ray examination and changes in homeostatic indices and breathing function as well as lowered severity of intoxication and pain. No emergency repeat intervention or pleural puncture was reported. PMID:19670738

  7. Reduced Germination of Orobanche cumana Seeds in the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi or Their Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Be?card, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic p...

  8. Induction of Rhizobium meliloti nodC expression by plant exudate requires nodD.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, J. T.; Long, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The soil bacterium Rhizobium meliloti invades and establishes a symbiosis with host plants such as alfalfa. Bacterial nodulation (nod) genes are required for this invasion, but their mechanism of action and the timing of their expression are not known. We have used translational lacZ fusions to monitor expression of nodD and nodC, which are located in the cluster of four nod genes on the R. meliloti megaplasmid (pSym). nodD is expressed at comparable levels by broth-grown bacterial cells and ...

  9. Benzoxazinoids in Root Exudates of Maize Attract Pseudomonas putida to the Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Andrew L.; Ahmad, Shakoor; Gordon-weeks, Ruth; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), are secondary metabolites in grasses. In addition to their function in plant defence against pests and diseases above-ground, benzoxazinoids (BXs) have also been implicated in defence below-ground, where they can exert allelochemical or antimicrobial activities. We have studied the impact of BXs on the interaction between maize and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a competitive coloniser of the maize rhizosphere w...

  10. The Role of Pleural Fluid Procalcitonin Level in the Diagnosis of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Cirit Koçer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Procalcitonin (PCT may lead a more rapid and specific result than other infectious markers in the differentation of infectious diseases from those of noninfectious conditions. In several studies, higher pleural fluid PCT levels in parapneumonic effusion (PPE than other causes of pleural effusion has been found and it has been reported that it is a useful marker in the diagnosis of PPE. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of pleural fluid PCT levels in the diagnosis of PPE.Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients with pleural effusion consisting of 26 transudative pelural effusion, 26 malignant pleural effusion (MPE, 24 PPE and 11 tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE were enrolled in the study. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for the pleural fluid PCT, serum PCT and pleural fluid PCT/serum PCT ratio. The patients were divided into transudative and exudative groups and there was no difference in the pleural fluid PCT and serum PCT between these two groups. In the PPE group, the correlation between pleural fluid PCT level and pleural fluid albumin, protein, LDH, glucose and ADA was studied and no correlation was found.Conclusion: In our study, in PPE, a diagnostic efficiacy of pleural fluid and serum PCT could not be found.

  11. Exudate-gathering ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at three different liquid food rewards / Hormigas melívoras (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en tres diferentes fuentes de alimento líquido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana M., BUFFA; Pedro, JAUREGUIBERRY; Miguel Ángel, DELFINO.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los nectarios extraflorales (NEFs) y el melado excretado por hemípteros son fuentes de alimento (FsA) que favorecen la participación de hormigas en las interacciones mutualistas que establecen con las plantas y/o hemípteros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, en una zona serrana del centro de [...] la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, la diversidad, distribución e interacción de hormigas melívoras en tres FsA diferentes: néctar de NEFs de Croton sarcopetalus (Euphorbiaceae) y melado de Aphis spiraecola y Dysaphis foeniculus en Eupatorium hookerianum (Asteraceae) y en Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae), respectivamente. En cada FA se contabilizaron e identificaron los áfidos y hormigas melívoras presentes. Se obtuvo la riqueza y abundancia de hormigas y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener y Sorenson (cualitativo y cuantitativo) para comparar las comunidades de hormigas en las diferentes FsA. Por último se realizó una regresión lineal entre la abundancia de áfidos y la abundancia de hormigas melívoras en las dos últimas FsA mencionadas, para determinar si las variables estaban asociadas. De las 23 especies de hormigas registradas, ocho (34.8%) se alimentaron tanto en NEFs como en las colonias de áfidos, de las cuales 4 spp. (17.4%) fueron encontradas simultáneamente en las tres fuentes. Además, dos especies de hormigas visitaron ambas especies de áfidos y 13 especies visitaron exclusivamente alguna de las FsA. Brachymyrmex brevicornis fue la especie más abundante, mientras que Pheidole sp.2 registró la mayor ocurrencia. Tanto la diversidad como la riqueza de especies de hormigas fue mayor en NEFs de C. sarcopetalus. Se encontró una relación positiva significativa entre la abundancia de áfidos y la abundancia de hormigas melívoras tanto sobre E. hookerianum como sobre F. vulgare. Podemos concluir que las tres FA estudiadas mostraron una similitud modesta en su fauna de hormigas. Además se observó selectividad por parte de las hormigas hacia los NEFs de C. sarcopetalus, que podría deberse a las características de la fuente de alimento más que a factores co-evolutivos. Abstract in english Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) and hemipteran honeydew are liquid food rewards (FRs) that encourage ant visitation in many plant families in a wide variety of habitats. In this study we explored the diversity, distribution and interactions of exudate-gathering ants at three different liquid food rewar [...] ds: nectar from EFNs on Croton sarcopetalus and honeydew from the aphids Aphis spiraecola and Dysaphis foeniculus on Eupatorium hookerianum (Asteraceae) and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) respectively. For each FR we measured ant diversity and performed quantitative and qualitative comparisons among ants associated with the FRs. In addition, a linear regression was performed to test for possible associations between aphid and ant abundances in the case of honeydew FRs. Eight out of the 23 ant species found fed on both nectar from EFNs and honeydew from aphids, four of which fed at all FRs. Two ant species visited both aphid species and 13 were found exclusively at either one of the FRs. Brachymyrmex brevicornis was the most abundant ant species and Pheidole sp.2 had the greatest occurrence. Both ant species diversity and richness were higher at EFNs of C. sarcopetalus. Regressions showed positive significant association between ants and aphids abundances both on E. hookerianum and F. vulgare. We can conclude that the three liquid food rewards compared here showed modest similarity in their ant fauna. Furthermore, there was selectiveness of ants towards EFNs of C. sarcopetalus, which might be due to food source attributes rather than co-evolutionary factors.

  12. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F. [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  13. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose

  14. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated

  15. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  16. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical.59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers KL1 and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  17. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa / Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maydelín, Frontela Noda; Isis, Amores Sánchez; Sanda, Yepe Oliveros; Vivian, Kourí; Raúl, Ferreira Capote; Lorenzo, Mallea Sánchez.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) [...] con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP) de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical. Abstract in english 59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers KL1 [...] and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP) of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  18. Determinación de germanio en muestras de exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm . f. (zábila), mediante la espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica / Determination of germanium in leaves exudate samples of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila), by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Randon.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de l [...] a planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila) from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS). The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infec [...] tions, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD%) was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  19. Determinación de germanio en muestras de exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm . f. (zábila, mediante la espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomizaci?n electrotérmica Determination of germanium in leaves exudate samples of Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de la planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ? 2.33 ?g/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS. The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infections, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD% was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  20. Interaccion de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con celulas de exudado peritonial de ratones mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina Interaction of Leishmania donovani promastigotes with mouse peritoneal exudate cells under the influence of the Chymotripsine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Arcay

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio de la interacción de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con células de exudado peritoneal de ratón (c e p mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina. La adhesión de los promastigotes a las c e p fue terminal y marginal, y en observaciones hechas a partir de los 10 minutos de enfrentamiento, esta adhesión fue nula hasta los 30 minutos en el grupo tratado, y sólo a las das horas hubo un pequeño incremento (2.4% con respecto al control. Se observa marcada disminución en todos los parámetro medidos, tales como enlace, penetración, multiplicación intracelular, división de formas flageladas, en el grupo tratado. La quimotripsina favorece la formación de formas intermedias flageladas, heciendose el parásito piriforme y esférico, apareciendo una forma aberrante de extremo anterior cilindrico que semeja a una forma coanoflagelada. Se sospecha que la enzima reduce efectivamente fragmentos proteicos o péptidos, los cuales pueden haber sido tan pequeños como para esconder a otros ligandos relacionados con la adhesión macrófago-parásito.The interaction of promastigotes of Leishmania donovani with mouse peritoneal exudate cells (cep under the influence of Chymotripsine was studied. The promastigote adhered to the cep terminally and marginally. At 10-30 minutes postchallange, adhesion was absent in the treated group, and only after two hours was there any adhesión (24% in comparison with the controls. The experimental group was markedly deficient in all the parameters of activity measured: attachment, penetration, intracellular multiplication and division of flagellates forms in comparison to controls. The Chymotripsine favored the development of intermediate flagellates forms, these being spheroid or pyriform, with example of an aberrant form having the anterior end cylindrical similar to a choanoflagellate. It is suspected that the Chymotripsine effectively reduces protein or peptide fragments; these may have been so small as to conceal other ligands associated with macrophage-parasite adhesion.

  1. Interaccion de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con celulas de exudado peritonial de ratones mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina / Interaction of Leishmania donovani promastigotes with mouse peritoneal exudate cells under the influence of the Chymotripsine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Arcay; Elizabeth, Bruzual.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio de la interacción de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con células de exudado peritoneal de ratón (c e p) mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina. La adhesión de los promastigotes a las c e p fue terminal y marginal, y en observaciones hechas a partir de los 10 minutos de en [...] frentamiento, esta adhesión fue nula hasta los 30 minutos en el grupo tratado, y sólo a las das horas hubo un pequeño incremento (2.4%) con respecto al control. Se observa marcada disminución en todos los parámetro medidos, tales como enlace, penetración, multiplicación intracelular, división de formas flageladas, en el grupo tratado. La quimotripsina favorece la formación de formas intermedias flageladas, heciendose el parásito piriforme y esférico, apareciendo una forma aberrante de extremo anterior cilindrico que semeja a una forma coanoflagelada. Se sospecha que la enzima reduce efectivamente fragmentos proteicos o péptidos, los cuales pueden haber sido tan pequeños como para esconder a otros ligandos relacionados con la adhesión macrófago-parásito. Abstract in english The interaction of promastigotes of Leishmania donovani with mouse peritoneal exudate cells (cep) under the influence of Chymotripsine was studied. The promastigote adhered to the cep terminally and marginally. At 10-30 minutes postchallange, adhesion was absent in the treated group, and only after [...] two hours was there any adhesión (24% in comparison with the controls). The experimental group was markedly deficient in all the parameters of activity measured: attachment, penetration, intracellular multiplication and division of flagellates forms in comparison to controls. The Chymotripsine favored the development of intermediate flagellates forms, these being spheroid or pyriform, with example of an aberrant form having the anterior end cylindrical similar to a choanoflagellate. It is suspected that the Chymotripsine effectively reduces protein or peptide fragments; these may have been so small as to conceal other ligands associated with macrophage-parasite adhesion.

  2. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewald, C.; Konstantinidis, L.; Damato, B.

    2012-01-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous ...

  3. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three types of plants. Additionally, a solution of artificial root exudates (AREs) as prepared. Exudates were digested using soil bacteria to create metabolized exudates. Raw and metabolized exudates were characterized for dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, spectral slope, florescence index, excitation-emission matrices, and surface tension. Significant differences on character were observed between the harvested exudates and the AREs, as well as between the raw and metabolized exudates. Naphthalene desorption from an aged soil was enhanced in the presence of raw exudates. The surface tension in samples containing raw harvested exudates was reduced compared to samples containing the metabolized exudates. Plant root exudates may therefore facilitate phytoremediation by enhancing contaminant desorption and improving bioavailability. Overall, this research concludes that heavily planted bioretention systems are a sustainable solution to mitigating stormwater hydrocarbon pollution as a result of likely enhanced contaminant desorption, and improved biodegradation and plant uptake in such systems.

  4. Mutualism between tree shrews and pitcher plants: Perspectives and avenues for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Charles; Moran, Jonathan A.; Chin, Lijin

    2010-01-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants from Borneo engage in a mutualistic interaction with mountain tree shrews, the basis of which is the exchange of nutritional resources. The plants produce modified “toilet pitchers” that produce copious amounts of exudates, the latter serving as a food source for tree shrews. The exudates are only accessible to the tree shrews when they position their hindquarters over the pitcher orifice. Tree shrews mark valuable resources with feces and regular...

  5. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing light intensity enhances cluster-root formation, citrate exudation, and phosphate-uptake capacity in white lupin under phosphate-deficient conditions by affecting the coordination between P and sucrose signals.

  6. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of Laminaria japonica fucoidan and Cistanche tubulosa extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Yun-hui; Choi, Ehn-kyoung; Lee, Sung-pyo; Kim, Tae-su; Lee, Yoon-bok; Kim, Yun-bae

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of fuciodan and Cistanche tubulosa (CT) extract were investigated in vitro macrophage culture system and in vivo carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation model. CT extract inhibited nitric oxide production from activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, while fucoidan was inactive. In vivo air pouch inflammation model, carrageenan-induced vascular exudation and increased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the exudates were synergistically suppressed...

  7. ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF A PAINTING BY KEES VAN DONGEN: FTIR AND ELISA AS COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES IN THE ANALYSIS OF ART MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Klausmeyer, Philip A.; Albertson, Rita P.; Schmidt, Madelyn R.; Woodland, Robert T.; Morwenna Blewett

    2009-01-01

    Recent examination and treatment of the Worcester ArtMuseum’s Reclining Nude, c. 1925, oil on canvas, by theDutch-born Fauve artist Kees Van Dongen (1877-1968) indicatethat the artist used unorthodox materials and techniques,including selective varnishing to adjust color saturationand surface sheen. Examination also revealed resinlikebeads exuded from unvarnished passages of paint consideredartist-applied retouches. ATR-FTIR micro-spectroscopyof the exudate suggests the presence of gum arab...

  8. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani on Egg Hatching and Infectivity of Rotylenchulus reniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaralingam, A.; Mcgawley, E. C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia solani and root exudates of R. solani-infected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings on hatching of eggs and infectivity of females of Rotylenchulus reniformis were evaluated in an attempt to account for the enhanced nematode reproduction observed in the presence of this fungus. Crude filtrates of R. solani cultures growing over sterile, deionized distilled water did not affect egg hatching. Exudates from roots of cotton seedlings increased hatc...

  9. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini; Bruno Mariano; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Guarnieri, Paulo D.; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

    2007-01-01

    A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 1...

  10. Lack of biological significance of in vitro Brugia malayi microfilarial cytotoxicity mediated by Propionibacterium acnes ("Corynebacterium parvum")-and Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Fanning, M. M.; Kazura, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of nonspecific activation of host macrophages by Propionibacterium acnes ("Corynebacterium parvum") or Mycobacterium bovis BCG on Brugia malayi microfilariae was determined by in vitro and in vivo studies. Intraperitoneal injection of C. parvum or BCG stimulated peritoneal exudate cells, which were toxic to microfilariae. Microfilariae were equally susceptible to damage by C57BL/6J or BALB/cJ peritoneal exudate cells. Furthermore, inhibitors of oxidative metabolism and arginine sup...

  11. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats / Efeito dos adesivos dentais na fase exsudativa do processo inflamatório em tecido subcutâneo de ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Halim, Nagem-Filho; César Roberto, Monteiro; Haline Drumond, Nagem; José Luiz, Lage-Marques.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudaram-se as alterações vasculares do tecido conjuntivo subcutâneo de ratos induzidas por sistemas adesivos dentinários (único passo), comparados com solução fisiológica (controle negativo) e Furacin (controle positivo), durante a fase exsudativa do processo inflamatório. Com esse propósito, inje [...] taram-se intravenosamente, na veia do pênis de ratos, 20 mg/kg de peso corporal de "Evan's blue", e no tecido subcutâneo inoculou-se 0,1 ml de cada substância a ser analisada. Após intervalo de três horas os animais foram sacrificados, suas peles excisadas e recortadas com perfurador de 2,5 cm de diâmetro. As peças foram imersas imediatamente em oito ml de formamida e levadas ao banho-maria a 37ºC, por 72 horas, para remoção do corante. O líquido contendo o corante extravasado foi filtrado, analisado no espectrofotômetro (620 nm) e classificado segundo os critérios estabelecidos por Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976). O potencial irritativo dos produtos, após análise estatística, se apresentou em ordem decrescente: Furacin (considerado como grau de magnitude severo) > Single Bond e Bond 1 (que se mostraram significamente similares, classificados como moderados) > soro fisiológico (comportando-se como não-significante quanto ao grau de irritação). Abstract in english The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step) was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control) and Furacin (positive control), during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan [...] 's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm) and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976). After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe) > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested) > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree).

  12. Perirenal fluid in renal parenchymal medical disease ('floating kidney'): Clinical significance and sonographic grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the clinical significance and radiologic features of perirenal fluid in patients with renal parenchymal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the previous 5 years, nine patients were found to have perirenal fluid on sonography associated with renal parenchymal medical disease. The clinical, radiological, histopathological and laboratory data were analysed. RESULTS: The perirenal fluid is a spontaneous subcapsular transudate in patients suffering from a nephropathy with a sodium retention state, with or without renal failure. Three sonographic patterns of perirenal fluid were observed: grade 1 is a thin layer of perirenal fluid; grade 2 is a moderate amount of perirenal fluid collection with indentations of the renal parenchyma and strands in the fluid, grade 3 is a large fluid collection surrounding the kidney. CONCLUSION: The perirenal fluid represents a sign of sodium retention state and oedema in patients with intrinsic renal parenchymal medical disease which may be caused by several nephropathies. Haddad, M.C. et al. (2001)

  13. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  14. [Sarcoid pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Rábade, Carlos; Valdés, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pleural effusion (PE) is a very uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. It is equally observed in men and women, can appear at any age and in all radiologic stages, though it is more common in stages i and ii. Effusions have usually a mild or medium size and mainly involve the right side. Various mechanisms can be implicated. PE will be a serous exudate if there is an increase in the capillary permeability due to direct involvement of the pleural membrane, a chylothorax if mediastinum lymph nodes compress the thoracic duct and/or the lymphatic drainage from the pleural cavity, an hemothorax if granuloma compress or invade pleural small vessels or capillaries, and even a transudate if there is compression of the inferior vena cava, atelectasis due to complete bronchial obstruction or when the resolution of the PE is incomplete with chronic thickening of visceral pleura (trapped lung). It manifests biochemically as a pauci-cellular exudate with a predominance of lymphocytes, though there can be a preponderance of eosinophils or neutrophils. Protein concentrations are usually proportionately higher than lactate dehidrogenase, adenosine deaminase is normally low and it is possible to find increased levels of CA-125 in women. The tuberculin test is negative and pleural or lung biopsies yield the diagnosis by confirming the presence of non-caseating granulomata. These PE can have a favorable self-limited outcome, even though in most cases treatment with corticosteroids is needed, while surgery is required in a few cases. PMID:24486113

  15. Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcusaureus isolated from skin exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al2O3 nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al2O3 NPs (2O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700–3,400 ?g/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 ?g/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al2O3 NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al2O3 NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al2O3 NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al2O3 NPs in medical application

  16. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Mickae?l; Hamama, Latifa; Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; He?lesbeux, Jean-jacques; Se?raphin, Denis; Pen?a-rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has neve...

  17. Allelopathic exudates of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica): implications for the performance of native pine savanna plant species in the southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Donald L; Jose, Shibu; Lin, Chung-Ho

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a greenhouse study to assess the effects of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) rhizochemicals on a suite of plants native to southeastern US pine savanna ecosystems. Our results indicated a possible allelopathic effect, although it varied by species. A ruderal grass (Andropogon arctatus) and ericaceous shrub (Lyonia ferruginea) were unaffected by irrigation with cogongrass soil "leachate" (relative to leachate from mixed native species), while a mid-successional grass (Aristida stricta Michx. var. beyrichiana) and tree (Pinus elliottii) were negatively affected. For A. stricta, we observed a 35.7 % reduction in aboveground biomass, a 21.9 % reduction in total root length, a 24.6 % reduction in specific root length and a 23.5 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length, relative to the native leachate treatment. For P. elliottii, there was a 19.5 % reduction in percent mycorrhizal colonization and a 20.1 % reduction in total mycorrhizal root length. Comparisons with a DI water control in year two support the possibility that the treatment effects were due to the negative effects of cogongrass leachate, rather than a facilitative effect from the mixed natives. Chemical analyses identified 12 putative allelopathic compounds (mostly phenolics) in cogongrass leachate. The concentrations of most compounds were significantly lower, if they were present at all, in the native leachate. One compound was an alkaloid with a speculated structure of hexadecahydro-1-azachrysen-8-yl ester (C23H33NO4). This compound was not found in the native leachate. We hypothesize that the observed treatment effects may be attributable, at least partially, to these qualitative and quantitative differences in leachate chemistry. PMID:23334457

  18. Induction of cytotoxicity of peritoneal exudate cells by agrimoniin, a novel immunomodulatory tannin of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Kishi, N; Murayama, T; Furukawa, T; Koshiura, R

    1988-01-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the PEC after an i.p. injection of agrimoniin, a tannin contained in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. were studied. The plastic nonadherent PEC had significantly higher NK cell activity than the untreated control, and the adherent PEC were cytostatic toward MM2 and MH134 cells. The adherent PEC did not cause tumor cell lysis by themselves, but were cytolytic against MM2 cells in the presence of anti-MM2 sera. In the course of these effects of PEC after the i.p. injection of agrimoniin, the augmentation of NK cell activity was the earliest reaction, reaching a peak at 2 days after the injection; then, cytostatic activity increased. The induction of antibody-dependent cell lytic activity was a later reaction, which reached a peak at 6 days after the injection. PMID:3396026

  19. Resistencia a antimicrobianos en cepas de Mannheimia haemolytica aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos productores de leche / Antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica strains isolated from dairy cattle nasal exudate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Luisa, Samaniego B.; José Luis, Contreras J.; Carlos J., Jaramillo-Arango; Francisco, Aguilar-Romero; Jesús, Vázquez Navarrete; Rigoberto, Hernández-Castro; Francisco, Suárez-Güemes F.; Francisco, Trigo Tavera.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se emplearon 201 cepas de Mannheimia haemolytica provenientes de muestras de exudado nasal de bovinos productores de leche, 123 de bovinos clínicamente sanos (CS) y 78 de bovinos enfermos de neumonía (CE), obtenidas de un complejo lechero en la región de Tizayuca, Hidalgo, México, las cuales fueron [...] identificadas previamente mediante pruebas convencionales de cultivo y bioquímicas, y serotipificadas mediante la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta. Se les realizó la prueba de difusión en placa para determinar la resistencia a diversos antimicrobianos como ampicilina, gentamicina, ceftiofiur, penicilina, estreptomicina, trimetoprim con sulfametoxazol, tetraciclina y eritromicina. Las frecuencias más altas en la resistencia a antimicrobianos se presentaron a la estreptomicina (81.6%) y gentamicina (24.4%), todas las cepas fueron susceptibles a la ampicilina y penicilina. Debido a la alta frecuencia (81.6%) de cepas de M. haemolyfica resistentes a St con la técnica de Kirby-Bauer, se buscó la presencia del gen sfrA. Se realizó la técnica de PCR para comprobar la presencia del gen sfrA que codifica para la enzima aminoglycoside-3-phosphofransferase que proporciona resistencia contra la estreptomicina. Del total de cepas estudiadas (n = 201), 42.7% presentaron el gen sfrA, del cual 17.4% pertenecía al serotipo A1, 1.4% al A6 y 23.8% a cepas no tipificables. De las 78 cepas de CE y las 123 de CS, 80.0% y 18.7% respectivamente, presentaron el gen sfrA. Abstract in english Two hundred and one strains of M. haemolytica isolated from nasal exudate of dairy cattle were used, 123 strains from clinically healthy (CH) bovines and 78 from clinically ill (CI) bovines affected by pneumonia, obtained from a dairy complex in the Tizayuca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. S [...] trains were previously identified by conventional culture and biochemical tests, and serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Disk diffusion test was performed to determine antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics, such as: ampicillin, gentamicin, ceftiofiur, penicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. Frequencies of higher antimicrobial resistance were: streptomycin (81.6%) and gentamicin (24.4%), all strains were susceptible to ampicillin and penicillin. Because of the high resistant strain frequency (81.6%) of M. haemolytica to streptomycin, obtained by Kirby-Bauer test, presence of the strA gene, which encodes the enzyme aminoglycoside-3-phosphotransferase that provides resistance to streptomycin, PCR was performed by testing the presence of the strA gene. Of the 201 strains tested, 42.7% showed the gene sfrA, 17.4% of which was serotype A1, 1.4% serotype A6 and 23.8% non-typeable strains. Of the 78 CI strains and 123 CH strains, 80% and 18.7%, had the gene sfrA, respectively.

  20. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6%