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Use of pleural fluid ceruloplasmin in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion  

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Background: Differentiating into transudate or exudate is the first step in the evaluation of effusions. Light's criteria is the standard but a significant number of transudates may not be differentiated based on these criteria. Acute phase proteins (APP) are present in plasma, which increase or decrease by about 25% during an acute inflammatory response. Ceruloplasmin (CP) is a positive APP. Hence, this study was done to know the diagnostic value of pleural fluid (pf) CP and pf to serum ceruloplasmin ratio (CPr) to differentiate the pleural effusion (PE) into exudate and transudate as compared to Light's criteria. Materials and Methods: Setting: Medical wards of St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with PE were divided into exudate and transudate by definitive diagnosis. pfCP, CPr and Light's criteria were compared with definitive diagnosis for the differentiation of pf into exudate and transudate. Results: The mean value of the pfCP and CPr was found to be significantly different between exudates and transudates. Sensitivity and specificity of pfCP at ? 13.34 mg/dl is 89.7% and 83.3%, CPr at ? 0.37 is 91.4% and 83.3%, Light's criteria 94.82% and 83.3%, respectively. Light's criteria, pfCP and CPr have similar PPV (98%) with Light's criteria having higher NPV (62.5%) than pfCP (45%) and CPr (50%), respectively. CPr has higher NPV than pfCP. Conclusions: pfCP and CPr can differentiate pf into exudate and transudate with comparable PPV to Light's criteria. PMID:25624589

Shanthaveeranna, Girish K.; Thykadavil, Vinod G.; D’souza, George A.

2015-01-01

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Enhanced CT in the patients with pleural effusion : differential findings between exudates and transudates  

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To evaluate the differential findings of CT in the differention of pleural exudates and transudates. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (113 effusions) underwent enhanced thoracic CT ; the scans were evaluated for the presence or absence and apearance of enhancing parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening. Thoracentesis was performed to measure pleural and serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) values. Effusions were classified as exudates by using Light's criteria. Eighty-eight effusions were exudates and 25 were transudates. Eighty-three of the 88 exudates (93 %) were associated with enhanced parietal pleural thickening;seventy of the 88 (80%) were associated with extrapleural fat thickening. Four of the 25 transudates were associated with parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening, both of which were the most important factors in differentiating between pleural exudates and transudates(p<0.05). Parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening on contrast-enhanced CT almost always indicate the presence of pleural exudates

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Evaluation of sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa on transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation.  

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The sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated for its effect on the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats. The fraction (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the increase in wet weight of the cotton pellet at 3 h (transudative phase), leakage of dye from the bloodstream around granuloma at 24 h (exudative phase) and increase in dry weight of the cotton pellet on day 6 (proliferative phase). It significantly lowered the elevated biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and significantly elevated the lowered albumin concentration in serum. The studies suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactone fraction of S. lappa may, in part, be due to stabilization of lysosomal membranes and an antiproliferative effect. PMID:12916066

Damre, A A; Damre, A S; Saraf, M N

2003-08-01

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Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs into exudates and transudates in children. Methods: Pleural fluid (PF and serum Angiopoietin (Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012. PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P<0.001. PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01. PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P<0.003. PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P<0.001. Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively. Conclusion: Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

Amal F. Gharib

2011-09-01

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Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs into exudates and transudates in children.Methods:Pleural fluid (PF and serum Angiopoietin (Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012. PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P< 0.001. PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01. PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P< 0.003. PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P< 0.001. Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively.Conclusion:Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

Mohammed Sanad

2011-09-01

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A Comparison between Contrast Enhanced Chest CT scan and Biochemical Tests for Differentiation of Transudative from Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: Differentiation between transudative and exudative types of pleural effusions is critical in the evaluation and management of pleural effusions .Light's criteria is accepted as a reliable biochemical method for this differentiation. If contrast enhanced chest CT scan has a significant agreement with biochemical tests, it can be considered as a non invasive reliable method for evaluation of pleural effusion. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 32 patients who had pleural effusion from June 2005 to June 2006 in 22nd Bahman hospital in Mashhad Both contrast enhanced chest CT scan (with spiral CT scanner, PHILIPS, Mx 8000 and biochemical tests of pleural fluids were done for all patients. Two radiologists separately interpreted the CT images as exudate or transudate based on pleural thickening, nodules or enhancement, and the agreement between two radiologists was evaluated. Biochemical tests of pleural fluids were analyzed based on Light's criteria. Results of CT scans and biochemical tests were compared with Kappa test. "nResults: Both radiologists interpreted CT images as transudate or exudate the same. Sixteen patients were diagnosed as transudate based on CT scan that biochemical tests were consistent with transudate only in eight patients. CT scan diagnosed 16 patients as exudates that biochemical tests were consistent with exudates in all of them. Kappa coefficient was 35% (P value = 0.030 that was interpreted as fair agreement."nConclusion: Chest CT scan is accepted as a good imaging modality in diagnosis of pulmonary and mediastinal Involvement and also presence of pleural effusion. Some studies concluded that chest CT scan can accurately differentiate between exudate and transudate but our study showed that it has a fair agreement with biochemical tests, so we recommend that chest CT scan can't replace biochemical tests to Differentiate exudative from transudative effusions.

A. H. Hashemi

2008-01-01

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The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates  

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To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 ?g/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudand PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 ?g/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

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A Study of Uric Acid - A New Biochemical Marker For the Differentiation Between Exudates and Transudates in a Pleural Effusion Cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the space lies between the lung and chest wall i.e. pleural space. In normal condition, pleural space contains 0.1–0.3 ml/kg body weight of fluid (near about of 10 ml of fluid on each side between the parietal and visceral pleura. Objectives: To investigate whether uric acid measurement in fluid is more sensitive and specific marker for differentiating between exudates and transudates, as confirmed clinically. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients with diverse etiologies having pleural effusion were selected for the study. Results: Increase Uric acid level was observed in pleural fluid of transudative pleural effusion than exudative pleural effusion. It was also observed that the level of uric acid was more in pleural fluid than serum and ratio (pleural fluid / serum of uric acid was ? 1 in transudative conditions but in case of exudative condition the this ratio was < 1. The optimum cut-off level for P uric acid was 5.5 mg/dl with sensitivity of 94.00% and specificity of 83.00%. The optimum cut-off levels for P/S uric acid ratio was 1.0 with sensitivity of 96.00% and specificity of 92.16%. Conclusion: Routine measurement of pleural fluid uric acid value and the calculation of fluid to serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ratios will aid in differentiating exudates from transudates.

Ashish Jain, Raina Jain, Sudhakar B Petkar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Neeraj Khare, Jusmita Dutta

2014-01-01

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Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions: differentiation using Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. An MRI examination was performed on 22 patients with different types of pleural effusion (10 transudative and 12 exudative effusions). T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and 20 min after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The degree of enhancement of pleural effusions was evaluated both by visual assessement and by quantitative analysis of images. None of 10 transudative effusions showed significative enhancement, whereas 10 of 12 exudative effusions showed enhancement (sensitivity 83 %, specificity 100 %, positive predictive value 100 %). The postcontrast signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of exudates were significantly higher than corresponding precontrast ratios (P = 0.0109) and the postcontrast SIRs of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates (P = 0.0300). Exudative pleural effusions show a significant enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA. We presume that this may be caused by increased pleural permeability and more rapid passage of a large amount of Gd-DTPA from the blood into the pleural fluid in case of exudative effusions. In our limited group of patients, signal enhancement proved the presence of an exudative effusion. Absence of signal enhancement suggests a transudate, but does not exclude an exudate. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabsabs

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The use of spectral CT imaging in characterization of pleural fluid: a new method to differentiate transudates from exudates  

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Objective: To assess the feasibility of characterizing pleural fluid on the basis of spectral imaging features utilizing spectral CT imaging. Methods: Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) was used to examine 20 pleural fluids filled tubes (11 exudates and 9 transudates) following diagnostic thoracentesis. Effusions were classified as transudates or exudates using laboratory markers based on Light criteria. CT values on 140 kVp QC image were compared between two groups. Using GSI viewer, various CT spectral imaging parameters (CT values on different energy level, effective-Z, iodine-water concentration, calcium-water concentration and calcium-fat concentration) were calculated and compared between two groups. The difference of these spectral characteristic parameters was evaluated statistically by independent- samples t test. Results: According to Light criteria, the mean CT value on QC image of exudates [(19.56±4.10) HU] was higher than that of transudates [(13.44±3.46) HU] (t=3.002, P=0.010). Difference of CT value was found more obvious in the lower keV. On 40 keV images, the difference of CT value of two groups was the largest, the mean value of exudates [(47.49±14.60) HU] was significantly higher than that of transudates [(19.76±6.85) HU ] (t=5.520, P=0.000). While On 140 keV, the mean CT value were (9.76±4.16) and (6.22±3.17) HU and the difference of the two group has no statistically significant difference (t= 2.107, P=0.050). The mean slope rates of exudates (0.51±0.23) was significantly larger than that of transudates (0.1±0.08) (t=4.287, P=0.001). The effective-Z (7.89±0.16), iodine-water concentration [(5.74±1.28) g/L], calcium-water concentration [(7.89± 1.78) g/L] and calcium-fat concentration [(25.95±1.74) g/L] of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates [7.67±0.07, (1.70±0.95) g/L, (2.53±1.37) g/L, (20.82±1.40) g/L] (t= 4.080, 6.998, 6.546, 6.301, P<0.05). Conclusions: The spectral curve and spectral imaging parameters of exudates is found to be different from transudates. The low energy spectral imaging plays an important role in the characterization of pleural fluid. Gemstone spectral CT imaging provides a new multiparameter method to differentiate transudates and exudates. (authors)

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

2010-08-01

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre es [...] se novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Bernardo Henrique Ferraz, Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da, Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva, Chibante; Gilberto Perez, Cardoso.

2010-08-01

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Plasma exudation. Correlation between Evans blue dye and radiolabeled albumin in guinea pig airways in vivo  

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We quantified the tissue exudation and luminal transudation of two plasma markers, Evans blue (EB) dye and [125I]-human serum albumin (HSA), into the airways of the anesthetized guinea pig in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). There was a highly significant correlation between the tissue content of EB and [125I]-HSA in all airways studied. Significant correlation for transudation of the two markers was limited to high rates of plasma leakage. [125I]-HSA was the more sensitive marker for the association between exudation and transudation and the effect of PAF on transudation. EB was the better marker for assessing the relationship between the dose of PAF and plasma exudation

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Plasma exudation. Correlation between Evans blue dye and radiolabeled albumin in guinea pig airways in vivo  

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We quantified the tissue exudation and luminal transudation of two plasma markers, Evans blue (EB) dye and ({sup 125}I)-human serum albumin (HSA), into the airways of the anesthetized guinea pig in response to platelet activating factor (PAF). There was a highly significant correlation between the tissue content of EB and ({sup 125}I)-HSA in all airways studied. Significant correlation for transudation of the two markers was limited to high rates of plasma leakage. ({sup 125}I)-HSA was the more sensitive marker for the association between exudation and transudation and the effect of PAF on transudation. EB was the better marker for assessing the relationship between the dose of PAF and plasma exudation.

Rogers, D.F.; Boschetto, P.; Barnes, P.J. (National Heart Lung Institute, London (England))

1989-07-01

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion  

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BACKGROUND: Differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions is the initial step in assessment of pleural effusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) are diagnostic utilities for exudative pleural effusion. METHODS: This experimental study assessed 79 patients with pleural effusion who underwent diagnostic evaluations at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2010. The complete biochemical analysis of pleural fluid, pleural fluid culture, and pathological examination of pleural fluid and tissue were performed. Moreover, hsCRP and TNF? concentrations were measured in pleural fluid samples. The data was analyzed by student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to Light's criteria, 50 patients (63.30%) had exudative effusions while 29 subjects (36.70%) had transudative effusion. The pleural fluid concentrations of hsCRP and TNF? were significantly higher in the exudative group than the transudative group (p < 0.05). At a cutoff value of 5 mg/L for hsCRP, the results showed 94% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Regarding TNF?, a cutoff value of 12.9 ng/dl represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HsCRP and TNF? levels may be considered as beneficial diagnostic factors for detecting exudative effusion in patients with pleural effusion. PMID:22973340

Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohhamad Reza; Esmaeely, Habibollah; Akbari, Hadi; Akbari, Farzaneh; Saberi, Soheila

2011-01-01

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Transudative chylothorax associated with sclerosing mesenteritis.  

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Transudative chylothorax is an uncommon type of chylous pleural effusion, typically secondary to chyle leak and a coexisting disorder such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis. Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare inflammatory disease of the small bowel mesentery, and has once previously been reported as a cause of chylothorax. We present the case of an 81-year-old man with a right-side transudative chylothorax associated with congestive heart failure and sclerosing mesenteritis. We discuss potential mechanisms. PMID:20406516

Rice, Brenda L; Stoller, James K; Heresi, Gustavo A

2010-04-01

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Acute gross painless transudative ascites in a patient with lupus.  

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Gross ascites is a rare presentation of lupus. Ascites in lupus may be due to lupus peritonitis or secondary to one of the complications including nephrotic syndrome. The ascites due to lupus peritonitis has been described as exudative with a serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) below 11 g/L, unless associated with nephrotic syndrome. We report an unusual case of lupus ascites in a 23-year-old woman who presented with acute painless gross ascites with no constitutional, skin or musculoskeletal symptoms of a lupus flare. The ascites was a transudate with SAAG above 11 g/L with no associated nephrotic syndrome. She was treated with corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil and diuretics with a good response and no recurrence of her ascites. PMID:24443333

Erfani, T; Manolios, N; Howe, G; Spencer, D

2014-01-01

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A Survey on Hard Exudates Detection and Segmentation  

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Full Text Available Abstract-diabetic macular edema (dme is an advanced symptom diabetic retinopathy. it causes damage to retina and may lead to complete or partial vision loss. exudates are the primary indication of diabetic retinopathy. in this paper, different techniques were presented which is used for detecting the hard exudates. the segmentation of hard exudates is also achieved.

Dr. K. Sathiyasekar

2014-02-01

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Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency  

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Full Text Available Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -Pwith pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, rapeseed cultivars lost about 80% of its shoot fresh weight, but the roots did not exude any organic acids such as citrate, malate or oxalate. Both lupin and rapeseed cultivars exuded citrate only under phosphorus deficiency. The exudation rates of Feodora and Energy were 3.89 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1 and 3.45 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1, respectively, while that of Dunkeld was 15.1 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1. The results indicated that lupin and rapeseed lost their production under Zn deficiency but they did not exude organic acid, while under P deficiency both plants exuded citrate.

Bless Aplena Elen Siane

2012-09-01

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Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be included in the assessment of the potential adverse effects caused by the release of toxic and bioactive compounds during cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25103898

Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

2014-10-01

21

Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency  

OpenAIRE

Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy) and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow) cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -P)with pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, ra...

Bless Aplena Elen Siane

2012-01-01

22

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in exudative and haemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To determine the prevalence of polypoidal choroidopathy in consecutive patients presenting with large haemorrhagic and exudative neurosensory retinal and retinal pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) of over 2 mm in diameter in the absence of drusen.?METHODS—40 patients were identified over a 5 month period of which 29 had haemorrhagic detachments, and 11 had purely exudative detachments. All had indocyanine green (ICG) angiography, and the presence was sought of large blood ve...

Ahuja, R.; Stanga, P.; Vingerling, J.; Reck, A.; Bird, A.

2000-01-01

23

Arsenic speciation in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

How arsenic (As) is transported in phloem remains unknown. To help answer this question, we quantified the chemical species of As in phloem and xylem exudates of castor bean (Ricinus communis) exposed to arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], or dimethylarsinic acid. In the As(V)- and As(III)-exposed plants, As(V) was the main species in xylem exudate (55%-83%) whereas As(III) predominated in phloem exudate (70%-94%). The ratio of As concentrations in phloem to xylem exudate varied from 0.7 to 3.9. Analyses of phloem exudate using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and accurate mass electrospray mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography identified high concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione and some oxidized phytochelatin, but no As(III)-thiol complexes. It is thought that As(III)-thiol complexes would not be stable in the alkaline conditions of phloem sap. Small concentrations of oxidized glutathione and oxidized phytochelatin were found in xylem exudate, where there was also no evidence of As(III)-thiol complexes. MMA(V) was partially reduced to MMA(III) in roots, but only MMA(V) was found in xylem and phloem exudate. Despite the smallest uptake among the four As species supplied to plants, dimethylarsinic acid was most efficiently transported in both xylem and phloem, and its phloem concentration was 3.2 times that in xylem. Our results show that free inorganic As, mainly As(III), was transported in the phloem of castor bean exposed to either As(V) or As(III), and that methylated As species were more mobile than inorganic As in the phloem. PMID:20870777

Ye, Wen-Ling; Wood, B Alan; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Andralojc, P John; Raab, Andrea; McGrath, Steve P; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao, Fang-Jie

2010-11-01

24

[A case of adult idiopathic chylothorax with transudative ascites].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 70-year-old woman presented at a local clinic because of shortness of breath. Since she was found to have pleural effusion, she was referred to our hospital for further evaluation. She had no history of trauma or surgery. Pleural effusion examination revealed a milky-white, chylous, odorless fluid with increased triglycerides. Further evaluation led to a diagnosis of idiopathic chylothorax. Althought she was found to have transudative ascites, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no significant findings including cirrhosis of the liver. As a result of intravenous hyperalimentation with fasting, the chylous pleural fluid became serous and decreased. Ascites disappeared simultaneously, suggesting a possible relationship between the chylothorax and transudative ascites. PMID:17233400

Kobayashi, Kashin; Tachikawa, Souichi; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Kondo, Rieko; Shiga, Mamoru; Hirose, Masahiro; Sasaki, Yasushi

2006-12-01

25

Analysis of immunoglobulin G antibody responses after administration of live and inactivated influenza A vaccine indicates that nasal wash immunoglobulin G is a transudate from serum.  

OpenAIRE

Following intranasal administration of live influenza A virus vaccine or parenteral inoculation of inactivated influenza virus vaccine, immunoglobulin antibody to the influenza virus hemagglutinin was detected in nasal wash specimens from adult volunteers. Several observations supported the suggestion that this immunoglobulin G hemagglutinin nasal wash antibody appeared to be mainly derived from the serum by a process of passive transudation.

Wagner, D. K.; Clements, M. L.; Reimer, C. B.; Snyder, M.; Nelson, D. L.; Murphy, B. R.

1987-01-01

26

Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

27

How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

OpenAIRE

Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes ...

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

2012-01-01

28

Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid  

OpenAIRE

As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were coll...

Alemnji, George A.; Ngulefac, Gisele A.; Ndumbe, Peter M.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

2009-01-01

29

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil microorganisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic methods ...

30

Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value <4 × 10(-6)) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis), lipoprotein was found to be the best biomarker that distinguished exudates from transudates. Using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling to classify exudative pleural effusions from transudates, the area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids. We believe this new test will change the current clinical practice for management of pleural effusions and will become a new standard for clinical practice. PMID:25072840

Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

2014-09-01

31

[Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots. PMID:25223032

Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

2014-06-01

32

Changes in crested wheatgrass root exudation caused by flood, drought, and nutrient stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates can chelate inorganic soil contaminants, change rhizosphere pH, and may increase degradation of organic contaminants by microbial cometabolism. Root-zone stress may increase exudation and enhance phytoremediation. We studied the effects of low K+, high NH4+/NO3- ratio, drought, and flooding on the quantity and composition of exudates. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) was grown in Ottawa sand in sealed, flow-through glass columns under axenic conditions for 70 d. Root exudates were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and organic acid content to compare treatment effects. Plants in the low K+ treatment exuded 60% more TOC per plant per day (p = 0.01) than the unstressed control. Drought stress increased cumulative TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 71% (p = 0.05). The flooded treatment increased TOC exuded per gram dry plant by 45%, although this was not statistically significant based on the two replicate plants in this treatment. Exudation from the high NH4+/NO3- ratio treatment was 10% less than the control. Exudation rates in this study ranged from 8 to 50% of rates in four other published studies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that malic acid was the predominant organic acid exuded. Fumaric, malonic, succinic, and oxalic acids were also detected in the exudates of all treatments. These results demonstrate that nutrient and water stress have significant effects on the quantity and composition of root exudates. Cultural manipulations to induce stress may change the quantity of root exudates and thus increase the effectiveness of phytoremediation. PMID:17485723

Henry, Amelia; Doucette, William; Norton, Jeanette; Bugbee, Bruce

2007-01-01

33

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates. PMID:23303369

Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

2013-05-01

34

How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes and non-legumes. To investigate this possibility in detail, the effects of N and P deficiencies on SL exudation were examined in Fabaceae (alfalfa and Chinese milk vetch), Asteraceae (marigold and lettuce), Solanaceae (tomato), and Poaceae (wheat) plants. In alfalfa as expected, and unexpectedly in tomato, only P deficiency promoted SL exudation. In contrast, in Chinese milk vetch, a leguminous plant, and in the other non-leguminous plants examined, N deficiency as well as P deficiency enhanced SL exudation. Distinct reductions in shoot P levels were observed in plants grown under N deficiency, except for tomato, in which shoot P level was increased by N starvation, suggesting that the P status of the shoot regulates SL exudation. There seems to be a correlation between shoot P levels and SL exudation across the species/families investigated. PMID:22183123

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

2012-06-01

35

ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45 and exudative (n = 80 effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, pneumonia (n = 32, and adenocarcinoma (n = 28.Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.

Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Tang-Ching Kuan, Kun-Shan Cheng, Yan-Chiou Liao, Mu-Yuan Chen, Pei-Heng Lin, Yuan-Chang Hsu, Chen-Yi Huang, Wei-Hua Hsu, Sheng-Yao Yu, Chih-Sheng Lin

2012-01-01

36

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

Shukla Dhananjay

2003-01-01

37

[Association hyperlipidemia and retinal hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is usually accompagned with dyslipidemia, which can be correlated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of the study is to determine the relation between DR and hyperlipidemia. We studied prospectively 64 diabetic patients classified into 2 groups: the first associated diabetics having dyslipidemia (n=34) and the second without dyslipidemia (n=30). The mean follow up was 11 months. We observed a high frequency of retinal hard exudates in diabetics with dyslipidemia in comparison with the second group (32% versus 10%). The control of dyslipidemia is recommended in diabetic patients. PMID:17175690

Zghal-Mokni, Imen; Nacef, Leila; Zaafouri, Tlili; Abid, S; Jeddi, Amal; Bouguila, Hedi; Ayed, Saida

2006-08-01

38

Influence of copper on root exudate patterns in some metallophytes and agricultural plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydroponic experiment was carried out to determine the root exudation patterns in two Cu-metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and two agricultural plants (Lupinus albus and Helianthus annuus). Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increasing Cu doses (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2mgCuL(-1)), and plant growth, root elongation, Cu accumulation and root exudates were measured. All plants showed a decrease of over 60% in root elongation at the highest Cu supply level, being O. picensis the most sensitive specie and showing the highest shoot and root Cu concentrations (116 and 2657?gCug(-1), respectively), which were six fold higher than the other species. Differences in root exudation patterns of low molecular weight organic acids were found, with extremely high amounts of succinic acid exuded by O. picensis (1049?molg(-1)h(-1)), and citric acid by I. condensata (164?molg(-1)h(-1)). In metallophytes, the organic acid exudation was increased even with no root elongation, meanwhile agricultural plants exuded citric acid at constant levels. Exudation of phenolic compounds was highly species-dependent, with catechin mainly exuded by I. condensata, (2.62?molg(-1)h(-1)) cinnamic acid by O. picensis (5.08?molg(-1)h(-1)) and coumaric acid exclusively exuded by H. annuus (13.6?molg(-1)h(-1)) at high Cu levels. These results indicated that differences in root exudation patterns among metallophytes and agricultural plants could affect their Cu tolerance. Particularly, the higher exudation rate showed by I. condensata can be an effective exclusion mechanism to tolerate high Cu concentrations, supporting its use in Cu phytostabilization programs. PMID:21937112

Meier, S; Alvear, M; Borie, F; Aguilera, P; Ginocchio, R; Cornejo, P

2012-01-01

39

Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy  

OpenAIRE

Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treat...

Mansour Ahmad; Bashshur Ziad; Sibai Tarek; Mehio-Sibai Abla; Hamam Rola

2011-01-01

40

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

41

Mechanisms and modulation of airway plasma exudation after direct inhalation of cigarette smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized plasma exudation induced by direct inhalation of cigarette smoke in anesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea pigs, using Evans blue dye as a plasma marker, and investigated the neurogenic mechanisms underlying the response. Cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation in the lower trachea, main bronchi, and proximal intrapulmonary airways in a dose-related manner. Exudation was rapid in onset and was maintained for 0.5 to 2 h, depending upon airway level. Exudation was not reduced after removal of the particular phase of the smoke, nor by atropine, phentolamine, propranolol, hexamethonium, antihistamines, or bilateral vagotomy. Nicotine, at a dose calculated to approximate that in the plasma of cigarette-exposed animals, did not increase airway plasma exudation. Cigarette smoke-induce exudation was blocked by capaicinization or by a substance P antagonist and was potentiated by phosphoramidon but not by captopril. Nedocromil sodium or morphine (0.1 mg/kg each intravenously) partially inhibited cigarette smoke-induced exudation but had no effect on the response to substance P. Inhibition by morphine, but not that by nedocromil sodium, was reversed by naloxone. Thus, direct inhalation of cigarette smoke induces a dose-related, long-lasting increase in airway plasma exudation that is due to vapor-phase activation of sensory-efferent nerves, release of sensory neuropeptides that mediate the exudative response via interaction with substance P receptors, and regulation by neutral endopeptidase. The inhibitory effect of nedocromil and morphine on cigarette smoke-induced airway plasma exudation occurs through inhibition of neurotransmission. PMID:7767517

Lei, Y H; Barnes, P J; Rogers, D F

1995-06-01

42

Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

Zhai, Xu

2013-01-01

43

Root exudates stimulate the uptake and metabolism of organic carbon in germinating spores of Glomus intraradices.  

Science.gov (United States)

* Root exudates play a key role during the presymbiotic growth phase and have been shown to stimulate hyphal branching and the catabolic metabolism of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal spores. * Here, the effect of root exudates on presymbiotic growth, uptake of exogenous carbon and transcript levels for genes putatively involved in the carbon metabolism of germinating spores were determined. * Crude root exudates led to a slight acceleration of spore germination, increased germ tube branching and stimulated uptake and catabolic metabolism of acetate, and to a greater extent of glucose, but had no effect on gene expression. By contrast, partially purified root exudates increased the transcript levels of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ss-oxidation of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA), malate synthase (glyoxylate cycle) and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (chitin biosynthesis), but did not differ from crude root exudates in their effect on substrate uptake and respiration. The expression of glycogen synthase (glycogen biosynthesis), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (pentose phosphate pathway) and neutral trehalase (hydrolysis of trehalose) were only marginally or not affected by root exudates. * Root exudates have an effect on both membrane activity and gene expression and the results are discussed in relation to the catabolic and anabolic metabolism of spores during presymbiotic growth. PMID:18694446

Bücking, Heike; Abubaker, Jehad; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Tala, Marie; Pfeffer, Philip E; Nagahashi, Gerald; Lammers, Peter; Shachar-Hill, Yair

2008-01-01

44

The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

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Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleone and its in planta mechanism of action  

OpenAIRE

The oily droplets exuded from the root hairs of sorghum are composed of a 1:1 ratio of sorgoleone and its lipid resorcinol analogue. The production of these droplets appears to be suppressed when c. 20 ?g of exudate mg?1 root dry weight accumulates at the tip of the root hairs. However, more exudate is produced following gentle washing of the roots with water, suggesting that the biosynthesis of lipid benzoquinones and resorcinols is a dynamic process. Sorgoleone interferes with several mo...

Dayan, Franck E.; Howell, J. Lynn; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.

2009-01-01

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Kinins and peritoneal exudates induced by carrageenin and zymosan in rats.  

OpenAIRE

1. Kinins were measured by a radioimmunoassay in the inflammatory exudates induced by carrageenin or zymosan in the peritoneal cavity of normal Wistar rats and of kininogen-deficient Brown Norway rats. 2. After administration of carrageenin to normal rats, levels of immunoreactive kinins showed a single peak during the first two hours and then decreased. The presence of kinins preceded and accompanied the exudation of 125I-labelled albumin. Kinins were identified as bradykinin by chromatograp...

Damas, J.; Bourdon, V.; Remacle-volon, G.; Adam, A.

1990-01-01

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ASPECTS ON VIABILITY, CELL EXUDATE AND MITOSIS ACTIVITY IN WHEAT SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of the cell exudate and of the mitosis in studying of cell membrane modifications was the purpose of this work. There were analysed the seed exudate and mitosis activity values, as well as the correlations between these indices and seed viability în six different wheat seed samples. The results have indicated negative correlations significant for viability-sugars efflux and for viability-aberrant cells. Between viability and dividing cells were found positive correlations.

Liviu Fartaies

2007-12-01

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Identification of lipids and lipid-binding proteins in phloem exudates from Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

The phloem plays a crucial role in assimilate and nutrient transport, pathogen response, and plant growth and development. Yet, few species have yielded pure phloem exudate and, if proteins need to be analysed, those species may not have sequenced genomes, making identification difficult. The enrichment of Arabidopsis thaliana phloem exudate in amounts large enough to allow for metabolite and protein analysis is described. Using this method, it was possible to identify 65 proteins present in ...

Guelette, Brandon S.; Benning, Urs F.; Hoffmann-benning, Susanne

2012-01-01

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Diterpene Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia and phytotoxicity of clerodanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake), an endemic and rare high altitude plant of the northern Andes, appears well adapted to the prevailing harsh environment owing in part to a thick glandular trichome cover. From foliar exudates, two new clerodanes, 15,16-epoxy-2-hydroxy-3,13(16),14-clerodatrien-20-oic acid (bartsiifolic acid) (2) and Z-15,16-dihydroxy-3,13-clerodien-20-oic acid (barthydrolic acid) (3), were isolated in addition to the known junceic acid (1). In addition, three new alicyclic furanoditerpenes: 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6(E),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakielic acid) (4), 1,20-epoxy- 1,3(20),10(E),14-phytapentaen-18-methyl-19-oic acid (blakifolic acid) (5) and 1,20-epoxy-1,3(20),6,14-phytatetraen-19-methyl-18-oic acid (dihydrocentipedic acid) (6) were obtained in minor quantity. Seed germination and plantlet growth bioassays on Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa to monitor bioactivity during isolation procedures revealed compounds 1-3 with substantial inhibition comparable with synthetic linuron. PMID:25522526

Rodriguez-Hernandez, Diego; Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E; Calcagno-Pissarelli, Maria Pia

2014-10-01

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Presence of T-kininogen and kinins in sponge-induced exudates in rats.  

OpenAIRE

1. The content of kinins and T-kininogen (the third kininogen) in exudates induced by the subcutaneous implantation of saline-soaked sponges have been measured by radioimmunoassay in normal Wistar rats and in Brown Norway rats from a strain which is deficient in high and low molecular weight kininogens. 2. In both strains, sponge implantation induced a rise of T-kininogen in plasma with subsequent accumulation in the sponge exudate. This accumulation correlated with the extravasation of plasm...

Damas, J.; Adam, A.; Bourdon, V.; Remacle-volon, G.

1989-01-01

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Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

Karlovsky Petr

2011-08-01

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Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

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Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

2012-07-01

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FPR1 interacts with CFH, HTRA1 and smoking in exudative age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

PurposeTo determine the genetic association of an inflammation-related gene, formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).MethodsThe coding region of FPR1 gene was sequenced in 554 unrelated Chinese individuals: 155 exudative AMD patients, 179 PCV patients, and 220 controls. Interactions and combined effects of FPR1 with complement factor H (CFH), high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1), and smoking were also investigated.ResultsA total of 28 polymorphisms in FPR1 were identified. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs78488639 increased the risk to exudative AMD (P=0.043) and PCV (P=0.016), whereas SNP rs867229 decreased the risk to exudative AMD (P=0.0026), but not PCV. Homozygous G allele of rs1042229 was associated with exudative AMD (P=0.0394, odds ratio (OR)=2.27, 95% confident interval: 1.08-4.74), but not with PCV. Exudative AMD, but not PCV, was associated with the heterozygous genotypes of rs2070746 (P=0.019, OR=0.57) and rs867229 (P=0.0082, OR=0.54). Significantly, interactions were identified among FPR1 rs78488639, CFH rs800292, and HTRA1 rs11200638 in both exudative AMD and PCV. Combined heterozygous risk alleles of CFH rs800292 GA and FPR1 rs78488639 CA were posed to PCV (P=2.22 × 10(-4), OR=10.47), but not exudative AMD. Furthermore, FPR1 rs78488639 CA combining with HTRA1 rs11200638 and smoking was also predisposed risks to exudative AMD and PCV.ConclusionFPR1 is associated with exudative AMD and PCV in a Hong Kong Chinese cohort. FPR1 rs78488639 interacted with CFH rs800292, HTRA1 rs11200638, and smoking, enhancing risk to exudative AMD and PCV. PMID:25277308

Liang, X Y; Chen, L J; Ng, T K; Tuo, J; Gao, J-L; Tam, P O S; Lai, T Y Y; Chan, C-C; Pang, C P

2014-12-01

55

Automatic exudate detection by fusing multiple active contours and regionwise classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a method for the automatic detection of exudates in digital fundus images. Our approach can be divided into three stages: candidate extraction, precise contour segmentation and the labeling of candidates as true or false exudates. For candidate detection, we borrow a grayscale morphology-based method to identify possible regions containing these bright lesions. Then, to extract the precise boundary of the candidates, we introduce a complex active contour-based method. Namely, to increase the accuracy of segmentation, we extract additional possible contours by taking advantage of the diverse behavior of different pre-processing methods. After selecting an appropriate combination of the extracted contours, a region-wise classifier is applied to remove the false exudate candidates. For this task, we consider several region-based features, and extract an appropriate feature subset to train a Naïve-Bayes classifier optimized further by an adaptive boosting technique. Regarding experimental studies, the method was tested on publicly available databases both to measure the accuracy of the segmentation of exudate regions and to recognize their presence at image-level. In a proper quantitative evaluation on publicly available datasets the proposed approach outperformed several state-of-the-art exudate detector algorithms. PMID:25255154

Harangi, Balazs; Hajdu, Andras

2014-11-01

56

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism  

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Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

Andreas F. Haas

2013-07-01

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Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds  

OpenAIRE

Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudatio...

Diz Mariângela S. S.; Carvalho André O.; Gomes Valdirene M.

2003-01-01

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How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

2014-05-01

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Decontamination activity of ryegrass exudates towards bisphenol a in the absence and presence of dissolved natural organic matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound widespread in terrestrial and aquatic systems of urbanized and industrialized regions. This study evaluated the capacity of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) aqueous exudates to degrade BPA at a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) both in the absence and in the presence of an organic fraction often coexisting with plant exudates, i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), tested at a concentration of 20 mg L(-1). In exudates alone, BPA degradation ceased after one day from the product addition when residual BPA resulted 65% of the initial BPA, whereas in exudates with the addition of NOM the degradation process continued for 4 days when residual BPA resulted 49%. Measurements of peroxidase and laccase activities in exudates suggested a significant involvement of these enzymes in BPA degradation. This finding was further confirmed by the almost complete absence of BPA degradation in aqueous exudates strongly acidified. In some BPA-contaminated exudates, chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of a newly formed compound identified as a BPA oxidation product by Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis. In conclusion, ryegrass exudates possess a relevant decontamination capacity towards BPA which persists and appears to be enhanced by the addition of NOM. PMID:25174419

Gattullo, C Eliana; Kiersch, Kristian; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter; Loffredo, Elisabetta

2015-01-01

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Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation - insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exo-enzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The causal role of exudation, however, is difficult to isolate with in-situ observations, given the complex nature of the rhizosphere environment. We investigated the potential effects of root exudation on microbial and exo-enzyme activity using a theoretical model of decomposition and a field experiment, with a specific focus on the stoichiometric constraint of nitrogen (N) availability. The field experiment isolated the effect of exudation by pumping solutions of exudate mimics through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils over two 50-day periods. Using a combined model-experiment approach, we tested two hypotheses: (1) exudation alone is sufficient to stimulate microbial and exo-enzyme activity in rhizosphere soils, and (2) microbial response to C-exudates (carbohydrates and organic acids) is constrained by N-limitation. Experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exo-enzymes that decompose labile components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exo-enzymes that degrade recalcitrant SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). However, delivery of C-only exudates had no effect on microbial biomass or overall exo-enzyme activity, and only increased microbial respiration. The theoretical decomposition model produced complementary results; the modeled microbial response to C-only exudates was constrained by limited N supply to support the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exo-enzymes, while exuding C and N together elicited an increase in modeled microbial biomass, exo-enzyme activity, and decomposition. Thus, hypothesis (2) was supported, while hypothesis (1) was only supported when C and N compounds were exuded together. This study supports a cause-and-effect relationship between root exudation and enhanced microbial activity, and suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

Drake, J. E.; Darby, B. A.; Giasson, M.-A.; Kramer, M. A.; Phillips, R. P.; Finzi, A. C.

2012-06-01

61

Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water. PMID:22208753

Sychrová, E; Št?pánková, T; Nováková, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Hilscherová, K

2012-02-01

62

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

RENÉ TORRES

2003-09-01

63

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

OpenAIRE

From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

RENÉ TORRES; FRANCISCO URBINA; CLAUDIA MORALES; BRENDA MODAK; FRANCO DELLE MONACHE

2003-01-01

64

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation [...

RENÉ, TORRES; FRANCISCO, URBINA; CLAUDIA, MORALES; BRENDA, MODAK; FRANCO DELLE, MONACHE.

2003-09-01

65

[Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the dynamics of in situ root exudates and soil microbial composition among three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages (9, 13 and 31 a) in Miyaluo, west Sichuan, China. The results showed that the secretion rates of root exudation per fine biomass, length, surface area and tip were significantly different among the three plantations with different stand ages. The secretion rate of root exudation was the highest in the 9-year-old plantation stand. The root activity of P. asperata was the weakest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. Besides, soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were significantly different among the three plantation stands. MBC and MBN contents of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with stand ages, while those of non-rhizosphere soil were the largest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and their summation in rhizosphere soil presented a trend of high-low-high with stand ages. The opposite pattern was found in the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, the summation of PLFA, and the ratio of fungi number to bacteria in non-rhizosphere soil. It is suggested that root exudates might have a positive rhizosphere effect on soil microbial biomass C, N and PLFAs of functional groups. PMID:24830229

Li, Jiao; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yin, Hua-Jun; Yin, Chun-Ying; Wei, Yu-Hang; Liu, Qing

2014-02-01

66

Influence of the microbial loop on trophodynamics and toxicity of cadmium complexed by cyanobacterium exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial and toxic metal. Its fate and toxicity in the environment may be mediated by association with dissolved organic materials excreted by phytoplankton. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trophodynamics and toxicity of Cd complexed with Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exudates in a plankton food chain. The microbial loop involves heterotrophic bacteria as the primary consumer, which is supplemented with a Cd-exudate complex. The secondary consumer (protozoan Paramecium caudatum) was fed on the bacteria, and the tertiary consumer (copepod Mesocyclops longisetus) on the protozoa. The Cd complexing properties of the exudate were determined before the experiments, to ensure that all Cd was furnished to the organisms as the organic complex alone. The results showed that free Cd2+ ions caused the highest observed toxicity to bacteria, while Cd complexed to the cyanobacterial exudate was less toxic, but could be bioavailable and transferred through the food web. This study is a contribution to aquatic ecosystem management and to current knowledge of Cd dynamics, bioavailability and interaction with aquatic planktonic organisms. PMID:24619145

Nogueira, Patricia F M; Nogueira, Marcelo M; Lombardi, Ana T

2014-05-01

67

Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear. In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species. Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour. This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings. PMID:25039372

Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

2014-11-01

68

Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

2013-12-01

69

Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

1331-13-01

70

Chemotaxis of Bradyrhizobium japonicum to soybean exudates.  

OpenAIRE

The chemotactic response of Bradyrhizobium japonicum toward soybean seed and root exudates was examined. Assays using various isoflavones and fractionated exudate indicated that isoflavones are not the principal attractants in exudates. Likewise, induction of nod genes with isoflavones or seed exudate before assay did not enhance chemotaxis. Screening of numerous compounds revealed that only dicarboxylic acids and the amino acids glutamate and aspartate were strong attractants. The presence o...

Barbour, W. M.; Hattermann, D. R.; Stacey, G.

1991-01-01

71

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism  

OpenAIRE

Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community ...

Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Forest Rohwer; Linda Wegley-Kelly; Quistad, Steven D.; Carlson, Craig A.; Leichter, James J.; Mark Hatay; Smith, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

72

Organic anion exudation by ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris in response to nutrient deficiences  

OpenAIRE

Low molecular weight organic anions (LMWOA) can enhance weathering of mineral grains. We tested the hypothesis that ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi and tree seedlings increase their exudation of LMWOA when supply of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus is low to enhance the mobilization of Mg, K and P from mineral grains. ¿ Ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris seedlings were cultured in symbiosis and in isolation on glass beads with nutrient solution or with sand as a rooting medium, wit...

Scho?ll, L.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, N.

2006-01-01

73

Rapid Regression of Exudative Maculopathy in Idiopathic Retinitis, Vasculitis, Aneurysms and Neuroretinitis Syndrome after Intravitreal Ranibizumab  

OpenAIRE

The idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome is a rare retinal vascular disorder characterized by multiple leaking aneurysmal dilations, retinal vasculitis, neuroretinitis and peripheral vascular ischemia. Visual loss mainly occurs due to the development of retinal neovascularization and/or exudative maculopathy. Although the treatment of choice has not yet been established, retinal photocoagulation seems to be the best option to control the disease and to preve...

Mari?n-lambi?es, Cristina; Gallego-pinazo, Roberto; Salom, David; Navarrete, Javier; Di?az-llopis, Manuel

2012-01-01

74

Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

2009-04-15

75

Phytotoxic Allelochemicals From Roots and Root Exudates of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula L.)  

OpenAIRE

Invasive plants are a widespread problem but the mechanisms used by these plants to become invasive are often unknown. The production of phytotoxic natural products by invasive weeds is one mechanism by which these species may become successful competitors. Here we conducted a bioactivity-driven fractionation of root extracts and exudates from the invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), and structurally characterized jatrophane diterpenes and ellagic acid derivatives. Ellagic acid d...

Qin, Bo; Perry, Laura G.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Du, Jiang; Stermitz, Frank R.; Paschke, Mark W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2006-01-01

76

Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases  

OpenAIRE

Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus), as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket) between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive method...

?aki? Saša

2009-01-01

77

Comparative effects of argon green and krypton red laser photocoagulation for patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy.  

OpenAIRE

AIMS/BACKGROUND: Focal treatment of diabetic macular oedema is usually done using a haemoglobin absorbing wave-length, such as argon green laser. This study aimed to compare photocoagulation with argon green (514 nm) and krypton red (647 nm), which is poorly absorbed by haemoglobin, in the focal treatment of patients with diabetic exudative maculopathy. METHODS: A total of 151 eyes of 78 outpatients were assigned randomly to receive either argon green (n = 79) or krypton red (n = 72) laser tr...

Khairallah, M.; Brahim, R.; Allagui, M.; Chachia, N.

1996-01-01

78

Bacillus Species Are Present in Chewing Tobacco Sold in the United States and Evoke Plasma Exudation from the Oral Mucosa  

OpenAIRE

Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 ± 1) × 106 CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudation from postcapillary venules in the intact hamster cheek pouch, exudation that was mediated by the kallikrein/kinin metabolic pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that Bacillus species ...

Rubinstein, Israel; Pedersen, Gerald W.

2002-01-01

79

Chemotaxis of Bradyrhizobium japonicum to soybean exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemotactic response of Bradyrhizobium japonicum toward soybean seed and root exudates was examined. Assays using various isoflavones and fractionated exudate indicated that isoflavones are not the principal attractants in exudates. Likewise, induction of nod genes with isoflavones or seed exudate before assay did not enhance chemotaxis. Screening of numerous compounds revealed that only dicarboxylic acids and the amino acids glutamate and aspartate were strong attractants. The presence of glutamate, aspartate, and dicarboxylic acids in appreciable concentrations in soybean seed and root exudates indicates that these compounds likely represent natural chemoattractants for B. japonicum. PMID:1768137

Barbour, W M; Hattermann, D R; Stacey, G

1991-09-01

80

Proteomic Analysis of a Noninvasive Human Model of Acute Inflammation and Its Resolution: The Twenty-one Day Gingivitis Model  

OpenAIRE

The 21-day experimental gingivitis model, an established noninvasive model of inflammation in response to increasing bacterial accumulation in humans, is designed to enable the study of both the induction and resolution of inflammation. Here, we have analyzed gingival crevicular fluid, an oral fluid comprising a serum transudate and tissue exudates, by LC?MS/MS using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and iTRAQ isobaric mass tags, to establish meta-proteomic profile...

Grant, Melissa M.; Creese, Andrew J.; Barr, Gordon; Ling, Martin R.; Scott, Ann E.; Matthews, John B.; Griffiths, Helen R.; Cooper, Helen J.; Chapple, Iain L. C.

2010-01-01

81

Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

Houston SK

2013-01-01

82

Hepatic venous outflow obstruction in patients with polycystic liver disease: pathogenesis and treatment.  

OpenAIRE

Polycystic liver disease is commonly asymptomatic but may present with hepatomegaly, abdominal distension, and dull abdominal pain. Transudative ascites is a rare manifestation in these patients but may occur when portal hypertension is present resulting from associated hepatic fibrosis or after deroofing procedure of a cyst. Exudative ascites might suggest hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Four cases are described where hepatic venous outflow obstruction occurred in patients with polycysti...

Uddin, W.; Ramage, J. K.; Portmann, B.; Wilson, P.; Benjamin, I.; Tan, K. C.; Williams, R.

1995-01-01

83

Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

2012-12-15

84

Time and substrate dependent exudation of carboxylates by Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates influence significantly physical, chemical and biological characteristics of rhizosphere soil. Their qualitative and quantitative composition is affected by environmental factors such as pH, soil type, oxygen status, light intensity, soil temperature, plant growth, nutrient availability and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of growth substrate and plant age on the release of carboxylates from Lupinus albus L. and Brassica napus L. Both plant species were studied in continuously percolated microcosms filled with either sand, soil or sand + soil (1:1) mixture. Soil solution was collected every week at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after planting (DAP). Carboxylate concentrations were determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOFMS). Oxalate, citrate, succinate, malate and maleate were detected in soil solutions of both plant species. Their concentrations were correlated with the physiological status of the plant and the growth substrate. Oxalate was the predominant carboxylate detected within the soil solution of B. napus plants while oxalate and citrate were the predominant ones found in the soil solutions of L. albus plants. The sampling determination of carboxylates released by plant roots with continuous percolation systems seems to be promising as it is a non-destructive method and allows sampling and determination of soluble low molecular weight organic compounds derived from root exudation as well as the concentration of soluble nutrients, which both might reflect the nutritional status of plants. PMID:22000050

Mimmo, Tanja; Hann, Stephan; Jaitz, Leonhard; Cesco, Stefano; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Puschenreiter, Markus

2011-11-01

85

Exudados de la raiz y su relevancia actual en las interacciones alelopaticas Root exudates and their relevance to the allelopatic interactions  

OpenAIRE

Detrimental interactions among plants are expressed by competition for nutrients, chemical interferences and/or parasitism. Root exudates have an enormous potential at the modulation of these three mechanisms. These exudates play a key role as "phytoalexins release routes", being the allelochemicals, which regulate the chemical interactions, an example. This review presents the most recent findings on the currently used methodologies for the study of the exudation phe...

Oliveros-bastidas, Alberto J.; Maci?as, Francisco A.; Ceferino Carrera Fernández; David Marín; Molinillo, Jose? M. G.

2009-01-01

86

Antioxidant activity of coumarins and flavonols from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus multifolius.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity of eight coumarins and two flavonols isolated from Haplopappus multifolius was studied with the DPPH radical method. Results show that a high concentration of phenolic coumarins and the presence of quercetin and rhamnetin in the exudates could account for the protection of the plant against oxidative stress. Structures for the coumarins 6-hydroxy-7-[(E,E)-3',7'-dimethyl-2',4',7'-octatrienyloxy] coumarin and 7-[(E)-3'-methyl-4'-hydroxy-2'-butenyloxy] coumarin are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:16684545

Torres, René; Faini, Francesca; Modak, Brenda; Urbina, Francisco; Labbé, Cecilia; Guerrero, Juan

2006-05-01

87

An Intelligent Approach to Detect Hard and Soft Exudates Using Echo State Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel technique of intelligent segmentation and classification of exudates for diabetic retinopathy by applying energy minimization method using a recurrent neural network that is an Echo State Neural Network (ESNN which, yields highly satisfactory results when compared with that of an existing contextual clustering segmentation (CC is explored in this study. The modular neural network is trained using a set of 30 images consisting of 5 normal images and 25 abnormal images. The trained system has been tested with 5 normal and 20 abnormal images and is found to acquire satisfactory results with 90% (18/20 sensitivity.

C. Jayakumari

2008-01-01

88

Experimental Investigation on Role of Root Mucilage and Microbial Exudates on Soil Water Retention Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of organic molecules by soil microbes and plant roots to adapt their surrounding represents a substantial portion of the energy use by these organisms. The hypothesis in this study is that the long-chain molecules and hydrophilic nature of the released organic compounds deposited on soil surfaces drastically alters the dynamism of the soil water retention curves (SWRC) of the rhizosphere relative to the bulk soil through direct effect besides the well-known indirect influence of the organic matter by modifying the soil structure and providing energy for the biogeochemical processes. The experiment was set up in such away that it suppresses the indirect effect of organic matter (OM) and rather it traces only its immediate effect on SWRC. To achieve this goal inert and uniform size (0.1-0.11 mm) glassbeads were used. We assumed that wet mixing of the glass beads with OM and slow drying the mixture (40-50oC) for 1-day will lead to deposition of the OM only at the surface of the glass beads, the short time being not enough for aggregate formation. This way we can simulate the natural deposition of OM on soil surfaces. Our argument is that this deposited OM has its own distinct time-dependent SWRC which is different from that of bulk soil. Model exudates including PGA, XA, and SPA are used to mimic the behavior of plant root mucilages, bacterial and fungal exudates respectively. These model exudates at varying concentration (0, 0.008, 0.04, and 0.2 gm/l) were wet mixed with glass beads. SWRC was determined using both water-hanging column and pressure plate for both low and high suction ranges respectively. We will present the effect of exudate type and level of concentration on the dynamic behavior of SWRC of the glassbeads by determining: i) the SWRC for each treatment; ii) the rate of drying and wetting at different intervals; iii) the hysteresis of the retention curves; iv) the saturated hydraulic conductivity.

Gebrenegus, T. B.; Ghezzehei, T.

2011-12-01

89

Exudados de la raiz y su relevancia actual en las interacciones alelopaticas / Root exudates and their relevance to the allelopatic interactions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Detrimental interactions among plants are expressed by competition for nutrients, chemical interferences and/or parasitism. Root exudates have an enormous potential at the modulation of these three mechanisms. These exudates play a key role as "phytoalexins release routes", being the allelochemicals [...] , which regulate the chemical interactions, an example. This review presents the most recent findings on the currently used methodologies for the study of the exudation phenomenon. The methodologies for the sampling and analysis of such chemicals, as well as all other factors considered to increase the production of root exudates, are also examined.

Alberto de J., Oliveros-Bastidas; Francisco A., Macías; Ceferino Carrera, Fernández; David, Marín; José M. G., Molinillo.

90

Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance. PMID:24974726

Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

2014-07-23

91

Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

2009-10-01

92

BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES  

OpenAIRE

Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans ex...

Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V.; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J.; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H.; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L.; Alborn, Hans T.; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T.; Bru?schweiler, Rafael

2009-01-01

93

Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous soil nematode, lives in a complex environment that requires chemical communication for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied...

94

Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection. PMID:17142479

Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

2007-02-01

95

Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere. PMID:15142245

Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

2004-06-01

96

Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-05-20

97

A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis  

OpenAIRE

We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap press...

Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M.

2012-01-01

98

Flavonoids and Strigolactones in Root Exudates as Signals in Symbiotic and Pathogenic Plant-Fungus Interactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary plant compounds are important signals in several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. The present review is limited to two groups of secondary plant compounds, flavonoids and strigolactones, which have been reported in root exudates. Data on flavonoids as signaling compounds are available from several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, whereas only recently initial data on the role of strigolactones as plant signals in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis have been reported. Data from other plant-microbe interactions and strigolactones are not available yet. In the present article we are focusing on flavonoids in plant-fungalinteractions such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM association and the signaling between different Fusarium species and plants. Moreover the role of strigolactones in the AM association is discussed and new data on the effect of strigolactones on fungi, apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, are provided.

Horst Vierheilig

2007-07-01

99

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

M. Nausch

2012-04-01

100

A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

Cindy Bongard

2012-08-01

101

Composition and physicochemical properties of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Composition and physicochemical properties of three types of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia were investigated. Monosaccharide analysis by GC-MS indicated the occurrence of arabinose and galactose as the main sugars. FTIR spectra showed no differences in functional groups among the samples. Steady shear rheological data and power law parameters revealed that the white gum (W) was the most shear sensitive type and had the highest value of consistency coefficient. The mechanical spectra derived from the strain and frequency sweep measurements indicated a liquid viscoelastic behavior for Zedo gum dispersions. GPC-MALLS revealed that the white sample had the highest apparent average molecular weight (4.74 × 10(6)Da) and the lowest dispersity (1.045). TG-DTA analysis showed that the character of gum decomposition significantly depended on the gum type and the white sample had the highest thermal stability. PMID:24299876

Fadavi, Ghasem; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargarran, Azizollaah; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Komeili, Rozita

2014-01-30

102

CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCHLORA CRUSGALLI): INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATE AND BACTERIAL ACTIVITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

103

Nitric oxide is involved in phosphorus deficiency-induced cluster-root development and citrate exudation in white lupin.  

Science.gov (United States)

*White lupin (Lupinus albus) forms specialized cluster roots characterized by exudation of organic anions under phosphorus (P) deficiency. Here, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in P deficiency-induced cluster-root formation and citrate exudation was evaluated. *White lupin plants were treated with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and scavenger or inhibitor of NO synthase under conditions of P deficiency (0 muM) or P sufficiency (50 muM). *Phosphorus deficiency enhanced NO production in primary and lateral root tips, with a greater increase in cluster roots than in noncluster roots. NO concentrations decreased with cluster root development from the pre-emergent stage, through the juvenile stage, to the mature stage. The P deficiency-induced increase in NO production was inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in NO production. SNP markedly increased the number of cluster roots. Citrate exudation from different root segments in P-deficient roots was positively correlated with endogenous root NO concentrations. *These findings demonstrate differential patterns of NO production in white lupin, depending on root zone, developmental stage and P nutritional status. NO appears to play a regulatory role in the formation of cluster roots and citrate exudation in white lupin under conditions of P deficiency. PMID:20553395

Wang, B L; Tang, X Y; Cheng, L Y; Zhang, A Z; Zhang, W H; Zhang, F S; Liu, J Q; Cao, Y; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Shen, J B

2010-09-01

104

Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-avaimedia and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

105

Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

Mansour Ahmad

2011-01-01

106

Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

2011-11-01

107

Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

2014-01-01

108

Chemical Analysis of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Phenolics Components and the Resin in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems  

OpenAIRE

H. taltalense (Phil.) Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae) is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids – naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol – were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out...

René Torres; Macarena Rojas; Brenda Modak

2009-01-01

109

Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin and Danofloxacin in Plasma, Inflammatory Exudate, and Bronchial Secretions of Calves following Subcutaneous Administration  

OpenAIRE

Enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) and danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to ruminating calves (n = 8) fitted with subcutaneous tissue cages. Concentrations of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and danofloxacin in blood (plasma), tissue cage exudate (following intracaveal injection of 0.3 ml of 1% [vol/wt] carrageenan), and bronchial secretions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological assay (enrofloxacin plus cip...

Mckellar, Quintin; Gibson, Ian; Monteiro, Ana; Bregante, Miguel

1999-01-01

110

Chalcones and other compounds from the exudates of Angelica keiskei and their cancer chemopreventive effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new chalcones, xanthoangelol I (1), xanthoangelol J (2), and deoxydihydroxanthoangelol H (3), were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of exudates of the stems of Angelica keiskei, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Nine aromatic compounds of known structure, 4-12, and a diacetylene, 13, were also isolated and identified from this same fraction. On evaluation of these compounds for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, 1, 2, 4, and 9-12 showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction. In addition, upon evaluation of the inhibitory effects against activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, six compounds, namely, 1, 2, 4, 9, 11, and 12, exhibited potent inhibitory effects. Further, isobavachalcone (4) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. PMID:16441065

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Ukiya, Motohiko; Kimura, Yumiko; Enjo, Fumio; Suzuki, Takashi; Nishino, Hoyoku

2006-01-01

111

Chalcones, coumarins, and flavanones from the exudate of Angelica keiskei and their chemopreventive effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

From an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the exudate obtained from the stems of Angelica keiskei (Umbelliferae), 17 compounds, viz. five chalcones (1-5), seven coumarins (6-12), three flavanones (13-15), one diacetylene (16), and one 5-alkylresorcinol (17), were isolated. These compounds were evaluated with respect to their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, which is known to be a primary screening test for antitumor-promoters. With the exception of three compounds (10, 16, and 17), all other compounds tested showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction (92-100% inhibition at 1x10(3)mol ratio/TPA). In addition, upon evaluation of these compounds for the inhibitory effects against activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxy-imino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, as a primary screening test for antitumor-initiators, two chalcones (2 and 3) and six coumarins (6-11) exhibited potent inhibitory effects. PMID:14607326

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ukiya, Motohiko; Iizuka, Masao; Schneider, Stefan; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Mukainaka, Teruo; Iwatsuki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takashi; Nishino, Hoyoku

2003-11-25

112

Net Production and Consumption of Fluorescent Colored Dissolved Organic Matter by Natural Bacterial Assemblages Growing on Marine Phytoplankton Exudates?  

OpenAIRE

An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitati...

Romera-castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; A?lvarez-salgado, Xose? Anto?n; Gasol, Josep M.; Marrase?, Ce?lia

2011-01-01

113

Pale, soft, and exudative poultry meat--Reviewing ways to manage at the processing plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on ways the industry can currently deal with pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) poultry meat. Overall, the rapid increase in poultry meat consumption and the move toward selling more cut-up parts have resulted in some complaints associated with meat quality. Because no genetic marker related to PSE in poultry used by breeders has yet been identified, processors can employ several pre- and postrigor strategies to minimize the magnitude of the problem. They include reducing stress before slaughter (e.g., during catching, transportation, waiting period, unloading) and during stunning (gas vs. electrical). Later, there is a need to better understand and adjust processing conditions such as electrical stimulation, chilling rate, and maturation. When dealing with cut-up parts or deboned meat, strategies such as identifying and separating PSE meat, diverting it to no or low moisture-added products, and including additives to compensate for the poor water holding and texture can be beneficial. The potential contribution of ingredients such as starches (regular, modified), carrageenans, and enzymes is discussed. When it comes to formed products (e.g., nuggets), gentle brine addition and the use of low-pressure forming equipment can also help to minimize the effects of using PSE meat. PMID:19531724

Barbut, S

2009-07-01

114

Zinc chemical forms and organic acid exudation in non-heading Chinese cabbages under zinc stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an essential element, zinc also is a heavy metal. Non-heading Chinese cabbage showed obvious tolerance to Zn stress in former research. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Zn adaptability and detoxification, two genotypes Suzhouqing and Aijiaohuang were selected to investigate the chemical forms of Zn and root exudation. Zinc stress obvious strained the plant growth, and Aijiaohuang was more injured than Suhouqing under Zn stress. Under normal Zn levels, the chemical forms of Zn were diverse in three organs between genotypes. Results showed extractions of 2% HAc, 80% ethanol and 1 M NaCl were separately dominant in roots, petioles and leaves. However, under Zn stress (13 mg·L–1 and 52 mg·L–1 most of the Zn was extracted by 1M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Zn was extracted by 80% ethanol. In the control only four types of organic acid could be detected. While under Zn stress, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and amber acid were all detected, so it could be speculated Zn detoxification with organic ligands or integrated with pectates and proteins in cells might be responsible for the adaptation of Zn stress in Chinese cabbage.

Xiumin Cui

2012-07-01

115

Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. PMID:23712964

Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

2013-08-01

116

Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L. and Lupinus luteus L. as affected by phosphorus supply  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of $P$ fertilizer application on the quality and quantity of organic acid exuded by six cultivars of three lupin species: Lupinus albus L. (cultivars Minori and Nelly), Lupinus angustifolius L. (cultivars Borweta and Bordako) and Lupinus luteus L. (cultivars Borsaja and Borselfa). We also investigated the influence of the exudate collection medium (deionized water, 0.05 mM CaCl$_2$ solution) on the composition and the intensity of...

Egle, Komi; Ro?mer, Wilhelm; Keller, Holger

2003-01-01

117

Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

2010-02-01

118

Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

2011-01-01

119

Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at ? 101.6, ? 75.5, ? 73.9, ? 72.5, and ? 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1?4)-linked ?-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration. PMID:24702919

Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

2014-07-17

120

Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8?:?10.9?:?35.5?:?6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200?MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55?°C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity. PMID:22701057

Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

2012-06-01

121

Pseudomonas putida KT2440 causes induced systemic resistance and changes in Arabidopsis root exudation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an efficient colonizer of the rhizosphere of plants of agronomical and basic interest. We have demonstrated that KT2440 can protect the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana against infection by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. P. putida extracellular haem-peroxidase (PP2561) was found to be important for competitive colonization and essential for the induction of plant systemic resistance. Root exudates of plants elicited by KT2440 exhibited distinct patterns of metabolites compared with those of non-elicited plants. The levels of some of these compounds were dramatically reduced in axenic plants or plants colonized by a mutant defective in PP2561, which has increased sensitiveness to oxidative stress with respect to the wild type. Thus high-level oxidative stress resistance is a bacterial driving force in the rhizosphere for efficient colonization and to induce systemic resistance. These results provide important new insight into the complex events that occur in order for plants to attain resistance against foliar pathogens. PMID:23766110

Matilla, Miguel A; Ramos, Juan L; Bakker, Peter A H M; Doornbos, Rogier; Badri, Dayakar V; Vivanco, Jorge M; Ramos-González, María Isabel

2010-06-01

122

Tissue viability nurses' experiences of managing wound exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound exudate presents several challenges for patients and nurses. The description of exudate volume, colour and viscosity varies greatly, often depending on the personal preference of the nurse. When the nature and volume of exudate has been described, management of exudate presents its own issues in terms of ensuring that the appropriate dressing or intervention is selected and used effectively. This article reports on the outcomes of a series of discussion groups held to explore the difficulties tissue viability nurse specialists experience in relation to advising non-specialist nurses about wound exudate in the practice setting. PMID:25335633

Glover, Deborah

2014-10-28

123

Cesium Interactions With Illite in the Presence of Bacterial Exudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere can significantly alter chemical reactions between contaminants and soil minerals. Several strains of bacteria that exude aluminum-chelating compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). We examined the effect of exudates from the rhizosphere bacteria on cesium desorption from illite. The exudates from some strains of rhizosphere bacteria significantly enhanced Cs desorption from illite. In addition, Cs desorption from illite increased with increasing concentration of exudates from one selected bacterial strain. There was no obvious relationship between Cs desorption and the Al-chelating ability of the exudates. Both mobilization of Al from illite and changes in the density of frayed edge sites on the illite were monitored as a function of exudate type and concentration. Results suggest that exudates from rhizosphere bacteria may play an important role in Cs interactions with illite and, therefore, could alter Cs availability in micaceous soils.

Wendling, L. A.; Ward, T. E.; Harsh, J. B.; Hamilton, M. A.; Palmer, C. D.

2003-12-01

124

Looking beyond sugars: phytochemical profiling and standardization of manna exudates from Sicilian Fraxinus excelsior L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different grades of genuine and counterfeit Fraxinus excelsior exudates, marketed as natural sweeteners or mild laxatives, were evaluated for their proximate composition and for saccharidic, organic acids, lipidic and phenolic profile by means of GC-MS and (1)H NMR. Genuine samples contained mannitol (39-48 g/100 g, according to the grade), fructose (9-16 g/100 g), glucose (2-3.7 g/100 g), sorbitol (0,5-0,6 g/100 g), galactose (0.02-0.74 g/100 g), oligosaccharides as mannotriose (13-22 g/100 g) and stachyose (1-11 g/100 g), and traces of myo-inositol, mannose, sucrose. On the contrary, counterfeit samples contained mostly mannitol and sorbitol, with traces of fructose, glucose and mannose. Differences in ash, total polyphenolic content and fatty acid composition allowed a quick identification of counterfeit products, confirmed by a distinct mono-, oligosaccharidic and phenolic pattern. Elenolic acid (63-1628 mg/kg), tyrosol (15-774 mg/kg), homovanillic acid (2,39-52.8 mg/Kg), dopaol (0.8-63 mg/kg), pinoresinol (4.2-18.5 mg/kg) and fraxetin (0.25-11.64 mg/kg), albeit showing a wide concentration range, were the most abundant substances detected in the phenolic fraction of Fraxinus manna, while esculetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenacetic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxy-pinoresinol, medioresinol and siringaresinol were present in low amounts. The polyphenolic profile may be used as a marker for authentication and should be considered in the evaluation of nutritional and health properties ascribed to Fraxinus manna. PMID:23850543

Caligiani, Augusta; Tonelli, Letizia; Palla, Gerardo; Marseglia, Angela; Rossi, Damiano; Bruni, Renato

2013-10-01

125

Diagnostic accuracy and safety of semirigid thoracoscopy in exudative pleural effusions in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and the safety of medical thoracoscopy (MT) performed with the semirigid thoracoscope. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent MT with semirigid thoracoscope under local anesthesia for unexplained exudative pleural effusion from March 1, 2009 to September 1, 2013 in Denmark. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were retrospectively studied. In 13 patients it was not possible to perform the scheduled MT, in 9 cases due to an insufficient pneumothorax, in 3 due to an insufficient pleural effusion, and in 1 due to a purulent pleuritis. In 56 patients in whom MT was completed, the procedure was diagnostic in 44 cases: malignancy was reported in 26 patients and a benign diagnosis in 18. In the remaining 12 patients a definite diagnosis was not reached, and further testing was required.In an "intention-to-treat analysis" (69 patients in total), the diagnostic accuracy of MT was 63%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 59% [95% confidence interval (CI)=43%-73%], the specificity was 100% (95% CI=86%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.41 (95% CI=0.29-0.58). Considering the 56 patients in whom it was possible to complete the procedure, the diagnostic accuracy was 78%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 74% (95% CI=54%-87%), the specificity was 100% (95% CI=83.75%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.27 (95% CI=0.15%-0.45%). No mortality was reported. CONCLUSIONS: MT performed under local anesthesia with a semirigid scope is a simple and safe procedure with an acceptable sensitivity for malignancy.

Willendrup, Fatin; BØdtger, Uffe

2014-01-01

126

Drusen classification in bilateral drusen and fellow eye of exudative age-related macular degeneration.  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To assess the value of the modified international classification system in screening high-risk patients with bilateral age-related maculopathy (ARM) from those with lower risk characteristics. METHODS: In total, 164 digital images of 106 patients with either bilateral ARM (group A) or the fellow eyes of unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Group B) were included. Patients with no signs of ARM in both eyes or those with bilateral late AMD were excluded. The images ...

Hamada, S.; Jain, S.; Sivagnanavel, V.; Patel, N.; Chong, Nv

2006-01-01

127

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems

128

Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

Fujihara M

2012-03-01

129

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 - Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Science.gov (United States)

The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 ?atm), medium (380 ?atm), and high (780 ?atm) CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 ?atm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment-related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 ?g Xeq L-1 compared to 269 ?g Xeq L-1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. We hypothesise from our results that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

Endres, S.; Unger, J.; Wannicke, N.; Nausch, M.; Voss, M.; Engel, A.

2013-01-01

130

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 ?atm, medium (380 ?atm, and high (780 ?atm CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 ?atm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 ?g Xeq L?1 compared to 269 ?g Xeq L?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. We hypothesise from our results that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

M. Nausch

2013-01-01

131

Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine) as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions  

OpenAIRE

This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine), which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M) H2...

Nwigbo, S. C.; Okafor, V. N.; Okewale, A. O.

2012-01-01

132

Automated detection of circinate exudates in retina digital images using empirical mode decomposition and the entropy and uniformity of the intrinsic mode functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a new automated system to detect circinate exudates in retina digital images. It operates as follows: the true color image is converted to gray levels, and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is applied to it before undergoing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The entropies and uniformities of the first two IMFs are then computed to form a feature vector that is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The experimental results using a set of 45 images (23 normal images and 22 images with circinate exudates taken from the STARE database) and tenfold cross-validation indicate that the proposed approach outperforms previous works found in the literature, with perfect classification. In addition, the image processing time was <4 min, making the presented circinate exudate detection system fit for use in a clinical environment. PMID:24615482

Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

2014-08-01

133

[Comparison of the effects of laser and light-emitting diodes on lipid peroxidation in rat wound exudate].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of laser and light-emitting diode radiation on lipid peroxidation in rat wound exudate was studied with the aim to compare the efficiency of coherent laser and incoherent light-emitting diode radiations. A model of aseptic wound in rat suggested by L.I. Slutskii was used. A He-Ne laser (632 nm) and a U-332B light-emitting diode were used in this study. The intensity of lipid peroxidation was estimated by the TBA assay. The antioxidative capacity of rat wound fluid was evaluated by means of chemiluminescent assays in two model systems: a) aqueous system with ABAP and luminol and b) in phospholipid liposome suspension with Fe2+ and cumarin. It was shown that exposure of rat wounds to both laser and light-emitting diode radiation decreased the concentration of TBA products and increased the antioxidative capacity of wound exudates, compared with the control group (without irradiation). The results obtained show that exposure of wounds to both laser and light-emitting diode irradiation causes a decrease in the oxidative stress in the rat wound fluid. No significant quantitative difference between the effects of laser and light-emitting diode irradiation was found. PMID:16637342

Klebanov, G I; Shuraeva, N Iu; Chichuk, T V; Osipov, A N; Vladimirov, Iu A

2006-01-01

134

Allelopathy of oats. II. Allelochemical effect ofL-Tryptophan and its concentration in oat root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-Tryptophan caused growth inhibition of roots and hypocotyls (or coleoptiles) of cockscomb (Amaranthus caudatus L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.), increasing the dose ofL-tryptophan increased the inhibition. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of the root growth were 0.14, 0.15, 0.21, 0.79, 0.95, 1.7, and 2.4 mM for cockscomb, cress, lettuce, timothy, rice, wheat, and oat, respectively; the concentrations for 40% inhibition of the hypocotyl (or coleoptile) growth were 0.28, 0.33, 0.43, 2.7, 4.5, 7.2, and 15 mM for cockscomb, cress, lettuce, timothy, rice, wheat and oat, respectively. The levels ofL-tryptophan in oat seedlings and in its root exudates were 29.3 mg/kg fresh wt and 0.25 mM under light conditions, and 21.1 mg/kg fresh wt and 0.18 mM under dark conditions, respectively. The presence ofL-tryptophan in the root exudates coupled with its effect on growth suggested thatL-tryptophan may play an important role in the growth inhibition of other plants in nature. PMID:24242057

Kato-Noguchi, H; Mizutani, J; Hasegawa, K

1994-02-01

135

The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

136

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a four-period, cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to calves, alone and in combination with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA). Both drugs were administered intramuscularly (IM) at doses of 2 mg/kg. A tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the actions of the mild irritant carrageenan, was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were 15.1 ?g·h/mL for serum, 12.1 ?g·h/mL for inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and 9.6 ?g·h/mL for noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). Values of C(max) were 1.84, 0.35 and 0.31 ?g/mL, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. Mean residence time (MRT) of 23.6 h (exudate) and 22.6 h (transudate) also differed significantly from serum MRT (8.6 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB was investigated using a bovine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Time-kill curves were established ex vivo on serum, exudate and transudate samples. Modelling the ex vivo serum time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24 h) /MIC values required for bacteriostatic (18.3 h) and bactericidal actions (92 h) of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism was 139 h. Corresponding values for MB + TA were 20.1, 69 and 106 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules for a bactericidal action, assuming a MIC(90) value of 0.24 ?g/mL, a dose of 2.6 mg/kg for MB and 2.19 mg/kg for MB + TA were determined, which are similar to the currently recommended dose of 2.0 mg/kg. PMID:21091727

Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, M H S; Toutain, P L; Lees, P

2011-08-01

137

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substratess as primary substrates

138

A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis  

CERN Document Server

We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

Ceseri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

139

Inhibition and stimulation effects in communities of wood decay fungi: exudates from colonized wood influence growth by other species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces were placed onto 0.5% malt agar, opposite to small agar plugs containing the test fungi. The latter showed very variable and species-specific growth responses to the various wood types. The presence of uncolonized wood stimulated extension rates in many species, whereas the four previously decayed wood types had variable stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Wood decayed by S. hirsutum resulted in reduced extension rate, delayed growth, or total inhibition in the majority of species, thus it is suggested that this species uses secondary metabolites in a defensive strategy. A single species was, however, stimulated in the presence of S. hirsutum-decayed wood. In contrast, the presence of wood decayed by F. fomentarius was stimulatory to 45% of the species. The other previously decayed wood types generally resulted in more variable responses, depending upon species. The results are discussed in an ecological context and it is suggested that the exudates from the partly decayed wood that are responsible for the reported effects may function as infochemicals, structuring microbial communities in wood. PMID:16003479

Heilmann-Clausen, J; Boddy, L

2005-04-01

140

Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

141

Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-21

142

Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

Fleming, Alan D.; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A.; Williams, Graeme J.; Olson, John A.; Sharp, Peter F.

2007-12-01

143

Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

2014-01-01

144

The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. PMID:23332028

Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

2013-03-01

145

A Comparative Study on the Organic Acid Content and Exudation in Maize (Zea mays L. Seedlings under Conditions of Copper and Cadmium Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study focuses on the comparative effects of copper and cadmium on the organic acid content and exudation in maize (Zea mays L.. We have also discussed the role of organic acids in copper and cadmium tolerance. The maize seedlings were grown in hydroponics for 8 days and then treated with 100 ?M copper or cadmium for 4 days. The copper reduced more than cadmium root fresh wt and shoot dry wt, while Cd had more decreasing effect on root dry wt. Analysis of organic acids in root exudates showed that citrate exudation was not affected by both metals, suggesting that root exudation was not involved in copper or cadmium tolerance in maize. This prompted us to investigate the role of organic acids in internal tolerance mechanism. Total organic acids were decreased in roots but remained unchanged in shoots of Cu and Cd-treated plants. However, malate content decreased substantially in roots by 68 and 53%, respectively with Cu and Cd. The marked increase in the content of citrate with both metals in roots, as well as in those of malate with Cu and citrate with Cd in shoots, underlined the main role of these organic acids in Cu and Cd tolerance in maize.

Radhouane Chaffai

2006-01-01

146

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Surgically Removed Hard Exudates in Diabetic Macular Edema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three eyes of 2 patients with diabetic macular edema underwent a vitrectomy to remove subfoveal hard exudates. Fatty acid compositions of hard exudates and plasma phospholipids (PL) as an objective estimation of dietary intake were analyzed. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were relatively consistent in hard exudates and PL, but were less abundant in hard exudates. The hard exudates had lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 omega3), which oxidized more readily than other PUFA. Dietary PUFA may be associated with the composition of retinal hard exudates. PMID:20337342

Byeon, Suk Ho; Chung, Hae-Yun; Kwon, Oh W

2010-03-01

147

Chromium toxicity tolerance of Solanum nigrum L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. plants with reference to ion pattern, antioxidation activity and root exudation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromium (Cr), being a highly toxic metal, adversely affects the mineral uptake and metabolic processes in plants when present in excess. The current study was aimed at investigating the Cr accumulation in various plant tissues and its relation to the antioxidation activity and root exudation. Plants were grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cr for three weeks in pots and analysed for different growth, antioxidants and ion attributes. Furthermore, plants treated with different concentrations of Cr in pots were shifted to rhizobox-like system for 48h and organic acids were monitored in the mucilage dissolved from the plant root surface, mirroring rhizospheric solution. The results revealed that the Cr application at 1mM increased the shoot fresh and dry weight and root dry weight of Solanum nigrum, whereas the opposite was observed for Parthenium hysterophorus when compared with lower levels of Cr (0.5mM) or control treatment. In both plant species, Cr and Cl concentrations were increased while Ca, Mg and K concentrations in root, shoot and root exudates were decreased with increasing levels of Cr. Higher levels of Cr treatments enhanced the activities of SOD, POD and proline content in leaves of S. nigrum, whereas lower levels of Cr treatment were found to have stimulatory effects in P. hysterophorus. P. hysterophorus exhibited highest exudation of organic acid contents. With increasing levels of Cr treatments, citric acid concentration in root exudates increased by 35% and 44% in S. nigrum, whereas 20% and 76% in P. hysterophorus. Cr toxicity was responsible for the shoot growth reduction of S. nigrum and P. hysterophorus, however, shoot growth response was different at different levels of applied Cr. Consequently, Cr stress negatively altered the plant physiology and biochemistry. However, the enhanced antioxidant production, Cl uptake and root exudation are the physiological and biochemical indicators for the plant adaptations in biotic systems polluted with Cr. PMID:25528377

UdDin, Islam; Bano, Asghari; Masood, Sajid

2015-03-01

148

Influence of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate on the in vitro phagocytosis of hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal exudate cells: an electron microscopic and chemiluminescence study.  

OpenAIRE

Transmission electron microscopy and standard chemiluminescence assays were used to investigate the in vivo effect of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (clodronate) on the phagocytosis of pure hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of chemiluminescence by the peritoneal exudate cells. Hydroxyapatite (control) and a hydroxyapatite/clodronate suspension (28 mumol clodronate per gram of hydroxyapatite, experimental) were injected into the peritoneum of rats, the...

Hyvo?nen, P. M.; Kowolik, M. J.

1992-01-01

149

14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

150

Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

S.C. Nwigbo

2012-01-01

151

Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: automatic extraction of optic disc and exudates from retinal images using marker-controlled watershed transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increasing number of diabetic retinopathy cases, ophthalmologists are experiencing serious problem to automatically extract the features from the retinal images. Optic disc (OD), exudates, and cotton wool spots are the main features of fundus images which are used for diagnosing eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a new algorithm for the extraction of these bright objects from fundus images based on marker-controlled watershed segmentation is presented. The proposed algorithm makes use of average filtering and contrast adjustment as preprocessing steps. The concept of the markers is used to modify the gradient before the watershed transformation is applied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the test images of STARE and DRIVE databases. It is shown that the proposed method can yield an average sensitivity value of about 95%, which is comparable to those obtained by the known methods. PMID:20703768

Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Eswaran, C; Dimyati, Kaharudin

2011-12-01

152

Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years. PMID:22476759

Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

2012-08-01

153

Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggregates having a fractal dimension D = 2.55. When this value was applied to historical TEP size spectra from a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent from that of the cells.

Mari, Xavier

1999-01-01

154

Detección y diferenciación de exudados en retinografías a color / Detection and differentiation of retinal exudates in color retinal images  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La retinopatía diabética en etapas tempranas suele ser imperceptible para los pacientes diabéticos. Sus primeras manifestaciones, tal como los microaneurismas, suelen pasar desapercibidas en exámenes especializados por su difícil detección; además, su presencia única no implica necesariamente relaci [...] ón directa con la retinopatía diabética, puesto que existen otras patologías que también pueden producirlas. Solo hasta la detección de la presencia de exudados un especialista puede deducir la presencia de la retinopatía diabética. Este artículo presenta un método que permite asistir la identificación y diferenciación de exudados sobre retinografías mediante la utilización de una variedad de clasificadores de tipo k-nn. El método propuesto demostró ser un método sensible y específico en la detección de lesiones brillantes, capaz de determinar con certeza suficiente una posible lesión en una retinografía a color, con una especificidad de 99%. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy early is not usually perceivable in patients with diabetic. Their first signs, like micro-aneurysms, often are unnoticed in preliminary test due to its difficult detection by means specialists. In addition, its presence is necessarily not directly related to diabetic retinopathy [...] , since there are others pathologies that may also cause those. Until the detection of the presence of exudates, a specialist can deduce the presence of diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents a method to assist the identification and differentiation of exudates on color retinal images based on a variety of k-nn filters. The proposed method proved to be a sensitive and specific detection of bright lesions, able to determine with sufficient certainty, a possible injury, with a specificity of 99%.

Germán, Sánchez Torres; Jorge Rudas, Castaño; Ricardo, Toscano Cuello.

2011-07-15

155

Pulsatile ocular blood flow study: decreases in exudative age related macular degeneration  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—Pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) is a parameter for evaluating choroidal blood flow. POBF in the patients with non-exudative and exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated.?METHODS—POBF, pulse amplitude (PA), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, and axial length were compared among 10 patients with non-exudative AMD, 11 patients with exudative AMD, and 69 age matched controls. A Langham OBF computeri...

Mori, F.; Konno, S.; Hikichi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Ishiko, S.; Yoshida, A.

2001-01-01

156

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

OpenAIRE

Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exud...

Umoren, S. A.; Obot, I. B.; Ebenso, E. E.; Okafor, P. C.

2008-01-01

157

Chemical Analysis of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Phenolics Components and the Resin in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available H. taltalense (Phil. Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids – naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol – were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

René Torres

2009-06-01

158

Weighted ensemble based automatic detection of exudates in fundus photographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a visual complication of diabetes, which has become one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world. Exudate detection is an important problem in automatic screening systems for detection of diabetic retinopathy using color fundus photographs. In this paper, we present a method for detection of exudates in color fundus photographs, which combines several preprocessing and candidate extraction algorithms to increase the exudate detection accuracy. The first stage of the method consists of an ensemble of several exudate candidate extraction algorithms. In the learning phase, simulated annealing is used to determine weights for combining the results of the ensemble candidate extraction algorithms. The second stage of the method uses a machine learning-based classification for detection of exudate regions. The experimental validation was performed using the DRiDB color fundus image set. The validation has demonstrated that the proposed method achieved higher accuracy in comparison to state-of-the art methods. PMID:25569916

Prentasic, Pavle; Loncaric, Sven

2014-08-01

159

Automated Detection and Differentiation of Drusen, Exudates, and Cotton-Wool Spots in Digital Color Fundus Photographs for Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

purpose. To describe and evaluate a machine learning-based, automated system to detect exudates and cotton-wool spots in digital color fundus photographs and differentiate them from drusen, for early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. methods. Three hundred retinal images from one eye of 300 patients with diabetes were selected from a diabetic retinopathy telediagnosis database (nonmydriatic camera, two-field photography): 100 with previously diagnosed bright lesions and 200 without. A m...

Niemeijer, M.; Ginneken, B.; Russel, S. R.; Suttorp-schulten, M. S. A.; Abramoff, M. D.

2007-01-01

160

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING) OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

OpenAIRE

In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating) of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembr...

BRENDA MODAK; RENÉ TORRES; ALEJANDRO URZÚA

2011-01-01

161

Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin  

OpenAIRE

Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical meth...

René Torres; Brenda Modak; Jesús Rodilla; Melissa Salina

2009-01-01

162

Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

2015-01-01

163

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytoto...

Al-sherif, E.; Hegazy, A. K.; Gomaa, N. H.; Hassan, M. O.

2013-01-01

164

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

2012-02-01

165

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

166

Intravitreal Aflibercept Outcomes in Patients with Persistent Macular Exudate Previously Treated with Bevacizumab and/or Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To assess whether intravitreal aflibercept (2.0?mg) can effectively reduce persistent macular exudate and enhance visual acuity in ranibizumab (0.5?mg) and/or bevacizumab (1.25?mg) treatment resistant patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods. This retrospective study included 47 treatment resistant eyes from 47 patients switched to intravitreal aflibercept injections after receiving a minimum of 3 injections with either ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Snellen visual acuity and optical coherence tomography were assessed just prior to the first injection (baseline) and prior to the fourth injection (final). Additionally, anatomical regions of persistent macular exudate were tracked to determine if these areas yielded varying responses to aflibercept. Results. At baseline, patients had received an average of 11.3 injections with any prior anti-VEGF drug (SD 5.96). For whole group analysis, baseline and final central retinal thickness were 370.57?µm and 295.7?µm (P ? .001), respectively. Baseline and final retinal fluid volumes were 4.81?mm3 and 4.37?mm3 (P ? .001), respectively. Baseline and final logMAR were 0.56 and 0.53 (P = 0.301), respectively. Anatomic location of persistent exudate did not appreciably alter treatment outcome. Conclusion. Central retinal thickness and total retinal fluid volume were reduced in ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab treatment resistant patients following three aflibercept injections. No appreciable change in visual acuity was noted. PMID:25505976

Griffin, David R.; Richmond, Preston P.; Olson, John C.

2014-01-01

167

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

2005-08-01

168

Association Between Retinal Thickness Measured by Spectral-Domain OCT and Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation in Non-exudative Age-Related Maculopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To examine associations between retinal thickness and rod-mediated dark adaptation in older adults with non-exudative age-related maculopathy (ARM) or normal macular health. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 74 adults ? 50 years old from the comprehensive ophthalmology and retina services of an academic eye center. ARM presence and disease severity in the enrollment eye was defined by the masked grading of stereofundus photos using the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy (CARMS) grading system. High-definition, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to estimate retinal thickness in a grid of regions in the macula. Rod-mediated dark adaptation, recovery of light sensitivity after a photo-bleach, was measured over a 20-minute period for a 500 nm target presented at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. Main outcomes of interest were retinal thickness in the macula (?m) and parameters of rod-mediated dark adaptation (second slope, third slope, average sensitivity, final sensitivity). Results In non-exudative disease retinal thickness was decreased in greater disease severity; thinner retina was associated with reductions in average and final rod-mediated sensitivity even after adjustment for age and visual acuity. Conclusions Impairment in rod-mediated dark adaptation in non-exudative ARM is associated with macular thinning. PMID:21289019

Clark, Mark E.; McGwin, Gerald; Neely, David; Feist, Richard; Mason, John O.; Thomley, Martin; White, Milton F.; Ozaydin, Bunyamin; Girkin, Christopher A.; Owsley, Cynthia

2013-01-01

169

Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from –43.2o to –52o for Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and +36.0o to +60.0o for A. seyal var. fistula. Likewise, the acid equivalent weights (AEWs have been found to vary from 1093 to 1920 for A. Senegal var. Senegal and 1063 to 1749 for A. seyal var. fistula. Significant intra-species variation for the tannin content has also been observed for the species studied, whereas the nitrogen content has been observed to vary significantly only in A. seyal var. fistula. The results in this study show that the variation of the properties among batches of commercial Acacia gum may be due to admixture of gums from different Acacia species as well as intra-species variation.

Gaspar S. Mhinzi

2003-06-01

170

The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild steel corrosion in acidic media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this study, a comparative study of two oleo-gum resins was performed. ? The adsorption of both oleo-gum resins is well described by Langmuir isotherm model. ? Oleo-gum resins behave as mixed type inhibitors. ? Inhibition efficiency of both oleo-gum resins in 2 M HCl decreased with rise in temperature. ? Quantum chemical calculations used to explain the difference in behavior of two resins. - Abstract: A comparative study of two oleo-gum resins exudate from Ferula assa-foetida (F. assa-foetida) and Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum), as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in 2 M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both oleo-gums behave as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency was studied. At all temperatures, the experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm for both oleo-gum resin exudates. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of two oleo-gum resin exudates.

171

MODE OF ACTION, LOCALIZATION OF PRODUCTION, CHEMICAL NATURE, AND ACTIVITY OF SORGOLEONE: A POTENT PSII INHIBITOR IN SORGHUM SPP. ROOT EXUDATES  

Science.gov (United States)

The root exudates produced by sorghums contain a biologically active constituent known as sorgoleone. Seven sorghum accessions were evaluated for their exudate components. Except for johnsongrass, which yielded 14.8 mg root exudate/g fresh root wt, sorghum accessions consistently yielded approxima...

172

Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for exudative age related macular degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on the visual acuity of patients with exudative age related macular degeneration, to assess the duration of a possible effect, and to evaluate clinical side effects of the treatment.

Jonas, J. B.; Kreissig, I.; Hugger, P.; Sauder, G.; Panda-jonas, S.; Degenring, R.

2004-01-01

173

Clustering Technique for Segmentation of Exudates in Fundus Image .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exudates are a category of lipid retinal lesions visible through optical fundus imaging, and indicative of diabetic retinopathy. we tend to propose a clustering-based methodology to phase exudates, using multi-space clustering, and colorspace options. The tactic was evaluated on a group of eighty nine pictures from a publically obtainable dataset, and achieves an accuracy of 89.7% and positive prophetical price of 87%.

Md. Muhid Ahmed

2013-06-01

174

A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

OpenAIRE

Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia) are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneum...

Yoshinouchi T; Ohtsuki Y; Fujita J; Sugiura Y; Banno S; Sato S.; Ueda R

2002-01-01

175

Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

René Torres

2009-11-01

176

Bilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment in HELLP Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy complication, life-threatening for mother and child, characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. Blurred vision is the most common visual complaint. A rare case of bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the HELLP syndrome is described in a 30-year-old Caucasian woman at 33 weeks' gestation. The retinal detachment did reattach with good improvement in vision under steroid therapy. The case highlights the importance ...

Scho?nfeld, C. -l

2012-01-01

177

Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

2005-12-01

178

Comparative nasal effects of bradykinin and histamine: influence on nasal airways resistance and plasma protein exudation.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND--Bradykinin may contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Like histamine, nasal challenge with bradykinin induces rhinorrhoea, nasal blockage, and plasma protein leakage. Their comparative nasal potencies have not, however, been fully elucidated. METHODS--Three double blind, randomised, placebo controlled and cross-over studies were undertaken to compare objectively the nasal effects of bradykinin, histamine, and vehicle. RESULTS--Both bradykinin and histamine produced d...

Rajakulasingam, K.; Polosa, R.; Lau, L. C.; Church, M. K.; Holgate, S. T.; Howarth, P. H.

1993-01-01

179

Detection of Exudates for the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is caused by the abnormalities in the retina due to insufficient insulin in the body. Diabetic Retinopathy affects 80% of all patients who had diabetes for 10 years or more, which can also lead to vision loss. The most primitive sign of Diabetic Retinopathy is Exudates. Exudates in the retina are opacities that result from the escape of plasma and white blood cells from defective blood vessels. Detecting the exudates in an earlier stage can prevent the vision loss. In this paper, an automated algorithm has demonstrated to detect and localize the presence of exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils. In this method, first the retinal fundus image is pre-processed. Then, Mask Technique and Score Computation technique is used for segmenting the exudates in the retinal fundus images. This method does not require supervised learning which requires labeled set, may cause human error and it is time consuming process. It can effectively identify the lesions because exudates were clearly distinguished from optic disc and blood vessels. It helps the ophthalmologists apply proper treatments that might eliminate the disease or decrease the severity of it.

Anitha Somasundaram

2013-05-01

180

14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source (60Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

181

PHYTOREMEDIATION: PLANT UPTAKE OF ATRAZINE AND THE ROLE OF ROOT EXUDATES. (R825549C060)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

182

An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy / Associação entre vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar subclínica e distrofia de cones e bastonetes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um homem caucasiano de 21 anos foi avaliado com queixa de nictalopia. A acuidade visual era 20/20 em ambos os olhos. Biomicroscopia do segmento anterior era normal. A fundoscopia revelava zonas avasculares periféricas, exsudação mínima dos vasos retinianos periféricos da retina, telangiectasias da r [...] etina periférica com anastomoses em ambos os olhos e deslocamento vascular da retina em direção a periferia temporal em ambos os olhos. O eletrorretinograma (ERG) de campo total apresentava respostas de bastonetes praticamente indetectáveis e redução das respostas de cones. A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) macular mostrava estrutura normal em AO. As alterações vasculares foram atribuídas à forma subclínica da vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar. Este é um caso interessante com a associação de vitreoretinopatia exsudativa familiar e distrofia de cones e bastonetes (RCD). Abstract in english A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal t [...] elangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

Abdullah, Ilhan; Umit, Yolcu; Fatih Cakir, Gundogan; Fahrettin, Akay.

2014-10-01

183

The nodD gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum is autoregulatory and in the presence of plant exudate induces the nodA,B,C genes  

OpenAIRE

To analyse nod gene expression in Rhizobium leguminosarum, a broad host-range lacZ protein fusion vector was constructed. Two protein fusions, nodC-lacZ and nodD-lacZ, were used to measure the regulation of expression of the promoters of the nodA,B,C and the nodD transcripts by measuring the induced levels of ?-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum. In the absence of plant root exudate the nodD-lacZ hybrid was expressed but the nodC-lacZ hybrid was not. The expression of the nodD-lacZ h...

Rossen, L.; Shearman, C. A.; Johnston, A. W. B.; Downie, J. A.

1985-01-01

184

Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

2013-03-01

185

MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and myelocyte/metamyelocyte (MC/MM) stages of development. These 135 miRNAs were divided into six clusters according to the pattern of their expression. Several miRNAs demonstrate a pronounced increase or reduction at the transition between MB/PM and MC/MM, which is associated with cell cycle arrest and the initiation of terminal differentiation. Seven miRNAs are differentially up-regulated between peripheral blood PMNs and extravasated PMNs and only one of these (miR-132) is also differentially regulated during granulopoiesis. The study indicates that several different miRNAs participate in the regulation of normal granulopoiesis and that miRNAs might also regulate activities of extravasated neutrophils. The data present the miRNA profiles during the development and activation of the neutrophil granulocyte in healthy humans and thus serves as a reference for further research of normal and malignant granulocytic development.

Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer

2013-01-01

186

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

187

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Alexandre, Oba; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

2009-11-01

188

Color Retinal Image Analysis for Automated Detection and Severity of Exudates  

OpenAIRE

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. In this paper, a two-stage methodology for the detection and classification of DME severity from color fundus images is proposed. DME detection is carried out via a supervised learning approach using the normal fundus images. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images. Dise...

Sarika Madhu; Parameshachari B D; Nithin Joe; Divakaramurthy, H. S.

2013-01-01

189

Color Retinal Image Analysis for Automated Detection and Severity of Exudates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. In this paper, a two-stage methodology for the detection and classification of DME severity from color fundus images is proposed. DME detection is carried out via a supervised learning approach using the normal fundus images. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images. Disease severity is assessed using a rotational asymmetry metric by examining the symmetry of macular region.

Sarika Madhu

2013-10-01

190

Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seagrass carbon budgets provide valuable insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolv...

191

Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

192

Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment  

OpenAIRE

Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal mel...

Sk, Houston; Nv, Shah; Decatur C; Lonngi M; Feuer W; Am, Markoe; Tg, Murray

2013-01-01

193

Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms  

OpenAIRE

The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal agg...

Mari, Xavier

1999-01-01

194

Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions  

OpenAIRE

Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacter...

Mark, G. Louise; Dow, J. Maxwell; Kiely, Patrick D.; Higgins, Hazel; Haynes, Jill; Baysse, Christine; Abbas, Abdelhamid; Foley, Tara; Franks, Ashley; Morrissey, John; O Gara, Fergal

2005-01-01

195

Localization of Hard Exudates in Retinal Fundus Image by Mathematical Morphology Operations  

OpenAIRE

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Detection of hard exudates is an important step for early diagnosis in eye diseases such as Macular Edema(ME). If hard exudates were segmented precisely, laser treatments can be applied more effective for patients by surgeons. The possibility of blindness is very high when the hard exudates are very close to Macula region or Optic disc. Therefore, fast and accurate segmentation is one of the most important factors i...

Hamidreza Pourreza; Mehdi Ghafourian Fakhar Eadgahi

2012-01-01

196

Complexation of lead by Bermuda grass root exudates in aqueous media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudates produced from Bermuda grass roots were collected in deionized water from sterilized Bermuda grass sod at 3-day intervals over a period of 15 days. Exudates were analyzed for total organic carbon, and characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Exudate samples were adjusted to pH values of 4.5, 6.5, and 7.5, amended with lead and quantified for soluble and complexed lead via Inductively Coupled Plasma--Optical Emission Spectrometry. Data obtained from total organic carbon measurements indicated compositional changes in Bermuda grass root exudates as organic carbon concentrations increased over time. Analysis of the infrared spectroscopy data indicated that carboxylic acids and amine functional groups were present in root exudates. Also, the ability of root-exuded compounds to solubilize lead in aqueous media was demonstrated as exudate samples dissolved an average of 60% more lead than deionized water. At pH values 4.5 and 7.5, lead complexation by Bermuda grass root exudates increased with decreasing molecular weight size fractions, while an opposite trend was observed at pH 6.5. Results from this study demonstrated the ability of Bermuda grass root exudates to complex lead in aqueous media. PMID:24912248

Thomas, Catherine; Butler, Afrachanna; Larson, Steven; Medina, Victor; Begonia, Maria

2014-01-01

197

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

OpenAIRE

Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudatio...

Diz, Maria?ngela S. S.; Carvalho, Andre? O.; Gomes, Valdirene M.

2003-01-01

198

The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1?cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400?mg, ibuprofen tablets (400?mg, NAC (400?mg/ibuprofen (200?mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- ?, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p?=?0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p?=?0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p?=?0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

Ehsani Maryam

2012-09-01

199

The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain  

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Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

2012-09-01

200

Auxins and cytokinins exuded during formation of roots by detached primary leaves and stems of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

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Hypocotyls of detached stems standing in culture solution produced adventitious roots sooner than did petioles of detached primary leaves. An auxin, probably indol-3-ylacetic acid, appeared in the solutions before the hypocotyls or petioles produced roots. After attaining a maximum, the amounts of auxin in the solutions decreased as fewer roots were formed. Two cytokinins were found in the culture solutions; one had a similar Rf to zeatin, the other ran more slowly on chromatograms. The amounts of cytokinin in the solutions were associated with root formation. Stems soon died unless their hypocotyls formed roots, but the primary leaves survived without roots forming provided a callus formed on the petiole. Hence adventitious roots, or callus tissues, may have produced cytokinins that replaced those produced by the original roots, found in sap exuded from the stem stumps, and were essential for survival of the stems and leaves. PMID:24493346

Wheeler, A W

1971-06-01

201

The proteome of liquid Sclerotial exudates from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  

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Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) is a necrotrophic plant pathogen that is capable of infecting more than 400 plant species worldwide. The sclerotium plays important roles in the disease and fungal life cycles. The exudation of liquid droplets is a common feature during sclerotial development, but little is known regarding the nature of these exudates. A proteome-level study was performed in order to gain a better understanding of the types of proteins present in the exudates. Fifty-six proteins were identified and classified into several functional categories, including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid and secondary metabolism, as well as energy, signal transduction, and those with unknown functions. The roles of the identified proteins are discussed within the context of sclerotial development and fungal virulence. Our results may facilitate additional studies aimed at characterizing the function of these proteins in the formation of sclerotia and the life cycle of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:20408562

Liang, Yue; Strelkov, Stephen E; Kav, Nat N V

2010-06-01

202

AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

203

[Surgical treatment of patients with exudative otitis media].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article concerns peculiarities of surgery for chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). The significance of miringotomy, tympanostomy, tympanotomy and tympanoantrotomy is demonstrated. The experience of the authors in surgical treatment and postoperative management of CEOM is reviewed. Of primary importance is valid selection of patients for each operation and choice of ventilatory tubes depending on the disease stage. Incidence rate and causes of recurrences in respect to the patients' age are presented and the role of follow-up in prevention of CEOM recurrences is shown. Use of temporal bone computed tomography in CEOM is specified. Key words: exudative otitis media, tympanostomy, ventilation tubes, CT of the temporal bone. PMID:14671582

Dmitriev, N S; Mileshina, N A

2003-01-01

204

Influence of plant root exudates on the mobility of fuel volatile compounds in contaminated soils.  

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Vegetation and its associated microorganisms play an important role in the behaviour of soil contaminants. One of the most important elements is root exudation, since it can affect the mobility, and therefore, the bioavailability of soil contaminants. In this study, we evaluated the influence of root exudates on the mobility of fuel derived compounds in contaminated soils. Samples of humic acid, montmorillonite, and an A horizon from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were contaminated with volatile contaminants present in fuel: oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE) and monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Natural root exudates obtained from Holcus lanatus and Cytisus striatus and ten artificial exudates (components frequently found in natural exudates) were added to the samples, individually and as a mixture, to evaluate their effects on contaminant mobility. Fuel compounds were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the addition of natural and artificial exudates increased the mobility of all contaminants in humic acid. In A horizon and montmorillonite, natural or artificial exudates (as a mixture) decreased the contaminant mobility. However, artificial exudates individually had different effects: carboxylic components increased and phenolic components decreased the contaminant mobility. These results established a base for developing and improving phytoremediation processes of fuel-contaminated soils. PMID:24933887

Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmela

2014-01-01

205

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

Fan, Ben

2012-06-21

206

Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

207

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with in [...] crease in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; P.C., Okafor.

208

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

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Full Text Available Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE and Raphia hookeri (RH were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1 increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A. Umoren

2008-01-01

209

Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

2014-06-01

210

New phenolic esters from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus taeda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new phenolic esters 9-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-alpha-terpineol (1) and 7-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-taedol (2), both endowed with free radical scavenger activity and cleroda-3,13 (E)-dien-15,18-diol (3) for which a cis stereochemistry at the decalin junction was found, were isolated from the resinous exudate from Haplopappus taeda upper parts. PMID:17656041

Faini, Francesca; Labbé, Cecilia; Torres, René; Rodilla, Jesús M; Silva, Lucía; Delle Monache, Franco

2007-12-01

211

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Dionysia (Primulaceae): a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 60 accessions of various Dionysia spp. were analysed for their exudate flavonoid composition. Many Dionysia spp. accumulate the typical Primula flavonoids with irregular substitution (unsubstituted flavone, its 2',5'-substituted derivatives and corresponding 5-OH-flavones), but flavones, flavonols and flavanones with regular 5,7-diOH-substitution are also encountered in their exudates. The formation of both types of flavonoids is not mutually exclusive. This paper analyses the chemodiversity of Dionysia exudates with respect to infraspecific variability, infrageneric distribution, patterns in hybrid taxa, and comparisons of biogenetic tendencies between Dionysia and closest related species of Primula. The uniqueness of occurrence of Primula-type flavonoids in the family Primulaceae, and their presumed different biosynthetic origin, suggest significance as further character in the Primula-Dionysia assemblage. Principal component analysis was applied to test the significance of variation of flavonoid composition across Dionysia. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profiles against the current taxonomic views yielded correlations, confined to the level of smaller groups, and only in parts at level of the current infrageneric concept. Flavonoid data are further discussed against the background of morphological and biogeographic differentiation of the genus. Increased diversification of flavonoid profiles may be interpreted as a derived status in Dionysia, which agrees with current views on the phylogeny of Dionysia as a specialised group within Primula. Functional aspects of exudate flavonoid formation are shortly addressed. PMID:20378133

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Bhutia, Tshering D; Wollenweber, Eckhard

2010-06-01

212

Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

M. I. Trujillo

1999-03-01

213

Vascular endothelial growth factor in pleural fluid for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant origin and its clinical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goal was to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in diagnosing of pleural effusion (PE) in order to select patients deserving of more aggressive procedures. Seventy-nine consecutive patients with undiagnosed unilateral PE were enrolled. Pleural VEGF levels, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were correlated to etiology of PEs and other markers (protein, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, glucose). The median level of VEGF in exudates (n=65) was significantly higher than that in transudates (P=0.0001) and among exudates, it was significantly higher in malignant (n=49) than that in benign exudates (P=0.005). No significant differences were observed between malignant effusions due to lung cancer (n=11) and other malignant effusions [mesothelioma (n=13) and/or extra-thoracic cancer]. Among all variables evaluated, logistic regression found that only VEGF was significantly correlated with the presence of malignant disease (P=0.002). Analysis of the receiver operating characterists (ROC) curves showed that the areas under the curve of VEGF were significantly larger than that of amylase (P=0.02), glucose (P=0.01), lactic dehydrogenase (P=0.001) and protein (P=0.01). VEGF increased the diagnostic rate of cytological examination by 24%. VEGF may represent a helpful adjunct to conventional diagnostic tools in ruling out malignancy as a probable diagnosis, thus guiding the selection of patients who might benefit from further invasive procedures. PMID:21172937

Fiorelli, Alfonso; Vicidomini, Giovanni; Di Domenico, Marina; Napolitano, Filomena; Messina, Gaetana; Morgillo, Floriana; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Santini, Mario

2011-03-01

214

Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio  

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Full Text Available Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The environmental impact of the large amounts of root exudates possibly conferred by these genetically modified plants is discussed, with special emphasis on soil microbiota.Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande qua

Eduardo D. Mariano

2005-03-01

215

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING) OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating) of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatograph [...] y of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin did not follow a pattern related with hydric stress, UV radiation or high temperature during the year, a relationship between pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin was found. On average during the months of September to August, excluding March, the amount of pinocembrin decreased wile the amount of 3-O-methylgalangin increased. The results suggest that the above compounds may play different ecophysiological functions during plant development and are consistent with the biosynthetic relationship between the two compounds.

BRENDA, MODAK; RENÉ, TORRES; ALEJANDRO, URZÚA.

216

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

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Full Text Available In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin did not follow a pattern related with hydric stress, UV radiation or high temperature during the year, a relationship between pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin was found. On average during the months of September to August, excluding March, the amount of pinocembrin decreased wile the amount of 3-O-methylgalangin increased. The results suggest that the above compounds may play different ecophysiological functions during plant development and are consistent with the biosynthetic relationship between the two compounds.

BRENDA MODAK

2011-01-01

217

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

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Full Text Available Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06 foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária, em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura.Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06 were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy. At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2008-06-01

218

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto / Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objeti [...] vou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06) foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária), em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura. Abstract in english Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and i [...] ts effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06) were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy). At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

L.D., Tuffi Santos; J.B., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; J.A., Oliveira; S., Bentivenha; A.F.L., Machado.

2008-06-01

219

Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 ?Ci. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%, não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos.To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531, 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 ?Ci of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after herbicide application - HAA. After 8 HAA, 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

A.F.L. Machado

2009-01-01

220

Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P L?1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159), 13% (26/203) and 9% (20/212) of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency. PMID:25032978

Tawaraya, Keitaro; Horie, Ryota; Saito, Saki; Wagatsuma, Tadao; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira

2014-01-01

221

Association between variants A69S in ARMS2 gene and response to treatment of exudative AMD: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken to investigate the association between A69S in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A literature-based meta-analysis was performed of studies relevant to A69S and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment. PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Sinomed databases were used to retrieve articles up to July 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using fixed and random effects models in Stata V.9.0. Q-statistic testing was used to assess heterogeneity. Twelve articles comprising 2389 cases were included in the final meta-analysis. The analysis of the overall population indicated a statistically significant association between A69S and the response to anti-angiogenesis treatment in exudative AMD (GG vs TT: OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.77), p=0.039; GT vs TT: OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.31), p=0.018; GG+GT vs TT: OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.52), p=0.004). In subgroup analysis, A69S appeared more likely to be a predictor for anti-angiogenic response in the East Asian population (GG vs TT: OR 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.68), p=0.042; GT vs TT: OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.37), p=0.005; GG+GT vs TT: OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.10), p=0.027; G vs T: OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.41)). However, no statistical significance was found in the Caucasian subgroup analysis. This study shows an association between A69S polymorphism in the ARMS2 gene and the anti-angiogenesis treatment response. A69S could be considered predictive of the anti-angiogenic effects, especially in Asian populations. PMID:25185256

Hu, Zizhong; Xie, Ping; Ding, Yuzhi; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

2014-09-01

222

Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

OpenAIRE

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidia...

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

223

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

2013-01-01

224

Errors in the Measurement of Root Pressure and Exudation Volume Flow Rate Caused by Damage during the Transfer of Unsupported Roots between Solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants of Zea mays were grown with their roots confined to growing tubes, consisting of cylindrical or spherical glass tubes fitted at the bottom with a stopcock. Nutrient solution was circulated past the roots, and when a plant was 21 to 25 days old, the stopcock was closed, the root excised from the plant and connected to an apparatus which measured root pressure and exudation volume flow rate. The stopcock was opened and solution was again circulated through the growing tube without dropping the level of the liquid bathing the root in the process. Measurements of pressure and flow rate were made continuously during a period in which the solution was replaced, first by draining and refilling the tube in situ, and second by replacing the growing tube with a beaker of solution. Both these manipulations caused at least temporary and frequently permanent drops in root pressure and flow rate. Plants were also grown in cylindrical tubes with a support medium of either glass beads or Raschig rings which filled the growing tubes. It is shown that the solution bathing these roots could be repeatedly replaced by draining and refilling with no visible effect on the measurements. It is recommended, therefore, that in future, support be provided for the roots of all experimental plants grown by solution culture. PMID:16665650

Miller, D M

1987-09-01

225

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2004-12-01

226

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

2004-12-01

227

DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60Co ?-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for ?-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than ?-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

228

Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: Bile, ascitic and pleural fluids  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine body fluids such as ascitic fluid (AF, saliva, bile and pleural effusions for the presence of hepcidin using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA.METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (mean age: 36 ± 11.9 years, 11 males, 14 females. In addition bile was obtained from 12 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (mean age: 66.9 ± 16.7 years, M:F = 5:7. Saliva was collected from 17 healthy volunteers (mean age: 35 ± 9.9 years, M:F = 8:9. Pleural and AF were collected from 11 and 16 patients [(mean age: 72 ± 20.5 years, M:F = 7:4 and (mean age: 67.32 ± 15.2 years, M:F = 12:4], respectively. All biological fluid samples (serum, exudative and transudative fluids were tested for the presence of hepcidin-25 molecule using RIA.RESULTS: Hepcidin-25 was detected in all biological fluids tested. The mean ± SD hepcidin-25 in serum was 15.68 ± 15.7 ng/mL, bile 7.37 ± 7.4 ng/mL, saliva 3.4 ± 2.8 ng/mL, exudative fluid 65.64 ± 96.82 ng/mL and transudative fluid 14.1 ± 17.8 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: We provide clear evidence that hepcidin-25 is present in bile, saliva, pleural and ascitic fluids. Hepcidin is likely to play a role here in innate immunity.

Jayantha Arnold, Arvind Sangwaiya, Vijay Manglam, Frank Geoghegan, Mark Thursz, Mark Busbridge

2010-05-01

229

Root Exudate-Induced Promoter Activity in Pseudomonas fluorescens Mutants in the Wheat Rhizosphere  

OpenAIRE

Tn5-B20 (lacZ as reporter gene) transcriptional fusion mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens R2f were screened for their response to wheat root exudate. Several mutants showed (beta)-galactosidase activity under the influence of wheat root exudate. In one such mutant, RIWE8, gene expression was specifically induced by proline but not by 125 other substrates. This mutant also showed reporter gene induction, albeit to a lesser extent, by exudate of maize and grass roots but not by that of clover r...

Overbeek, L. S.; Elsas, J. D.

1995-01-01

230

Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

2012-12-01

231

Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates  

OpenAIRE

Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All pat...

Jeon S; Wk, Lee

2014-01-01

232

Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

233

Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components  

OpenAIRE

Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using de...

Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

2013-01-01

234

Ontogenetic variation of four cytokinins in soybean root pressure exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytokinins exported from the root may be involved in the correlative control of plant development. To test this hypothesis in soybean ((Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. McCall, cv Chippewa 64, and cv Hodgson 78), cytokinins were intercepted en route from the root to the shoot by collecting root pressure exudate from detopped roots. The quantities of four cytokinins in the exudate were studied throughout the development of plants grown in the field and in controlled environment chambers. Zeatin, zeatin riboside, and their dihydro derivatives, dihydrozeatin and dihydrozeatin riboside, were isolated and quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography.Cytokinin fluxes (pmoles per plant per hour) were independent of exudate flux (grams per plant per hour). All fluxes are averages for a 6- or 8-h collection period. The ribosides accounted for the majority of the observed cytokinin transport. The fluxes of zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside increased from low levels during vegetative growth to maxima during late flowering or early pod formation. Before the seeds began rapid dry matter accumulation, zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside fluxes decreased and remained at low levels through maturation. The fluxes of zeatin and dihydrozeatin were low throughout development.No correlation was found between cytokinin fluxes and nodule dry weight or specific nodule activity (acetylene reduction).The timing of distinct peaks in zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside fluxes during flowering or pod formation suggests that cytokinins exported from the root may function in the regulation of reproductive growth in soybean. PMID:16662731

Heindl, J C; Carlson, D R; Brun, W A; Brenner, M L

1982-12-01

235

Diversification of exudate flavonoid profiles in further Primula spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In continuation of previous work, exudate flavonoid profiles of 22 new accessions of the genus Primula L. aligned to different subgenera were studied for the first time. Profiling was done by comparative TLC and UV-HPLC against authentic marker compounds. Most of the studied species accumulated the typical Primula flavonoids, comprising derivatives of unsubstituted flavone, of 5,8- or 5,6-hydroxyflavones including partly highly oxygenated flavones, together with 2,2'-diOH-chalcone in their exudate. The profile of P. edelbergii belonging to subgen. Sphondylia differed largely from the majority of Primula species studied so far, showing accumulation tendencies similar to those observed earlier for the closely related genus Dionysia. The phylogenetic significance of this diversification is shortly addressed. PMID:22799081

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

2012-05-01

236

A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

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Full Text Available Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneumonia, and its intraalveolar lesions were compared between M. pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia containing fibrin (BOOP. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody and anti-pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. In pathologic findings, more fibrin deposits in intaalveolar lesions were observed in M. pneumonia than in BOOP. In intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, a larger amount of nuclear debris, more neutrophils, and more erythrocytes were noted. Myofibroblasts were observed in the organization of BOOP, while in the intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, myofibroblasts were not observed. These results suggest that M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates responds well to corticosteroid and its intraalveolar lesions apparently differed from those in BOOP.

Yoshinouchi T

2002-04-01

237

Automated detection of exudates in colored retinal images for diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical image analysis is a very popular research area these days in which digital images are analyzed for the diagnosis and screening of different medical problems. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and may cause blindness. An automated system for early detection of DR can save a patient's vision and can also help the ophthalmologists in screening of DR. The background or nonproliferative DR contains four types of lesions, i.e., microaneurysms, hemorrhages, hard exudates, and soft exudates. This paper presents a method for detection and classification of exudates in colored retinal images. We present a novel technique that uses filter banks to extract the candidate regions for possible exudates. It eliminates the spurious exudate regions by removing the optic disc region. Then it applies a Bayesian classifier as a combination of Gaussian functions to detect exudate and nonexudate regions. The proposed system is evaluated and tested on publicly available retinal image databases using performance parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. We further compare our system with already proposed and published methods to show the validity of the proposed system. PMID:22781265

Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Anjum, M Almas; Javed, M Younus

2012-07-10

238

Partial HELLP syndrome with unilateral exudative retinal detachment treated conservatively  

OpenAIRE

Peripartum vision loss, an uncommon, often reversible complication of pregnancy usually occurs in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. This is a rare case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the Partial HELLP syndrome that occurred after delivery in a 23-year-old Indian woman. The retinal detachment subsequently reattached with good visual improvement under conservative ...

Pradeep, A. V.; Rao, Sonali; Ramesh Kumar, R.

2014-01-01

239

Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts authored by medieval Persian scholars offer not only accumulation of traditional medical systems knowledge, but also contain collection of ingenious studies that provide vast information in the field of medicinal herbs application. One of the most cited derivative compositions of medicinal herbs are exudates. A large group of these compounds along with their different clinical and pharmacological applications can be found in the manuscripts of Persian medicine. Methods and Materials: This work is a literature research on some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of Alhavi, Canon of Medicine, the book of Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan ol advieh. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered by searching in Medline/PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: According to the investigated manuscripts, thirty-one substances, incorporating plant exudates relating to sixteen plant families, were used to combat simple to sophisticated ailments. Mostly exudates were derived from herbs of family, Asteraceae, Apiaceae with six and five citations, respectively. Other than the reported clinical applications for herbs, which were defined as a source for gummy compositions, numerous pharmacological approaches were also remarked for the secreted gums. Conclusion: Application of ethnobotanical findings on simple remedies offers rational criteria to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of medicinal plants.

Mohammad M. Zarshenas

2012-12-01

240

Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants. PMID:23860230

Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

2013-09-01

241

Actinide (Pu, U) interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: Fundamental chemistry and effects on environmental behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the environmental behavior of metals we must consider a tremendous range of phenomena, from simple individual reactions, such as ligand complexation and solubility equilibria, to quite complicated and collective processes, such as metal-mineral-microbial interactions. Because of pressing contamination problems at DOE sites and the paucity of relevant actinide chemistry knowledge, research is needed in this entire range of science. The determination and evaluation of key thermodynamic data for actinide species and the development of geochemical, hydrological, and environmental transport models are progressing. In contrast, we know almost nothing about how actinides interact with microorganisms. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, reduce, oxidize, solubilize, or precipitate actinides, thereby affecting their speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration. These effects are due to both direct and indirect interactions, such as sorption to the cell wall and reaction with microbial byproducts, respectively. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions, both to develop this area of fundamental research and to determine how the interactions may be exploited to affect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts

242

Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition effici [...] ency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; N., Obi-Egbedi.

243

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825960)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

244

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs são peptídeos catiônicos básicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata. Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa.

Mariângela S. S. Diz

2003-12-01

245

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Mariângela S. S., Diz; André O., Carvalho; Valdirene M., Gomes.

2003-12-01

246

A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants  

OpenAIRE

Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in e...

Cindy Bongard

2012-01-01

247

Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures. PMID:21190090

Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

2011-06-01

248

Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis. PMID:24722883

Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

2014-04-01

249

Clinicopathological correlation of retinal pigment epithelial tears in exudative age related macular degeneration: pretear, tear, and scarred tear  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To analyse the histopathology of vascularised pigment epithelial detachments and tears of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in age related macular degeneration (AMD).?METHODS—The light microscopic architecture of 10 surgically removed subretinal specimens—three vascularised pigment epithelial detachments, four recent tears, and three scarred tears as a manifestation of AMD—were studied and correlated with the angiographic findings.?RESULTS—Recent tears: a large fibrovas...

Lafaut, B.; Aisenbrey, S.; Vanden, B.; Krott, R.; Jonescu-cuypers, C.; Reynders, S.; Bartz-schmidt, K.

2001-01-01

250

Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A and serous PED (Group B in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05. In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01. The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

Panos GD

2013-07-01

251

[In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

2009-08-15

252

Bradykinin-induced airflow obstruction and airway plasma exudation: effects of drugs that inhibit acetylcholine, thromboxane A2 or leukotrienes.  

OpenAIRE

1. The mechanisms behind bradykinin-induced effects in the airways are considered to be largely indirect. The role of cholinergic nerves and eicosanoids, and their relationship in these mechanisms were investigated in guinea-pigs. 2. The role of cholinergic nerves was studied in animals given atropine (1 mg kg-1, i.v.), hexamethonium (2 mg kg-1, i.v.), or vagotomized. To study the role of eicosanoids, animals were pretreated with a thromboxane A2 (TxA2) receptor antagonist (ICI 192,605; 10(-6...

Kawikova, I.; Arakawa, H.; La?¶fdahl, C. G.; Skoogh, B. E.; La?¶tvall, J.

1993-01-01

253

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat in female lineage broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo e [...] nrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+) e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-). Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105) e HAL+ (n=13) em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b*) foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one o [...] r both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+), while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-). The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105) and HAL+ (n=13) birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Marco Antônio, Trindade; Alexandre, Oba; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Tércio, Michelan Filho; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Massami, Shimokomaki.

2009-11-01

254

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat in female lineage broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one or both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+, while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-. The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105 and HAL+ (n=13 birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+ e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-. Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105 e HAL+ (n=13 em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b* foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

255

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial / Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, [...] resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades. Abstract in english The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 9 [...] 46 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Magali Bernardes, Maganhini; Bruno, Mariano; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Paulo D., Guarnieri; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

2007-08-01

256

The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 ?m nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

257

Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.  

Science.gov (United States)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux. PMID:19183296

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

2009-05-01

258

Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias

2009-01-01

259

[Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].  

Science.gov (United States)

Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. The results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. Allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum in continuous cropping soybean was distinctly larger than that in rotation soybean, and the difference reached significant level under their low concentration. Allelopathic promotion of high concentration of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum was smaller than that of low concentration of root exudates, and the difference reached significant level in continuous cropping soybean. Allelopathic inhibition of high concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid (L5 and B5) on the growth of Fusarium semitectum. Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level compared with the control. However, allelopathic promotion of low concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum partly reached significant level. PMID:12216402

Ju, Huiyan; Han, Limei; Wang, Shuqi; Cong, Dengli

2002-06-01

260

The plant stigma exudate: a biochemically active extracellular environment for pollen germination?  

Science.gov (United States)

During sexual reproduction, pollen performance is greatly influenced by the female tissues. The stigma exudate, i.e., the extracellular secretion that covers the stigma outermost surface, has been usually regarded as a reservoir of water, secondary metabolites, cell wall precursors and compounds that serve as energy supply for rapid pollen tube growth. In an attempt to identify the proteins present in the stigma secretome, we performed a large-scale analysis in two species (Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea) following a proteomic-based approach. The resulting data strongly suggest that the stigma exudate is not a mere storage site but also a biochemically active environment with a markedly catabolic nature. Thus, this secretion may modulate early pollen tube growth and contribute to the senescence of stigma after pollination. In addition, a putative cross-talk between genetic programs that regulate stress/defense and pollination responses in the stigma is also suggested. The stigma exudate might also functionally diverge between species on the basis on their ecology and the biochemical, morphological and anatomical features of their stigmas. Unexpectedly, we identified in both exudates some intracellular proteins, suggesting that a mechanism other than the canonical ER-Golgi exocytic pathway may exist in the stigma and contribute to exudate secretion. PMID:24589550

Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; de Dios Alché, Juan; Isabel Rodríguez-García, María; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Castro, Antonio J

2014-01-01

261

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

E Al-Sherif

2013-03-01

262

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

2013-03-01

263

Partial HELLP syndrome with unilateral exudative retinal detachment treated conservatively.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripartum vision loss, an uncommon, often reversible complication of pregnancy usually occurs in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. This is a rare case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the Partial HELLP syndrome that occurred after delivery in a 23-year-old Indian woman. The retinal detachment subsequently reattached with good visual improvement under conservative treatment. This case highlights the importance of early intervention by the ophthalmologist when pregnant women complain about visual symptoms. PMID:25473354

Pradeep, A V; Rao, Sonali; Ramesh Kumar, R

2014-10-01

264

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

265

Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L.) root  

OpenAIRE

Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG) and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL), was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extract...

Hallak Angela Maria Gattás; Davide Lisete Chamma; Souza Itamar Ferreira

1999-01-01

266

Two new O-geranyl coumarins from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus multifolius.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the resinous exudate of leaves of Haplopappus multifolius two new coumarins were isolated and assigned the structures 6-hydroxy-7-(5'-hydroxy-3',7'-dimethylocta-2',6'-dien)-oxycoumarin (1) and 6-hydroxy-7-(7'-hydroxy-3',7'-dimethylocta-2',5'-dien)-oxy coumarin (2). PMID:14693213

Torres, René; Faini, Francesca; Delle Monache, Franco; Delle Monache, Giuliano

2004-01-01

267

Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background: To investigate the ability of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Fourteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed choroidal neovasularization underwent Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter metamorphopsia test (main outcome measures), 1 hour before (baseline) and 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after one intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (0...

Querques, Giuseppe; Berboucha, Elya; Leveziel, Nicolas; Pece, Alfredo; Souied, Eric H.

2010-01-01

268

Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

2007-07-01

269

Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed ?CGOX/?CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

270

Repellent of root-knot nematodes from exudate of host roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemotaxis assay was developed to measure attraction or repulsion of infective juveniles of the root-knot nematodeMeloidogyne incognita to exudates of host roots. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to measure the repellent activity of a 25-?l sample of 7 mM NaCl. In tests of root exudate collected in a variety of ways from a variety of plants, avoidance responses were usually found but attraction was not. Extraction of the exudate from tomato with various organic solvents revealed that the repellent activity was highly polar. On Sephadex G-15 chromatography this exudate separated into two clearly defined peaks with apparent molecular weights of about 500 and 1000 daltons. The faster running peak (larger apparent size) contained much more activity than the other peak. Subsequent analysis of material from the larger peak via HPLC on a C18 column revealed a single peak of repellent activity. None of the chemical fractionations uncovered reproducible attractant activity. PMID:24271541

Diez, J A; Dusenbery, D B

1989-10-01

271

Potential Abiotic Functions of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Cycling of Soil Organic Matter  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots are the primary source of C in mineral horizons and can significantly accelerate the rate of soil organic matter mineralization in rhizosphere soils. While a portion of this acceleration results from stimulation of microbial enzymatic capacities (the 'priming effect') - abiotic responses also play a significant role in rhizosphere cycling of soil organic matter (SOM). For example, exudate-stimulated mobilization and dissolution of metal species may release previously complexed SOM, or could affect Fe mobility via redox changes associated with microbially-driven O2 depletion. We have investigated the abiotic response of rhizosphere microenvironments, using additions of several 13C-enriched low molecular weight (LMW) root exudates and 13C-plant detritus to controlled microcosms. We hypothesized that certain abiotic effects are triggered by specific exudate compounds and that the magnitude of the effect depends on the soil physiochemical properties. Using a combination of microsensor measurements, solid-phase extractions, X-ray and IR spectroscopy, we measured how root exudates differ in their potential to create reducing microenvironments, alter metal chemisty and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM in the rhizosphere. High resolution X-ray microscopy (STXM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses illustrate the physical fate of the added isotope tracers in both pore water and on mineral surfaces. Our results suggest that certain root exudates facilitate abiotic reactions that increase the pool of bioavailable SOM and stimulate its microbial decomposition in the rhizosphere. In particular, the contrasting ecological functions of LMW organic acids and simple sugars in facilitating SOM breakdown in the rhizosphere will be discussed.

Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

2012-12-01

272

Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

Mann Anthea J

2011-02-01

273

PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis  

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Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

Suhardi

2003-12-01

274

Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

2003-03-01

275

Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exame oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL. A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg. Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas.PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

Fernando Korn Malerbi

2006-02-01

276

The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:25165149

Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

2014-08-27

277

Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils  

Science.gov (United States)

As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from the root in this soil was significantly reduced. The experiments demonstrated that mucilage increased the hydraulic conductance of the root-soil continuum and facilitated the extraction of water from dry soils. The increase in conductivity resulted from the higher water content of the soil near the roots. Mucilage has a lower surface tension than pure water and a higher viscosity, resulting in a slower penetration of mucilage into the soil. After mucilage was placed into the soil, it did not spread into the bulk soil, but it remained near the roots, maintaining the rhizosphere wetter and more conductive than the bulk soil. However, as mucilage dried, it turned water repellent and reduced the back flow of water from the root to soil. We hypothesize that mucilage exudation is a plant strategy to locally and temporally facilitate water uptake from dry soils. After drying, mucilage becomes water repellent and may limit the local uptake of water after irrigation. On the other hand, mucilage water repellency may as well be a strategy to reduce water loss from roots to dry soils.

Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

2014-05-01

278

Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

279

Comparación del crecimiento de Malassezia furfur y Malassezia slooffiae en los medios del exudado gomoso de spondias dulcis y dixon / Comparison of the growth of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae on Spondias dulcis gum exudate and Dixon media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las levaduras del género Malassezia son hongos que producen afecciones en la piel. El desarrollo de estos microorganismos requiere condiciones especiales. El medio Dixon es generalmente usado para su cultivo. Se ensayo el exudado gomoso de Spondias dulcis como sustrato para Malassezia furfur y Malas [...] sezia slooffiae en comparación con el medio Dixon. Se determino la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado rango de tiempo (0-120h), a diferentes concentraciones (1,2 %) y pH (4,0;6,0;7,0). La relativa alta biomasa obtenida para las dos levaduras probadas demostró que el sustrato preparado con el exudado gomoso de S. dulcis es adecuado para su desarrollo. Spondias dulcis especie localizada en Venezuela produce abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podría ser útil para preparar un nuevo sustrato que pueda competir con Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia. Abstract in english Malassezia yeasts are fungi that produce skin affections. Growth of these microorganisms requires specific conditions. The Dixon medium has generally been used for their culture and has been tested. The use of Spondias gum as a substrate for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae was tried and c [...] ompared with the Dixon medium. The growth kinetic for a given time range(0-120 h) was determined at different concentrations (1.2%) and pH levels (4,0; 6,0;7,0). The relatively high biomass obtained for the two tested yeasts demonstrated that the substrate prepared with S. dulcis gum exudate is suitable for their growth. Spondias dulcis, a species located in Venezuela, yields abundant gum. This fact and the results discussed above indicate that it could be used to prepare a substrate that could compete with Dixon for isolating and characterizing the Malassezia species.

Luz Mila, Mesa C; Marynes, Díaz; Paola, Ocampo; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Marvelys, Larrazabal; Paula, Guerra; Gladys, León de Pinto.

2008-06-01

280

Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and mainly restricted to O. cumana. PMID:25468713

Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

2015-01-01

281

Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress  

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Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

A.E. Smirnov

2014-03-01

282

A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy  

OpenAIRE

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous ...

Arah Basel, Ba X.

2009-01-01

283

Rapid Colored-Nodule Assay for Assessing Root Exudate-Enhanced Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum  

OpenAIRE

The effects of root exudate (RE) treatment on nodule occupancy by Bradyrhizobium japonicum were investigated by a rapid colored-nodule assay, which is based on the observation that B. japonicum L-110 and its antibiotically marked derivatives form dark-red nodules on certain soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, whereas other strains form beige nodules. The efficacy of the assay was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence and by antibiotic platings of nodule bacteria. Both logarithmic- and stationar...

Ayanaba, Abateni; Haugland, Richard A.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Upchurch, Robert G.; Weiland, Karen D.; Zablotowicz, Robert M.

1986-01-01

284

Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum; Carboximetilacao da goma exsudada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

2001-07-01

285

Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab  

OpenAIRE

Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal ...

Takayama K; Enoki T; Kojima T; Ishikawa S.; Takeuchi M

2012-01-01

286

A Study on Significance of Serum Effusion Albumin Gradient in The Differential Diagnosisof Pleural Effusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG as method of differentiating pleural transudatesfrom exudates.Cases admitted in AMCH with diagnosed pleural effusion were divided into 2 groups basedon etiology. Group I (transudates: Comprising 14 patients of congestive heart failure (n=6 and nephroticsyndrome (n=3, Cirrhosis (n=4, pericardial effusion (n=1. Group II (exudates: comprising 26 cases oftuberculous (n=15, malignant (n=8 and parapneumonic effusion (n=2, rheumatoid arthritis (n=1. In allpatients estimation of pleural fluid to plasma protein ratio, pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio & pleural fluidLDH level, plasma-pleural effusion gradient were evaluated. All these parameters were compared indifferentiating pleural transudates from exudates. A total of 40 patients having pleural effusion weredivided into 2 groups. Group I (Transudates,Group II (Exudates. Pleural fluid to serum protein of .5misclassified 20%, pleural fluid LDH OF 200 U/L misclassified 17.5%, pleural fluid LDH to serum LDHmisclassified 12.5%, & serum effusion albumin gradient misclassified 5% while differentiating transudatesfrom exudates. Serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG is a very useful parameter to differentiatebetween exudates and transudates esp. in cases misclassified by Light’s criteria.

Arijit Kumar Das

2009-07-01

287

Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso / Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exam [...] e oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL). A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg). Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity [...] of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg). After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

Fernando Korn, Malerbi; Ramon Coral, Ghanem; Jeane, Chiang; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

2006-02-01

288

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

OpenAIRE

The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange), T. erecta (var. Yellow) significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s) in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) of water soluble extract from th...

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam; Aruna Devaraj

2011-01-01

289

Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root...

Randy Trinity Nijkamp; Somporn Na Nakorn

2012-01-01

290

Dissociation of bactericidal activity from other functions of activated macrophages in exudates induced by thioglycolate medium.  

OpenAIRE

Macrophages displayed increased spreading, increased Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis, and increased secretion of plasminogen activator when collected from the peritoneal cavities of either Listeria-immune mice challenged intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with Listeria or nonimmune mice injected intraperitoneally 3 days earlier with fluid thioglycolate medium. In contrast, macrophages from the thioglycolate-induced peritoneal exudates were severely impaired in vitro in their ability to destro...

Spitalny, G. L.

1981-01-01

291

A Highly Pathogenic Strain of Staphylococcus sciuri Caused Fatal Exudative Epidermitis in Piglets  

OpenAIRE

Staphylococcus sciuri are important human pathogens responsible for endocarditis, peritonitis, septic shock, urinary tract infection, pelvic inflammatory disease and wound infections. However, little information is known regarding the pathogenicity of S. sciuri to animals. From the pericardial fluid of a diseased piglet with exudative epidermitis (EE), we isolated a strain of Staphylococcus in pure culture. Surprisingly, this isolate was a member of S. sciuri rather than S. hyicus as identifi...

Chen, Shixi; Wang, Yu; Chen, Fuyong; Yang, Hanchun; Gan, Menghou; Zheng, Shijun J.

2007-01-01

292

Exudative pharyngitis possibly due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of diphtheria.  

OpenAIRE

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans, despite its common presence in the flora of the upper respiratory tract. We report here a case of exudative pharyngitis with pseudomembrane possibly caused by C. pseudodiphtheriticum in a 4-year-old girl. The case initially triggered clinical and laboratory suspicion of diphtheria. Because C. pseudodiphtheriticum can be easily confused with Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Gram stain, clarification of its ...

Izurieta, H. S.; Strebel, P. M.; Youngblood, T.; Hollis, D. G.; Popovic, T.

1997-01-01

293

Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

294

Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

1986-01-01

295

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

296

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition. PMID:23084327

Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

2013-01-01

297

An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

Kemner, K.M.; O' Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

2006-06-01

298

The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?), interleukin- 6(IL-6) and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical le...

Ehsani Maryam; Moghadamnia Ali-Akbar; Zahedpasha Samir; Maliji Ghorban; Haghanifar Sina; Mir Seyyed Mohsen; Kani Narges

2012-01-01

299

Improvement of cadmium uptake and accumulation in Sedum alfredii by endophytic bacteria Sphingomonas SaMR12: effects on plant growth and root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inoculating endophytic bacteria was proven as a promising way to enhance phytoremediation. By a hydroponic experiment, the role of this study was to clarify the effects of inoculating endophytic bacterium Sphingomonas SaMR12 on phytoremediation, with special emphasis on changes of cadmium uptake, plant growth, root morphology, and organic acids secretion at different cadmium treated levels (0, 5, 50, and 100 ?M). The results showed that SaMR12 inoculation improved the accumulation of cadmium as well as plant biomass, length of roots, number of root tips, and root surface area. Root secretion of oxalic, citric, and succinic acids was also increased after inoculated, which may alleviate the cadmium toxicity to plant or inhibit the rising trend of oxidative stress of plant. The major finding of this work suggested that in the root, SaMR12 improves cadmium bioavailability and absorption facility by increasing root-soil contact area and root organic acid secretion; and in the shoot, SaMR12 increases cadmium tolerance by alleviating oxidative stress of plant, so as to enhance the capability of cadmium extraction by plant. PMID:25169647

Chen, Bao; Zhang, Yibin; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

2014-12-01

300

Chemistryvis-à-vis maternalism in lace bugs (Heteroptera: Tingidae): Alarm pheromones and exudate defense inCorythucha andGargaphia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hawthorn lace bug,Corythucha cydoniae, and the eggplant lace bug,Gargaphia solani, possess alarm pheromones that are produced in dorsal abdominal glands (DAGs). WhenG. solani nymphs are grasped, they emit secretion from both DAGs; the posterior DAG secretion alone elicits alarm, but the anterior DAG secretion may hasten the response. InC. cydoniae, the response is due to a synergism between the anterior and posterior DAG secretions, and nymphs are apparently unable to voluntarily release their DAG secretions; both DAGs must be ruptured for the pheromone to escape. The alarm pheromones are interspecifically active in patterns matching the intraspecific activities. Compounds identified from tingid DAG secretions that are involved in the alarm messages are: (E)2-hexenal, (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, acetaldehyde, geraniol, and linalool. A new natural product of unknown function (designated nerolidol aldehyde) was identified from the anterior DAG secretions of both species. PMID:24258608

Aldrich, J R; Neal, J W; Oliver, J E; Lusby, W R

1991-11-01

301

Identification of Chemotaxis Sensory Proteins for Amino Acids in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and Their Involvement in Chemotaxis to Tomato Root Exudate and Root Colonization  

OpenAIRE

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 showed positive chemotactic responses toward 20 commonly-occurring l-amino acids. Genomic analysis revealed that P. fluorescens Pf0-1 possesses three genes (Pfl01_0124, Pfl01_0354, and Pfl01_4431) homologous to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pctA gene, which has been identified as a chemotaxis sensory protein for amino acids. When Pf01_4431, Pfl01_0124, and Pfl01_0354 were introduced into the pctA pctB pctC triple mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1, a mutant defective...

Oku, Shota; Komatsu, Ayaka; Tajima, Takahisa; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

2012-01-01

302

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

2009-12-01

303

MEASURING THE DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENT OF RHIZOSPHERE EXUDATES IN SOIL .1. THE DIFFUSION OF NON-SORBING COMPOUNDS  

OpenAIRE

A quick, convenient and robust method estimates the effective diffusion coefficient from a measured diffusion profile by optimizing the solution of a numerical simulation model describing the experimental system. The method was used to measure the effective diffusion coefficients of soluble organic compounds found in root exudates. -Author

Darrah, P.

1991-01-01

304

Measurement of vancomycin hydrochloride concentration in the exudate from wounds receiving negative pressure wound therapy: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is effective in the treatment of contaminated wounds. We hypothesised that systemically administered antibiotics migrate to wound site effectively by NPWT, which provides the antibacterial effect. We measured and compared the concentrations of vancomycin in the exudate and blood serum. Eight patients with skin ulcers or skin defect wounds who were treated with NPWT and were administered an intravenous drip of vancomycin were enrolled in this study. The wound surfaces were muscle, muscle fascia or adipose tissue. We administered vancomycin intravenously to NPWT patients (1-3?g/day). The exudate was obtained using 500 ml V.A.C. ATS(®) canisters without gel. Three days later, the concentrations of vancomycin were measured. The mean concentration of vancomycin in the exudate from NPWT was 67% of the serum vancomycin concentration. We found that concentrations of vancomycin in NPWT exudates are higher than the previously reported concentrations in soft tissue without NPWT. The proactive use of NPWT might be considered in cases of suspected wound contamination when a systemic antibiotic is administered. PMID:24674131

Ida, Yukiko; Matsumura, Hajime; Onishi, Masami; Ono, Sayaka; Imai, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Katsueki

2014-03-28

305

Low pH, aluminum and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity and low phosphorus (P) often coexist in acid soils where crops need to cope with these multiple limiting factors. In this study we found that P addition to acid soils alleviates Al toxicity and enhanced soybean adaptation to acid soils, especially for the P-efficient g...

306

Differential exudation of two benzoxazinoids--one of the determining factors for seedling allelopathy of Triticeae species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzoxazinoids (Bx) are natural phytotoxins that function as chemical defense compounds in several species. The release of Bx by intact plant roots associated these compounds with root allelopathy in Triticeae species; however, the significance of exudate concentrations of Bx for plant-plant interactions is still a controversial question. A biological screening of 146 cultivars of four Triticeae species (Triticum aestivum L., Triticum durum Desf., Triticum spelta L., and Secale cereale L.) demonstrated a high cultivar dependence to suppress the root growth of Sinapis alba L. by root allelopathy in a dose-response bioassay. Only a few cultivars possessed a marked high or low allelopathic activity, whereby high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis of root exudates revealed that these cultivars differed considerably in their ability to exude the two Bx aglucones, DIBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one] and DIMBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one]. The total amount of DIBOA and DIMBOA exuded showed a significant correlation to the growth inhibition in bioassay with a statistically estimated contribution to the overall allelopathic effect of 48-72%. In a bioassay with pure phytotoxins, Bx concentrations consistent with the amounts quantified in the screening bioassay caused detrimental effects on S. alba and almost reproduced the statistically estimated contribution. The observed causal association between the allelopathic activity under laboratory conditions and the exudate concentrations of Bx suggests that this association might have implications for the interference of Triticeae species in natural plant communities. PMID:15656658

Belz, Regina G; Hurle, Karl

2005-01-26

307

Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth) / Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma [...] nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+) foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5) g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4) g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4) g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro. Abstract in english A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysac [...] charide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+) were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5) g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4) g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4) g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

André G. da, Silva; Judith F., Rodrigues; Regina Célia M. de, Paula.

1998-06-01

308

Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de prote?na, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

André G. da Silva

1998-06-01

309

Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however one report in the literature describes the presence of viroi...

310

Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and ?-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

?aki? Saša

2009-01-01

311

Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman?s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman?s correlation test, the retinal hard exudates showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (P=0.019, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL (P=0.002 and TG (P=0.014 levels. The incidence of dyslipidemia varied from as high as nearly 70% among patients of Group 3 compared to as low as 18% among Group 1 patients. Conclusion: Serum cholesterol and LDL are independent risk factors for retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients who suffer from a remarkably high incidence of dyslipidemia.

Sachdev N

2010-01-01

312

A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy  

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Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

Ba?arah Basel

2009-01-01

313

The effect of organic ligands exuded by intertidal seaweeds on copper complexation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper complexation in marine systems is mainly controlled by organic matter, partially produced by micro- and macroalgae that release exudates with the capacity to bind metals. This feature is important as it influences bioavailability, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and transport of copper through biological membranes. The release of Cu-complexing ligands by seaweeds cultured under copper excess was studied in the laboratory. Five macroalgae belonging to different functional groups were used, including the filamentous Chaetomorphafirma (Chlorophyta), the foliose Ulvalactuca (Chlorophyta) and Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta), the corticated Gelidium lingulatum (Rhodophyta), and the leathery Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The concentration of ligands and their copper-binding strength (logK') of exudates released by each species was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The selected algae released exudates in a wide range of concentration (42-117 nM) after 48h of culture, and addition of 157nM copper increased the production of ligands up to 8 times. A relationship between structural complexity or thallus thickness and the amount of ligands released was not observed. The binding strength (logK') varied among species from 7.6 to 8.9, a response that was not modified by exposure to sub-lethal copper excess. The kelp L. nigrescens showed a fast response to copper excess, releasing ligands that reduced toxicity of the metal in hours. Results suggest that intertidal and shallow subtidal macroalgae might have been overlooked regarding their role as producers of organic ligands and, therefore, as modulators of metal complexing capacity in coastal waters. PMID:19962173

Andrade, Santiago; Pulido, Maria Jesus; Correa, Juan A

2010-01-01

314

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from ? =0.3 d?1 to ? =0.1 d?1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? =0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP × 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? =0.1 d?1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? =0.1 d?1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at ? =0.1 d?1 compared to ? =0.3 d?1. At ? =0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC by coagulation of exudates. Our results imply that greenhouse condition will enhance exudation processes in E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

A. Engel

2012-01-01

315

MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorpt solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed

316

MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed.

OHNUKI,T.; OZAKI, T.; YOSHIDA, T.; NANKAWA, T.; KOZAI, N.; SAKAMOTO, F.; SUZUKI, Y.; FRANCIS, A.J.

2006-10-18

317

Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

318

Anterior chamber exudative mass due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual  

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Full Text Available Endogenous intraocular infection of fungal etiology is extremely rare in an immunocompetent individual. Usually, an antecedent history of trauma, surgery, intravenous drug abuse or an immunocompromized state can be elicited. Scedosporium apiospermum is a known cause of keratomycosis after traumatic implantation and can cause fatal disseminated infection in immunocompromized patients. However, cases of S. apiospermum intraocular infection in immunocompetent individuals have been very rarely reported in literature. We report here a case of an anterior chamber exudative mass due to S. apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual which was managed successfully with anterior chamber wash and intravitreal injection of voriconazole.

Shankar Sandeep

2007-01-01

319

Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity  

OpenAIRE

Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6...

El-azab, Adel S.; Al-shabanah, Othman A.; Daba, Mohammad H.; Gado, Ali M.; Al-majed, Abdulhakeem A.; Al-yahya, Abdulaziz A.; Abd-allah, Adel R. A.

2009-01-01

320

Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency  

OpenAIRE

Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution experiment were conducted to test if this occurs in six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes varying in tolerance to low Zn supply. In both experiments, low Zn supply resulted in a marked decrease in b...

Gao, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

2009-01-01

321

Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTT)with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TA)for central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC).METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophth...

Jian-Feng Xu; Gui-Zhou Li; Rui-Zhen Ye

2013-01-01

322

The effects of technological advances on outcomes for elderly persons with exudative age-related macular degeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE Exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the major cause of blindness among US elderly. Developing effective therapies for this disease has been difficult. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of introducing new therapies for treating exudative ARMD on vision of the affected population and other outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having ARMD. DESIGN The study used data from a 5% sample of Medicare claims and enrollment data with a combination of a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching to assess the effects on the introduction or receipt of new technologies on study outcomes during a 2-year follow-up period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The analysis was based on longitudinal data for the United States, January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2011, for Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service coverage. The sample was limited to beneficiaries 68 years or older newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD as indicated by beneficiaries having no claims with this diagnosis in a 3-year look-back period. EXPOSURES The comparisons with vision outcomes were after vs before the introduction of photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The comparisons for depression and long-term care facility admission were between beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD who received photodynamic therapy or anti-VEGF therapy compared with beneficiaries having the diagnosis who received no therapy for this disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Onset of decrease in vision, vision loss or blindness, depression, and admission to a long-term care facility. RESULTS Among beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD, the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy reduced vision loss by 41% (95% CI, 52%-68%) and onset of severe vision loss and blindness by 46% (95% CI, 47%-63%). Such beneficiaries who received anti-VEGF therapy and were not admitted to a long-term care facility during the look-back period were 19% (95% CI, 72%-91%) less likely on average to be admitted to a long-term care facility during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study demonstrates gains in population vision from the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy for patients 68 years or older with an exudative ARMD diagnosis in community-based settings in the United States. PMID:24458013

Sloan, Frank A; Hanrahan, Brian W

2014-04-01

323

Identification of phytotoxic substances from early growth of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barnyard grass is a problematic weed worldwide. It competes with crops and causes reduction in crop yields. In this study, barnyard grass suppressed rice emergence, and the degree of rice inhibition was proportional to the density of barnyard grass. Root exudates of barnyard grass reduced germination and growth of lettuce, rice, and monochoria. Fifteen compounds potentially involved in the phytotoxic activities of barnyard grass were isolated and identified, including phenolics, long-chain fatty acids, lactones, diethyl phthalate, acenaphthene, and derivatives of phthalic acids, benzoic acid, and decane. Quantities of diethyl phthalate, decanoic acid, myristic acid, stearic acid, 7,8-dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain, and 7,8-dihydrokavain were 2.7, 11.1, 19.6, 35.5, 10.3, and 15.5 microg/ml of barnyard grass root exudates, respectively. The two lactones exhibited the greatest inhibition, followed by the phenolics and the derivatives of phthalic acids. Fatty acids had stronger suppression than diethyl phthalate and ethyl ester-4-ethoxy-benzoic acid. The acenaphthene and decane derivatives were the least phytotoxic. The phytotoxins released by barnyard grass roots showed strong inhibition on growth of broadleaf indicator plants and paddy weeds, but were less effective on barnyard grass itself and rice. Our study revealed that in addition to competition, barnyard grass also interferes with rice and other plants in its surroundings by chemical means. PMID:16718576

Xuan, Tran Dang; Chung, Iii Min; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

2006-04-01

324

The diagnostic role of glycosaminoglycans in pleural effusions: A pilot study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Pleural effusions are classified into transudates and exudates. Various criteria have been used with Light's et al being the most accepted ones. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been detected during pleural fluids (PF) analysis in various causes. In this pilot study, we investigated: (a) the usefulness of GAGs in the assessment of pleural effusions, and (b) whether and in what way GAGs correlate with established criteria used to indicate an exudate. M...

Dougekou Georgia; Papanastasopoulou Chrysanthi; Polizou Paraskevi; Bonovas Stefanos; Vavetsi Rozina; Sitaras Nikolaos M

2009-01-01

325

Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. PMID:25382456

Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

2015-03-01

326

Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

Kotz, Paula

2009-06-01

327

Phagocytosis of PLGA Microparticles in Rat Peritoneal Exudate Cells: A Time-Dependent Study  

Science.gov (United States)

With the purpose of enhancing the efficacy of microparticle-encapsulated therapeutic agents, in this study we evaluated the phagocytic ability of rat peritoneal exudate cells and the preferential location of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles inside these cells. The microparticles used were produced by a solvent evaporation method and were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Size distribution analysis using DLS and SEM showed that the particles were spherical, with diameters falling between 0.5 and 1.5 [mu]m. Results from cell adhesion by SEM assay, indicated that the PLGA microparticles are not toxic to cells and do not cause any distinct damage to them as confirmed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Among the large variety of cell populations found in the peritoneal exudates (neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and macrophages), TEM showed that only the latter phagocytosed PLGA microparticles, in a time-dependent manner. The results obtained indicate that the microparticles studied show merits as possible carriers of drugs for intracellular delivery.

Gomes, Anderson De Jesus; Nain Lunardi, Claure; Henrique Caetano, Flávio; Orive Lunardi, Laurelúcia; da Hora Machado, Antonio Eduardo

2006-07-01

328

AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. PMID:21561784

Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

2011-09-01

329

Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

330

Biophysical investigation of plant exudate of Acacia senegal (L) Willd. from Sudan-savannah ecological zone of Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Plant gum exudate harvested from Acacia senegal (Acacia gum/gum Arabic) is the most widely used plant gum especially in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its non toxicity and excellent properties as emulsifiers and stabilizers in emulsions. It consists of complex polysaccharides and glycoprotein, and its qualities are defined by the biophysical properties of the gum. Analyses of some biophysical properties using range of techniques were carried out for harvested, untreated gum Arabic ...

Ibrahim Yusuf; Ukekpe, Uduak S.; Ibrahim B. Gashua,

2013-01-01

331

Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

332

Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal bevacizumab injection have been reported. However, the therapeutic effect of intravitreal injection with ranibizumab for PEHCR is unclear. A 70-year-old woman visited our department because of sudden loss of superior visual field in her left eye. She had a history of surgical removal of hematoma due to subretinal hemorrhage associated with age-related macular degeneration 5 years ago. Peripheral subretinal hemorrhage was observed in the left eye, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revealed choroidal neovascularization in the subretinal hemorrhagic region. PEHCR was diagnosed. Considering her past history, intravitreal ranibizumab injection was used for treatment. After three injections in the left eye, subretinal hemorrhage and choroidal neovascularization resolved completely. No recurrence was observed during 1 year of follow-up. This case demonstrates that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab is an effective treatment for PEHCR with subretinal hemorrhage.Keywords: peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy, ranibizumab, intravitreal injection, choroidal neovascularization

Takayama K

2012-06-01

333

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy caused by a homozygous mutation in TSPAN12 in a cystic fibrosis infant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetic disease affecting the vascularization of the peripheral retina. The clinical manifestations are very heterogeneous, ranging from mildly affected patients, who could present no visual defects, to severe conditions which can also cause complete blindness at birth or in the first decade. FEVR can be inherited in all the three genetic forms: dominant, recessive and X-linked. To date, four genes have been associated with the condition: TSPAN12. NDP. FDZ4 and LRP5. Interestingly, mutations in TSPAN12 have been considered causative of both a dominant and recessive inheritance and a FEVR phenotype sensitive to the number of TSPAN12 mutations has been supposed. Here we describe a case of a female infant affected by cystic fibrosis and by a severe form of exudative vitreoretinopathy. In particular, we have detected the homozygous missense mutation c.668 T?>?C in TSPAN12. Neither of the heterozygous parents has ocular manifestations of the disease, suggesting a classic recessive mendelian pattern of inheritance. PMID:23834558

Savarese, Marco; Spinelli, Elide; Gandolfo, Federico; Lemma, Valentina; Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Padoan, Rita; Morescalchi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Massimo; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Semeraro, Francesco; Nigro, Vincenzo; Bonatti, Stefano

2014-09-01

334

[Computed tomography of the temporal bone in diagnosis of chronic exudative otitis media].  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone was made in 37 patients aged 2 to 55 years with chronic exudative otitis media (CEOM). In 21 of them the pathology was bilateral. The analysis of 58 CT images has identified CT signs of chronic exudative otitis media. They include partial (17 temporary bones) or complete (38 temporal bones) block of the bone opening of the auditory tube, pneumatic defects of the tympanic cavity (58 temporal bones), pneumatic defects of the mastoid process and antrum (47 temporal bones), pathologic retraction of the tympanic membrane. The examination of the temporal bone detected both CT-signs of CEOM and other causes of hearing disorders in 14 patients (26 temporal bones) with CEOM symptoms and inadequately high hypoacusis. Among these causes were malformation of the auditory ossicula (n=5), malformation of the labynthine window (n=2), malformation of the middle and internal ear (n=4), a wide aqueduct of the vestibule, labyrinthine anomaly of Mondini's type (n=1), cochlear hypoplasia (n=4), stenosis of the internal acoustic meatuses (n=2). Sclerotic fibrous dysplasia was suggested in 2 temporal bones (by CT data). CT was repeated after surgical treatment of 10 patients (14 temporal bones) and visual assessment of tympanostomy results was made. PMID:15700004

Zelikovich, E I

2005-01-01

335

Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del. Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root dry weight was observed. Expression of Striga seed germination in % g-1 root dry weight (GIC was found a suitable solution as stable values for GIC were obtained despite considerable variation in root dry weight. GIC was significant for 25 species and highest with Commelina forskalaei and Sesamum alatum (9.91; 9.78 % g-1 dry root, respectively. Striga seeds did not germinate following application of exudates from Mitracarpus scaber and Phyllanthus pentrandus. These results show that a substantial number of indigenous weed species may serve as alternative trap crops to control the parasites seed bank. Furthermore, the timing of weeds in the cropping system may provide a (partial explanation for the erratic infestation levels found across fields and years that have dazed researchers for many years.

Randy Trinity Nijkamp

2012-10-01

336

Root-exuded malic acid versus chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in four plant species under different phosphorus levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The amount of root-exuded malic acid and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence; the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) in four plant species (Broussonetia papyrifera, Morus alba, Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) at different phosphorus levels was [...] studied. A linear equation presents the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) or the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the amount of root-exuded malic acid. Broussonetia papyrifera and Orychophragmus violaceus easily adapted to a low-phosphorus environment. A low-cost method was used for assessing plant adaptability to a low-phosphorus environment when no chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was available.

Y. Y, Wu; K, Zhao.

2013-09-01

337

Cultures of mast cell-like (MCL) cells from human pleural exudate cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under special culture conditions, rat peritoneal macrophages have previously been shown to transform into mast cells. This method has been adapted here to the human species. Adherent large mononuclear cells from human pleural exudates were cultured in a medium supplemented with horse serum (30%) and fibroblast supernatants (30%). Metachromatic staining (toluidine blue, pH 3.6) of cytoplasmic granules appeared first in a small percentage of cells by days 5-6 of culture and reached a high intensity in 50% of the cells between days 12-22. Histamine levels within the cells increased by a factor of 7 during this same time period and the cell size by a factor of 3. Cultures could be maintained for about three weeks, since viability and total cell number decreased on extended culture. The data suggest that mononuclear cells in inflammatory exudates can transform into mast cell-like cells under the influence of high levels of specific conditioning factors in their microenvironment. PMID:6824794

Krüger, G; Sterry, W; Czarnetzki, B M

1983-03-01

338

Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTwith retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC.METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere used to observe the curative effects.RESULTS: Visual acuity were improved in 5 eyes(36%, remained stable in 8 eyes(57%and declined in 1 eye(7%after treatment. The macular hemorrhage and exudation were reduced significantly in 12 eyes. FFA showed that the fluorescein leakage ceased or decreased in 7 eyes, unchanged in 5 eyes, and enlarged in 2 eyes. The macular edema of 12 eyes in OCT was reduced unequally.CONCLUSION: Low power TTT combined with retrobulbar injection of TA shows good therapeutic effect on CEC.

Jian-Feng Xu

2013-08-01

339

Exsudação radicular do glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto e na respiração microbiana do solo / Root exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants and microbial soil respiration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar a exsudação radicular por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto cultivadas em solo e em solução nutritiva; e quantificar a respiração microbiana no solo em diferentes manejos com o herbicida glyphosate. Vasos com 8,0 L de solução nu [...] tritiva, contendo cinco perfurações na tampa, receberam uma muda de Eucalyptus grandis e quatro mudas de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, sendo cada vaso considerado como parcela experimental. As plantas de eucalipto e braquiária permaneceram em consórcio na solução hidropônica por 30 dias, sendo as plantas de braquiária podadas aos 15 dias após o transplante, visando estimular o perfilhamento. Após esse período foram aplicados os tratamentos correspondentes a 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate sobre as plantas de braquiária. No experimento em solo, mudas de E. grandis foram plantadas em 72 vasos de 10 L, 36 contendo solo arenoso e 36 solo argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com seis repetições, montado em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (dois tipos de solo e seis combinações de manejo). Após o plantio das mudas de eucalipto, 48 vasos (24 de cada solo) receberam cinco mudas por vaso de Brachiaria decumbens, sendo estas cultivadas em consórcio com a muda de eucalipto. O restante dos vasos de eucalipto foi cultivado em monocultivo. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária (testemunha); 2 - eucalipto sem braquiária + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate aplicado no solo; 3- eucalipto com braquiária cortada após pulverização com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate; 4, 5 e 6 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária pulverizada respectivamente com 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. A aplicação foi feita sobre as plantas de braquiária nos tratamentos 4, 5 e 6, protegendo a planta de eucalipto do contato com o herbicida. O tratamento 2 recebeu a aplicação do glyphosate diretamente no solo. No tratamento 3, os vasos de eucalipto receberam a parte aérea de plantas de braquiária cortadas, sete dias após estas terem sido pulverizadas com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos dois ensaios houve controle acima de 95% da gramínea por todas as doses testadas, não sendo verificados sintomas de toxidez nas plantas de eucalipto. A atividade microbiana foi maior no solo arenoso, principalmente com o aumento das doses de glyphosate aplicadas nas plantas de braquiária. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate root exudation of the herbicide glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt cultivated in soil and in nutritive solution; and to quantify microbial respiration in soil under different managements. One Eucalyptus grandis and four Brachiaria decumbens se [...] edlings were planted in pots with lids with five perforations holding 8.0 L of the nutritive solution. A randomized block design in six replications was used, each pot being considered an experimental plot. The eucalypt and brachiaria plants were interplanted in a hydroponic solution for 30 days. Fifteen days after the transplant, the brachiaria plants were pruned to stimulate tillering. After this period, glyphosate treatments of 0, 720, 1440, 2160, and 2880 g a.e. ha-1 were applied to the brachiaria plants. In the soil experiment, E. grandis seedlings were planted in 72 10-liter pots, half containing sandy soil and half clayey soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme (two soil types and six management combinations). Following the eucalypt seedlings, five Brachiaria decumbens seedlings per pot were planted in 48 pots (24 of each soil), and interplanted with a eucalypt seedling. The remaining eucalypt pots were cultivated in monoculture. The tested treatments were: 1- interplanted eucalypt and brachiaria (control); 2- Eucal

L.D., Tuffi Santos; F.A., Ferreira; N.F., Barros; C.H., Siqueira; I.C., Santos; A.F.L., Machado.

2005-03-01

340

Exsudação radicular do glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto e na respiração microbiana do solo Root exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants and microbial soil respiration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar a exsudação radicular por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto cultivadas em solo e em solução nutritiva; e quantificar a respiração microbiana no solo em diferentes manejos com o herbicida glyphosate. Vasos com 8,0 L de solução nutritiva, contendo cinco perfurações na tampa, receberam uma muda de Eucalyptus grandis e quatro mudas de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, sendo cada vaso considerado como parcela experimental. As plantas de eucalipto e braquiária permaneceram em consórcio na solução hidropônica por 30 dias, sendo as plantas de braquiária podadas aos 15 dias após o transplante, visando estimular o perfilhamento. Após esse período foram aplicados os tratamentos correspondentes a 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate sobre as plantas de braquiária. No experimento em solo, mudas de E. grandis foram plantadas em 72 vasos de 10 L, 36 contendo solo arenoso e 36 solo argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com seis repetições, montado em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (dois tipos de solo e seis combinações de manejo. Após o plantio das mudas de eucalipto, 48 vasos (24 de cada solo receberam cinco mudas por vaso de Brachiaria decumbens, sendo estas cultivadas em consórcio com a muda de eucalipto. O restante dos vasos de eucalipto foi cultivado em monocultivo. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária (testemunha; 2 - eucalipto sem braquiária + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate aplicado no solo; 3- eucalipto com braquiária cortada após pulverização com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate; 4, 5 e 6 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária pulverizada respectivamente com 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. A aplicação foi feita sobre as plantas de braquiária nos tratamentos 4, 5 e 6, protegendo a planta de eucalipto do contato com o herbicida. O tratamento 2 recebeu a aplicação do glyphosate diretamente no solo. No tratamento 3, os vasos de eucalipto receberam a parte aérea de plantas de braquiária cortadas, sete dias após estas terem sido pulverizadas com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos dois ensaios houve controle acima de 95% da gramínea por todas as doses testadas, não sendo verificados sintomas de toxidez nas plantas de eucalipto. A atividade microbiana foi maior no solo arenoso, principalmente com o aumento das doses de glyphosate aplicadas nas plantas de braquiária.This study aimed to evaluate root exudation of the herbicide glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt cultivated in soil and in nutritive solution; and to quantify microbial respiration in soil under different managements. One Eucalyptus grandis and four Brachiaria decumbens seedlings were planted in pots with lids with five perforations holding 8.0 L of the nutritive solution. A randomized block design in six replications was used, each pot being considered an experimental plot. The eucalypt and brachiaria plants were interplanted in a hydroponic solution for 30 days. Fifteen days after the transplant, the brachiaria plants were pruned to stimulate tillering. After this period, glyphosate treatments of 0, 720, 1440, 2160, and 2880 g a.e. ha-1 were applied to the brachiaria plants. In the soil experiment, E. grandis seedlings were planted in 72 10-liter pots, half containing sandy soil and half clayey soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme (two soil types and six management combinations. Following the eucalypt seedlings, five Brachiaria decumbens seedlings per pot were planted in 48 pots (24 of each soil, and interplanted with a eucalypt seedling. The remaining eucalypt pots were cultivated in monoculture. The tested treatments were: 1- interplanted eucalypt and brachiaria (control; 2- Eucalypt without brachiaria + 1440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate applied in the soil; 3- interplanted eucalypt

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2005-03-01

341

Loss of size-selectivity at histamine-induced exudation of plasma proteins in atopic nasal airways.  

OpenAIRE

Plasma proteins occur in the airway lumen in inflammatory airway diseases. This study tests the hypothesis that airway microvascular-epithelial exudation of plasma proteins, as induced by a non-injurious inflammatory mediator, is characterized by loss of size-selectivity. Using a nasal pool-device, the nasal mucosa of 10 allergic individuals, without current disease, was sequentially exposed to saline and histamine (40 and 400 microg ml(-1)). Nasal lavage fluid and blood-levels of albumin (69...

Greiff, Lennart; Andersson, Morgan; Erjefa?lt, Jonas; Svensson, Christer; Persson, Carl

2002-01-01

342

Study on the solidification condition of exudation penetration occurrence in grey cast iron castings based on solidification simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The solidification condition of eutectic exudation penetration occurrence, a kind of casting defect in grey cast-iron castings, is studied with computer solidification simulation and experiments on specially designed castings. A hot hole refers to the solidification condition when the temperature gradient or solidifying time gradient from the centre to the surface at some location in a casting is positive during the solidification process. It is a term proposed in this paper to better describe the condition of exudation penetration occurrence and for predicting its location at hot spots in a casting. The term is useful for improving the foundry technology used for solving the penetration problem with the help of computer simulation.

Han, Jianmin; Hansen, S. F.

2000-11-01

343

Rhinovirus Infection Induces Interleukin-13 Production from CD11b-Positive, M2-Polarized Exudative Macrophages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhinovirus (RV) causes asthma exacerbations. Previously, we showed that adherent bronchoalveolar cells from allergen-treated mice produce IL-13 when stimulated with RV ex vivo, implicating cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in viral-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that RV infection of allergen-treated mice results in IL-13 production by CD11b+ exudative macrophages in vivo. We sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA), after which mice were inoculated with RV or sham HeLa cell lysate. After 1 day, lungs were harvested, and cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. We repeated this process in IL-13 reporter mice, CD11b-DTR mice in which diphtheria toxin selectively depletes CD11b+ cells, and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) null mice. We found that lungs of mice infected with RV alone showed increases in CD45+, CD68+, F4/80+, Ly6C+, and CD11b(high) cells, indicating an influx of inflammatory monocytes and exudative macrophages. The combination of OVA and RV had synergistic effects on the exudative macrophage number. However, CD11b+ cells from OVA-treated, RV-infected mice showed M2 polarization, including expression of CD206 and CD301 and production of IL-13. Similar results were obtained in IL-13 reporter mice. Diphtheria toxin depleted CD11b+, IL-13-producing cells in OVA-treated, RV-infected, CD11b-DTR mice, decreasing airway inflammation and responsiveness. CD11b+, Ly6C+ cells were reduced in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that, in contrast to naive mice, RV infection of mice with allergic airways disease induces an influx of IL-13-producing CD11b+ exudative macrophages bearing M2 macrophage markers. This finding further implicates alternatively activated macrophages in RV-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:25029349

Chung, Yutein; Hong, Jun Young; Lei, Jing; Chen, Qiang; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

2015-02-01

344

Influence of root exudates on the extracellular proteome of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, a root-associated plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, are thought to play an important role in the establishment of beneficial interactions with plants. To investigate the possible role of proteins in this process, extracellular proteome maps of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 during the late exponential and stationary growth phases were generated using 2D gel electrophoresis. Out of the 121 proteins identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 61 were predicted to contain secretion signals. A few of the others, bearing no signal peptide, have been described as elicitors of plant innate immunity, including flagellin proteins, cold-shock proteins and the elongation factor Tu, suggesting that B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 protects plants against disease by eliciting innate immunity. Our reference maps were used to monitor bacterial responses to maize root exudates. Approximately 34 proteins were differentially secreted in response to root exudates during either the late exponential or stationary phase. These were mainly involved in nutrient utilization and transport. The protein with the highest fold change in the presence of maize root exudates during the late exponential growth phase was acetolactate synthase (AlsS), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the volatile acetoin, known as an inducer of systemic resistance against plant pathogens and as a trigger of plant growth. PMID:25355936

Kierul, Kinga; Voigt, Birgit; Albrecht, Dirk; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Borriss, Rainer

2015-01-01

345

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures. PMID:24033339

Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

2014-06-01

346

The role of physical rehabilitation in the treatment of exudative pleurisy  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Exudates are due to a variety of diseases, the major and most common ones being tuberculosis, nonspecific inflammation and malignancy. They are usually treated conservatively, sometimes combined with surgery and physical treatment. Physical the-rapy includes positional exercises, breathing exercises and biostimulation. Aim of the study The study was aimed to find out the following: 1 Is lung function improved by physical therapy; 2 Can adhesions be diminished and mobility of the affected hemidiaphragm improved by physical treatment; 3 Is there a direct positive correlation between physical treatment and obtained improvement, or the same can be achieved in patients receiving medicamentous treatment only; 4 What are the effects of some factors we cannot influence (sex, age, effusion level, position of adhesions on lung function and diaphragm mobility improvement, that is on the efficiency of physical treatment; 5 How do the factors we can influence (the time interval before initiating the treatment and its duration affect improvement of the same lung function parameters, that is treatment efficacy? Material and methods Physical treatment of patients with exudative pleurisy was accomplished at the Department of Rehabilitation in our Institute and it consisted of directed breathing exercises and laser biostimulation. Its effects were examined in a group of 175 patients, who received both conservative and physical treatment, and results were compared with the control group patients, treated only conservatively (with antibiotics, antituberculotics, corticosteroids. RESULTS Comparative analysis confirmed a significant improvement of lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, PEF as well as of hemidiaphragm mobility on the affected side of the thorax in favour of the examined group. The severity of the lung function and diaphragm mobility impairments have been found to be in correlation with the localization of adhesions, whereas the degree of improvement correlated with the time interval before the treatment initiation, as well as with its duration. DISCUSSION and conclusion The applied physical therapy resulted in: 1 significant improvement of all examined lung function parameters in the examined group, which was not registered in the control group; 2 significant improvement of the diaphragm mobility in general; 3 factors such as sex, age and effusion level have no effects on the physical treatment results; 4 treatment results are affected by the time interval passed before the treatment initiation and its duration, as well as the localization of adhesions; anterior adhesions affected lung function and diaphragm mobility least, posterior ones more, while the influence of lateral adhesions was most significant. It is finally concluded that physical treatment should necessarily be included in the treatment of exudative pleurisy.

Milojevi? Momir

2004-01-01

347

Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. PMID:22083980

Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

2011-12-01

348

Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ?G° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively. PMID:24941285

González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

2014-07-15

349

De Novo Amino Acid Biosynthesis Contributes to Salmonella enterica Growth in Alfalfa Seedling Exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. PMID:25416761

Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Barak, Jeri

2015-02-01

350

Does the evaluation of coagulation factors contribute to etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION: Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates. RESULTS: The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates, there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Marcelo Alexandre Costa Vaz

2009-01-01

351

Does the evaluation of coagulation factors contribute to etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION: Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. T [...] he coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates). RESULTS: The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates), there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Marcelo Alexandre Costa, Vaz; Francisco Suso, Vargas; Felipe Costa de Andrade, Marinho; Élbio Antonio, D' Amico; Tânia Rubia Flores, Rocha; Lisete Ribeiro, Teixeira.

352

Comportamiento de Malassezia furfur en medios de cultivo con base en los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin: Producción de lipasa extracelular / Growth of Malassezia furfur in Media With Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin Gum Exudates: Production of Extracellular Lipase  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El desarrollo de las levaduras del género Malassezia requiere condiciones especiales, estos hongos que producen afecciones en la piel, son generalmente cultivados en el medio Dixon. Se ensayaron los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin como sustratos para Malassezia furfur. Se evalu [...] ó también la producción de lipasa. Se determinó la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado intervalo de tiempo (0-168h), y a diferente concentración (0,5; 1%) y pH (4,5; 6,0). La biomasa obtenida para la levadura probada demostró que los sustratos preparados con los exudados gomosos son adecuados para su desarrollo. La mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular se observó al tiempo inicial de estudio (18h) en ambos sustratos, en las condiciones usadas: concentración (0,5 y 1%) y pH (4,5 y 6,0). Estas especies botánicas, ampliamente localizadas en Venezuela, especialmente en los Estados Zulia y Falcón, producen abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la obtención de un nuevo sustrato, que pueda competir con el medio Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia, y para la producción de lipasa. Abstract in english The development of genus Malassezia yeasts requires special conditions. This fungus, which produces skin diseases, is generally cultivated in the Dixon medium. Gum exudates from Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin were tested as substrates for Malassezia furfur. Lipase production was also evaluated. [...] The growth kinetic was determined for a given time range (0-168h) at different concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH levels (4.5; 6.0). The biomass obtained for the tested yeast showed that substrates prepared with S. dulcis and S.mombin gum exudates are suitable for its development. The highest extracellular lipase activity was observed at 18h on both substrates at given concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH (4.5; 6.0). These botanical species, widely located in Venezuela, especially in the States of Zulia and Falcon, yield abundant gum. Findings may be useful for obtaining new substrates that could compete with the Dixon medium for isolation and characterization of Malassezia species and for lipase production.

Luz Mila, Mesa C; Octoban, Urdaneta; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Viluzca, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto; Rafael, Villalobos.

2011-06-01

353

Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake Cuatrec. (Asteraceae, Astereae. A Preliminary study of the Chemical Composition  

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Full Text Available This is the first phytochemical study of Blakiella bartsiifolia, an endemic species of Mérida. From the foliar exudates two flavonoids ((5,4´-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3´-tetramethoxyflavone; 5,7,4´-trihydroxy-3,8,3´-trimethoxy-flavone and a labdane diterpene (labda-7,14-dien-13(S-ol were identified by high field NMR spectroscopy. Plants naturally exposed to direct sunlight possessed a significantly higher specific absorbance coefficient in the UV region than plants growing in shaded areas.

Maria Pia Calcagno-Pissarelli

2010-12-01

354

COLOMBIAN BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA) ATTRACTED TO TREE EXUDATES / MARIPOSAS COLOMBIANAS ATRAÍDAS POR EXUDACIONES DE CORTEZAS DE ÁRBOLES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se publica una lista preliminar de especies de mariposas frugívoras, que se alimentan de exudados segregados por las cortezas de siete especies de árboles existentes en varias regiones de Colombia. Adicionalmente, se suministran datos de los tipos de secreciones, composición, hábitos [...] de las mariposas y de otros insectos que comparten dicho fenómeno. Abstract in english A preliminary checklist is presented of fruit-feeding butterflies that visit the exudation of seven species of trees observed in several zones of Colombia. Additional data on secretion types, composition, butterfly behavior and the other insects sharing the same phenomena are included. [...

Julián A., Salazar-E..

2013-12-01

355

Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina  

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Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

2005-02-01

356

Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at pre-specified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (correlation coefficients=0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to four years after the first vaccine dose.

Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court

2011-01-01

357

Shifts in banana root exudate profiles after colonization with the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162.  

Science.gov (United States)

The non-pathogenic fungus Fusorium oxysporum strain Fo162 can efficiently colonize banana roots and reduce infecting by the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. It is assumed that the fungus triggers a systemic reaction in the plant, which is affecting the biochemical composition of the root exudates and is thus causing the reduction in nematode colonization. To characterize these shifts, a continuous flow experiment was set up to collect root metabolites on a matrix (XAD-4). Based on HPLC analysis, the extracts, collected from the XAD-4, showed no differences in the composition of the root exudates between plants colonized by the endophyte and the controls. However, the accumulation of several compounds differed significantly. When these extracts were used in a bioassay with Radopholus similis none of the sample-treatment combinations had a significant attracting or repelling effect on the nematodes. This experiment shows that non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 is able to upregulate the synthesis of at least some, so far unidentified compounds released by banana roots under hydroponic conditions. Further studies and optimization of the experimental setup are required to determine whether or not increase in metabolite concentration can affect nematode responses in vitro and ultimately in vivo. PMID:20222617

Kurtz, Andreas; Schouten, Alexander

2009-01-01

358

The arbuscular mycorrhizal host status of plant cannot be linked with the Striga seed-germination-activity of plant root exudates  

OpenAIRE

Root exudates from sorghum, a Striga and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) host plant, and a number of Striga non-host plants which are AM host or AM non-host plants were collected and their effect on seed germination of Striga hermonthica was tested. Striga seeds germinate exclusively in presence of strigolactones, thus, Striga seeds germination is an indicator for the presence of strigolactones. Strigolactones are also thought to be essential signals (branching of AMF) for a successful ro...

Lendzemo, V. W.; Kuyper, T. W.; Urban, A.; Vegvari, G.; Puschenreiter, M.; Schickmann, S.; Langer, I.; Steinkellner, S.; Vierheilig, H.

2009-01-01

359

Regulation of macrophage populations. The immunologic induction of exudates rich in Ia-bearing macrophages is a radiosensitive process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have evaluted some of the conditions regulating the selective augmentation of the Ia-positive macrophage population within immunologically induced exudates. Antigen-stimulated T cells secrete a protein referred to as macrophage- (Ia-positive) recruiting factor (MIRF), which when injected i.p. stimulates a 10- to 20-fold increase in the number of Ia-positive exudate macrophages. This response is totally abrogated when mice are lethally irradiated before injection of MIRF or immune T cells. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells to irradiated mice substantially restores their abillity to respond to the immunologic stimuli, even if the transferred bone marrow has itself been depleted of Ia-positive cells. It was also found that the high level of Ia-positive macrophages induced by MIRF requires a renewable stem cell source in oder to be maintained. Finally, even when macrophages were elicited by injecting thioglycollate before irradiation, Ia-positive cells were not induced in response to MIRF. These findings suggest that the target of MIRF in vivo may be restricted to a developmentally young cell within or recently derived from a stem cell compartment such as the bone marrow, and that Ia-positive and Ia-negative macrophages ultimately derive from a potentially common Ia-negative stem cell

360

Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p?gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p?>?0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest. PMID:23733822

Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

2014-01-01

361

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

2004-06-01

362

Correlação da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentração de lactato com a classificação de efusões em cães / Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As efusões são problemas clínicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequência de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuição da pressão coloidosmótica intravascular, elevação da pressão hidrostática local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfátic [...] os. Dessa maneira, a avaliação laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clínicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possível diagnóstico e instituída ação terapêutica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificação de uma efusão em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos críticos para a elucidação do diagnóstico e condução do caso clínico. Em Medicina Veterinária, o método tradicional de classificação de uma efusão é baseado na contagem celular e na concentração de proteínas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parâmetros não são suficientes para a correta classificação de todas as efusões. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlação de outros parâmetros bioquímicos com a diferenciação das efusões transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH) das efusões, a relação de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentração de lactato das efusões, o gradiente de concentração de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentração de proteínas das efusões. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relação LDH efusão/soro, a concentração de lactato e o gradiente de concentração de lactato soro/efusão apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa (P Abstract in english The effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic v [...] ases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P

Paula Nunes, Rosato; Letícia Abrahão, Anai; Aureo Evangelista, Santana.

1582-15-01

363

Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1?4)-linked ?-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked ?-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked ?-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of ?-Araf, ?-Arap, ?-Galp, and ?-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of ?-GlcpA O-3 linked at ?-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, ?-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. PMID:23544593

Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

2013-04-15

364

Aloe vera leaf exudate induces a caspase-independent cell death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis constitutes a complex of diseases with clinical and epidemiological diversity and includes visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that is fatal when