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1

Pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. To study the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol in differentiating transudative and exudative pleural effusion. To compare pleural fluid cholesterol level for exudates with Light's criteria. Design. Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings. Medical wards of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods. Sixty two cases of pleural effusion with definite clinical diagnosis admitted in TUTH were taken and classified as transudates (19) and exudates (43). The parameters pleural fluid protein/serum protein ratio (pfP/sP), pleural fluid LDH/ serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) and pleural fluid cholesterol (pCHOL) were compared with clinical diagnosis with regard to their usefulness for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates. Results. The pCHOL values determined were 1.92 ± 0.75 for exudates, 0.53 ± 0.28 for transudates, the differences between the transudates and others are statistically significant (P < 0.0001). It is seen that pfP/sP ratio has a sensitivity of 81.4% and specificity of 82.6%; pfLDH/sLDH ratio has a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 94.7% and pCHOL with sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of 100% for differentiating exudative and transudative PE. Conclusion. The determination of pCHOL is of great value for distinguishing between pleural exudates and transudates and should be included in routine laboratory analysis of pleural effusion.

Hamal AB; Yogi KN; Bam N; Das SK; Karn R

2013-01-01

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A New Approach in Distinguishing Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective: Light’s criteria, which were accepted in 1972 for the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions as transudates or exudates, are widely used worldwide. It has been reported in various studies that Light’s criteria have lower specificity, and new recommendations have emerged. The discriminative ability of Light’s criteria and adapted formulas, which are our new proposal, were studied by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) analysis and Area Under the Curves (AUCs).Material and Method: These criteria were evaluated in 451 patients in our study. Of these cases, 151 had transudates, while 300 patients presented with exudates. Results: AUCs of Light’s criteria (P/Sprot, P/SLDH, PLDH) were measured as 0.931 (95%CI: 0.899-0.963), 0.936(95%CI: 0.904-0967) and 0.957(95%CI: 0.934-0.981), respectively, and the differences between the measured values were found to be statistically significant (p<.001). AUCs of our new adapted formulas (F-1, F-2, F-3) were found to be slightly higher than those of Light’s criteria, with the values of 0.987(95%CI: 0.976-0.998), 0.935(95%CI 0:.908-0.963) and 0.980(95%CI: 0.966-0.993), respectively, and the differences were also significant (p<.001). Conclusion: In our opinion, further studies are needed with a wider study population to determine the value of the new formulas in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Proving our proposal would be useful in clinical practices.

Tekin Y?ld?z; Abdurrahman ?enyi?it; Yusuf Çelik; Levent Aky?ld?z; Güngör Ate?; Sedat Çolako?lu; Hasan Bayram; Sacide Rana I??k; Füsun Topçu

2010-01-01

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Combined pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein in differentiation of exudates and transudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholesterol and/or total protein measurements for differentiating between exudates and transudates, and to compare it with Light's criteria. METHODS: In this prospective study 60 patients with pleural effusion were included. Pleural fluid total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cholesterol as well as serum total protein and LDH levels along with other investigations were studied. Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was done on the basis of aetiology. RESULTS: Based on clinical signs and symptoms, chest radiograph, other investigations and response to treatment, 49 of these effusions were classified as exudates and 11 as transudates. Using pleural fluid cholesterol levels at a cut-off point of greater than 60 mg/dL and/or total protein at a cut-off point of greater than 3 g/dL for distinguishing transudates and exudates, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), were 100 percent. Using Light's criteria for discriminating transudates and exudates, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 98%; 100%; 100% and 92%, respectively. The differences resulted from a mis-classification of one expected exudate as transudate by Light's criteria. CONCLUSION: Pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein are simple, cost-effective, and useful parameters in distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates, with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, compared to the use of Light's criteria.

Patel AK; Choudhury S

2013-01-01

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Development of a point of care testing tool to classify peritoneal effusion as exudate and transudate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recently we developed a bedside test to classify pleural effusion into exudate and transudate but point of care classification of peritoneal effusion is yet not published. METHODS: We analyzed the Boyer's criteria parameters from bloodless peritoneal fluid and classified the biofluid as exudate or transudate and also estimated some parameters of oxidative stress in the biofluid by established spectrophotometric procedure. Two hundred microliters of sample was used and 10 ?l of 30% hydrogen peroxide was added, followed by inspection of the sample for the appearance of bubbles. RESULTS: All exudative ascitic fluids (n=50) have shown the appearance of profuse bubbles within 1 min addition of hydrogen peroxide along with significantly more catalase activity compared to transudate. All transudative ascitic fluids (n=50) have not shown bubble formation within 1 min after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The exudate does not show bubble formation if added with catalase inhibitors prior to the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Blood mixed transudate have shown profuse bubble formation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSION: The hydrogen peroxide bubbling reaction has the potential to be developed as a point of care test to classify peritoneal fluid as exudate or transudate.

Sarkar S; Bhattacharya G; Bandyopadhyay S; Banerjee D

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa on transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated for its effect on the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats. The fraction (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the increase in wet weight of the cotton pellet at 3 h (transudative phase), leakage of dye from the bloodstream around granuloma at 24 h (exudative phase) and increase in dry weight of the cotton pellet on day 6 (proliferative phase). It significantly lowered the elevated biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and significantly elevated the lowered albumin concentration in serum. The studies suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactone fraction of S. lappa may, in part, be due to stabilization of lysosomal membranes and an antiproliferative effect.

Damre AA; Damre AS; Saraf MN

2003-08-01

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Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs) into exudates and transudates in children. Methods: Pleural fluid (PF) and serum Angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012). PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P<0.001). PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01). PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P<0.003). PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P<0.001). Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively. Conclusion: Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

Mohammed Sanad; Waheed Shouman; Amal F. Gharib

2011-01-01

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The diagnostic value of cholesterol in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Pleural effusion is a common finding in many pulmonary or extrapulmonary diseases and its analysis is essential for differentiating transudates from exudates. Light's criteria is questioned by some researchers and measuring of cholesterol in pleural effusion is proposed due to its simplicity and low cost. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol for differentiating transudates from exudates.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 70 cases of pleural effusion with definite diagnosis according to clinical gold standards were included and cholestrol, LDH and protein in pleural effusion and simultaneous in blood serum were measured. Pleural cholesterol alone, and its ratio with serum cholesterol, pleural-LDH and its ratio with, serum-LDH, pleural protein and its ratio with serum protein, combination of pleural Cholestrol + LDH were compared with Light,s criteria.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of pleural cholesterol was 85% and 100% , respectively with 90% efficiency, pleural/serum cholesterol showed a sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 95% , with 90% efficiency. Lights,s criteria gave a sensitivity of 87%, specificity 79%, with 91% efficiency. Combination of Pleural + pleural/serum cholesterol showed sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 100% , with 90% efficiency and for Pleural-LDH + pleural-cholesterol sensitivity, specificity and efficiency were 97% , 83% and 92% respectively.Conclusion: The use of pleural fluid cholesterol is useful as Light,s criteria for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates but not superior. Combination of pleural fluid cholesterol and LDH slightly improves the specifity and efficiency of differentiation. The advantage of cholesterol measuring is its simplicity, low price and that it can be used along with routine diagnostic pleural effusion tests.

F. Naghshvar; Zh. Torabizadeh; A. Ghaemian; O. Emadian; M. Gahremani

2007-01-01

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Efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels in distinguishing exudates from transudates  

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Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels to classify pleural fluids. A total of 80 patients were divided in transudates and exudates on the basis of extensive clinical, radiological and biochemical evaluation. The efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP) and pleural fluid / serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP) assessment along with that of Light?s criteria to accurately classify transudates and exudates were analyzed. Up to 89% transudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP) and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP) evaluation. Similarly 92% exudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP) and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP) evaluation. By applying a cut off value of 40.0 IU for P ALP, a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75% was found. For P/S ALP, applying a cut off value of 0.25 a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80% was found. Both P ALP and P/S ALP had a PPV of 92%. However, their respective NPV were 63% and 70%.

Gupta K; Ghalaut Veena; Gupta Prem; Arora Puneet; Tandon S

2004-01-01

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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm2) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42±0.76 x 10-3 mm2/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18±1.82 x 10-3 mm2/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10-3 mm2/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p

2004-01-01

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A Novel Bedside Technique for Differentiation of Exudative From Transudative Pleural Effusion  

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Full Text Available Background:At present, differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural  effusion is based solely on laboratory measures and is time-consuming. Asimple  bedside method would be of great help to differentiate between these two types of effusions.We present a new method for this purpose assessed in 46 patients.Methods: Standard laboratory tests and our method were tested using the same fluid  samples in 46 patients with pleural effusion. Aprincipal in physics called the capillary Tube law (h=2a/rpg) was used to compare the samples. The imbibition of the fluid  level less than 15mm signified exudate and greater than 15mm signified transudate.Results: Our data shows that this method is 74% sensitive and 89.4% specific compared to the standard method when analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Kappa  agreement (Cronbach’s K) tests. Conclusion: The capillary tube test has an acceptable validity for bedside diagnosis  of exudative or transudative effusions.  

Mohammad Homayouni; Reza Hashemi; Ashraf Ashraf Askari

2008-01-01

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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42{+-}0.76 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18{+-}1.82 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

Baysal, T.; Bulut, T.; Dusak, A.; Dogan, M. [Department of Radiology, Inoenue University School of Medicine, Turgut Oezal Medical Center, 44069, Malatya (Turkey); Goekirmak, M.; Kalkan, S. [Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Inoenue University School of Medicine, Turgut Oezal Medical Center, 44069, Malatya (Turkey)

2004-05-01

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[Diagnostic significance of assaying glycoproteins, immunoglobulins, complement fractions and carcinoembryonic antigen in pleural and peritoneal exudates and transudates  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Authors have determinated the concentration of some glicoproteins, IgG, IgA and IgM, C3 and C4 and CEA in 61 peritoneal and pleuric effusions, of various aethiology. Results obtained for glicoproteins and C3 appear to have a diagnostic value in distinguishing inflammatory and neoplastic effusions from non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic forms. A greater diagnostic value can be attributed to the results of the CEA which is constantly and almost exclusively increased in neoplastic effusions.

Berti P; Sgherri L; Bartoli P; Cioni R; Ceccotti MG; Nozzoli F

1981-12-01

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Ascitic Fluid to Serum Bilirubin Ratio for Differentiation of Exudates From Transudates  

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Full Text Available Background:Regarding the diagnostic errors of the classic criteria including serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG),total protein concentration and the adapted Light et al’s criteria in distinguishing transudate versus exudates, we evaluated the ascitic fluid to serum bilirubin ratio as a new criteria in this regard. We also evaluated whether the combination of bilirubin ratio with each of these classic criteria improves the diagnostic accuracy.   Methods: One-hundred ascitic fluid specimens were analysed prospectively whereas the   category of fluid was assessed according to the clinical diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity,   positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), overall accuracy, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-) and the Youden’s index of each criterion alone and in combination with the bilirubin ratio were calculated.Results: SAAG seems to be the best criterion (specificity = 0.9090, PPV = 0.97, LR+ = 8.03, Youden’s index = 0.64). Bilirubin and LDH ratio criteria had equivalent specificity (0.8333 and 0.8205, respectively), accuracy (0.80 and 0.81, respectively), PPV (0.54 and 0.55, respectively),NPV (0.90 and 0.93, respectively) and LR+ (4.09 and 4.30, respectively)which generally were better than fluid total protein and total protein ratio but not as predictive   as SAAG. The addition of bilirubin ratio to any criterion did not make any improvement.Conclusion: Ascitic fluid to serum bilirubin ratio, although not more predictive than   SAAG, can be used as an alternative criterion in distinguishing exudative versus transudative ascitic fluid as it is more cost-effective in terms of laboratory processing and also more available.  

Amir Hossein Boghratian; Majid Chalian; Hamid Chalian; Yaser Ghavami

2008-01-01

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva Chibante; Gilberto Perez Cardoso

2010-01-01

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística/ Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derram (more) e pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated (more) at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Maranhão, Bernardo Henrique Ferraz; Silva Junior, Cyro Teixeira da; Chibante, Antonio Monteiro da Silva; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

2010-08-01

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Identifying transudates misclassified by Light's criteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light's criteria combine three dichotomous tests into a decision rule that is considered positive if any one of the tests is positive. This strategy clearly maximizes sensitivity, although at the expense of specificity. Although Light's criteria identify 98% of pleural exudates, they misclassify about 25% of transudates as exudates. The way to overcome this limitation is discussed in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditionally, measurement of the protein gradient between the serum and pleural fluid has been recommended to decrease the misclassification rate of Light's criteria. A recent study demonstrated that a gradient between the albumin levels in the serum and the pleural fluid more than 1.2?g/dl performs significantly better than a protein gradient more than 3.1?g/dl to correctly categorize mislabeled cardiac effusions (83 vs. 55%). On the other hand, the accuracy of a pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio less than 0.6 excelled when compared with albumin and protein gradients in patients with miscategorized hepatic hydrothoraces (77 vs. 62 vs. 61%). SUMMARY: The simplest strategy to reveal the true transudative nature of heart failure-related effusions, labeled as exudates by Light's criteria, is to calculate the serum to pleural fluid albumin gradient. Conversely, for misclassified hepatic hydrothoraces, measurement of the pleural to serum albumin ratio is recommended. The serum to pleural fluid protein gradient should no longer be considered the preferred test for this purpose.

Porcel JM

2013-07-01

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions is the initial step in assessment of pleural effusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) are diagnostic utilities for exudative pleural effusion. METHODS: This experimental study assessed 79 patients with pleural effusion who underwent diagnostic evaluations at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2010. The complete biochemical analysis of pleural fluid, pleural fluid culture, and pathological examination of pleural fluid and tissue were performed. Moreover, hsCRP and TNF? concentrations were measured in pleural fluid samples. The data was analyzed by student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to Light's criteria, 50 patients (63.30%) had exudative effusions while 29 subjects (36.70%) had transudative effusion. The pleural fluid concentrations of hsCRP and TNF? were significantly higher in the exudative group than the transudative group (p < 0.05). At a cutoff value of 5 mg/L for hsCRP, the results showed 94% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Regarding TNF?, a cutoff value of 12.9 ng/dl represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HsCRP and TNF? levels may be considered as beneficial diagnostic factors for detecting exudative effusion in patients with pleural effusion.

Rezaeetalab F; Parizadeh SM; Esmaeely H; Akbari H; Akbari F; Saberi S

2011-11-01

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions is the initial step in assessment of pleural effusion. The aim of this study was to determine whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) are diagnostic utilities for exudative pleural effusion. METHODS: This experimental study assessed 79 patients with pleural effusion who underwent diagnostic evaluations at Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2010. The complete biochemical analysis of pleural fluid, pleural fluid culture, and pathological examination of pleural fluid and tissue were performed. Moreover, hsCRP and TNF? concentrations were measured in pleural fluid samples. The data was analyzed by student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: According to Light's criteria, 50 patients (63.30%) had exudative effusions while 29 subjects (36.70%) had transudative effusion. The pleural fluid concentrations of hsCRP and TNF? were significantly higher in the exudative group than the transudative group (p < 0.05). At a cutoff value of 5 mg/L for hsCRP, the results showed 94% sensitivity and 96.6% specificity. Regarding TNF?, a cutoff value of 12.9 ng/dl represented 96% sensitivity and 93% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: HsCRP and TNF? levels may be considered as beneficial diagnostic factors for detecting exudative effusion in patients with pleural effusion.

Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohhamad Reza; Esmaeely, Habibollah; Akbari, Hadi; Akbari, Farzaneh; Saberi, Soheila

2011-01-01

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The Light criteria: the beginning and why they are useful 40 years later.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Light criteria serve as a good starting point in the separation of transudates from exudates. The Light criteria misclassify about 25% of transudates as exudates, and most of these patients are on diuretics. If a patient is thought likely to have a disease that produces a transudative pleural effusion but the Light criteria suggest an exudate by only a small margin, the serum-pleural fluid protein gradient should be examined. PMID:23411053

Light, Richard W

2013-01-17

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STUDIES OF GAS AND ELECTROLYTE EQUILIBRIA IN THE BLOOD : IX. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROLYTES BETWEEN TRANSUDATES AND SERUM.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Analyses have been made of the electrolytes and proteins of serum and transudates from human subjects. 2. The distribution ratios of HCO3, Cl, Na, and H+ deviated from unity as predicted by the Gibbs-Donnan law for similar heterogeneous systems. 3. Analyses of serum, and of artificial salt solut...

Hastings, A. Baird; Salvesen, Harald A.; Sendroy, Julius; Van Slyke, Donald D.

 
 
 
 
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STUDIES OF GAS AND ELECTROLYTE EQUILIBRIA IN THE BLOOD : IX. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROLYTES BETWEEN TRANSUDATES AND SERUM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Analyses have been made of the electrolytes and proteins of serum and transudates from human subjects. 2. The distribution ratios of HCO(3), Cl, Na, and H(+) deviated from unity as predicted by the Gibbs-Donnan law for similar heterogeneous systems. 3. Analyses of serum, and of artificial salt solutions approximating edema fluid in composition, after equilibration across collodion membranes showed distributions similar to those between serum and edema fluid in vivo.

Hastings AB; Salvesen HA; Sendroy J; Van Slyke DD

1927-03-01

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Lipophilic exudates of Pteridaceae - chemistry and chemotaxonomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of fern species, belonging to several genera of Pteridaceae, exhibit a more or less conspicuous farinose wax, which is mostly located on the lower leaf surface. Production of these waxes is often correlated with the presence of glandular trichomes. Particularly during the past two decades, a series of publications appeared on the chemical composition of these exudates. The major components were found to be flavonoids (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols, flavones, flavonols), some of them with a complex substitution pattern, including esters and C-methyl derivatives, and even bisflavonoids. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids can also occur in such exudates. It is the purpose of this paper to survey the chemical composition of Pteridaceae exudates and their occurrence within the genera of the family. The chemotaxonomic significance of the flavonoid aglycones at the generic, specific and populational level is briefly discussed.

Wollenweber E; Schneider H

2000-10-01

23

Lipophilic exudates of Pteridaceae - chemistry and chemotaxonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of fern species, belonging to several genera of Pteridaceae, exhibit a more or less conspicuous farinose wax, which is mostly located on the lower leaf surface. Production of these waxes is often correlated with the presence of glandular trichomes. Particularly during the past two decades, a series of publications appeared on the chemical composition of these exudates. The major components were found to be flavonoids (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols, flavones, flavonols), some of them with a complex substitution pattern, including esters and C-methyl derivatives, and even bisflavonoids. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids can also occur in such exudates. It is the purpose of this paper to survey the chemical composition of Pteridaceae exudates and their occurrence within the genera of the family. The chemotaxonomic significance of the flavonoid aglycones at the generic, specific and populational level is briefly discussed. PMID:10856634

Wollenweber; Schneider

2000-10-01

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Orphan flavonoids and dihydrochalcones from Primula exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two orphan flavonoids containing an oxepin structure in ring A and named as Primcortusin (1) and 3'-OH-Primcortusin (2) were isolated from leaf exudates of Primula cortusoides, while P. glutinosa exudates yielded two dihydrochalcone derivatives (3,4). These novel structures have not been detected in other species of Primula so far. Chemical structures were elucidated by 2D NMR and mas spectrometry. The nature of compounds 1 and 2 is discussed, and ideas about their possible origin and that of unsubstituted flavone and other irregular substituted Primula flavones are presented. PMID:24079172

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Brecker, Lothar

2013-08-01

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Orphan flavonoids and dihydrochalcones from Primula exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two orphan flavonoids containing an oxepin structure in ring A and named as Primcortusin (1) and 3'-OH-Primcortusin (2) were isolated from leaf exudates of Primula cortusoides, while P. glutinosa exudates yielded two dihydrochalcone derivatives (3,4). These novel structures have not been detected in other species of Primula so far. Chemical structures were elucidated by 2D NMR and mas spectrometry. The nature of compounds 1 and 2 is discussed, and ideas about their possible origin and that of unsubstituted flavone and other irregular substituted Primula flavones are presented.

Bhutia TD; Valant-Vetschera KM; Brecker L

2013-08-01

26

Improving the predictive accuracy of identifying exudative effusions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Application of Light's criteria results in misclassification of some transudative effusions as exudative, particularly due to congestive heart failure (CHF). We sought to determine if the serum to pleural fluid albumin (SF-A) and serum to pleural fluid protein (SF-P) gradients increased the predictive accuracy to correctly identify exudative effusions. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 1,153 consecutive patients who underwent a diagnostic thoracentesis at the Medical University South Carolina (MUSC). Univariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the statistical significance of pleural fluid tests that correctly identified exudative effusions. Tests with significant diagnostic accuracy were combined in multivariable logistic regression models, with calculation of areas under the curve (AUC) to determine their predictive accuracy. The predictive capability of the best model was compared to Light's criteria and other test combinations. RESULTS Pleural fluid LDH, SF-A, and SF-P gradients had a significant effect on the probability of identifying exudative pleural effusions. When combined together in a multivariable logistic regression, LDH (odds ratio 14.09 [95% CI, 2.25 to 85.50]), SF-A (odds ratio 7.16 [95% CI, 1.24 to 41.43]) and SF-P gradients (odds ratio 6.83 [95% CI, 1.56 to 27.88]) had an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98). CONCLUSION Application of Light's criteria, not uncommonly, misclassifies CHF transudative effusions as exudates. In cases where no cause for an exudative effusion can be identified or CHF is suspected, the sequential application of the fluid LDH, followed by the SF-P and then the SF-A gradients may assist in re-classifying pleural effusions as transudates.

Kummerfeldt CE; Chiuzan CC; Huggins JT; Divietro ML; Nestor JE; Sahn SA; Doelken P

2013-09-01

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Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14.47-19.92) g/cm(2) hour (mean, 95% CI) in smokers and 13.89 (9.46-18.33) in never smokers (p<0.01). In abstinent smokers TEWL was 18.95 (15.20-22.70)(p<0.01, when compared with smokers). In smokers, MMP-8 was 36.4 (24.3-48.5) ng/mL (mean, 95% CI) and 15.2 (1.4-30.2) ng/mL in never smokers (p<0.01). Abstinent smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation.

SØrensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke

2009-01-01

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Sodium valproate as a cause of recurrent transudative pleural effusion: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are few reported cases of neutrophilic pleural effusions associated with valproic acid therapy. Most of them are of eosinophilic exudates with or without blood eosinophilia. Case presentation This case study describes a 70-year-old man with recurrent episodes of eosinophilic transudative pleural effusions associated with sodium valproate treatment. The recurrence of effusion after re-administration of the drug is strongly suggestive of an association between them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with a pleural effusion with these characteristics caused by sodium valproate. Conclusion This is the first report in the literature, with a full understanding of the etiology but with an unknown drug mechanism. This case report is of interest to different medical specialists (such as pulmonologists, neurologists, cardiologists) and pharmacologists.

Tryfon Stavros; Saroglou Maria; Kazanas Kosmas; Mermigkis Charalambos; Psathakis Kostas; Galanis Nikolaos

2009-01-01

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Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency  

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Full Text Available Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy) and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow) cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -P)with pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, rapeseed cultivars lost about 80% of its shoot fresh weight, but the roots did not exude any organic acids such as citrate, malate or oxalate. Both lupin and rapeseed cultivars exuded citrate only under phosphorus deficiency. The exudation rates of Feodora and Energy were 3.89 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1 and 3.45 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1, respectively, while that of Dunkeld was 15.1 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1. The results indicated that lupin and rapeseed lost their production under Zn deficiency but they did not exude organic acid, while under P deficiency both plants exuded citrate.

Bless Aplena Elen Siane

2012-01-01

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Agammaglobulinemia and lack of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atopic dermatitis is very frequent in the first 6 months of life, and the severe exudative form of this skin disorder is by no means rare. Failure to achieve immunization protection is a potentially life-threatening complication of exudative atopic dermatitis that may go unrecognized. We report the case of a 6-month-old infant with severe exudative atopic dermatitis in whom hypoproteinemia and agammaglobulinemia were attributed to the massive exudation after exclusion of other possible causes. The patient failed to respond to standard immunization, and adequate protection with a good antibody response could be achieved only after exudation from the skin lesions had been treated by intensive topical skin therapy and multiple intravenous immunoglobulin substitution. Two otherwise similar earlier case reports did not investigate the immune status. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to draw attention to absence of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: We hope that our case report will motivate pediatricians to check the immunization status of patients with exudative atopic dermatitis and take the necessary steps to improve their care.

Lankisch P; Laws HJ; Weiss M; Borkhardt A

2013-04-01

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Autosomal dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy: linkage analysis and its clinical application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Close linkage without recombination (Zmax = 7.383 at Theta = 0.00) was found between the locus for autosomal dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy (Criswick-Schepens) and the locus D11S388 in 11q14.3-q21. We report on the application of data from linkage studies in the diagnostic management of this disease. To determine the disease risk for two newborn children of two affected mothers more precisely, indirect genotype analysis was performed by typing their DNA for three DNA polymorphisms, the loci of which have been shown to be closely linked to the locus of autosomal dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Fuhrmann C; Duvigneau C; Müller B; Schwinger E; Julier C; Laqua H; Gal A

1995-01-01

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[Peripheral exudative haemorrhagic chorioretinopathy: clinical and angiographic findings].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Peripheral exudative haemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) is a degenerative disease of the peripheral retina and choroid in the elderly. Although PEHCR is often seen by clinicians, this entity is underrepresented in the ophthalmological literature. This may be due to inconsistent naming. PATIENTS: We present the clinical, ultrasonographic and angiographic findings of 11 eyes of 8 patients who were diagnosed with PECHR in our department between January 2006 and June 2008. In addition, we report the intra- and postoperative course of three eyes that have been vitrectomised because of a vitreous haemorrhage associated with PEHCR. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients is 83.5 years (range: 75 - 95). The mean follow-up is 11 months (range: 0 to 20). The clinical and angiographic signs were dependent on the stage of the disease and may be seen as small asymptomatic peripheral subretinal bleeding and exudation. In advanced stages, vitreous haemorrhage and exudative retinal detachment may be observed. The temporal periphery of the fundus appears to be more often affected than other locations. Three patients were affected bilaterally. Vitreous haemorrhage was the reason for presentation in three eyes (27 %) that were treated successfully by vitrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vitreous haemorrhage and peripheral subretinal tumors in the elderly.

Mirshahi A; Höhn F; Baatz H; Müller M; Hattenbach LO

2009-08-01

33

Exudate flavonoids of Primula spp: structural and biogenetic chemodiversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several new accessions of the genus Primula and of the closely related Cortusa matthioli have been studied for their exudate flavonoid profiles. Unsubstituted flavone, 5-hydroxy-, 2'-hydroxyflavone and 5,2'-dihydroxyflavone were found as main components. Several other rather unusual substitution patterns were also found. 8-O-Substituted flavones appear to be accumulated more often than 6-O-substituted products. Chalcones with corresponding substitution patterns were of scattered occurrence, while flavanones could so far not be detected in exudates of Primula species. The distribution of externally accumulated flavonoids, including literature data, is related to current taxonomic views on the infrageneric grouping of Primula and related taxa. Organ-specific accumulation, biosynthetic and chemosystematic aspects are briefly addressed. PMID:19413114

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Wollenweber, Eckhard

2009-03-01

34

Exudate flavonoids of Primula spp: structural and biogenetic chemodiversity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several new accessions of the genus Primula and of the closely related Cortusa matthioli have been studied for their exudate flavonoid profiles. Unsubstituted flavone, 5-hydroxy-, 2'-hydroxyflavone and 5,2'-dihydroxyflavone were found as main components. Several other rather unusual substitution patterns were also found. 8-O-Substituted flavones appear to be accumulated more often than 6-O-substituted products. Chalcones with corresponding substitution patterns were of scattered occurrence, while flavanones could so far not be detected in exudates of Primula species. The distribution of externally accumulated flavonoids, including literature data, is related to current taxonomic views on the infrageneric grouping of Primula and related taxa. Organ-specific accumulation, biosynthetic and chemosystematic aspects are briefly addressed.

Valant-Vetschera KM; Bhutia TD; Wollenweber E

2009-03-01

35

Exudate flavonoids in some Gnaphalieae and Inuleae (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three members of the tribe Gnaphalieae and six members of the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae) were analyzed for their exudate flavonoids. Whereas some species exhibit rather trivial flavonoids, others produce rare compounds. Spectral data of rare flavonoids are reported and their structural identification is discussed. 6-Oxygenation of flavonols is a common feature of two Inula species and Pulicaria sicula. By contrast, flavonoids with 8-oxygenation, but lacking 6-oxygenation, are common in two out of three Gnaphalieae species examined. In addition, B-ring deoxyflavonoids are abundantly present in the leaf exudates of Helichrysum italicum (Gnaphalieae). These distinctive features of the two Asteraceae tribes are in agreement with previous flavonoid surveys of these and related taxa. PMID:16323316

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Christ, Matthias; Dunstan, R Hugh; Roitman, James N; Stevens, Jan F

36

Excessive Myopia and Anisometropia Associated with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To describe associations between familial exudative vitreoretinopathy(FEVR) and refractive status.Methods: We conducted retrospective studies of patients with clinical diagnoses offamilial exudative vitreoretinopathy from June 1986 through September2000. All patients had cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity with correction,and underwent fundus examination. Ocular history since early childhood wasdescribed.Results: Nine patients were recruited. All had excessive myopia, which was notedsince early childhood. Amblyopia was noted in seven of the nine patients.Asymmetric FEVR was found in four of the nine patients. In all fourpatients with asymmetric FEVR, anisometropia equal to or greater than 2.5Dwas noted. Myopia was higher and amblyopia was more severe in the eyemore severely affected with FEVR.Conclusion: Excessive myopia, anisometropia and amblyopia were more likely to occurin eyes with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Patients with asymmetricdisease tended to have higher myopia in the eye with more severe degree ofFEVR as compared with the paired eye and thus correlated with anisometropia.

Chao-I Yang; San-Ni Chen; Meng-Ling Yang

2002-01-01

37

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates. PMID:23303369

Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

2013-01-10

38

Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48?h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than coral exudates.

Nelson CE; Goldberg SJ; Wegley Kelly L; Haas AF; Smith JE; Rohwer F; Carlson CA

2013-05-01

39

How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes and non-legumes. To investigate this possibility in detail, the effects of N and P deficiencies on SL exudation were examined in Fabaceae (alfalfa and Chinese milk vetch), Asteraceae (marigold and lettuce), Solanaceae (tomato), and Poaceae (wheat) plants. In alfalfa as expected, and unexpectedly in tomato, only P deficiency promoted SL exudation. In contrast, in Chinese milk vetch, a leguminous plant, and in the other non-leguminous plants examined, N deficiency as well as P deficiency enhanced SL exudation. Distinct reductions in shoot P levels were observed in plants grown under N deficiency, except for tomato, in which shoot P level was increased by N starvation, suggesting that the P status of the shoot regulates SL exudation. There seems to be a correlation between shoot P levels and SL exudation across the species/families investigated.

Yoneyama K; Xie X; Kim HI; Kisugi T; Nomura T; Sekimoto H; Yokota T; Yoneyama K

2012-06-01

40

How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes and non-legumes. To investigate this possibility in detail, the effects of N and P deficiencies on SL exudation were examined in Fabaceae (alfalfa and Chinese milk vetch), Asteraceae (marigold and lettuce), Solanaceae (tomato), and Poaceae (wheat) plants. In alfalfa as expected, and unexpectedly in tomato, only P deficiency promoted SL exudation. In contrast, in Chinese milk vetch, a leguminous plant, and in the other non-leguminous plants examined, N deficiency as well as P deficiency enhanced SL exudation. Distinct reductions in shoot P levels were observed in plants grown under N deficiency, except for tomato, in which shoot P level was increased by N starvation, suggesting that the P status of the shoot regulates SL exudation. There seems to be a correlation between shoot P levels and SL exudation across the species/families investigated. PMID:22183123

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

2011-12-20

 
 
 
 
41

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr). Clinical profile and management  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical) were as follows: forty eight (41.4%) eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9%) eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1%) eyes had retinal detachments (RD) - 10 (8.6%) exudative, 5 (4.3%) tractional and 20 (17.2%) rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14) and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

Shukla Dhananjay; Singh Jatinder; Sudheer G; Soman Manoj; John Rajesh; Ramasamy Kim; Perumalsamy Namperumalsamy

2003-01-01

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Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Cassinia and Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The lipophilic exudates deposited on aerial parts of four species of Cassinia and twelve species of Ozothamnus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) have been analyzed for the presence of flavonoid aglycones and some other phenolics. A total of 55 flavonoids were identified, including several rare flavonols. Flavonols are prevailing over flavones, and 8-O-substitution is dominant in both groups. Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius is exceptional in producing several coumarins. Four dihydrobenzofurans have also been identified from this species. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis of the flavonoid data provide support for combining species of Cassinia and Ozothamnus into a single genus. PMID:19040114

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Fischer, Ralf; Dörr, Marion; Irvine, Kathryn; Pereira, Cliff; Stevens, Jan F

43

[Difficulties and errors in diagnosing exudative pericarditis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The peculiar features of the course of atypical variants of pericarditis with effusion are considered on the basis of concrete clinical cases, and the informative value of some symptoms and their reliability in making the diagnosis are discussed. Examples are given of patients with adhesive pericarditis with effusion some of whom developed heart tamponade with fluid in the formation of a non-stretchable external capsule and others had compression by the internal capsule.

Gogin EE

1980-11-01

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Unusual compounds from exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia and D. gaubae var. megalantha (Primulaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia yielded (R)-(+)-3-acetoxy-3-phenyl-propiophenone as a new natural product with a basic dihydrochalcone structure, which was elucidated unequivocally by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The sesquiterpenoidcarissone was found as the major compound in the exudate of D. gaubae var. megalantha. Sesquiterpenoids have so far not been described as exudate constituents of Primula and Dionysia. Structural identifications are discussed in detail, and the significance of the occurrence of these unusual compounds in exudates of Primulaceae is shortly addressed. PMID:21615020

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Lorbeer, Eberhard; Brecker, Lothar

2011-05-01

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Unusual compounds from exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia and D. gaubae var. megalantha (Primulaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia yielded (R)-(+)-3-acetoxy-3-phenyl-propiophenone as a new natural product with a basic dihydrochalcone structure, which was elucidated unequivocally by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The sesquiterpenoidcarissone was found as the major compound in the exudate of D. gaubae var. megalantha. Sesquiterpenoids have so far not been described as exudate constituents of Primula and Dionysia. Structural identifications are discussed in detail, and the significance of the occurrence of these unusual compounds in exudates of Primulaceae is shortly addressed.

Bhutia TD; Valant-Vetschera KM; Lorbeer E; Brecker L

2011-05-01

46

Influence of copper on root exudate patterns in some metallophytes and agricultural plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydroponic experiment was carried out to determine the root exudation patterns in two Cu-metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and two agricultural plants (Lupinus albus and Helianthus annuus). Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increasing Cu doses (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2mgCuL(-1)), and plant growth, root elongation, Cu accumulation and root exudates were measured. All plants showed a decrease of over 60% in root elongation at the highest Cu supply level, being O. picensis the most sensitive specie and showing the highest shoot and root Cu concentrations (116 and 2657?gCug(-1), respectively), which were six fold higher than the other species. Differences in root exudation patterns of low molecular weight organic acids were found, with extremely high amounts of succinic acid exuded by O. picensis (1049?molg(-1)h(-1)), and citric acid by I. condensata (164?molg(-1)h(-1)). In metallophytes, the organic acid exudation was increased even with no root elongation, meanwhile agricultural plants exuded citric acid at constant levels. Exudation of phenolic compounds was highly species-dependent, with catechin mainly exuded by I. condensata, (2.62?molg(-1)h(-1)) cinnamic acid by O. picensis (5.08?molg(-1)h(-1)) and coumaric acid exclusively exuded by H. annuus (13.6?molg(-1)h(-1)) at high Cu levels. These results indicated that differences in root exudation patterns among metallophytes and agricultural plants could affect their Cu tolerance. Particularly, the higher exudation rate showed by I. condensata can be an effective exclusion mechanism to tolerate high Cu concentrations, supporting its use in Cu phytostabilization programs. PMID:21937112

Meier, S; Alvear, M; Borie, F; Aguilera, P; Ginocchio, R; Cornejo, P

2011-09-19

47

Influence of copper on root exudate patterns in some metallophytes and agricultural plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hydroponic experiment was carried out to determine the root exudation patterns in two Cu-metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and two agricultural plants (Lupinus albus and Helianthus annuus). Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increasing Cu doses (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2mgCuL(-1)), and plant growth, root elongation, Cu accumulation and root exudates were measured. All plants showed a decrease of over 60% in root elongation at the highest Cu supply level, being O. picensis the most sensitive specie and showing the highest shoot and root Cu concentrations (116 and 2657?gCug(-1), respectively), which were six fold higher than the other species. Differences in root exudation patterns of low molecular weight organic acids were found, with extremely high amounts of succinic acid exuded by O. picensis (1049?molg(-1)h(-1)), and citric acid by I. condensata (164?molg(-1)h(-1)). In metallophytes, the organic acid exudation was increased even with no root elongation, meanwhile agricultural plants exuded citric acid at constant levels. Exudation of phenolic compounds was highly species-dependent, with catechin mainly exuded by I. condensata, (2.62?molg(-1)h(-1)) cinnamic acid by O. picensis (5.08?molg(-1)h(-1)) and coumaric acid exclusively exuded by H. annuus (13.6?molg(-1)h(-1)) at high Cu levels. These results indicated that differences in root exudation patterns among metallophytes and agricultural plants could affect their Cu tolerance. Particularly, the higher exudation rate showed by I. condensata can be an effective exclusion mechanism to tolerate high Cu concentrations, supporting its use in Cu phytostabilization programs.

Meier S; Alvear M; Borie F; Aguilera P; Ginocchio R; Cornejo P

2012-01-01

48

[Use of enterosorption for reducing the biogenic amine content of blood and exudate in peritonitis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The administration of an enterosorbent prevents increase of the level of biologically active substances in blood and exudate of rats in fecal peritonitis. The results of biochemical and radionuclide methods of examination allow 2 mechanisms of reduction of the histamine and serotonin level in blood and exudate to be distinguished--direct and mediated.

Beliakov NA; Korovin KF; Solomennikov AV; Baubekova NA

1992-01-01

49

The regulation of gelation of Phloem exudate from cucurbita fruit by dilution, glutathione, and glutathione reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The average glutathione equivalent concentration in phloem exudate collected from squash fruit (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne] Poir. var Butternut) and pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita pepo [L.] var Jack-o-lattern) was 1.02 and 0.60 millimolar, respectively. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in phloem exudate from squash and pumpkin fruit averaged 0.48 and 1.74 micromole NADPH oxidized per minute per milliliter, respectively. Protein concentrations in fruit phloem exudates averaged 67 milligrams per milliliter for squash and 57 milligrams per milliliter for pumpkin. The phloem-specific P-proteins account for most of the protein content of exudate. Pure exudate from fruit does not gel for hours or days, but when diluted with neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions, exudate gels rapidly. Exudate solutions undergo biphasic pH changes with dilution. We suggest that P-protein undergoes conformational change upon dilution, exposing titratable groups and sulfhydryl residues. Oxidation of the latter forms the intermolecular disulfide bridges of the gel. The gelation of diluted exudate is regulated by factors (oxygen, pH, glutathione, NADPH) which affect the maintenance of reduced sulfhydryl residues and the activity of glutathione reductase. While these factors may also act in vivo to regulate redox conditions in phloem, their relationship to hypothetical sol/gel transitions or motile and nonmotile phases in the transport conduit is unknown. PMID:16666036

Alosi, M C; Melroy, D L; Park, R B

1988-04-01

50

On relationship between root exudates and plant nutrition in rhizosphere  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Root exudates (RE) mainly include mucilage, ecotoenzymes, organic,sugar, phenol and various kinds of amino acids. Plants with different nutritional genotypes differ in RE when encountered nutrient and environmental stress. RE is an important way used by plant to improve its nutrient staturs in rhizosphere because RE could improve soil structure, cause weathering of soil minerals, increase soil CEC and affect soil pH, sorption properties of soil surface and soil biological traits. RE also play a key role in activating soil nutrients and enhance ability of plant to take up nutrients. Further studies on plant RE should emphasis on perfecting research methods,enlarging research field and strenthening the combination with other subjects.

Tu Shuxin; Sun Jinhe; Guo Zhifen; Gu Feng

2000-01-01

51

Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

Zhai, Xu

2013-01-01

52

The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

1999-01-01

53

Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture con...

P. Raja; S. Uma; H. Gopal; K. Govindarajan

54

Resolution of exudative retinal detachment and regression of retinal macrocyst post-laser in Coats disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 15-year-old boy presented with painless progressive blurring of vision in the right eye for 1 year in duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was hand movement. The right fundus showed presence of extensive subretinal exudates at the posterior pole and a retinal macrocyst at the temporal periphery. It was associated with exudative retinal detachment at the inferior periphery of the retina. Fundus angiography revealed telangiectatic retinal vessels at the superotemporal retina. Based on clinical and angiographic findings, a diagnosis of Coats disease was made. He was treated with retinal laser photocoagulation. There was resolution of the exudative retinal detachment, reduction of subretinal exudates, and regression of the retinal macrocyst with improvement of visual acuity to 1/60 post-laser therapy.

Munira Y; Zunaina E; Azhany Y

2013-01-01

55

Phospholipase A2 in serum and ascitic exudate in experimental acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis in pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a model of experimental haemorrhagic pancreatitis in pigs with a 100% mortality within 24 h without treatment. In this model we have studied the production of peritioneal exudate and compared the concentrations of amylase, lipase and phospholipase A2 in the ascitic exudate and serum. The results suggest that the determination of phospholipase A2 might be important in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pancreatitis.

Schröder T; Somerharju P; Lempinen M

1979-01-01

56

Does phenotypic plasticity in carboxylate exudation differ among rare and widespread Banksia species (Proteaceae)?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Banksia species (Proteaceae) occur on some of the most phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils in the world. We hypothesized that plasticity in the exudation of P-mobilizing carboxylates would be greater in widespread than in rare Banksia species. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to identify and quantify carboxylate exudation in three widespread and six narrowly distributed Banksia species. High concentrations of carboxylates (predominantly malate, citrate, aconitate, oxalate) were measured in the rhizosphere of all nine species of Banksia on six different soils, but widespread species did not have greater plasticity in the composition of exuded carboxylates. Based on the evidence in the present study, rarity in Banksia cannot be explained by limited phenotypic adjustment of carboxylate exudation.

Denton MD; Veneklaas EJ; Lambers H

2007-01-01

57

Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L.) has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Rutgers) on Meloidogyne hapla greenhouse populations from Manhattan (MH), New York (NY) and Michigan (MI) in order to understand the way of effect of OSRC (Oil seed radish). In a laboratory, 3 mL exudates of OSRC, tomato and same amount of water introduced with 1000 eggs of each nematode population that come from greenhouse mass culture separately. Hatched second stage juveniles were counted for 8 days and exudates were renewed with stock solution every day. Although tomato exudates increased hatched juvenile number but there is no statistically difference between OSRC and tomato exudates. Also all different M. hapla populations showed same responses to every exudate. As a result it may said that, OSRC does not effect M. hapla population by influencing egg hatching but, it may effect infection and/or reproduction level of nematodes.

Sevilhan Mennan; Haddish Melakeberhan

2006-01-01

58

Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. RESULTS: Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

Khorassani R; Hettwer U; Ratzinger A; Steingrobe B; Karlovsky P; Claassen N

2011-01-01

59

Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

Khorassani Reza; Hettwer Ursula; Ratzinger Astrid; Steingrobe Bernd; Karlovsky Petr; Claassen Norbert

2011-01-01

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Hygroscopic Growth and Activation of Particles containing Algea-Exudate  

Science.gov (United States)

A large amount of the Earth is covered by oceans, which provide a constant source of marine aerosol particles, produced due to bubble bursting processes that depend on wind speed (O'Dowd and de Leeuw, 2007). In general, marine particles can be assumed to play an important role for the Earth atmosphere on a global scale, due to their abundance and due to their effect on clouds. E.g. marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds contribute about 30% to 40% to the Earth's albedo (Randall et al., 1984). The activation of aerosol particles to cloud droplets depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition. For marine particles, is has been and still is discussed what the effects of organic substances being present in the particles might be. These substances originate from marine biota where they enrich at the ocean surface. To mimic marine aerosol particles, algae-exudates of different algae species were mixed with artificial sea-water. These samples were used in the laboratory to produce particles via a bubble bursting process (Fuentes et al., 2009). The hygroscopic growth and activation of the (size selected) particles was measured, using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Stratmann et al., 2004) and the DMT-CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes, 2005). The hygroscopic growth was measured twice, 3 and 10 seconds after humidification, and no difference in the grown size was detected, i.e. no kinetic effect was observed for the examined time range. From LACIS and CCNc measurements, the hygroscopicity was deduced through determination of the amount of ions being effective in the particle / droplet solution (Rho(ion), Wex et al., 2007). A concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was found for particles produced from an artificial sea-water sample that contained only inorganic salts, as can be expected (see e.g. Niedermeier et al., 2008). For particles containing also algae-exudate, however, the concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was quenched, resulting in a quasi ideal solution behavior. Such solutions could be described by a single-parameter representation for all water-vapour saturations at which measurements had been done (from 0.8 up to supersaturation). References: Fuentes, E., H. Coe, D. Green, G. De Leeuw, and G. McFiggans (2009), Laboratory-generated primary marine aerosol via bubble-bursting and atomization, Aerosol Meas. Tech. Discuss., 2, 2281-2320. O'Dowd, C. D., and G. de Leeuw (2007), Marine aerosol production: A review of the current knowledge, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365(1856), 1753-1774, doi:1710.1098/rsta.2007.2043. Niedermeier, D., H. Wex, J. Voigtländer, F. Stratmann, E. Brüggemann, A. Kiselev, H. Henk, and J. Heintzenberg (2008), LACIS-measurements and parameterization of sea-salt particle hygroscopic growth and activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 579-590. Randall, D. A., Coakley, J. A., Fairall, C. W., Kropfli, R. A., and Lenschow, D. H. (1984) Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 65, 1290-1301, 1984. Roberts, G., and A. Nenes (2005), A continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber for atmospheric measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 206-221. Stratmann, F., A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt (2004), Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic super-saturation conditions, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 876-887. Wex, H., T. Hennig, I. Salma, R. Ocskay, A. Kiselev, S. Henning, A. Massling, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2007), Hygroscopic growth and measured and modeled critical super-saturations of an atmospheric HULIS sample, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(L02818), doi:10.1029/2006GL028260.

Wex, Heike; Fuentes, Elena; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Voigtländer, Jens; Clauss, Tina; Kiselev, Alexei; Green, David; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Stratmann, Frank

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization negatively affects strigolactone production and exudation in sorghum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strigolactones (SLs) are essential host recognition signals for both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and SLs or their metabolites function as a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot and root architecture. Our previous study indicated that nitrogen (N) deficiency as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency in sorghum enhanced root content and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, one of the major SLs produced by sorghum. In the present study, we examined how N and P fertilization affects SL production and exudation in sorghum plants subjected to short- (5 days) or long-term (10 days) N or P deficiency and demonstrated their common and distinct features. The root contents and exudation of SLs in the N- or P-deficient sorghum plants grown for 6, 12 or 24 h with or without N or P fertilization were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In general, without fertilization, root contents and exudation of SLs stayed at similar levels at 6 and 12 h and then significantly increased at 24 h. The production of SLs responded more quickly to P fertilization than the secretion of SLs, while regulation of SL secretion began earlier after N fertilization. It is suggested that sorghum plants regulate SL production and exudation when they are subjected to nutrient deficiencies depending on the type of nutrient and degree of deficiency.

Yoneyama K; Xie X; Kisugi T; Nomura T; Yoneyama K

2013-08-01

62

Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization negatively affects strigolactone production and exudation in sorghum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strigolactones (SLs) are essential host recognition signals for both root parasitic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and SLs or their metabolites function as a novel class of plant hormones regulating shoot and root architecture. Our previous study indicated that nitrogen (N) deficiency as well as phosphorus (P) deficiency in sorghum enhanced root content and exudation of 5-deoxystrigol, one of the major SLs produced by sorghum. In the present study, we examined how N and P fertilization affects SL production and exudation in sorghum plants subjected to short- (5 days) or long-term (10 days) N or P deficiency and demonstrated their common and distinct features. The root contents and exudation of SLs in the N- or P-deficient sorghum plants grown for 6, 12 or 24 h with or without N or P fertilization were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In general, without fertilization, root contents and exudation of SLs stayed at similar levels at 6 and 12 h and then significantly increased at 24 h. The production of SLs responded more quickly to P fertilization than the secretion of SLs, while regulation of SL secretion began earlier after N fertilization. It is suggested that sorghum plants regulate SL production and exudation when they are subjected to nutrient deficiencies depending on the type of nutrient and degree of deficiency. PMID:23925853

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Yoneyama, Koichi

2013-08-08

63

Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass species. Here I evaluate how eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) DOC exudation is affected by a single factor manipulation (light, temperature or salinity). Eelgrass plants were hydroponically exposed to treatments in experimental chambers (separate leaf and rhizome/root compartments) with artificial seawater medium. Regression analysis of changes in the DOC concentration through time was used to calculate DOC exudation rates. Results Exudation rates were similar across all treatments in all experiments. For all experiments, pooled leaf DOC exudation ranged between 0.032 and 0.069?mg C gdw-1?h-1, while rhizodeposition ranged between 0.024 and 0.045?mg C gdw-1?h-1. These rates are consistent with previously published values and provide first-order estimates for mechanistic models. Conclusions Zostera marina carbon losses from either leaf exudation or rhizodeposition account for a small proportion of gross primary production (1.2-4.6%) and appear to be insensitive to short-term (e.g., hours to days) environmental variations in chamber experiments. Based on these preliminary experiments, I suggest that Z. marina DOC exudation may be a passive process and not an active transport process.

Kaldy James

2012-01-01

64

Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass species. Here I evaluate how eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) DOC exudation is affected by a single factor manipulation (light, temperature or salinity). Eelgrass plants were hydroponically exposed to treatments in experimental chambers (separate leaf and rhizome/root compartments) with artificial seawater medium. Regression analysis of changes in the DOC concentration through time was used to calculate DOC exudation rates. RESULTS: Exudation rates were similar across all treatments in all experiments. For all experiments, pooled leaf DOC exudation ranged between 0.032 and 0.069?mg C gdw-1?h-1, while rhizodeposition ranged between 0.024 and 0.045?mg C gdw-1?h-1. These rates are consistent with previously published values and provide first-order estimates for mechanistic models. CONCLUSIONS: Zostera marina carbon losses from either leaf exudation or rhizodeposition account for a small proportion of gross primary production (1.2-4.6%) and appear to be insensitive to short-term (e.g., hours to days) environmental variations in chamber experiments. Based on these preliminary experiments, I suggest that Z. marina DOC exudation may be a passive process and not an active transport process.

Kaldy J

2012-01-01

65

Rhizosphere water dynamics: role of exudates in mediating water retention and flow characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, significant amount of literature showed that rhizosphere's physical and chemical properties markedly differ from those of the bulk soil. Plants invest large portion of their photosynthetic carbon in developing root architecture that optimally exploits water and nutrient distributions in the soil. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these exudates play a major role in altering the of the soil water retention properties. In this study, we investigated the role of root exudates on rhizosphere water dynamics using analog system. Glass beads were used to represent loose soil and dilute solutions of polygalacutronic acid (PGA) to mimic exudates (0, 1, 5, 15 and 29 g/L). The samples were subjected to periods of drying and subsequent equilibration. At each stage, the water potential was measured using WP4C Dewpoint PotentiaMeter. On the other hand, sand samples were saturated with PGA at the same concentration used to study the effect of exudates on water evaporation rate. The effect of root exudates on soil water retention can be attributed to at least two factors. The most widely speculated effect is through enhanced of soil aggregation. This effect is primarily due to capillary adhesion in fine pores within aggregates and is consistent with visual observation of pronounced aggregation in many rhizosphere soils. The second factor is related to osmotic effect of the exudate solution. Our observations show that the capillary effect is mostly limited to higher water potential regime (> -1 bar suction). Whereas the osmotic effect dominates in osmotic potential results from these organic exudates play an important role in reducing the evaporation rate. These results will provide direct quantitative evidence of how rhizosphere organic matter helps plant-soil relations.

Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

2013-04-01

66

Relationship between muscle exudate protein composition and broiler breast meat quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between meat quality and the protein content and composition of muscle exudate from broiler breast fillets. Deboned breast fillets (n = 48) were obtained from a commercial processing facility and segregated into 2 groups based on color (light and dark). Meat pH, color, moisture content, 3 measures of water-holding capacity (drip loss, salt-induced water uptake, cook loss), protein solubility, and the protein content of muscle exudates were determined in breast fillets. The protein composition of the muscle exudate was evaluated using SDS-PAGE analysis. Light breast fillets had lower meat pH (4 and 24 h postmortem) and higher L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness) values than dark fillets. Light breast fillets exhibited greater drip loss after 2 and 7 d of storage, lower salt-induced water uptake, and higher cook loss than dark fillets. Neither sarcoplasmic nor total protein solubility differed between light and dark fillets. Protein concentration of muscle exudates was greater in dark fillets and was negatively correlated to drip loss after 2 d of storage (r = -0.50) and salt-induced water uptake (r = 0.42). Electrophoretic protein banding patterns were similar between muscle exudates and sarcoplasmic protein extracts. Gel electrophoresis data from muscle exudates showed that the relative abundance of 4 bands corresponding to 225, 165, 90, and 71 kDa was higher in dark breast fillets. The relative abundance of 3 bands corresponding to 47, 43, and 39 kDa was higher in light breast fillets. Muscle pH and measurements of water-holding capacity were significantly correlated to the abundance of several individual protein bands within the protein profile of muscle exudates. Data from this study showed that protein differences in breast muscle exudates are related to meat pH, color, and water-holding capacity and suggest that muscle exudate could be a potential source of protein markers for fresh meat quality attributes in broiler fillets.

Bowker BC; Zhuang H

2013-05-01

67

Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

2012-07-01

68

Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system.

Wu FY; Chung AK; Tam NF; Wong MH

2012-07-01

69

Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N) content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics") containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10) through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization). The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

J. E. Drake; B. A. Darby; M.-A. Giasson; M. A. Kramer; R. P. Phillips; A. C. Finzi

2013-01-01

70

Root exudates of transgenic cotton and their effects on Fusarium oxysporum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The components of the root exudates from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton lines and their parental cotton lines, and their effects on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. The results demonstrated that the resistance of transgenic insect-resistant cotton to F. oxysporum was significantly reduced compared with their parental lines. Likewise, the root exudates from transgenic insect-resistant cotton significantly promoted the spore germination and mycelial growth of cotton F. oxysporum. The types of compounds found in the root exudates of transgenic insect-resistant cotton were similar to those of the parental cotton, but the composition and relative content of the compounds were different. The type and content of the fatty acids and esters were significantly reduced in the root exudates of the transgenic insect-resistant cotton, as were certain specific materials, whereas several alkanes were increased. The inhibition of the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum caused by the root exudates from the transgenic insect-resistant cotton was decreased compared with the parental cotton. This result provides a scientific basis for the decline in disease resistance in transgenic insect-resistant cotton.

Li XG; Wei Q; Liu B; Alam MS; Wang XX; Shen W; Han ZM

2013-01-01

71

Massive lipid exudation and retinal detachment after combined brachytherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy in choroidal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CASE REPORT: A 59 year-old male with choroidal melanoma in the left eye who underwent plaque brachytherapy (iodine 125). One week after surgery, massive exudation with retinal detachment and lipid exudation was observed. Evolution was assessed with funduscopy and ultrasound every month. Nine months after surgery transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) was performed over the fluid-free irradiated residual tumour. Three months after this procedure, new retinal breaks appeared in the treated area with vitreous seeding that required enucleation. DISCUSSION: Combined treatment with plaque brachytherapy and TTT may associate severe complications that may require enucleation of the involved eye.

Zarranz-Ventura J; Salinas-Alamán A; Barrio-Barrio J; de Nova E; Bonet E; García-Layana A

2013-05-01

72

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in seven tribes of Cichorioideae and Asteroideae (Asteraceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Members of several genera of Asteraceae, belonging to the tribes Mutisieae, Cardueae, Lactuceae (all subfamily Cichorioideae), and of Astereae, Senecioneae, Helenieae and Heliantheae (all subfamily Asteroideae) have been analyzed for chemodiversity of their exudate flavonoid profiles. The majority of structures found were flavones and flavonols, sometimes with 6- and/or 8-substitution, and with a varying degree of oxidation and methylation. Flavanones were observed in exudates of some genera, and, in some cases, also flavonol- and flavone glycosides were detected. This was mostly the case when exudates were poor both in yield and chemical complexity. Structurally diverse profiles are found particularly within Astereae and Heliantheae. The tribes in the subfamily Cichorioideae exhibited less complex flavonoid profiles. Current results are compared to literature data, and botanical information is included on the studied taxa.

Valant-Vetschera KM; Wollenweber E

2007-03-01

73

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in seven tribes of Cichorioideae and Asteroideae (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of several genera of Asteraceae, belonging to the tribes Mutisieae, Cardueae, Lactuceae (all subfamily Cichorioideae), and of Astereae, Senecioneae, Helenieae and Heliantheae (all subfamily Asteroideae) have been analyzed for chemodiversity of their exudate flavonoid profiles. The majority of structures found were flavones and flavonols, sometimes with 6- and/or 8-substitution, and with a varying degree of oxidation and methylation. Flavanones were observed in exudates of some genera, and, in some cases, also flavonol- and flavone glycosides were detected. This was mostly the case when exudates were poor both in yield and chemical complexity. Structurally diverse profiles are found particularly within Astereae and Heliantheae. The tribes in the subfamily Cichorioideae exhibited less complex flavonoid profiles. Current results are compared to literature data, and botanical information is included on the studied taxa. PMID:17542478

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Wollenweber, Eckhard

74

Glucose and plant exudate enhanced enumeration of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enumerating environmental microbial isolates capable of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation can provide insight into the microbe-plant interactions that facilitate PAH removal. We examined a known PAH degrader ( Pseudomonas putida G7), a nondegrader ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404), and several microorganisms isolated from the environment by using a PAH cocktail in an enumeration medium with or without 0.025% (m/v) glucose and (or) root exudates. Compared with the standard most probable number (MPN), the addition of glucose and root exudates in a modified MPN method resulted in a 3- to 11-fold enhancement of PAH degraders being enumerated among microorganisms found in PAH-contaminated soils. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis verified that PAH levels were reduced using this modified enumeration method. Low levels of glucose, perhaps in concert with other materials in exudates, may promote microbial metabolism, thereby enhancing PAH degradation.

Thomas JC; Dabkowski RT

2011-12-01

75

Glucose and plant exudate enhanced enumeration of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enumerating environmental microbial isolates capable of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation can provide insight into the microbe-plant interactions that facilitate PAH removal. We examined a known PAH degrader ( Pseudomonas putida G7), a nondegrader ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404), and several microorganisms isolated from the environment by using a PAH cocktail in an enumeration medium with or without 0.025% (m/v) glucose and (or) root exudates. Compared with the standard most probable number (MPN), the addition of glucose and root exudates in a modified MPN method resulted in a 3- to 11-fold enhancement of PAH degraders being enumerated among microorganisms found in PAH-contaminated soils. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis verified that PAH levels were reduced using this modified enumeration method. Low levels of glucose, perhaps in concert with other materials in exudates, may promote microbial metabolism, thereby enhancing PAH degradation. PMID:22136124

Thomas, John C; Dabkowski, Robert T

2011-12-02

76

Rapid regression of exudative maculopathy in idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome after intravitreal ranibizumab.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome is a rare retinal vascular disorder characterized by multiple leaking aneurysmal dilations, retinal vasculitis, neuroretinitis and peripheral vascular ischemia. Visual loss mainly occurs due to the development of retinal neovascularization and/or exudative maculopathy. Although the treatment of choice has not yet been established, retinal photocoagulation seems to be the best option to control the disease and to prevent its progression. Herein, we report a case of idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome with both retinal neovascularization and macular exudation successfully managed with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis(®)) as adjunctive therapy to retinal photocoagulation.

Marín-Lambíes C; Gallego-Pinazo R; Salom D; Navarrete J; Díaz-Llopis M

2012-05-01

77

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon) into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients) caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

Andreas F. Haas; Craig E. Nelson; Forest Rohwer; Linda Wegley-Kelly; Steven D. Quistad; Craig A. Carlson; James J. Leichter; Mark Hatay; Jennifer E. Smith

2013-01-01

78

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo'orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon) into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients) caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs. PMID:23882445

Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Rohwer, Forest; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Quistad, Steven D; Carlson, Craig A; Leichter, James J; Hatay, Mark; Smith, Jennifer E

2013-07-16

79

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo'orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon) into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients) caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

Haas AF; Nelson CE; Rohwer F; Wegley-Kelly L; Quistad SD; Carlson CA; Leichter JJ; Hatay M; Smith JE

2013-01-01

80

Effects of ultraviolet radiation (type B) on wound exudates, appearance and depth description.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purulent exudate is one of the clinical signs of decubitus ulcers; and it is indicative of infection. The greatest challenge is the decreasing sensitivity of infective micro-organisms to antibiotics. There appears to be paucity of data on the effect of Ultraviolet radiation on wound exudates and appearance. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ultraviolet radiation (Type B) on wound exudates and appearance of decubitus ulcers. Ten (10) bed-ridden subjects with ascertained bilateral sore from unrelieved pressure in their lower extremities consented to participate in the study. The decubitus ulcers were treated with traditional saline-wet-to-moist (WM) wound dressing. The decubitus ulcers on the left lower extremities were the experimental limbs and were exposed to ultraviolet radiation as adjunct while the right lower limbs served as control and received only the saline-wet-to-moist (WM) wound dressing. The frequency of treatment was 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The type of exudates produced, amount of exudates, wound appearance and depth description were scored on a 5-point likert scale. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric inferential statistics (Kruska-Wallis test). The result of the Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was significant improvement in the type of exudates produced by the decubitus ulcers of the experimental (left) limbs (X{2} = 33.71, p < 0.00) when compared with the control limbs. Similarly, there was significant reduction in the amount of exudates produced by the decubitus ulcers of the experimental limbs (X{2} = 30.58, p < 0.00) when compared with that of the control. Also, there was significant improvement in the appearance of the decubitus ulcers (X{2} = 33.01, p< 0.00) and depth description of the experimental (left) limbs compared to that of the control (right). This study concluded that Ultraviolet radiation (Type B) can significantly improve the appearance of decubitus ulcers. Also, it can significantly reduce the amount of purulent exudates and can hasten skin replacement of decubitus ulcers.

Onigbinde AT; Adedoyin RA; Ojoawo OA; Johnson OE; Obembe AO; Olafimihan FK; Omiyale OM; Oniyangi S

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Kinins and peritoneal exudates induced by carrageenin and zymosan in rats.  

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1. Kinins were measured by a radioimmunoassay in the inflammatory exudates induced by carrageenin or zymosan in the peritoneal cavity of normal Wistar rats and of kininogen-deficient Brown Norway rats. 2. After administration of carrageenin to normal rats, levels of immunoreactive kinins showed a si...

Damas, J.; Bourdon, V.; Remacle-Volon, G.; Adam, A.

82

Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation – insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthy plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exo-enzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The causal role of exudation, however, is difficult to isolate with in-situ observations, given the complex nature of the rhizosphere environment. We investigated the potential effects of root exudation on microbial and exo-enzyme activity using a theoretical model of decomposition and a field experiment, with a specific focus on the stoichiometric constraint of nitrogen (N) availability. The field experiment isolated the effect of exudation by pumping solutions of exudate mimics through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils over two 50-day periods. Using a combined model-experiment approach, we tested two hypotheses: (1) exudation alone is sufficient to stimulate microbial and exo-enzyme activity in rhizosphere soils, and (2) microbial response to C-exudates (carbohydrates and organic acids) is constrained by N-limitation. Experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exo-enzymes that decompose labile components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exo-enzymes that degrade recalcitrant SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). However, delivery of C-only exudates had no effect on microbial biomass or overall exo-enzyme activity, and only increased microbial respiration. The theoretical decomposition model produced complementary results; the modeled microbial response to C-only exudates was constrained by limited N supply to support the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exo-enzymes, while exuding C and N together elicited an increase in modeled microbial biomass, exo-enzyme activity, and decomposition. Thus, hypothesis (2) was supported, while hypothesis (1) was only supported when C and N compounds were exuded together. This study supports a cause-and-effect relationship between root exudation and enhanced microbial activity, and suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

J. E. Drake; B. A. Darby; M.-A. Giasson; M. A. Kramer; R. P. Phillips; A. C. Finzi

2012-01-01

83

Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water.

Sychrová E; Št?pánková T; Nováková K; Bláha L; Giesy JP; Hilscherová K

2012-02-01

84

Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water. PMID:22208753

Sychrová, E; Št?pánková, T; Nováková, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Hilscherová, K

2011-11-24

85

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF POMACEOUS STIGMA EXUDATES AND RELEVANCE TO BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FIRE BLIGHT  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial antagonism toward Erwinia amylovora on stigmas of pear and apple flowers has been widely demonstrated. Knowing the chemistry of stigma exudates could advance the selection and use of antagonists. Stigmas of different pomaceous cultivars and ages were analyzed for sugars and amino acids. ...

86

Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla  

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Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L.) has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Ru...

Sevilhan Mennan; Haddish Melakeberhan

87

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

RENÉ TORRES; FRANCISCO URBINA; CLAUDIA MORALES; BRENDA MODAK; FRANCO DELLE MONACHE

2003-01-01

88

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

TORRES, RENÉ; URBINA, FRANCISCO; MORALES, CLAUDIA; MODAK, BRENDA; MONACHE, FRANCO DELLE

2003-09-01

89

Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution.

Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

2008-09-15

90

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds  

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Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Diz Mariângela S. S.; Carvalho André O.; Gomes Valdirene M.

2003-01-01

91

METHOD FOR INCREASE IN RESIN EXUDATION AND ADHESION OF STREAKS WHEN PINE BLEEDING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is in the field of forestry. The product contains components in the following ratio, wt %: - tween 80-0.1-0.5 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) 0.0002-0.002 fusicoccin 0.0002-0.0012 water - the rest. ^ EFFECT: invention enables to improve effectiveness of resin exudation and adhesion. ^ 3 tbl

TSIBULJA LJUDMILA VLADISLAVOVNA; ALEKSEEV IVAN ALEKSEEVICH; GUSEVA OKSANA NIKOLAEVNA; FOMINYKH VALENTIN LEONIDOVICH; ANDREEV NIKOLAJ VIKTOROVICH

92

New constituents of the leaf and stem exudate of Ozothamnus hookeri (Asteraceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exudate of Ozothamnus hookeri has been investigated for its non-flavonoid constituents. A new natural C6-C3 ester of a long chain fatty acid and seven structurally related kaurane-diterpenoids were isolated. Three of the latter are new natural products, too. A rare 8-methoxy flavonol was also identified.

Rumbero A; Arriaga-Giner FJ; Wollenweber E

2000-05-01

93

Flavonoid aglycones from the leaf and stem exudates of some Geraniaceae species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six species of Pelargonium and one species of Geranium were studied for their surface flavonoids. Some of them were found to exhibit an unexpectedly high number of methylated flavonoids, mostly flavonols. The chemotaxonomic significance of exudate flavonoid diversification is shortly addressed. PMID:21366037

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Dörr, Marion; Christ, Matthias

2011-01-01

94

A new oxyprenyl coumarin and highly methylated flavones from the exudate of Ozothamnus lycopodioides (Asteraceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new oxyprenyl coumarin was isolated from the lipophilic exudate of Ozothamnus lycopodioides. Its structure was established as 7-(3,3'-dimethylallyloxy)-5-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin from its UV, MS and NMR spectral data, especially two dimensional experiments. In addition to six earlier reported flavonols, we found four highly substituted flavones, including two rare methylenedioxyflavones.

Rumbero A; Arriaga-Giner FJ; Wollenweber E

2000-01-01

95

A new oxyprenyl coumarin and highly methylated flavones from the exudate of Ozothamnus lycopodioides (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new oxyprenyl coumarin was isolated from the lipophilic exudate of Ozothamnus lycopodioides. Its structure was established as 7-(3,3'-dimethylallyloxy)-5-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin from its UV, MS and NMR spectral data, especially two dimensional experiments. In addition to six earlier reported flavonols, we found four highly substituted flavones, including two rare methylenedioxyflavones. PMID:10739091

Rumbero, A; Arriaga-Giner, F J; Wollenweber, E

96

New constituents of the leaf and stem exudate of Ozothamnus hookeri (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The exudate of Ozothamnus hookeri has been investigated for its non-flavonoid constituents. A new natural C6-C3 ester of a long chain fatty acid and seven structurally related kaurane-diterpenoids were isolated. Three of the latter are new natural products, too. A rare 8-methoxy flavonol was also identified. PMID:10928539

Rumbero, A; Arriaga-Giner, F J; Wollenweber, E

97

Flavonoid aglycones from the leaf and stem exudates of some Geraniaceae species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six species of Pelargonium and one species of Geranium were studied for their surface flavonoids. Some of them were found to exhibit an unexpectedly high number of methylated flavonoids, mostly flavonols. The chemotaxonomic significance of exudate flavonoid diversification is shortly addressed.

Wollenweber E; Dörr M; Christ M

2011-01-01

98

CHEMISTRY OF APPLE AND PEAR STIGMA EXUDATES RELATED TO BACTERIAL ANTAGONISM TOWARD ERWINIA AMYLOVORA  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire blight of apple and pear is most commonly initiated by epiphytic populations of Erwinia amylovora that first become established on flower stigmas. Since microbial activity on the stigma is largely supported by the presence of fluidal exudate, knowing the chemistry of this substance could lead ...

99

Th1/Th2 Cytokine Ratio in Tissue Transudates from Patients with Oral Lichen Planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. The characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) provoke investigators to explore possible biomarkers by which to monitor disease activity and therapeutic efficacy. Oral fluids may provide an accessible medium for analysis of such biomarkers. Previous studies have shown that activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κ B) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP), which is a chronic inflammatory disorder mediated by T cells. Prior to the present investigation, reports of the levels of NF-κ B and its dependent cytokines in oral fluids have not been forthcoming. The purpose of this study was to detect the level of NF-κ B dependent cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 in tissue transudates directly from lesions of OLP, and explore the feasibility of the data for clinical application. Study design. Thirteen definitively diagnosed OLP subjects were enrolled in the study as were 13 age-sex matched controls. In each subject, lesion tissue transudates (TTs) were collected by a novel collection technique with a filter paper. The level of cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 in three types of oral fluids were determined by ELISA. Results. In the tissue transudate(TT), there were significantly higher level of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 detected in OLP patients than in controls: (TT: 40.0±9.8 versus 4.5±0.7, 710±114 versus 305±78, 150±25 versus 1.7±0.5, 2800±260 versus 1450±130, P<.0001; unit: pg/mL). Conclusions. These results indicate that NF-κ B dependent inflammatory cytokines may be detected at increased levels in oral lesion tissue transudates which may have diagnostic and prognostic potentials for monitoring disease activity and making therapeutic decisions in patients with OLP.

Nelson L. Rhodus; Bin Cheng; Frank Ondrey

2007-01-01

100

Plant growth inhibiting flavonoids in exudate of Cistus ladanifer and in associated soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the aglycone flavonoids identified in the exudate of cistus ladanifer, two, the flavone apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl and the flavonol kaempferol-3,7-di(O)-methyl inhibit development of the seedlings of Rumex crispus at 0.5 and 1 mM. Additive effects were observed between the major flavonols of the exudate kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl and kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl in inhibiting the size of the cotyledons and delaying the germination and cotyledon emergence. The presence of apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl, and kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl was detected in the soils associated with C. ladanifer during the summer and autumn months. That these compounds are present in the soil and are not restricted to the leaves provides support for the hypothesis that C. ladanifer has allelopathic potential. PMID:11441450

Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Escudero, J C

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Plant growth inhibiting flavonoids in exudate of Cistus ladanifer and in associated soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of the aglycone flavonoids identified in the exudate of cistus ladanifer, two, the flavone apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl and the flavonol kaempferol-3,7-di(O)-methyl inhibit development of the seedlings of Rumex crispus at 0.5 and 1 mM. Additive effects were observed between the major flavonols of the exudate kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl and kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl in inhibiting the size of the cotyledons and delaying the germination and cotyledon emergence. The presence of apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl, and kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl was detected in the soils associated with C. ladanifer during the summer and autumn months. That these compounds are present in the soil and are not restricted to the leaves provides support for the hypothesis that C. ladanifer has allelopathic potential.

Chaves N; Sosa T; Escudero JC

2001-03-01

102

Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substances in the root exudates and biological nitrogen fixation capacity. Through this study we have identified, the bioinoculants consortium improves the colonization potential, sustainability within the inoculants and enhances crop growth. We hypothesize that microbial consortium enhances plant growth positively by a multitude of synergistic mechanisms when compared to single inoculants application.

P. Raja; S. Uma; H. Gopal; K. Govindarajan

2006-01-01

103

[The effect of clofelin on the transudation of plasma proteins into the dura mater induced by stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous administration of clofelin blocks transudation of 131I-albumin into the dura mater of rats in electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Preliminary injection of the alpha-adrenoblocker yohimbine and the antagonist of serotonin receptors 5-NT1 mianserin completely removes the blocking effect of clofelin. Naloxon and the alpha 1-adrenoblocker prazosin had no effect on the degree of expression of albumin transudation and the clophelin effect. The role of the adrenergic system, the presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors in particular, in functioning of the trigeminovascular system and the development of neurogenic inflammation in the dura mater is discussed. PMID:10340120

Amelin, A V; Ivanov, V E; Usachev, N I; Pushkarev, A A

104

Melanoma-associated retinopathy and recurrent exudative retinal detachments in a patient with choroidal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To report a patient who presented with photopsias, night blindness, exudative retinal detachments, and melanoma-associated retinopathy in her right eye 23 years after the left eye was enucleated for a choroidal melanoma. METHODS: Assessment of fundus findings, fluorescein angiograms, and electroretinograms. RESULTS: The patient had recurrent exudative detachments of the macula in her right eye and electroretinogram responses consistent with the diagnosis of melanoma-associated retinopathy. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was negative, but 13 months later, CT scanning revealed many masses in her liver. Fine-needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of melanoma-associated retinopathy in a patient with a previous choroidal melanoma.

Zacks DN; Pinnolis MK; Berson EL; Gragoudas ES

2001-10-01

105

[Treatment strategies in exudative otitis media in children with aquired cleft lip and palate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents incidence of hearing problems in 100 children with aquired cleft lip and palate (ACLP) aged 1 to 16 years. An age aspect of the problem is analysed. The patients were at different stages of rehabilitation for ACLP. Conservative and surgical policies in management of children with exudative otitis media and ACLP are analysed. Surgical results depending on the disease stage are provided.

Sokolova AV

2003-01-01

106

Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

2009-04-15

107

Role of Synthesis and Exudation of Organic Acids in Phosphorus Nutrition in Plants in Tropical Soils  

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Full Text Available Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to uptake adequate Phosphorus (P) under limiting conditions in tropical and sub-tropical soils, including modifications to root architecture (e.g. cluster roots in Proteaceae), carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes and enhanced expression of numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations seem to be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants as mycorrhiza in roots significantly helps plants in P uptake at low P soils. The formation of cluster roots in concert with enhanced exudation of low molecular weight organic acids such as citric, oxalic, malic, fumaric, succinic etc. under P-stress by the non-mycorrhizal plants and the accompanying biochemical changes exemplify many of the plant adaptations that enhance P acquisition and use. Several biotechnological approach are now in progress to increase exudation of organic acids from the roots of economically important crop plants for sustainable crop production in tropical and sub-tropical soils.

Hasna Hena Begum; Md. Tofazzal Islam

2005-01-01

108

Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

1984-01-01

109

Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity.

Vanloot P; Dupuy N; Guiliano M; Artaud J

2012-12-01

110

Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity.

Vanloot P; Dupuy N; Guiliano M; Artaud J

2012-12-01

111

Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

2012-07-14

112

Automated identification of exudates and optic disc based on inverse surface thresholding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new approach to detect exudates and optic disc from color fundus images based on inverse surface thresholding. The strategy involves the applications of fuzzy c-means clustering, edge detection, otsu thresholding and inverse surface thresholding. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not depend on manually selected parameters that are normally chosen to suit the tested databases. When applied to two sets of databases the proposed method outperforms a method based on watershed segmentation. PMID:21318328

Yazid, Haniza; Arof, Hamzah; Isa, Hazlita Mohd

2011-02-12

113

Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

2005-10-01

114

[Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium deficiency on content of phenolic compounds in exudation of American ginseng].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Some of the phenolic compounds detected in the soil of commercially cultivated American ginseng could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of American ginseng. In this paper we studied the root exudation of American ginseng induced by deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the content of phenolic compounds. METHOD: Two years old American ginsengs were cultured in hydroponic culture with different nutrient solution. The culture solution was collected after 14 days. The exudations of different polarities in the culture solution were enriched by the amberlite XAD4 and XAD7. The content of the total phenolic acids in the exudation was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry; the contents of vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and trans-cinnamic acid were detected and quantified by HPLC. RESULT: Both in the situation of nitrogen and potassium deficiency, the concentration of total phenolic compounds increased significantly in the exudation of American ginseng comparing with the complete nutrient solution (P < 0.05) , while decreased significantly under phosphorus deficient conditions (P < 0.05). The contents of the 3 autotoxic phenolic acids decreased significantly under nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium deficient conditions (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The contents of total phenolic compounds and the 3 autotoxic phenolics in the root exudation of American ginseng altered variously in the deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Du Jing; Yang J; Jiao X; Gao W

2011-02-01

115

Confirmation and determination of carboxylic acids in root exudates using LC-ESI-MS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection is of limited applicability in the separation and identification of carboxylic acids because of the column's poor separation efficiency and the non-selective nature of the UV detector. To address this issue, RP-LC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been explored for the confirmation and determination of carboxylic acids in plant root exudates, with ESI-MS providing structural information, high selectivity, and high sensitivity. The separation of 10 carboxylic acids (pyruvic, lactic, malonic, maleic, fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, trans-aconitic, and citric acid) was performed on a C(18) column using an eluent containing 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid within 10 min, where the acidic eluent not only suppressed the ionization of the carboxylic acids to be retained on the column, but was also compatible with ESI-MS detection. In addition, an additional standard was used to overcome the matrix effect. The results showed that peak areas correlated linearly with the concentration of carboxylic acids over the range 0.05-10 mg/L. The detection limits of target acids (signal-to-noise S/N ratio of 3) ranged from 20 to 30 microg/L. Finally, the proposed method was used for the confirmation and determination of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids in plant root exudates, and provided a simple analytical procedure, including sample processing, fast separation, and high specificity and sensitivity.

Chen Z; Jin X; Wang Q; Lin Y; Gan L; Tang C

2007-10-01

116

Repression of Pseudomonas putida phenanthrene-degrading activity by plant root extracts and exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere.

Rentz JA; Alvarez PJ; Schnoor JL

2004-06-01

117

The effect of peritoneal exudate on peritoneal morphology in experimental acute pancreatitis. A histologic and scanning electron microscopic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in peritoneal morphology were examined histologically and by scanning electron microscopy during porcine acute hemorrhagic (n = 8) and edematous (n = 9) pancreatitis and after intraperitoneal installation of hemorrhagic pancreatitis-associated peritoneal exudate in healthy piglets (n = 3). In all experimental groups peritoneal inflammatory changes with mesothelial damage were evident already 1 h after the induction of the disease, and increased with time. Hemorrhagic pancreatitis caused desquamation of mesothelial cells and denudation of the basal membrane. Intraperitoneal installation of hemorrhagic pancreatitis-associated peritoneal exudate in healthy piglets caused similar changes, whereas the changes in edematous pancreatitis were much less extensive. Peritoneal exudate accumulating in the peritoneal cavity during hemorrhagic pancreatitis caused early chemical peritonitis characterized by severe inflammation of the peritoneum with destruction of the mesothelial cell layer, leading to denudation of the underlying connective tissue. The significance of these changes in the pathophysiology of acute fulminant pancreatitis remains to be further studied.

Lehtola A; Talja M; Nuutinen P; Nordling S; Lempinen M; Schröder T

1986-12-01

118

The effect of peritoneal exudate on peritoneal morphology in experimental acute pancreatitis. A histologic and scanning electron microscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in peritoneal morphology were examined histologically and by scanning electron microscopy during porcine acute hemorrhagic (n = 8) and edematous (n = 9) pancreatitis and after intraperitoneal installation of hemorrhagic pancreatitis-associated peritoneal exudate in healthy piglets (n = 3). In all experimental groups peritoneal inflammatory changes with mesothelial damage were evident already 1 h after the induction of the disease, and increased with time. Hemorrhagic pancreatitis caused desquamation of mesothelial cells and denudation of the basal membrane. Intraperitoneal installation of hemorrhagic pancreatitis-associated peritoneal exudate in healthy piglets caused similar changes, whereas the changes in edematous pancreatitis were much less extensive. Peritoneal exudate accumulating in the peritoneal cavity during hemorrhagic pancreatitis caused early chemical peritonitis characterized by severe inflammation of the peritoneum with destruction of the mesothelial cell layer, leading to denudation of the underlying connective tissue. The significance of these changes in the pathophysiology of acute fulminant pancreatitis remains to be further studied. PMID:3809992

Lehtola, A; Talja, M; Nuutinen, P; Nordling, S; Lempinen, M; Schröder, T

1986-12-01

119

Properties of the bubble protein, a defensin and an abundant component of a fungal exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonies of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx produce bright yellow-green fluorescent exudate bubbles on its surface when grown on standard plant cell culture medium. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, the exudate is enriched in one protein, named bubble protein (BP). Detailed characteristics of BP are described, and also its corresponding genomic promoter and terminator sequences that flank sequences encoding signal peptide and a precursor sequence upstream of that of the mature protein. Following on previous work, the protein is now biochemically characterized. BP, the structure of which mainly consists of beta sheets, has four very stable disulfide bridges that resist standard procedures for reduction. With such traits, BP can now be categorized as a new member of the ever growing class of defensins. Indeed, the protein revealed anti-fungal effects as it inhibits growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. Structural classification places BP into the group of proteins with a knottin fold, founding the BP superfamily. Based on genomic alignments that revealed very high homology to four proteins of related fungi, a 3D structure prediction of the corresponding proteins was made. In addition, it was discovered that the closely related fungus Penicillium chrysogenum encodes a BP homolog - in addition to its PAF protein, which also is similar to BP - further suggesting that fungi may possess more than one defensin. PMID:21906643

Seibold, Marcus; Wolschann, Peter; Bodevin, Sabrina; Olsen, Ole

2011-09-01

120

Properties of the bubble protein, a defensin and an abundant component of a fungal exudate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colonies of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx produce bright yellow-green fluorescent exudate bubbles on its surface when grown on standard plant cell culture medium. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, the exudate is enriched in one protein, named bubble protein (BP). Detailed characteristics of BP are described, and also its corresponding genomic promoter and terminator sequences that flank sequences encoding signal peptide and a precursor sequence upstream of that of the mature protein. Following on previous work, the protein is now biochemically characterized. BP, the structure of which mainly consists of beta sheets, has four very stable disulfide bridges that resist standard procedures for reduction. With such traits, BP can now be categorized as a new member of the ever growing class of defensins. Indeed, the protein revealed anti-fungal effects as it inhibits growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. Structural classification places BP into the group of proteins with a knottin fold, founding the BP superfamily. Based on genomic alignments that revealed very high homology to four proteins of related fungi, a 3D structure prediction of the corresponding proteins was made. In addition, it was discovered that the closely related fungus Penicillium chrysogenum encodes a BP homolog - in addition to its PAF protein, which also is similar to BP - further suggesting that fungi may possess more than one defensin.

Seibold M; Wolschann P; Bodevin S; Olsen O

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Thinner choroid and greater drusen extent in retinal angiomatous proliferation than in typical exudative age-related macular degeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare choroidal thickness and extent and density of drusen between eyes with typical exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes with typical exudative AMD and 20 eyes with RAP were included. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Eyes were classified into 3 groups according to the extent of drusen distribution in the fundus photograph. Density of drusen was estimated based on optical coherence tomography images of the fellow eye. The proportion of the length beneath the drusen per the entire length of the Bruch membrane was defined as the density of drusen. Subfoveal choroidal thickness, extent of drusen distribution, and the density of drusen were compared between typical exudative AMD and RAP. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation subfoveal choroidal thickness in eyes with typical exudative AMD and eyes with RAP was 184.9 ± 68.5 ?m and 139.0 ± 65.5 ?m, respectively (P = .035). The mean density of drusen was 0.06 ± 0.08 and 0.24 ± 0.12, respectively (P < .001). In the typical exudative AMD group, 19, 3, and 2 eyes were included in the small extent group (and large extent group (>two thirds), respectively. In the RAP group, 3, 14, and 3 eyes were included in each aforementioned group, respectively (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness and greater extent and density of drusen in RAP than the typical exudative AMD may suggest compromised choroidal perfusion in the development of RAP.

Kim JH; Kim JR; Kang SW; Kim SJ; Ha HS

2013-04-01

122

Facile synthesis, stabilization, and anti-bacterial performance of discrete Ag nanoparticles using Medicago sativa seed exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical synthesis routes. Colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO(3) with Medicago sativa seed exudates under non-photomediated conditions. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions was observed in <1 min with Ag nanoparticle formation reaching 90% completion in <50 min. Effect of Ag concentration, quantity of exudate and pH on the particle size and shape were investigated. At [Ag(+)]=0.01 M and 30°C, largely spherical nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 5-51 nm were generated, while flower-like particle clusters (mean size=104 nm) were observed on treatment at higher Ag concentrations. Pre-dilution of the exudate induced the formation of single-crystalline Ag nanoplates, forming hexagonal particles and nanotriangles with edge lengths of 86-108 nm, while pH adjustment to 11 resulted in monodisperse Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm. Repeated centrifugation and redispersion enhanced the percentage of nanoplates from 10% to 75% in solution. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the Ag products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the elements and chemical environment in the top layers of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles, while the metabolites in the exudate were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first account of M. sativa seed exudate assisted synthesis and stabilization of biogenic Ag nanoparticles; the nanoplates are notably smaller and better faceted compared with those synthesized by vascular plant extracts previously reported. Stabilized films of exudate synthesized Ag nanoparticles were effective anti-bacterial agents.

Lukman AI; Gong B; Marjo CE; Roessner U; Harris AT

2011-01-01

123

Unusual bacterial infections and the pleura.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rickettsiosis, Q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) are caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, respectively. Pleural fluid from a patient with MSF had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. Coxiellaburnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a transudate due to a constrictive pericarditis. Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Pleural fluid from three tularemia patients showed a lymphocyte predominant exudate. Bacillusanthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Cases of inhalational anthrax from a recent bioterrorist attack evidenced the presence of a serosanguineous exudative pleural effusion. These four bacterial microorganisms should be suspected in patients presenting with a clinical history, exposure to known risk factors and an unexplained pleural effusion.

Kummerfeldt CE; Huggins JT; Sahn SA

2012-01-01

124

Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, ?-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals. PMID:21409496

Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

2011-03-16

125

Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, ?-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals.

Weldon PJ; Carroll JF; Kramer M; Bedoukian RH; Coleman RE; Bernier UR

2011-04-01

126

Maple sap uptake, exudation, and pressure changes correlated with freezing exotherms and thawing endotherms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sap flow rates and sap pressure changes were measured in dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the forest, sap flow rates and pressure changes were measured from tap holes drilled into tree trunks in mature trees and sap flow rates were measured from the base of excised branches. Excised branches were also brought into the laboratory where air temperature could be carefully controlled in a refrigerated box and sap flow rates and sap pressures were measured from the cut base of the branches.Under both forest and laboratory conditions, sap uptake occurred as the wood temperature declined but much more rapid sap uptake correlated with the onset of the freezing exotherm. When sap pressures were measured under conditions of negligible volume displacement, the sap pressure rapidly fell to -60 to -80 kilopascals at the start of the freezing exotherm. The volume of water uptake and the rate of uptake depended on the rate of freezing. A slow freezing rate correlated with a large volume of water uptake, a fast freezing rate induced a smaller volume of water uptake. The volume of water uptake ranged from 0.02 to 0.055 grams water per gram dry weight of sapwood. The volume of water exuded after thawing was usually less than the volume of uptake so that after several freezing and thawing cycles the sapwood water content increased from 0.7 to 0.8 grams water per gram dry weight.These results are discussed in terms of a physical model of the mechanism of maple sap uptake and exudation first proposed by P. E. R. O'Malley. The proposed mechanism of sap uptake is by vapor distillation in air filled wood fiber lumina during the freezing of minor branches. Gravity and pressurized air bubbles (compressed during freezing) cause sap flow from the canopy down the tree after the thaw.

Tyree MT

1983-10-01

127

Vibrational, 1H-NMR spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) and IR (FTIR) and (1)H-NMR spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (Spic Span and White Prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. This work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. Spectroscopic analysis showed that White Prosperity root exudate differs from Spic Span root exudate by a higher relative amount of the aromatic-phenolic and sugarlike components and a lower relative amount of carbonylic and aliphatic compounds. DSC analysis confirmed the spectroscopic results and showed that White Prosperity root exudate is characterized by an aromatic component that is present in a higher amount than in the Spic Span root exudate. The results are discussed in relation to the spore germination tests showing that White Prosperity, which is characterized by a remarkable resistance toward F. oxysporum gladioli, exudes substances having a negative influence on microconidial germination of the pathogen; root exudates from Spic Span, one of the most susceptible cultivars to F. oxysporum gladioli, proved to have no effect. White Prosperity's ability to inhibit conidial germination of F. oxysporum gladioli can be mainly related to the presence of a higher relative amount of aromatic-phenolic compounds. PMID:12209451

Taddei, P; Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Dallavalle, E; Zechini D'Aulerio, A

2002-01-01

128

Effect of corn root exudates on the degradation of atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites in soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DIMBOA (3,4-dihydro-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a major benzoxazinone of Poaceae plants, was isolated and purified from corn seedlings. The effect of isolated and purified DIMBOA on the degradation of atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine], and its toxic breakdown products, desethylatrazine [2-chloro-4-amino-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine; DEA] and desisopropylatrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-amino-s-triazine; DIA], was studied in the absence of plants using batch experiments, while the effect of corn root exudates on these compounds was determined in hydroponic experiments. Degradation experiments were performed in the presence and absence of 50 microM, 1 mM, or 5 mM DIMBOA resulting in ratios of DIMBOA to pesticide of 1:1, 20:1, and 100:1. We observed a 100% degradation of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine within 48 h at a ratio of DIMBOA to atrazine of 100:1. DIMBOA had the largest effect on atrazine, while it was about three times less effective on DEA and DIA. Corn (Zea mays L. cv. LG 2185) was exposed to 10 mg L(-1) of either atrazine, DEA, or DIA for 11 d in a growth chamber experiment. Up to 4.3 micromol L(-1) d(-1) of hydroxyatrazine were formed in the nutrient solutions by plants exposed to atrazine, while the formation of hydroxylated metabolites from plants exposed to DEA and DIA was smaller and also delayed. The formation of hydroxylated metabolites increased in the solution with plant age in all atrazine, DEA, and DIA treatments. HMBOA (3,4-dihydro-2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), the lactam precursor of DIMBOA, and a tentatively identified derivative of MBOA (2,3-dihydro-6-methoxy-benzoxazol-2-one) were detected in the corn root exudates. Mass balance calculations revealed that up to 30% of the disappearance of atrazine and DEA, and up to 10% of DIA removal from the solution medium in our study could be explained by the formation of hydroxylated metabolites in the solution itself. Our results show that higher plants such as corn have the potential to promote the hydrolysis of triazine residues in soils by exudation of benzoxazinones.

Wenger K; Bigler L; Suter MJ; Schönenberger R; Gupta SK; Schulin R

2005-11-01

129

Effect of corn root exudates on the degradation of atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

DIMBOA (3,4-dihydro-2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), a major benzoxazinone of Poaceae plants, was isolated and purified from corn seedlings. The effect of isolated and purified DIMBOA on the degradation of atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine], and its toxic breakdown products, desethylatrazine [2-chloro-4-amino-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine; DEA] and desisopropylatrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-amino-s-triazine; DIA], was studied in the absence of plants using batch experiments, while the effect of corn root exudates on these compounds was determined in hydroponic experiments. Degradation experiments were performed in the presence and absence of 50 microM, 1 mM, or 5 mM DIMBOA resulting in ratios of DIMBOA to pesticide of 1:1, 20:1, and 100:1. We observed a 100% degradation of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine within 48 h at a ratio of DIMBOA to atrazine of 100:1. DIMBOA had the largest effect on atrazine, while it was about three times less effective on DEA and DIA. Corn (Zea mays L. cv. LG 2185) was exposed to 10 mg L(-1) of either atrazine, DEA, or DIA for 11 d in a growth chamber experiment. Up to 4.3 micromol L(-1) d(-1) of hydroxyatrazine were formed in the nutrient solutions by plants exposed to atrazine, while the formation of hydroxylated metabolites from plants exposed to DEA and DIA was smaller and also delayed. The formation of hydroxylated metabolites increased in the solution with plant age in all atrazine, DEA, and DIA treatments. HMBOA (3,4-dihydro-2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), the lactam precursor of DIMBOA, and a tentatively identified derivative of MBOA (2,3-dihydro-6-methoxy-benzoxazol-2-one) were detected in the corn root exudates. Mass balance calculations revealed that up to 30% of the disappearance of atrazine and DEA, and up to 10% of DIA removal from the solution medium in our study could be explained by the formation of hydroxylated metabolites in the solution itself. Our results show that higher plants such as corn have the potential to promote the hydrolysis of triazine residues in soils by exudation of benzoxazinones. PMID:16275720

Wenger, K; Bigler, L; Suter, M J-F; Schönenberger, R; Gupta, S K; Schulin, R

2005-11-07

130

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

S. Endres; J. Unger; N. Wannicke; M. Nausch; M. Voss; A. Engel

2012-01-01

131

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of absorbent dressings in the treatment of highly exuding VLUs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of using a sodium carboxymethylcellulose dressing (CMC [Aquacel]) and four super absorbent dressings (DryMax Extra[DM], Flivasorb [F], Kerramax [K] and sachet S [S]) in the treatment of highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in the UK, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS). METHOD: A decision model was constructed depicting the patient pathways and associated management of a cohort of 439 patients with highly exuding chronic VLUs of;;: 3 months of age. The model was based on the case records of a cohort of matched patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN)database (a nationally representative database of patients registered with general practitioners (GPs) in the UK) who were treated with one of the five dressings. The model estimated the costs and outcomes of patient management over 6 months and the relative cost-effectiveness of using each dressing. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 73.1 years, and 46% were female. Between 39% and 56% ofVLUs healed by 6 months. CMC-treated wounds that remained unhealed increased in size by 43% over the study period, whereas unhealed wounds treated with the other dressings decreased in size by a mean 34%. Consequently, CMC was excluded from the cost-effectiveness analysis. The 6-monthly NHS cost of managing a VLU with S was £3700 per patient, which was 15-28% lower than the cost of managing patients with the other three super absorbents. Additionally, use of S improved patients' health status to a greater extent than the other three super absorbents, since S-treated patients accrued 0.3-3% more QALYs. Starting treatment with S was the preferred strategy followed by DM, K and Fin that order. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the data set,S affords the NHS a cost-effective treatment for managing highly exuding chronic VLUs of ?3 months of age, compared with DM, F, K and CMC.

Panca M; Cutting K; Guest JF

2013-03-01

132

Studies on Acacia exudate gums: Part VI. Interfacial rheology of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of concentration, ageing and enzyme degradation on the interfacial rheology at the liquid/air (L/A) and liquid/liquid (L/L) interface of aqueous solutions of the gum exudates from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal have been studied. Both gums had film forming capabilities which increased as a function of time and concentration. The interfacial elasticity of the A. senegal gum samples was greater than that of the A. seyal gums and increased with increasing arabinogalactan protein (AGP) content of the A. senegal gums and their overall protein content. When the AGP was degraded by proteolytic enzyme the interfacial viscoelasticity was lost for both A. senegal and A. seyal gums. The different interfacial elasticity and viscosity of these two gums at the oil-water interface may reflect their well known differing abilities to maintain long term emulsion stability.

Elmanan Mona; Al-Assaf Saphwan; Phillips GlynO; Williams PeterA

2008-06-01

133

Refinement of structures previously proposed for gum arabic and other acacia gum exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the light of advances in structural gum-chemistry, the analytical data available from earlier analytical and structural studies of gum arabic (Acacia Senegal Willd.), and of the gum exudates from Acacia laeta, A. campylacantha and A. seyal, have been re-interpreted. The structures originally suggested were based on random arbitrary assignments of substituent sugars without an attempt to establish regular structures. Modelling considerations and recalculations show that the data can also be interpreted in terms of more ordered structures. These are consistent with almost all of the available experimental data and give a much clearer insight into the nature and extent of the structural differences shown by the two Acacia gums of commercial importance. Acacia senegal (gum arabic, gum hashab) and Acacia seyal (gum talha). PMID:18963490

Street, C A; Anderson, D M

1983-11-01

134

Refinement of structures previously proposed for gum arabic and other acacia gum exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the light of advances in structural gum-chemistry, the analytical data available from earlier analytical and structural studies of gum arabic (Acacia Senegal Willd.), and of the gum exudates from Acacia laeta, A. campylacantha and A. seyal, have been re-interpreted. The structures originally suggested were based on random arbitrary assignments of substituent sugars without an attempt to establish regular structures. Modelling considerations and recalculations show that the data can also be interpreted in terms of more ordered structures. These are consistent with almost all of the available experimental data and give a much clearer insight into the nature and extent of the structural differences shown by the two Acacia gums of commercial importance. Acacia senegal (gum arabic, gum hashab) and Acacia seyal (gum talha).

Street CA; Anderson DM

1983-11-01

135

Phytotoxic Allelochemicals From Roots and Root Exudates of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive plants are a widespread problem but the mechanisms used by these plants to become invasive are often unknown. The production of phytotoxic natural products by invasive weeds is one mechanism by which these species may become successful competitors. Here we conducted a bioactivity-driven fractionation of root extracts and exudates from the invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), and structurally characterized jatrophane diterpenes and ellagic acid derivatives. Ellagic acid derivatives and one of the jatrophane diterpenes, esulone A, have been previously reported from leafy spurge, but another of the jatrophane diterpenes, kasuinine B, has not. We show that these compounds are phytotoxic but affect plants in different ways, either inducing overall plant necrosis or reducing root branching and elongation. PMID:19517003

Qin, Bo; Perry, Laura G; Broeckling, Corey D; Du, Jiang; Stermitz, Frank R; Paschke, Mark W; Vivanco, Jorge M

2006-11-01

136

Phytotoxic Allelochemicals From Roots and Root Exudates of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive plants are a widespread problem but the mechanisms used by these plants to become invasive are often unknown. The production of phytotoxic natural products by invasive weeds is one mechanism by which these species may become successful competitors. Here we conducted a bioactivity-driven fractionation of root extracts and exudates from the invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), and structurally characterized jatrophane diterpenes and ellagic acid derivatives. Ellagic acid derivatives and one of the jatrophane diterpenes, esulone A, have been previously reported from leafy spurge, but another of the jatrophane diterpenes, kasuinine B, has not. We show that these compounds are phytotoxic but affect plants in different ways, either inducing overall plant necrosis or reducing root branching and elongation.

Qin B; Perry LG; Broeckling CD; Du J; Stermitz FR; Paschke MW; Vivanco JM

2006-11-01

137

Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. RESULTS: Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic, and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged, and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327?±?8.0 g kg(-1) ) followed by protein (293?±?4.0 g kg(-1) ) and fiber (276?±?1.0 g kg(-1) ). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38?±?1.0 g kg(-1) (d.b) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 ºC (870 g kg(-1) ). CONCLUSION: The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view.

Capitani MI; Ixtaina VY; Nolasco SM; Tomás MC

2013-07-01

138

Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated with the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighte (more) d Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity) and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90). Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM).

Giacomini, M.; Bisio, A.; Giacomelli, E.; Pivetti, S.; Bertolini, S.; Fraternale, D.; Ricci, D.; Romussi, G.; De Tommasi, N.

2011-10-01

139

Segmentation and texture analysis with multimodel inference for the automatic detection of exudates in early diabetic retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and may cause blindness if not treated at an early stage. Exudates are the primary sign of DR. Currently there is no fully automated method to detect exudates in the literature and it would be useful in large scale screening if fully automatic method is available. In this paper we developed a novel method to detect exudates that based on interactions between texture analysis and segmentation with mathematical morphological technique by using multimodel inference. The texture analysis involves three components: they are statistical texture analysis, high order spectra analysis, and fractal analysis. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy using the public data DIARETDB1. Our results show that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 95.7%, 97.6% and 98.7% (SE = 0.01), respectively. It is shown that the proposed method can be run automatically and also improve the accuracy of exudates detection significantly over most of the previous methods.

Jack Lee; Benny Zee; Qing Li

2013-01-01

140

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exudate-Cu complexes: impact on copper dynamics and bioavailability in an aquatic food chain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The increasing contamination of aquatic environments motivates studies on the interactions among natural dissolved organic matter, metals, and the biota. This investigation focused on the organic exudates of the toxic cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii as a Cu carrier through a three-level aquatic trophic chain (bacteria, protozoa, and copepod). DISCUSSION: The effects of bacteria activity and growth on the metal-organic complexes were evaluated through changes in free Cu(2+) ions, total dissolved, and total particulate Cu. To be sure that the added copper would be complexed to the exudates, its complexing properties were previously determined. The cyanobacteria exudate-Cu complexes were furnished to bacteria that were further used as a food source to the protozoan Paramercium caudatum. This was then furnished as food to the copepod Mesocyclops sp. The results showed that, in general, the cyanobacterial exudates decreased Cu bioavailability and toxicity to the first trophic level (bacteria), but because the heterotrophic bacteria accumulated Cu, they were responsible for the transference for the otherwise low availability metal form. Both the bacteria and protozoan organisms accumulated Cu, but no metal accumulation was detected in the copepods.

Nogueira PF; Lombardi AT; Nogueira MM

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

2002-01-01

142

Horizontal and vertical movement of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina in soil: influence of motility and soil properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of motility and cell surface hydrophobicity in transport and dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains LAM1-hydrophilic, LAM2-hydrophobic and LAM(NM) (non-motile mutant of LAM2) under different soil conditions was studied. Maximum adhesion was recorded for LAM2 in clay loam (70%), followed by sandy loam (68%) and sandy soil (40%). Vertical migration of P fluorescens isolates in soils was recorded at 5 and 25 cm flow of wafer or M. phaseolina exudate. In all the treatments, LAM1 exhibited maximum migration followed, by LAM2 and LAM(NM). The rate of migration of such isolates was lowered in water irrigated soils compared to those irrigated with M. phaseolina exudate. In sandy soil, cells of LAM1 migrated up to 13 cm in comparison to LAM2 (11 cm) and LAN(NM) (9 cm) at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Population of LAM1, LAM2 and LAM(NM) was 5.7, 5.68 and 5.61 log cfu g(-1) soil at 1 cm depth, but it decreased to 2.56, 2.21 and 1.99 log cfu during migration up to 11 cm in sandy soil at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Greater motility was observed in sandy soil irrigated with water or fungal exudate, followed by sandy loam and clay loam. In general, filtration coefficient (lambda) of P. fluorescens was higher in soils irrigated with 5 cm of water or exudate than with 25 cm of irrigation. The horizontal movement of P. fluorescens strains in sandy soil adjusted at different psi m showed marked reduction with decrease in psi m. The non-motile LAN(NM) did not show chemotactic response and migrated up to a maximum of 3 mm in saturated soils (0 kPa). After 96 h, LAM1 and LAM2 migrated upto 35 and 29 mm respectively in sandy soil. Motile isolates had significantly greater colonization of M. phaseolina sclerotia over the non-motile mutant. PMID:12002402

Singh, Tanuja; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

2002-01-01

143

Vitreomacular interface in typical exudative age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the association in Japanese between posterior vitreous attachment and the pathologies of typical age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), 2 major forms of exudative AMD. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 378 eyes from 302 subjects (132 with typical AMD, 126 with PCV, 120 controls) from the University of Tokyo Hospital. METHODS: Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), respectively. The greatest linear dimension (GLD) of initial photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a subset of the patients (n=92) receiving PDT was also investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of eyes with complete PVD and with VMA. The GLD of initial PDT. RESULTS: In typical AMD eyes, the frequency of complete PVD was significantly lower (63 [56.8%] of 111 eyes) than in the controls (52 [70.3%] of 74 eyes, risk ratio [RR] 0.76, P=0.021) and the frequency of VMA tended to be higher (14/115 [12.2%] in typical AMD eyes and 6/86 [7.0%] in the controls, RR 2.15, P=0.099). The frequency of complete PVD [77 [63.1%] of the 122 eyes] and VMA (9/108 [8.3%]) in PCV eyes was the same as the controls (RR 0.91, P=0.415 and RR 1.29, P=0.615). In patients with unilateral exudative AMD, the frequency of complete PVD was lower in typical AMD eyes than in fellow eyes (odds ratio [OR] 0.111, P=0.026) and VMA was observed in 7 (17.5%) and 3 (7.5%) typical AMD and fellow eyes, respectively (OR 2.33, P=0.34), whereas in PCV eyes, the frequency of complete PVD was higher (OR 8.00, P=0.045) and the frequency of VMA was the same as in the fellow eyes (OR 0.80, P=1.00). The GLD of the eyes without complete PVD or with VMA was significantly larger than that in the eyes with complete PVD in typical AMD eyes (P=0.042) and the same as that in the eyes with complete PVD in PCV eyes (P=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between posterior vitreous attachment and typical AMD. However, this association is not evident in PCV.

Nomura Y; Ueta T; Iriyama A; Inoue Y; Obata R; Tamaki Y; Yamaguchi T; Yanagi Y

2011-05-01

144

Low molecular weight organic acids and fatty acids in root exudates of two Lupinus cultivars at flowering and fruiting stages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low molecular weight organic acids (LOAs) and fatty acids in root exudates of two lupin cultivars, Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa and L. luteus cv. Tremosilla, were determined at flowering and fruiting stages. LOAs were analysed by capillary electrophoresis. Acetic and citric acids were the most abundant, especially the latter in L. luteus at the flowering stage (5922.79 micrograms/g dry root). The significant decrease in acid content of both cultivars from flowering to fruiting stages was also striking. The highest levels of acetic acid were detected in L. luteus at fruiting stage (1542.03 micrograms/g dry root). The significant citrate production in L. luteus could be related to the low phosphorus concentration in the studied soils but not to proteoid roots, which were detected only in L. albus. The source of the LOAs detected in these exudates is also discussed, since they may be produced either by the plant or by the associated rhizobacteria. The profile of phospholipid fatty acids was determined by high-resolution GC. A high level of 18:2 omega 6 (a fatty-acid specific to fungi) was found in exudates of L. luteus (a mycorrhizal plant) in contrast to L. albus (a non-mycorrhizal plant).

Lucas García JA; Barbas C; Probanza A; Barrientos ML; Gutierrez Mañero FJ

2001-09-01

145

Isoniazid (INH)-induced eosinophilic exudative pleural effusion and lupus erythematosus. A clinical reminder of drug side effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 75-year-female with a history of Isoniazid (INH) therapy for latent tuberculosis, was admitted with a 4-week duration of dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a diagnosis of pneumonia. Her stay was complicated by development of recurrent, exudative eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPEs). When symptoms continued to worsen and she developed joint pain and anasarca and did not respond to the antibiotics, a rheumatologic work-up was performed. She was found to have positive anti-double stranded-DNA antibodies and anti-histone antibodies; thus, a diagnosis of drug-induced lupus, secondary to INH, was made. INH was discontinued, and the patient was started on prednisone; within weeks her symptoms resolved. This case illustrates a unique side effect of INH that caused exudative EPEs and drug-induced lupus with positive anti-dsDNA. PMID:22035399

Khattri, Saakshi; Kushawaha, Anurag; Dahal, Kumud; Lee, Maryann; Mobarakai, Neville

2011-01-01

146

Isoniazid (INH)-induced eosinophilic exudative pleural effusion and lupus erythematosus. A clinical reminder of drug side effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 75-year-female with a history of Isoniazid (INH) therapy for latent tuberculosis, was admitted with a 4-week duration of dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a diagnosis of pneumonia. Her stay was complicated by development of recurrent, exudative eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPEs). When symptoms continued to worsen and she developed joint pain and anasarca and did not respond to the antibiotics, a rheumatologic work-up was performed. She was found to have positive anti-double stranded-DNA antibodies and anti-histone antibodies; thus, a diagnosis of drug-induced lupus, secondary to INH, was made. INH was discontinued, and the patient was started on prednisone; within weeks her symptoms resolved. This case illustrates a unique side effect of INH that caused exudative EPEs and drug-induced lupus with positive anti-dsDNA.

Khattri S; Kushawaha A; Dahal K; Lee M; Mobarakai N

2011-01-01

147

Zinc chemical forms and organic acid exudation in non-heading Chinese cabbages under zinc stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an essential element, zinc also is a heavy metal. Non-heading Chinese cabbage showed obvious tolerance to Zn stress in former research. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Zn adaptability and detoxification, two genotypes Suzhouqing and Aijiaohuang were selected to investigate the chemical forms of Zn and root exudation. Zinc stress obvious strained the plant growth, and Aijiaohuang was more injured than Suhouqing under Zn stress. Under normal Zn levels, the chemical forms of Zn were diverse in three organs between genotypes. Results showed extractions of 2% HAc, 80% ethanol and 1 M NaCl were separately dominant in roots, petioles and leaves. However, under Zn stress (13 mg·L–1 and 52 mg·L–1) most of the Zn was extracted by 1M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Zn was extracted by 80% ethanol. In the control only four types of organic acid could be detected. While under Zn stress, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and amber acid were all detected, so it could be speculated Zn detoxification with organic ligands or integrated with pectates and proteins in cells might be responsible for the adaptation of Zn stress in Chinese cabbage.

Xiaoyun Li; Xiuling Chen; Xiumin Cui

2012-01-01

148

Identification and effects of interaction phytotoxic compounds from exudate of Cistus ladanifer leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eleven allelochemicals (ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, methyl propionate, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, butyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene) were identified in the exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. We studied the effect of each on germination, cotyledon emergence, root length, and cotyledon length of Rumex crispus. Three groups were distinguished with respect to phytotoxic activity: compounds with low activity (ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene), with intermediate activity (cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid), and with high activity (methyl propionate and butyric acid). The effect of the interaction of the compounds was studied. When acting conjointly, all combinations tested produced a more negative effect on both germination and seedling growth than when acting alone. The interaction affected cotyledon emergence and root length more negatively than germination and cotyledon length. When hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid were added to these mixtures there was an enhancement in the phytotoxic activity, accentuating the effect of the other allelochemicals.

Chaves N; Sosa T; Alías JC; Escudero JC

2001-03-01

149

Identification and effects of interaction phytotoxic compounds from exudate of Cistus ladanifer leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven allelochemicals (ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, methyl propionate, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, butyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene) were identified in the exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. We studied the effect of each on germination, cotyledon emergence, root length, and cotyledon length of Rumex crispus. Three groups were distinguished with respect to phytotoxic activity: compounds with low activity (ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene), with intermediate activity (cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid), and with high activity (methyl propionate and butyric acid). The effect of the interaction of the compounds was studied. When acting conjointly, all combinations tested produced a more negative effect on both germination and seedling growth than when acting alone. The interaction affected cotyledon emergence and root length more negatively than germination and cotyledon length. When hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid were added to these mixtures there was an enhancement in the phytotoxic activity, accentuating the effect of the other allelochemicals. PMID:11441449

Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Alías, J C; Escudero, J C

2001-03-01

150

Novel TSPAN12 mutations in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and their associated phenotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Mutations in tetraspanin 12 (TSPAN12) have recently been identified as a cause of autosomal dominant familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). The purpose of this study was to detect TSPAN12 mutations in Chinese patients with FEVR and to describe the associated phenotypes. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the seven coding exons and their adjacent regions of TSPAN12 in 49 unrelated FEVR patients. Clinical phenotypes of the patients with TSPAN12 mutations were documented. RESULTS: Three novel heterozygous mutations in TSPAN12 were identified in three patients from unrelated families: c.146C>T (p.Thr49Met), c.313T>C (p.Cys105Arg), and c.601delC (p.Leu201PhefsX14). All three mutations involved highly conserved residues and were not present in 180 normal individuals. Ocular phenotypes included retinal folds, inferotemporal dragging of the optic disc and macula, increased vessels in the equatorial region, and a peripheral avascular zone. A father and his daughter had the same mutation but the father only had mild peripheral fundus changes while his daughter had obvious dragged disc and macular ectopia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TSPAN12 mutations are responsible for FEVR. Similar to patients with mutations in NDP, LRP5, or FZD4, the phenotypes associated with TSPAN12 mutations showed great variations between different individuals within a family and between the two eyes in individual patients.

Yang H; Xiao X; Li S; Mai G; Zhang Q

2011-01-01

151

Influence of the mode of intravenous administration on the penetration of ceftazidime into tissues and pleural exudate of rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of the mode of intravenous (i.v.) administration (bolus injection or continuous infusion) on the tissue penetration of ceftazidime was studied in the rat. The antibiotic concentration was monitored in serum, pleural exudate, vitreous humor, kidney, liver, lung, testicles and epididymal fat tissue. Administration as a bolus resulted in a significantly higher AUC in pleural exudate and in higher peak levels in serum, liver and lung than continuous infusion, which produced a higher peak concentration in kidney than a bolus. No differences in AUC and peak concentrations between the two methods of administration were observed in the other tissues or fluids. With either method of administration the highest antibiotic accumulation was observed in kidney.

Miglioli PA; Xerri L; Palatini P

1991-01-01

152

Establishment of Azotobacter on plant roots: chemotactic response, development and analysis of root exudates of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofertilizers contribute in N(2) fixation, P solubilization, phytohormone production and thus enhance plant growth. Beneficial plant-microbe interactions and the stability and effectiveness of biofertilizer depend upon the establishment of bacterial strains in the rhizosphere of the plant. This interaction depends upon many factors, one of them being plant exudates. Root exudates are composed of small organic molecules like carbonic acids, amino acids or sugars etc., which are released into the soil and bacteria can be attracted towards these exudates due to chemotaxis. The chemotactic behaviour of Azotobacter strains was studied using cotton (Desi HD 123 and American H 1098) and wheat (WH 711) seedlings and the root exudates of these two plants were chemically characterized. Analysis of the root exudates revealed the presence of sugars and simple polysaccharides (glucose), amino acids (glutamate, lysine) and organic acids (citric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid). Differences between cotton cultivars in root exudates were observed which influenced chemotactic response in Azotobacter. These results indicate colonization with rhizobacteria which implies that optimal symbionts, on the sides of both plant cultivar and bioinoculant bacteria can lead to better plant growth under cultivation conditions. PMID:17910096

Kumar, Rakesh; Bhatia, Ranjana; Kukreja, K; Behl, Rishi Kumar; Dudeja, Surjit Singh; Narula, Neeru

2007-10-01

153

Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

2011-01-01

154

[Impact of exogenous paraquat on enzyme exudation and biochemical changes of lignin degradation fungi].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:19938450

Zhao, Yunchen; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yuru; Huang, Haixia; Yu, Zui

2009-08-01

155

[Impact of exogenous paraquat on enzyme exudation and biochemical changes of lignin degradation fungi].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose.

Zhao Y; Li J; Chen Y; Huang H; Yu Z

2009-08-01

156

Effect of osmopriming sugar beet seed on exudation and subsequent damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Control of preemergence damping-off of sugar beets, caused by Pythium ultimum, with NaC1- or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-osmoprimed seed planted in naturally infested field soil was related to a reduction of the rate and incidence of seed colonization by the pathogen. Incidence of colonization of untreated seed was 23.3 and 86.7% by 12 and 24 hr, respectively, whereas colonization of NaC1- and PEG-osmoprimed seed was reduced to 0 and 3.3%, respectively, after 12 hr, and 13.3 and 16.7%, respectively, after 24 hr. Reduced colonization by P. ultimum was related to decreased exudation from osmoprimed seed upon imbibition with water. The amount of carbohydrate exuded from NaC1- and PEG-osmoprimed seed was reduced 98.1 and 91.7%, respec tively, after 60 min, and 41.5 and 55.0%, respectively, after 48 hr of incubation in water compared with untreated seed. The rate of exudation from osmoprimed seed over 48 hr was correlated with the rate of germination, whereas untreated seed did not germinate during the 48-hr incubation period. Disease reduction with NaC1-osmoprimed seed was nullified when the seeds were incubated in exudates before planting. Bacterial population densities of 10(8)-10(9) cfu m1-1 occurred in the NaC1 or PEG osmopriming solutions after 6 days of seed treatment, and residual population densities on seed were 10(4)-10(5) cfu seed-1. The bacterial populations have potential to affect the incidence of damping-off. The incidence of damping-off with NaC1-osmoprimed bacteria-free seed was 20-30% less than with unprimed seed, whereas reductions ranged from 20-54% when bacteria were present on the primed seed.

Osburn RM; Schroth MN

1988-09-01

157

Exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly and short stature: a new syndrome?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The association of Coats disease with intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy, brain cysts, osteopenia, and gastrointestinal bleeding defines Coats plus syndrome caused by mutations in the CTC1 gene, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1. Here, we report on a child with exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly, and short stature, in whom no mutations in CTC1 were found. Our patient shares some features seen in other diseases associated with telomere shortening including Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson and Revesz syndromes. We therefore measured telomere length by Flow-Fish which was normal. The association of duodenal atresia and microcephaly also suggested a diagnosis of Feingold syndrome. However, direct sequencing of MYCN was normal, and we did not detect any hemizygous deletion of the miR-17?92 polycistronic miRNA cluster. To our knowledge, the phenotype we report on has not been described previously, leading us to speculate that this condition may represent a new syndrome.

Isidor B; Le Meur G; Conti C; Caldagues E; Lainey E; Launay E; Leclair MD; Le Francois T; Pichon O; Boisseau P; Migraine A; Keren B; Caignec CL; Crow YJ; David A

2013-08-01

158

Exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly and short stature: a new syndrome?  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of Coats disease with intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy, brain cysts, osteopenia, and gastrointestinal bleeding defines Coats plus syndrome caused by mutations in the CTC1 gene, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1. Here, we report on a child with exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly, and short stature, in whom no mutations in CTC1 were found. Our patient shares some features seen in other diseases associated with telomere shortening including Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson and Revesz syndromes. We therefore measured telomere length by Flow-Fish which was normal. The association of duodenal atresia and microcephaly also suggested a diagnosis of Feingold syndrome. However, direct sequencing of MYCN was normal, and we did not detect any hemizygous deletion of the miR-17?92 polycistronic miRNA cluster. To our knowledge, the phenotype we report on has not been described previously, leading us to speculate that this condition may represent a new syndrome. PMID:23824919

Isidor, Bertrand; Le Meur, Guylène; Conti, Carole; Caldagues, Emmanuelle; Lainey, Elodie; Launay, Elise; Leclair, Marc David; Le Francois, Thomas; Pichon, Olivier; Boisseau, Pierre; Migraine, Audrey; Keren, Boris; Caignec, Cédric Le; Crow, Yanick J; David, Albert

2013-07-03

159

Fermented Noni Exudate-treated dendritic cells directly stimulate B lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noni juice as a folk medicine has been used for over two thousand years. Recently, some active ingredients of Noni juice have been successfully isolated and intensively studied. Because dendritic cells (DCs) are central regulators both in priming innate and adaptive immune responses and in maintaining self tolerance, in the current study we treated DCs with fermented Noni Exudate (fNE) in order to explore their function in regulating other immune cells. It was shown that fNE-treated DCs stimulate proliferation of splenocytes, among which, B cells are the major responsive cell group. The proliferative response of B cells to fNE-treated DCs is cell contact-dependent, CD40L-independent; and the adhesion feature of DCs was enhanced to form large DC-B conjugation cluster. Moreover, it was demonstrated that fNE-treated DCs promote B cell differentiation and Ig class switching. These results lay a foundation for the further exploration of fNE as a biological response modifier in the immune system. PMID:19360287

Zhang, Xinhai; Li, Jinhua; Wong, Desmond K W; Wagner, Thomas E; Wei, Yanzhang

2009-05-01

160

The Diagnostic Values of Protein to Lactate Dehyrogenase Ratio in Serum and Pleural Fluid in Exudate Pleural Effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Different etiologies of pleural effusion are diagnosed based on serum and plural fluid characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the serum and pleural fluid protein to lactate dehyrogenase (Pr/LDH) ratio in exudative pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with exudative pleural effusion including: 20 cases with parapneumonic , 20 cases with Tuberculosis (TB), and 20 cases with malignancy. The serum and pleural Pr/LDH were measured and compared among 3 groups. Result: The mean age of the patients was 55±19SD (years) and male to female ratio was 36/24. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age of the patients among 3 groups (p=0.08). There were statistically significant differences in serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios among groups ( p=0.04 and p= 0.1, respectively). Additionally the comparisons of serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios between malignancy and tuberculosis groups were significant ( p=0.02 and p=0.001 , respectively). The serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios were higher in TB group. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratio can be used in differentiating the etiology of exudative pleural effusion, but needs to be confirmed by larger study.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity.

Rangel AF; Rao IM; Braun HP; Horst WJ

2010-02-01

162

Copper complexing properties of exudates and metabolites of macroalgae from the Aegean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macroalgae are a significant source of extracellular organic material in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean, including organic ligands which serve as modulators of metal complexing capacity. This paper examines the release of copper-complexing ligands by 24 macroalgal species, including chlorophyta, rhodophyta, ochrophyta as well as Posidonia oceanica, common throughout the Mediterranean. Metabolites isolated from the algae Dictyota dichotoma and Pterocladiella capillacea were examined for the first time regarding their Cu-complexing properties. The concentration of ligands (LT) and the copper-binding strength (logKapp) of exudates and metabolites were determined by electrochemical methods. All algal species released ligands giving LT concentrations ranging from 109 to 744 nM in unfiltered samples. An increase in the concentration of ligands up to 15 times in comparison to the blank was observed after 48 h of culturing macroalgae in artificial seawater. The binding strength (log Kapp) varied among species from 7.0 to 8.6, except for the metabolites for which it was lower (log Kapp=6). Most of the ligands released were in the dissolved phase, with the contribution of particulate and/or colloidal organic matter (up to 46% of total ligands) appearing to be important only in specific macroalgal species. PMID:23352148

Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Sakellari, Aikaterini; Strme?ki, Sla?ana; Plavši?, Marta; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

2013-01-24

163

Copper complexing properties of exudates and metabolites of macroalgae from the Aegean Sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Macroalgae are a significant source of extracellular organic material in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean, including organic ligands which serve as modulators of metal complexing capacity. This paper examines the release of copper-complexing ligands by 24 macroalgal species, including chlorophyta, rhodophyta, ochrophyta as well as Posidonia oceanica, common throughout the Mediterranean. Metabolites isolated from the algae Dictyota dichotoma and Pterocladiella capillacea were examined for the first time regarding their Cu-complexing properties. The concentration of ligands (LT) and the copper-binding strength (logKapp) of exudates and metabolites were determined by electrochemical methods. All algal species released ligands giving LT concentrations ranging from 109 to 744 nM in unfiltered samples. An increase in the concentration of ligands up to 15 times in comparison to the blank was observed after 48 h of culturing macroalgae in artificial seawater. The binding strength (log Kapp) varied among species from 7.0 to 8.6, except for the metabolites for which it was lower (log Kapp=6). Most of the ligands released were in the dissolved phase, with the contribution of particulate and/or colloidal organic matter (up to 46% of total ligands) appearing to be important only in specific macroalgal species.

Karavoltsos S; Sakellari A; Strme?ki S; Plavši? M; Ioannou E; Roussis V; Dassenakis M; Scoullos M

2013-06-01

164

LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

2010-06-01

165

VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

2008-01-01

166

Comparative analysis of the alveolar macrophage proteome in ALI/ARDS patients between the exudative phase and recovery phase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of extensive studies, the morbidity and mortality for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remained high. Particularly, biomarkers essential for its early diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. METHODS: Recent studies suggest that alveolar macrophages (AMs) at the exudative phase of ALI/ARDS initiate, amplify and perpetuate inflammatory responses, while they resolve inflammation in the recovery phase to prevent further tissue injury and perpetuated inflammation in the lung. Therefore, proteins relevant to this functional switch could be valuable biomarkers for ALI/ARDS diagnosis and prognosis. We thus conducted comparative analysis of the AM proteome to assess its dynamic proteomic changes during ALI/ARDS progression and recovery. RESULTS: 135 proteins were characterized to be differentially expressed between AMs at the exudative and recovery phase. MALDI-TOF-MS and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis characterized 27 informative proteins, in which 17 proteins were found with a marked increase at the recovery phase, while the rest of 10 proteins were manifested by the significantly higher levels of expression at the exudative phase. CONCLUSIONS: Given the role of above identified proteins played in the regulation of inflammatory responses, cell skeleton organization, oxidative stress, apoptosis and metabolism, they have the potential to serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis in the setting of patients with ALI/ARDS.

Dong H; Li J; Lv Y; Zhou Y; Wang G; Hu S; He X; Yang P; Zhou Z; Xiang X; Wang CY

2013-01-01

167

Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with small lesion size. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 ?m were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group) and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group). Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups. RESULTS: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR) at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively) and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively), which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods. CONCLUSIONS: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.

Nishimura Y; Taguchi M; Nagai T; Fujihara M; Honda S; Uenishi M

2012-01-01

168

Changes in lysosomal enzymes of peritoneal exudate cells in albino rats and Mastomys natalensis during Plasmodium berghei infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activities of certain lysosomal enzymes of peritoneal exudate cells were followed during Plasmodium berghei infection in two experimental hosts. In albino rats, where sterile immunity against the infection develops, levels of beta-D-glucuroniodase and acid phosphatase activities were increased several times the normal values. On the other hand, in Mastomys natalensis, which succumbs to infection, levels of both the enzymes decreased considerably. Cathepsin D activity did not change to a significant extent in either host.

Gupta S; Chandra S; Saxena KC

1980-10-01

169

Alteration of the Profile of Organic Acid Content and Exudation under Aluminum Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to contribute to the literature on the role of organic acids in Al tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.). Treatment with increasing Al concentrations from 100 to 1000 ?M for 4 days Al caused substantial inhibition of lateral roots, as well as severe alterations on root apices. In roots, the malate content was decreased significantly by Al. However, the citrate, lactate and total organic acids were not affected by Al. In shoots, the citrate, tartarate and total organic acids were decreased significantly by 100, 250 and 500 ?M Al. However, the succinate was increased by 500 and 1000 ?M Al, while that of lactate increased only by 1000 ?M Al. Only the highest Al concentration 1000 ?M induced exudation of citrate. It is shown that the enhanced citrate exudation induced by Al support the concept that organic acid exudation may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity in maize.

Radhouane Chaffai; Ezzedine El Ferjani

2005-01-01

170

Soil organic matter mobilization by root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the different soil organic matter mobilisation by agrarian (Zea mais: cultivars Paolo and Sandek) and forest (Picea abies Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.) root exudates, three different soils (Dystric Spodic Cambisol--S1, Haplic Luvisol--S2 and Calcaric Cambisol--S3) have been considered. Treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates, soil organic matter extracts were obtained. The extracts were characterised by hormone-like activities and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) measurements. Water extract and plant root exudates exhibited no hormone-like activity, while the other soil-extracts were endowed with a different hormone-like behaviour. GC/MS data indicated that in the acid soils (S1) Sandek and Picea abies exudates showed a greater ability in extracting organic acid isomers (Cl4COOH, Cl5COOH and Cl7COOH), while in neutral soils (S3) all the exudates were active in separating organic acids. In intermediate conditions (S2), Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris exudates liberated C15COOH isomers, Paolo C11COOH isomers, while Sandek was not effective. The different role of plant root exudates in mobilising bio-molecules from the bulk of the soil is proposed. PMID:10834364

Nardi, S; Concheri, G; Pizzeghello, D; Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G

2000-09-01

171

Soil organic matter mobilization by root exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to study the different soil organic matter mobilisation by agrarian (Zea mais: cultivars Paolo and Sandek) and forest (Picea abies Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.) root exudates, three different soils (Dystric Spodic Cambisol--S1, Haplic Luvisol--S2 and Calcaric Cambisol--S3) have been considered. Treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates, soil organic matter extracts were obtained. The extracts were characterised by hormone-like activities and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) measurements. Water extract and plant root exudates exhibited no hormone-like activity, while the other soil-extracts were endowed with a different hormone-like behaviour. GC/MS data indicated that in the acid soils (S1) Sandek and Picea abies exudates showed a greater ability in extracting organic acid isomers (Cl4COOH, Cl5COOH and Cl7COOH), while in neutral soils (S3) all the exudates were active in separating organic acids. In intermediate conditions (S2), Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris exudates liberated C15COOH isomers, Paolo C11COOH isomers, while Sandek was not effective. The different role of plant root exudates in mobilising bio-molecules from the bulk of the soil is proposed.

Nardi S; Concheri G; Pizzeghello D; Sturaro A; Rella R; Parvoli G

2000-09-01

172

[The effect of tropoxin on the neurogenic and vasogenic inflammation of the dura mater vessels].  

Science.gov (United States)

Subchronic administration of tropoxin (in doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg) caused dose-dependent blocking of 131I-albumin plasma transudation from the dura mater vessels, induced by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and intravenous infusion of the agonist of 5-HT2B/2C receptors metachlorophenylpiperazine. The antimigraine agent metisergid produced a similar effect. A single injection of metisergid and tropoxin did not block albumin transudation. A 3 mg/kg dose of mianserin prevented the blocking effect of tropoxin and metisergid on plasma exudation into the dura mater. It is suggested that the mechanism of the tropoxin antimigraine effect is realized through the presynaptic 5-HT1 receptors of afferent endings of the trigeminal nerve and the postsynaptic 5-HT2B/2C receptors of the dura mater vessels. PMID:10513329

Amelin, A V; Ivanov, V E; Ignatov, Iu D; Tumelevich, B Ch; Pushkarev, A A; Usachev, N I

173

Looking beyond sugars: Phytochemical profiling and standardization of manna exudates from Sicilian Fraxinus excelsior L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different grades of genuine and counterfeit Fraxinus excelsior exudates, marketed as natural sweeteners or mild laxatives, were evaluated for their proximate composition and for saccharidic, organic acids, lipidic and phenolic profile by means of GC-MS and (1)H-NMR. Genuine samples contained mannitol (39-48 g/100g, according to the grade), fructose (9-16 g/100g), glucose (2-3,7 g/100g), sorbitol (0,5-0,6 g/100g), galactose (0,02-0,74 g/100g), oligosaccharides as mannotriose (13-22 g/100g) and stachyose (1-11 g/100g), and traces of myo-inositol, mannose, sucrose. On the contrary, counterfeit samples contained mostly mannitol and sorbitol, with traces of fructose, glucose and mannose. Differences in ash, total polyphenolic content and fatty acid composition allowed a quick identification of counterfeit products, confirmed by a distinct mono-, oligosaccharidic and phenolic pattern. Elenolic acid (63-1628 mg/Kg), tyrosol (15-774 mg/Kg), homovanillic acid (2,39-52,8 mg/Kg), dopaol (0,8-63 mg/Kg), pinoresinol (4,2-18,5 mg/Kg) and fraxetin (0,25-11,64 mg/Kg), albeit showing a wide concentration range, were the most abundant substances detected in the phenolic fraction of Fraxinus manna, while esculetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenacetic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxy-pinoresinol, medioresinol and siringaresinol were present in low amounts. The polyphenolic profile may be used as a marker for authentication and should be considered in the evaluation of nutritional and health properties ascribed to Fraxinus manna.

Caligiani A; Tonelli L; Palla G; Cirlini M; Rossi D; Bruni R

2013-07-01

174

Quantitative measurement of hard exudates in patients with diabetes and their associations with serum lipid levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe a reproducible method of quantifying macular hard exudates (HEs) in diabetic maculopathy and determine the associations of HEs with systemic risk factors. METHODS: Patients with diabetes were recruited from a tertiary eye hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Total macular area covered by HEs (total HE area) and the distance from the foveal center to the nearest HE were measured in a semi-automated manner. Associations between HE parameters and diabetic complication risk factors were examined using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: Of 593 participants (mean age 60.5-years old), 97 (16.4%) had HEs in at least one eye, due to diabetic maculopathy. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for inter- and intra-observer agreements were 0.982 and 0.999, respectively. Total HE area was positively associated with qualitative HE severity scale determined by photographic graders. The median of total HE area was 0.089 mm(2) (interquartile range, 0.027-0.246). The median distance between foveal center and the nearest HE was 791.1 ?m (431.9-1385.4). After adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, mean arterial pressure, diabetic retinopathy level, and use of lipid-lowering medication, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 0.009), and triglyceride levels (P = 0.036) were positively associated with total HE area. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with central involvement (P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative measurement of HEs in patients with diabetes is associated with lipid levels, and higher triglyceride levels are associated with a higher risk of central involvement. Quantitative information may be useful to monitor HE progression or treatment response in persons with diabetic maculopathy.

Sasaki M; Kawasaki R; Noonan JE; Wong TY; Lamoureux E; Wang JJ

2013-01-01

175

[Diagnostic value of studying creatinine in abdominal exudates].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The levels of creatinine in serum and peritoneal exudate were studied in 77 patients with acute surgical abdominal diseases. It has been found that the exudate concentration of this compound is mainly determined by its level in the serum, which allows the exudate creatinine to be studied for the diagnosis of renal failure. The creatinine concentration in the abdominal exudate in relation to that in the serum varies in urinary tract injury and in the early hours after abdominal sanitation in peritonitis. Exudate creatinine concentration increases (by 2.7-fold or more) require that the urinary tract should be revised to reveal its injury. Creatinine levels in the exudate can be determined not earlier than 8 hours after abdominal lavage. The determination of creatinine concentrations in the peritoneal exudate is a non-invasive and informative tool that enhances the quality of laboratory monitoring in emergency abdominal surgery.

Chereshnev VA; Sosnin DIu; Zubareva NA

2010-03-01

176

Rheological stabilization of wet soils by model root and fungal exudates depends on clay mineralogy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in soil rheological behaviour by a root mucilage analogue (polygalacturonic acid, PGA) and a fungal polysaccharide (scleroglucan) were studied for a range of soils with different clay mineralogies. An oscillation recovery test was conducted with a parallel plate rheometer with stress steps of 10 Pa (linear viscoelastic), 500 Pa (resistance) and then 10 Pa (resilience). Five soils that were either dominated by 2:1 or 1:1 clay minerals were examined: a pure Ca montmorillonite; a 2:1 Cambisol; a 2:1 Luvisol; a 1:1 clay loam Ferralsol; and a 1:1 sandy loam Ferralsol. The viscosity of all 2:1-dominated samples increased with decreasing water content, ranging from 151 Pa s to 237 800 Pa s. The model biological exudates increased viscosity by up to 10-fold in some 2:1 clay-dominated soils at the wettest water contents, with the relative effect diminishing as soils dried. The viscosity of 1:1-dominated soils also increased with decreasing water content, ranging from 17 320 Pa s to 1 333 000 Pa s. In these soils, scleroglucan increased viscosity 22-fold for the 1:1 clay loam soil, but PGA had little impact. For the 1:1 sandy loam soil, neither exudate influenced viscosity. When a greater stress of 500 Pa was applied, viscosity decreased in all samples because of shear thinning. Scleroglucan maintained greater viscosity under this greater stress for the montmorillonite, 2:1 Luvisol and 1:1 clay loam, whereas PGA did not have a significant impact. After the stress was removed, only the scleroglucan-amended 1:1 clay loam recovered to viscosities greater than the other treatments. The increased viscosity and resistance caused by biological exudates will help to 'drive' soil structure formation, particularly in the rhizosphere. Les modifications du comportement rhéologique de sols à minéralogies contrastées induites par l'apport d'un analogue d'exsudat racinaire (l'acide polygalacturonique, PGA) et d'un polysaccharide d'origine fongique (le scléroglucane) ont étéétudiées dans ce travail. Pour cela, trois contraintes de cisaillement oscillantes (10 Pa, 500 Pa et à nouveau 10 Pa) ont été appliquées successivement à l'aide d'un rhéomètre à plaque parallèle. Ceci a permis de déterminer la viscosité, la résistance et la résilience des échantillons ainsi testés. Cinq sols contenant majoritairement des argiles 2:1 ou 1:1 ont étéétudiés: une Montmorillonite pure saturée au Calcium; un Cambisol à argiles 2:1; un Luvisol à argiles 2:1; un sol tropical argileux à argiles 1:1 et un sol tropical sableux à argiles 1:1. La viscosité de tous les sols à argiles 2:1 a augmenté, au sein d'une gamme allant de 151 Pa s à 237 800 Pa s, lorsque leur teneur en eau diminuait. Les exsudats biologiques modèles ont provoqué une hausse de la viscosité pour les sols à argiles 2:1. Cette augmentation pouvant aller jusqu'à entrainer une multiplication par dix de la viscosité pour les échantillons les plus humides dans le cas du PGA. La viscosité des sols à 1:1 a également diminué avec la teneur en eau, au sein d'une gamme allant de 17 320 Pa s à 1 333 000 Pa s. Le scléroglucane a eu un impact beaucoup plus important que le PGA sur le sol argileux, allant jusqu'à augmenter 24 fois sa viscosité. Aucun des deux exsudats n'a eu d'effet sur la viscosité du sol tropical sableux. Après l'application de la contrainte plus forte (500 Pa), la viscosité a diminué notablement pour chaque échantillon. La présence de scléroglucane a entraîné un relatif maintien de la viscosité sous forte contrainte pour la Montmorillonite, le Luvisol à argiles 2:1 et le sol tropical argileux. L'ajout de PGA n'a par contre pas eu d'impact sur la résistance des sols. Après relâchement de la contrainte, seul l'ajout de scléroglucane dans le cas du sol tropical argileux a eu un effet sur la résilience. Ces augmentations de viscosité et de résistance induites par les exsudats biologiques faciliteront la formation de la structure du sol, en particulier dans la rhizosphère.

Barré P; Hallett PD

2009-08-01

177

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization.

Ismail TS; Gopalakrishnan S; Begum VH; Elango V

1997-04-01

178

Anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga Wall. and Azima tetracantha Lam.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-inflammatory activity of Salacia oblonga rootbark powder and Azima tetracantha leaf powder was assayed in male albino rats using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (acute inflammation) and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic inflammation) methods. Both the crude drugs were maximally active at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, these drugs were able to suppress the transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs were able to lower the lipid peroxide content of exudate and liver, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the exudate of cotton pellet granuloma. The increased acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased serum albumin in cotton pellet granulomatous rats were normalised after treatment with these drugs. It is likely that these drugs may exert their activity by antiproliferative, antioxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilization. PMID:9174976

Ismail, T S; Gopalakrishnan, S; Begum, V H; Elango, V

1997-04-01

179

Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase, temperature increase, and soil N availability on the root exudation of Robinia pseudoacacia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and temperatures are expected to affect the cycling of carbon within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that plants that are carbon fertilized will exude greater amounts of carbon from their roots, thus adding to the pool of soil carbon. How this might affect ecosystem functioning is dependent on whether these carbon additions will boost the pool of soil carbon on a long or short-term basis. It is also thought that any changes in the carbon cycle may be intricately linked to the nitrogen cycle. This study analyzes the root exudation of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), a temperate N{sub 2}-fixing tree, grown using an experimental design with 2 CO{sub 2} X 2 temperature X 2 N availability levels. Carbon dioxide levels were 350 and 700 ppm, air temperatures were low (26/21{degrees}C day/night) and high (30/25{degrees}C day/night), and nitrogen was provided in solution at 0 and 10.0 mM concentrations. Net and gross rates of exudation were calculated, and the composition of the exudate was analyzed for total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbohydrates, humic substances, and total dissolved organic nitrogen. Results show that greater amounts of carbon are exuded from roots of plants grown at the higher temperature (p=0.005) and plants fertilized with N (p+0.0039). Although CO{sub 2} level did not significantly affect exudation of DOC per gram belowground biomass, plants grown in 700 ppm CO{sub 2} exuded more absolute amounts of DOC because they were larger than those grown in 350 ppm CO{sub 2}.

Uselman, S.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Thomas, R.B. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

180

The composition of root exudates from two different resistant peanut cultivars and their effects on the growth of soil-borne pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China.

Li XG; Zhang TL; Wang XX; Hua K; Zhao L; Han ZM

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin were investigated using (/sup 125/I) bovine serum albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ..mu..g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ..mu..g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems.

Sugio, K.; Daly, J.W.

1984-01-09

182

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems.

1984-01-01

183

The role of polysaccharides and diatom exudates in the redox cycling of Fe and the photoproduction of hydrogen peroxide in coastal seawaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of artificial acidic polysaccharides (PS) and exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the half-life of Fe(II) in seawater was investigated in laboratory experiments. Strong photochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of 5.2 to 10.9 nM (mg C)?1 h?1 was found in the presence of PS and diatom exudates. Furthermore when illuminated with UV light the presence of algal exudates had a net stabilising effect on ferrous iron in seawater (initial value 100 nmol L?1) above that expected from oxidation kinetics. In the dark the PS gum xanthan showed no stabilising effect on Fe(II). The photochemical formation of superoxide (O2?) in presence of diatom exudates and its reducing effect on Fe(III) appears to result in greater than expected concentrations of Fe(II). A model of the photochemical redox cycle of iron incorporating these processes supported the observed data well. Diatom exudates seem to play an important role for the photochemistry of iron in coastal waters.

S. Steigenberger; P. J. Statham; C. Völker; U. Passow

2009-01-01

184

The role of polysaccharides and diatom exudates in the redox cycling of Fe and the photoproduction of hydrogen peroxide in coastal seawaters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of artificial acidic polysaccharides (PS) and exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the half-life of Fe(II) in seawater was investigated in laboratory experiments. Strong photochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of 5.2 to 10.9 nM (mg C)?1 h?1 was found in the presence of PS and diatom exudates. Furthermore when illuminated with UV light the presence of algal exudates had a net stabilising effect on ferrous iron in seawater (initial value 100 nmol L?1) above that expected from oxidation kinetics. In the dark the PS gum xanthan showed no stabilising effect on Fe(II). The photochemical formation of superoxide (O2?) in the presence of diatom exudates and its reducing effect on Fe(III) appears to result in greater than expected concentrations of Fe(II). A model of the photochemical redox cycle of iron incorporating these processes supported the observed data well. Diatom exudates seem to have the potential to play an important role for the photochemistry of iron in coastal waters.

S. Steigenberger; P. J. Statham; C. Völker; U. Passow

2010-01-01

185

The role of polysaccharides and diatom exudates in the redox cycling of Fe and the photoproduction of hydrogen peroxide in coastal seawaters  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of artificial acidic polysaccharides (PS) and exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the half-life of Fe(II) in seawater was investigated in laboratory experiments. Strong photochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of 5.2 to 10.9 nM (mg C)-1 h-1 was found in the presence of PS and diatom exudates. Furthermore when illuminated with UV light the presence of algal exudates had a net stabilising effect on ferrous iron in seawater (initial value 100 nmol L-1) above that expected from oxidation kinetics. In the dark the PS gum xanthan showed no stabilising effect on Fe(II). The photochemical formation of superoxide (O2-) in the presence of diatom exudates and its reducing effect on Fe(III) appears to result in greater than expected concentrations of Fe(II). A model of the photochemical redox cycle of iron incorporating these processes supported the observed data well. Diatom exudates seem to have the potential to play an important role for the photochemistry of iron in coastal waters.

Steigenberger, S.; Statham, P. J.; Völker, C.; Passow, U.

2010-01-01

186

Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group) and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group). Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR) at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively) and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively), which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

Nishimura Y; Taguchi M; Nagai T; Fujihara M; Honda S; Uenishi M

2012-01-01

187

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 ?atm), medium (380 ?atm), and high (780 ?atm) CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 ?atm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 ?g Xeq L?1 compared to 269 ?g Xeq L?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. We hypothesise from our results that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

S. Endres; J. Unger; N. Wannicke; M. Nausch; M. Voss; A. Engel

2013-01-01

188

Arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphopodia and germinated spore exudates trigger Ca2+ spiking in the legume and nonlegume root epidermis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• The aim of this study was to investigate Ca(2+) responses to endosymbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the host root epidermis following pre-infection hyphopodium formation in both legumes and nonlegumes, and to determine to what extent these responses could be mimicked by germinated fungal spore exudate. • Root organ cultures of both Medicago truncatula and Daucus carota, expressing the nuclear-localized cameleon reporter NupYC2.1, were used to monitor AM-elicited Ca(2+) responses in host root tissues. • Ca(2+) spiking was observed in cells contacted by AM hyphopodia for both hosts, with highest frequencies correlating with the epidermal nucleus positioned facing the fungal contact site. Treatment with AM spore exudate also elicited Ca(2+) spiking within the AM-responsive zone of the root and, in both cases, spiking was dependent on the M. truncatula common SYM genes DMI1/2, but not on the rhizobial Nod factor perception gene NFP. • These findings support the conclusion that AM fungal root penetration is preceded by a SYM pathway-dependent oscillatory Ca(2+) response, whose evolutionary origin predates the divergence between asterid and rosid clades. Our results further show that fungal symbiotic signals are already generated during spore germination, and that cameleon-expressing root organ cultures represent a novel AM-specific bio-assay for such signals.

Chabaud M; Genre A; Sieberer BJ; Faccio A; Fournier J; Novero M; Barker DG; Bonfante P

2011-01-01

189

Ion gradients in xylem exudate and guttation fluid related to tissue ion levels along primary leaves of barley.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentration of ions in plant cells and tissues is an essential factor in determining physiological function. In the present study, we established that concentration gradients of mobile ions exist in both xylem exudates and tissues within a barley (Hordeum vulgare) primary leaf. For K(+) and NO3 (-) , ion concentrations generally decreased from the leaf base to the tip in both xylem exudates and tissues. Ion gradients were also found for Pi and Cl(-) in the xylem. The hydathode strongly absorbed Pi and re-translocated it to the rest of the plant, whereas Cl(-) was extruded. The ion concentration gradients developed early during leaf growth, increased as the tissue aged and remained under both high and low transpiration conditions. Measurement of the expression profiles of Pi, K(+) and NO3 (-) transporters along the longitudinal axis of the leaf revealed that some transporters are more expressed at the hydathode, but for most transporters, there was no significant variation along the leaf. The mechanisms by which longitudinal ion gradients develop in leaves and their physiological functions are discussed.

Nagai M; Ohnishi M; Uehara T; Yamagami M; Miura E; Kamakura M; Kitamura A; Sakaguchi S; Sakamoto W; Shimmen T; Fukaki H; Reid RJ; Furukawa A; Mimura T

2013-10-01

190

Ion gradients in xylem exudate and guttation fluid related to tissue ion levels along primary leaves of barley.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentration of ions in plant cells and tissues is an essential factor in determining physiological function. In the present study, we established that concentration gradients of mobile ions exist in both xylem exudates and tissues within a barley (Hordeum vulgare) primary leaf. For K(+) and NO3 (-) , ion concentrations generally decreased from the leaf base to the tip in both xylem exudates and tissues. Ion gradients were also found for Pi and Cl(-) in the xylem. The hydathode strongly absorbed Pi and re-translocated it to the rest of the plant, whereas Cl(-) was extruded. The ion concentration gradients developed early during leaf growth, increased as the tissue aged and remained under both high and low transpiration conditions. Measurement of the expression profiles of Pi, K(+) and NO3 (-) transporters along the longitudinal axis of the leaf revealed that some transporters are more expressed at the hydathode, but for most transporters, there was no significant variation along the leaf. The mechanisms by which longitudinal ion gradients develop in leaves and their physiological functions are discussed. PMID:23464633

Nagai, Makiko; Ohnishi, Miwa; Uehara, Takeo; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Miura, Eiko; Kamakura, Mai; Kitamura, Akira; Sakaguchi, Shu-Ichi; Sakamoto, Wataru; Shimmen, Teruo; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Reid, Robert J; Furukawa, Akio; Mimura, Tetsuro

2013-04-08

191

The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

2000-01-01

192

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

2005-01-01

193

Exudate flavonoid aglycones in the alpine species of Achillea sect. Ptarmica: Chemosystematics of A. moschata and related species (Compositae-Anthemideae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In completion of our studies on Achillea exudate flavonoids, 11 alpine species of Achillea sect. Ptarmica were analyzed for their aglycone profiles. The study focuses on species commonly associated with A. moschata. The major flavonoid constituents found in exudates of most taxa were 6-hydroxyflavonol 3,6,4'-trimethyl ethers, except in A. ageratifolia and its subspecies, which are characterized by the accumulation of the 3,6,7-trimethoxy and 6-hydroxyflavones. Infraspecific variation was particularly high in A. abrotanoides and A. moschata. Results are discussed in relation to published data for related species and within the context of evolutionary aspects in the genus Achillea. The 3,6,4'-trimethoxy substitution is regarded as a basic chemical trend within the genus Achillea. Geographical and ecological aspects are briefly addressed, and a summary on known exudate aglycone composition of species from all sections of Achillea is included.

Valant-Vetschera KM; Wollenweber E

2001-02-01

194

Exudate flavonoid aglycones in the alpine species of Achillea sect. Ptarmica: Chemosystematics of A. moschata and related species (Compositae-Anthemideae).  

Science.gov (United States)

In completion of our studies on Achillea exudate flavonoids, 11 alpine species of Achillea sect. Ptarmica were analyzed for their aglycone profiles. The study focuses on species commonly associated with A. moschata. The major flavonoid constituents found in exudates of most taxa were 6-hydroxyflavonol 3,6,4'-trimethyl ethers, except in A. ageratifolia and its subspecies, which are characterized by the accumulation of the 3,6,7-trimethoxy and 6-hydroxyflavones. Infraspecific variation was particularly high in A. abrotanoides and A. moschata. Results are discussed in relation to published data for related species and within the context of evolutionary aspects in the genus Achillea. The 3,6,4'-trimethoxy substitution is regarded as a basic chemical trend within the genus Achillea. Geographical and ecological aspects are briefly addressed, and a summary on known exudate aglycone composition of species from all sections of Achillea is included. PMID:11106843

Valant-Vetschera; Wollenweber

2001-02-01

195

The ^11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The ^11C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. ^11C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with ^11C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs ^11CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive ^11CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with ^11C and translocated throughout the plant similar to ^12C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or ^11CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

2011-03-01

196

Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-21

197

Fluid collections in the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal spaces: comparison of MR and CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fourteen patients with abnormal subdiaphragmatic fluid collections were examined with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR and CT provided equivalent information concerning the presence and extent of fluid collections in 13 of the 14 cases. Image acquisitions with two different repetition times (TRs) and two echo times (TEs) were necessary, in most cases, to detect and discriminate between different types of pathologic fluids. Transudative ascites demonstrated long T1 and T2 relaxation times, whereas abscesses, phlegmon, pancreatic pseudocyst, exudative pancreatitis, and chronic hematoma demonstrated an intermediate or short T1 and a long T2.

Cohen, J.M.; Weinreb, J.C.; Maravilla, K.R.

1985-06-01

198

Fluid collections in the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal spaces: comparison of MR and CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourteen patients with abnormal subdiaphragmatic fluid collections were examined with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR and CT provided equivalent information concerning the presence and extent of fluid collections in 13 of the 14 cases. Image acquisitions with two different repetition times (TRs) and two echo times (TEs) were necessary, in most cases, to detect and discriminate between different types of pathologic fluids. Transudative ascites demonstrated long T1 and T2 relaxation times, whereas abscesses, phlegmon, pancreatic pseudocyst, exudative pancreatitis, and chronic hematoma demonstrated an intermediate or short T1 and a long T2

1985-01-01

199

Water soluble bioactive fraction isolated from gum resin exudate of boswellia serrata, process for isolation thereof composition containing said fraction and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a water-soluble bioactive fraction obtained from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and to a process for the preparation thereof. The present invention also relates to a process for the isolation of a water soluble bioactive fraction containing a mixture of potassium and calcium salts of polysaccharides composed of units of arabinose, galactose and D-glucuronic acid, having marked anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and to the use thereof in the treatment of arthritis in the form of a pharmaceutical composition containing the bioactive fraction.

BANERJEE SUNIL KUMAR; GUPTA OM PARKASH; TANEJA SUBHAS CHANDRA; GUPTA BISHAN DATT; SETHI VIJAY KUMAR; ANAND AVTAR SINGH; MANHAS LILA RAM; GUPTA RAJINDER KUMAR; BANI SARANG; SINGH SURJEET; SHARMA NEELAM; HANDA SUKHDEV SWAMI

200

WATER SOLUBLE BIOACTIVE FRACTION ISOLATED FROM GUM RESIN EXUDATE OF BOSWELLIA SERRATA, PROCESS FOR ISOLATION THEREOF, COMPOSITION CONTAINING SAID FRACTION AND USE THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a water-soluble bioactive fraction obtained from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and to a process for the preparation thereof. The present invention also relates to a process for the isolation of a water soluble bioactive fraction containing a mixture of potassium and calcium salts of polysaccharides composed of units of arabinose, galactose and D-glucoronic acid, having marked anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and to the use thereof in the treatment of arthritis in the form of a pharmaceutical composition containing the bioactive fraction.

BANERJEE Sunil Kumar; GUPTA Om Parkash; TANEJA Subhash Chandra; GUPTA Bishan Datt; SETHI Vijay Kumar; ANAND Avtar Singh; MANHAS Lila Ram; GUPTA Rajinder Kumar; BANI Sarang; SINGH Surjeet; SHARMA Neelam; HANDA Sukhdev Swami

 
 
 
 
201

Decision making and algorithm for the management of pleural effusions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pleural effusions can be catagorised in to transudative effusions or exudative effusions. Causes include cardiovascular disease, infection and neoplasm. Diagnosis is the key to determining what management is required. History and examination can elicit the cause of the effusion and radiological investigations can be a useful adjunct. Thoracocentesis and laboratory testing of the pleural fluid is usually diagnostic and can direct further investigations or treatment. Management of the pleural effusion ultimately varies according to the diagnosis but can be either directed towards reversing the cause of the effusion or treating the symptoms that arise as a result of the effusion.

Quinn T; Alam N; Aminazad A; Marshall MB; Choong CK

2013-02-01

202

Effects of two novel tachykinin antagonists, FK224 and FK888, on neurogenic airway plasma exudation, bronchoconstriction and systemic hypotension in guinea-pigs in vivo.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. We compared the effects of two novel tachykinin receptor antagonists, FK888 (selective at the tachykinin NK1 receptor) and FK224 (dual antagonist at NK1 and NK2 tachykinin receptors) on stimulus-evoked airway plasma exudation, bronchoconstriction and systemic hypotension in guinea-pigs in vivo. P...

Hirayama, Y.; Lei, Y. H.; Barnes, P. J.; Rogers, D. F.

203

Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59 resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with the presence of a 4.4 kb plasmid in 17 strains studied. Resistance to penicillin, observed in 44 strains, and resistance to kanamycin, observed in 15 strains, could not be related to plasmids in any of these strains. The 11.5 kb plasmid was observed in 39% of the strains isolated from piglets with EE, and in 7% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

1993-01-01

204

Pleural effusion following ventriculo-pleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS) is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients? demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience.

Kupeli Elif; Yilmaz Cem; Akcay Sule

2010-01-01

205

Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine) as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine), which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M) H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

S.C. Nwigbo; V.N. Okafor; A.O. Okewale

2012-01-01

206

Effective management of exudate with AQUACEL extra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The management of patients with highly-exuding wounds can often lead to the use of unreliable and costly treatments. Patients are frequently found to be at increased risk of infection and delayed healing, which results in a huge negative impact on their quality of life. In the political and health arena, reducing health-care costs yet maintaining high quality and productivity is high on the list. With current economic, health-care and political targets, it is crucial to address the importance of effective wound management, particularly the importance of managing exudate. Inappropriate management of wound exudate can lead to prolonged wound healing, peri-wound maceration and excoriation, and can result in deterioration of the wound.

Tickle J

2012-09-01

207

Effective management of exudate with AQUACEL extra.  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of patients with highly-exuding wounds can often lead to the use of unreliable and costly treatments. Patients are frequently found to be at increased risk of infection and delayed healing, which results in a huge negative impact on their quality of life. In the political and health arena, reducing health-care costs yet maintaining high quality and productivity is high on the list. With current economic, health-care and political targets, it is crucial to address the importance of effective wound management, particularly the importance of managing exudate. Inappropriate management of wound exudate can lead to prolonged wound healing, peri-wound maceration and excoriation, and can result in deterioration of the wound. PMID:23638483

Tickle, Joy

2012-09-01

208

Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

Ramos N; Mirazo S; Castro G; Arbiza J

2012-10-01

209

Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years.

Salaün S; La Barre S; Dos Santos-Goncalvez M; Potin P; Haras D; Bazire A

2012-08-01

210

Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years. PMID:22476759

Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

2012-04-04

211

Detección y diferenciación de exudados en retinografías a color/ Detection and differentiation of retinal exudates in color retinal images  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La retinopatía diabética en etapas tempranas suele ser imperceptible para los pacientes diabéticos. Sus primeras manifestaciones, tal como los microaneurismas, suelen pasar desapercibidas en exámenes especializados por su difícil detección; además, su presencia única no implica necesariamente relación directa con la retinopatía diabética, puesto que existen otras patologías que también pueden producirlas. Solo hasta la detección de la presencia de exudados u (more) n especialista puede deducir la presencia de la retinopatía diabética. Este artículo presenta un método que permite asistir la identificación y diferenciación de exudados sobre retinografías mediante la utilización de una variedad de clasificadores de tipo k-nn. El método propuesto demostró ser un método sensible y específico en la detección de lesiones brillantes, capaz de determinar con certeza suficiente una posible lesión en una retinografía a color, con una especificidad de 99%. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy early is not usually perceivable in patients with diabetic. Their first signs, like micro-aneurysms, often are unnoticed in preliminary test due to its difficult detection by means specialists. In addition, its presence is necessarily not directly related to diabetic retinopathy, since there are others pathologies that may also cause those. Until the detection of the presence of exudates, a specialist can deduce the presence of diabetic retinopathy. T (more) his paper presents a method to assist the identification and differentiation of exudates on color retinal images based on a variety of k-nn filters. The proposed method proved to be a sensitive and specific detection of bright lesions, able to determine with sufficient certainty, a possible injury, with a specificity of 99%.

Sánchez Torres, Germán; Castaño, Jorge Rudas; Toscano Cuello, Ricardo

2011-07-01

212

Quantitative analysis of exudates from soil-living basidiomycetes in pure culture as a response to lead, cadmium and arsenic stress  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma velutipes, Piloderma byssinum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon roseolus, Suillus bovinus and Suillus variegatus) and two saprotrophic fungi (Hypholoma fasciculare and Hypholoma capnoides) were exposed to metal stress induced by Pb, Cd and As. After pre-growth in a nutrient solution in Petri dishes, metal exposure was performed either in a nutrient rich solution or in a nutrient poor solution for seven days. The fungi were exposed to two different metal concentrations, low and high (Pb: 10 + 100 ?M; Cd: 1 + 10 ?M; As: 1 + 10 ?M). Exudation of low molecular weight organic compounds (low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), amino acids and dissolved monosaccharides), as well as dissolved organic carbon was quantified as a potential response to the metal stress. The main LMWOA identified was oxalate. Oxalate exudation increased significantly in response to both low and high Pb and Cd concentrations, as well as low As exposure, relative to nutrient controls. Exposure to As and mixtures of metals (Pb + Cd, Pb + As) did not result in any significant increase in oxalate production compared to controls. The presence of a carbon source (glucose) in this study is likely to have been important for exudation of organic compounds. For the nutrient rich (+1 mM glucose) metal treatments exposure to Pb and Cd mainly increased exudation of oxalate and total amino acids. Production of dissolved monosaccharides, as well as DOC, did not increase significantly in response to metal exposure, irrespective of nutrient conditions. This may be explained by re-absorption of the organic compounds by the mycelium or by the fact that metals had no effect on exudation of these compounds.

Johansson EM; Fransson PetraMA; Finlay RogerD; Hees PatrickAWvan

2008-09-01

213

Chemical Analysis of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Phenolics Components and the Resin in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available H. taltalense (Phil.) Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae) is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids – naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol – were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

Brenda Modak; Macarena Rojas; René Torres

2009-01-01

214

Chemical analysis of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolics components and the resin in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

H. taltalense (Phil.) Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae) is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids - naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol - were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

Modak B; Rojas M; Torres R

2009-01-01

215

Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

Matsuo,Toshihiko

2006-01-01

216

Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

2006-01-01

217

Pleural Transport Physiology: Insights from Biological Marker Measurements in Transudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the pleural mesothelial barrier and of the biological markers that facilitate or eliminate the passage of molecules through the pleura. Methods and Material: Pleural fluid samples from sixty-five patients with heart failure were analyzed. The biological markers studied were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine deaminase (ADA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -3 (MMP-3), -7(MMP-7), -8 (MMP-8) and -9 (MMP-9). Based on the pleural fluid/serum ratio, these molecules were divided into three groups: a) the LDH-like group with a pleural fluid/serum ratio between 0,4 and 0,8 (LDH, CEA, CuZnSOD, ADA, CRP, MMP-8), b) molecules with a pleural fluid/serum ratio less than 0,4 (MMP-7 and MMP-9) and c) molecules with a pleural fluid/serum ratio equal or above 1 (TNF-?, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-3). Results: No correlation between the molecular radius and the pleural fluid to serum ratio of the above biological markers was found. Conclusions: The molecular size is not a major determinant for the passage of molecules through the mesothelial barrier. Several other factors may influence the transport of the above molecules to pleural cavity, such as their charge and shape.

Apostolidou, Eleni; Tsilioni, Irini; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis I, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

218

Bilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment in HELLP Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy complication, life-threatening for mother and child, characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. Blurred vision is the most common visual complaint. A rare case of bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the HELLP syndrome...

Schönfeld, C.-L.

219

[Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM.

Levina IuV; Luchikhin LA; Krasiuk AA

2003-01-01

220

Comparison of logistic regression and neural network classifiers in the detection of hard exudates in retinal images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of visual impairment in industrialized countries. Automatic recognition of DR lesions in retinal images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of this disease. The aim of this study is to automatically detect one of these lesions: hard exudates (EXs). Based on their properties, we extracted a set of features from image regions and selected the subset that best discriminated between EXs and the retinal background using logistic regression (LR). The LR model obtained, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier and a radial basis function (RBF) classifier were subsequently used to obtain the final segmentation of EXs. Our database contained 130 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. Fifty of them were used to obtain the training examples. The remaining 80 images were used to test the performance of the method. The highest statistics were achieved for MLP or RBF. Using a lesion based criterion, our results reached a mean sensitivity of 95.9% (MLP) and a mean positive predictive value of 85.7% (RBF). With an image-based criterion, we achieved a 100% mean sensitivity, 87.5% mean specificity and 93.8% mean accuracy (MLP and RBF). PMID:24111079

Garcia, Maria; Valverde, Carmen; Lopez, Maria I; Poza, Jesus; Hornero, Roberto

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Comparison of logistic regression and neural network classifiers in the detection of hard exudates in retinal images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of visual impairment in industrialized countries. Automatic recognition of DR lesions in retinal images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of this disease. The aim of this study is to automatically detect one of these lesions: hard exudates (EXs). Based on their properties, we extracted a set of features from image regions and selected the subset that best discriminated between EXs and the retinal background using logistic regression (LR). The LR model obtained, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier and a radial basis function (RBF) classifier were subsequently used to obtain the final segmentation of EXs. Our database contained 130 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. Fifty of them were used to obtain the training examples. The remaining 80 images were used to test the performance of the method. The highest statistics were achieved for MLP or RBF. Using a lesion based criterion, our results reached a mean sensitivity of 95.9% (MLP) and a mean positive predictive value of 85.7% (RBF). With an image-based criterion, we achieved a 100% mean sensitivity, 87.5% mean specificity and 93.8% mean accuracy (MLP and RBF).

Garcia M; Valverde C; Lopez MI; Poza J; Hornero R

2013-07-01

222

Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

Liang C; Piñeros MA; Tian J; Yao Z; Sun L; Liu J; Shaff J; Coluccio A; Kochian LV; Liao H

2013-03-01

223

Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural/ Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos exsudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada. Abstract in english The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be collected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

2006-08-01

224

Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos exsudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada.The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be collected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

Leila Antonangelo; Vera Luiza Capelozzi

2006-01-01

225

Isothermal titration calorimetric and computational studies on the binding of chitooligosaccharides to pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)(2-6)] with pumpkin phloem exudate lectin (PPL) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry and computational methods. The dimeric PPL binds to (GlcNAc)(3-5) with binding constants of 1.26-1.53 × 10(5) M(-1) at 25 °C, whereas chitobiose exhibits approximately 66-fold lower affinity. Interestingly, chitohexaose shows nearly 40-fold higher affinity than chitopentaose with a binding constant of 6.16 × 10(6) M(-1). The binding stoichiometry decreases with an increase in the oligosaccharide size from 2.26 for chitobiose to 1.08 for chitohexaose. The binding reaction was essentially enthalpy driven with negative entropic contribution, suggesting that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals' interactions are the main factors that stabilize PPL-saccharide association. The three-dimensional structure of PPL was predicted by homology modeling, and binding of chitooligosaccharides was investigated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, which showed that the protein binding pocket can accommodate up to three GlcNAc residues, whereas additional residues in chitotetraose and chitopentaose did not exhibit any interactions with the binding pocket. Docking studies with chitohexaose indicated that the two triose units of the molecule could interact with different protein binding sites, suggesting formation of higher order complexes by the higher oligomers of GlcNAc by their simultaneous interaction with two protein molecules. PMID:21405077

Narahari, Akkaladevi; Singla, Hitesh; Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan; Surolia, Avadhesha; Swamy, Musti J

2011-03-15

226

Nutrient uptake, cluster root formation and exudation of protons and citrate in Lupinus albus as affected by localized supply of phosphorus in a split-root system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Amiga) plants were grown in nutrient solution, using a split-root system with two compartments to examine the effect of localized phosphorus (P) supply on nutrient uptake, cluster root formation and root exudation. Phosphorus was supplied at 0 and 250 ?M P in the ?P and +P compartments, respectively, with three treatments of ?P+P, ?P?P and +P+P. Shoot dry weight in ?P+P was higher than that in ?P?P, but not significantly different from that in +P+P. Shoot P concentration [P] in ?P+P was lower than that in +P+P, but higher than that in ?P?P. In the ?P+P treatment, root [P] was lower in the ?P than in the +P root half and the similar trend was observed for root dry weight. Compared with ?P?P, 19% of P uptake in the +P root half in ?P+P was translocated to the ?P root half. Phosphorus deficiency decreased K, Mg and S uptake in ?P?P, and localized P deficiency reduced S uptake in the ?P root half in ?P+P. The number of cluster roots and exudation rates of protons, citrate and acid phosphatase (APase) in both root halves were higher in ?P?P than in +P+P. The localized P supply increased the total number of cluster roots in the +P root half compared with the ?P root half in ?P+P. Compared with ?P?P, the localized P supply significantly increased the shoot [P] and decreased the exudation rate of citrate and APase in both root halves in ?P+P. Exudation rate of citrate in the ?P root half in ?P+P was higher than that of the +P root half in +P+P. Localized P supply reduced proton release in the +P and even ?P root halves in ?P+P, but the pH was lower in the ?P than +P compartments for the individual plant, indicating a significant effect of the localized P supply on proton release. The results suggest that cluster root formation and citrate exudation are regulated by the shoot [P] and affected by localized supply of external P, and that proton release is inhibited by localized P supply by altering the balance of anion and cation uptake.

Shen J; Li H; Neumann G; Zhang F

2005-03-01

227

How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus".

Lambers H; Clements JC; Nelson MN

2013-02-01

228

Phytochemical analysis of mature tree root exudates in situ and their role in shaping soil microbial communities in relation to tree N-acquisition strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eperua falcata (Aublet), a late-successional species in tropical rainforest and one of the most abundant tree in French Guiana, has developed an original strategy concerning N-acquisition by largely preferring nitrate, rather than ammonium (H. Schimann, S. Ponton, S. Hättenschwiler, B. Ferry, R. Lensi, A.M. Domenach, J.C. Roggy, Differing nitrogen use strategies of two tropical rainforest tree species in French Guiana: evidence from (15)N natural abundance and microbial activities, Soil Biol. Biochem. 40 (2008) 487-494). Given the preference of this species for nitrate, we hypothesized that root exudates would promote nitrate availability by (a) enhancing nitrate production by stimulating ammonium oxidation or (b) minimizing nitrate losses by inhibiting denitrification. Root exudates were collected in situ in monospecific planted plots. The phytochemical analysis of these exudates and of several of their corresponding root extracts was achieved using UHPLC/DAD/ESI-QTOF and allowed the identification of diverse secondary metabolites belonging to the flavonoid family. Our results show that (i) the distinct exudation patterns observed are related to distinct root morphologies, and this was associated with a shift in the root flavonoid content, (ii) a root extract representative of the diverse compounds detected in roots showed a significant and selective metabolic inhibition of isolated denitrifiers in vitro, and (iii) in soil plots the abundance of nirK-type denitrifiers was negatively affected in rhizosphere soil compared to bulk. Altogether this led us to formulate hypothesis concerning the ecological role of the identified compounds in relation to N-acquisition strategy of this species.

Michalet S; Rohr J; Warshan D; Bardon C; Roggy JC; Domenach AM; Czarnes S; Pommier T; Combourieu B; Guillaumaud N; Bellvert F; Comte G; Poly F

2013-05-01

229

Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from –43.2o to –52o for Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and +36.0o to +60.0o for A. seyal var. fistula. Likewise, the acid equivalent weights (AEWs) have been found to vary from 1093 to 1920 for A. Senegal var. Senegal and 1063 to 1749 for A. seyal var. fistula. Significant intra-species variation for the tannin content has also been observed for the species studied, whereas the nitrogen content has been observed to vary significantly only in A. seyal var. fistula. The results in this study show that the variation of the properties among batches of commercial Acacia gum may be due to admixture of gums from different Acacia species as well as intra-species variation.

Gaspar S. Mhinzi

2003-01-01

230

Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): production and exudation of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical technique employing gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) was employed to systematically screen fifty-eight wheat accessions for their differential production of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) from three consecutive sources, i.e., the shoots, roots, and in the associated agar growth medium (collected as root exudates) of 17-day-old wheat seedlings. DIMBOA content differed significantly in the shoots, roots, or in the agar growth medium between accessions. DIMBOA accumulated differentially within the plant, with roots containing more DIMBOA than the shoots. Only 19% of accessions were able to exude DIMBOA from living roots into their growth medium, indicating the exudation of DIMBOA is accession-specific. DIMBOA level in root tissues is expected to be high when a high level of DIMBOA content is detected in the shoots. Wheat seedlings did not release detectable amounts of DIMBOA when the DIMBOA level was low in the root tissues. The valuable genetic material with high levels of DIMBOA in the shoots or roots identified in the present research could be used to breed for wheat cultivars with elevated allelopathic activity. PMID:11521406

Wu, H; Haig, T; Pratley, J; Lemerle, D; An, M

2001-08-01

231

Allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): production and exudation of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An analytical technique employing gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) was employed to systematically screen fifty-eight wheat accessions for their differential production of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) from three consecutive sources, i.e., the shoots, roots, and in the associated agar growth medium (collected as root exudates) of 17-day-old wheat seedlings. DIMBOA content differed significantly in the shoots, roots, or in the agar growth medium between accessions. DIMBOA accumulated differentially within the plant, with roots containing more DIMBOA than the shoots. Only 19% of accessions were able to exude DIMBOA from living roots into their growth medium, indicating the exudation of DIMBOA is accession-specific. DIMBOA level in root tissues is expected to be high when a high level of DIMBOA content is detected in the shoots. Wheat seedlings did not release detectable amounts of DIMBOA when the DIMBOA level was low in the root tissues. The valuable genetic material with high levels of DIMBOA in the shoots or roots identified in the present research could be used to breed for wheat cultivars with elevated allelopathic activity.

Wu H; Haig T; Pratley J; Lemerle D; An M

2001-08-01

232

The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild steel corrosion in acidic media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this study, a comparative study of two oleo-gum resins was performed. ? The adsorption of both oleo-gum resins is well described by Langmuir isotherm model. ? Oleo-gum resins behave as mixed type inhibitors. ? Inhibition efficiency of both oleo-gum resins in 2 M HCl decreased with rise in temperature. ? Quantum chemical calculations used to explain the difference in behavior of two resins. - Abstract: A comparative study of two oleo-gum resins exudate from Ferula assa-foetida (F. assa-foetida) and Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum), as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in 2 M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both oleo-gums behave as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency was studied. At all temperatures, the experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm for both oleo-gum resin exudates. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of two oleo-gum resin exudates.

2011-01-01

233

Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm(C) and two both erm(A) and erm(C). The presence of erm(B) was confirmed by hybridization to plasmid profiles in all 13 PCR-positive isolates. Of 52 tetracycline resistant isolates examined, two contained tet(L), 38 tet(K) and 12 both tet(K) and tet(L). (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, L. B.

2002-01-01

234

ZNF408 is mutated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and is crucial for the development of zebrafish retinal vasculature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina, which can result in retinal detachment and severe visual impairment. In a large Dutch FEVR family, we performed linkage analysis, exome sequencing, and segregation analysis of DNA variants. We identified putative disease-causing DNA variants in proline-alanine-rich ste20-related kinase (c.791dup; p.Ser265ValfsX64) and zinc finger protein 408 (ZNF408) (c.1363C>T; p.His455Tyr), the latter of which was also present in an additional Dutch FEVR family that subsequently appeared to share a common ancestor with the original family. Sequence analysis of ZNF408 in 132 additional individuals with FEVR revealed another potentially pathogenic missense variant, p.Ser126Asn, in a Japanese family. Immunolocalization studies in COS-1 cells transfected with constructs encoding the WT and mutant ZNF408 proteins, revealed that the WT and the p.Ser126Asn mutant protein show complete nuclear localization, whereas the p.His455Tyr mutant protein was localized almost exclusively in the cytoplasm. Moreover, in a cotransfection assay, the p.His455Tyr mutant protein retains the WT ZNF408 protein in the cytoplasm, suggesting that this mutation acts in a dominant-negative fashion. Finally, morpholino-induced knockdown of znf408 in zebrafish revealed defects in developing retinal and trunk vasculature, that could be rescued by coinjection of RNA encoding human WT ZNF408 but not p.His455Tyr mutant ZNF408. Together, our data strongly suggest that mutant ZNF408 results in abnormal retinal vasculogenesis in humans and is associated with FEVR. PMID:23716654

Collin, Rob W J; Nikopoulos, Konstantinos; Dona, Margo; Gilissen, Christian; Hoischen, Alexander; Boonstra, F Nienke; Poulter, James A; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Berger, Wolfgang; Toomes, Carmel; Tahira, Tomoko; Mohn, Lucas R; Blokland, Ellen A; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Ali, Manir; Groothuismink, Johanne M; Duijkers, Lonneke; Inglehearn, Chris F; Sollfrank, Lea; Strom, Tim M; Uchio, Eiichi; van Nouhuys, C Erik; Kremer, Hannie; Veltman, Joris A; van Wijk, Erwin; Cremers, Frans P M

2013-05-28

235

ZNF408 is mutated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and is crucial for the development of zebrafish retinal vasculature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by abnormal vascularization of the peripheral retina, which can result in retinal detachment and severe visual impairment. In a large Dutch FEVR family, we performed linkage analysis, exome sequencing, and segregation analysis of DNA variants. We identified putative disease-causing DNA variants in proline-alanine-rich ste20-related kinase (c.791dup; p.Ser265ValfsX64) and zinc finger protein 408 (ZNF408) (c.1363C>T; p.His455Tyr), the latter of which was also present in an additional Dutch FEVR family that subsequently appeared to share a common ancestor with the original family. Sequence analysis of ZNF408 in 132 additional individuals with FEVR revealed another potentially pathogenic missense variant, p.Ser126Asn, in a Japanese family. Immunolocalization studies in COS-1 cells transfected with constructs encoding the WT and mutant ZNF408 proteins, revealed that the WT and the p.Ser126Asn mutant protein show complete nuclear localization, whereas the p.His455Tyr mutant protein was localized almost exclusively in the cytoplasm. Moreover, in a cotransfection assay, the p.His455Tyr mutant protein retains the WT ZNF408 protein in the cytoplasm, suggesting that this mutation acts in a dominant-negative fashion. Finally, morpholino-induced knockdown of znf408 in zebrafish revealed defects in developing retinal and trunk vasculature, that could be rescued by coinjection of RNA encoding human WT ZNF408 but not p.His455Tyr mutant ZNF408. Together, our data strongly suggest that mutant ZNF408 results in abnormal retinal vasculogenesis in humans and is associated with FEVR.

Collin RW; Nikopoulos K; Dona M; Gilissen C; Hoischen A; Boonstra FN; Poulter JA; Kondo H; Berger W; Toomes C; Tahira T; Mohn LR; Blokland EA; Hetterschijt L; Ali M; Groothuismink JM; Duijkers L; Inglehearn CF; Sollfrank L; Strom TM; Uchio E; van Nouhuys CE; Kremer H; Veltman JA; van Wijk E; Cremers FP

2013-06-01

236

Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b*) (more) foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE. Abstract in english The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, (more) a* e b*). Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.

Simões, Gislaine Silveira; Oba, Alexandre; Matsuo, Tiemi; Rossa, Alessandro; Shimokomaki, Massami; Ida, Elza Iouko

2009-11-01

237

Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Carboxylate-releasing cluster roots of Proteaceae play a key role in acquiring phosphorus (P) from ancient nutrient-impoverished soils in Australia. However, cluster roots are also found in Proteaceae on young, P-rich soils in Chile where they allow P acquisition from soils that strongly sorb P. SCOPE: Unlike Proteaceae in Australia that tend to proficiently remobilize P from senescent leaves, Chilean Proteaceae produce leaf litter rich in P. Consequently, they may act as ecosystem engineers, providing P for plants without specialized roots to access sorbed P. We propose a similar ecosystem-engineering role for species that release large amounts of carboxylates in other relatively young, strongly P-sorbing substrates, e.g. young acidic volcanic deposits and calcareous dunes. Many of these species also fix atmospheric nitrogen and release nutrient-rich litter, but their role as ecosystem engineers is commonly ascribed only to their diazotrophic nature. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the P-mobilizing capacity of Proteaceae on young soils, which contain an abundance of P, but where P is poorly available, in combination with inefficient nutrient remobilization from senescing leaves allows these species to function as ecosystem engineers. We suggest that diazotrophic species that colonize young soils with strong P-sorption potential should be considered for their positive effect on P availability, as well as their widely accepted role in nitrogen fixation. Their P-mobilizing activity possibly also enhances their nitrogen-fixing capacity. These diazotrophic species may therefore facilitate the establishment and growth of species with less-efficient P-uptake strategies on more-developed soils with low P availability through similar mechanisms. We argue that the significance of cluster roots and high carboxylate exudation in the development of young ecosystems is probably far more important than has been envisaged thus far.

Lambers H; Bishop JG; Hopper SD; Laliberté E; Zúñiga-Feest A

2012-07-01

238

Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor quality images. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using the support vector machine classifiers. The retinal images are segmented following key preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. On data sets of poor quality images, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 94.46%, 89.52% and 92.14%, respectively.

Kittipol WISAENG; Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG; Ekkarat POTHIRUK

2013-01-01

239

Chemotaxis of Zoospores for Root Exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chemotactic response of the zoospores of a soil-inhabiting plant pathogenic fungus, Phytophthora cinnamomi, for roots of avocado seedlings was observed. The chemotaxis of the zoospores and chemotropy of their germ tubes were directly related to infection and disease production. Indications were obtained of specificity of the pathogen-attracting root exudate, and interesting implications are evident with regard to mechanisms of invasion and pathogenicity, and to disease resistance.

Zentmyer GA

1961-05-01

240

Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy in a Premature Child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many of the clinical features associated with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) overlap with those commonly found in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Differentiating these two distinct entities may be challenging in premature infants. FEVR can be distinguished from ROP in that the former demonstrates exudates on examination and tends to recur or reactivate. The authors report the case of a premature infant diagnosed with FEVR and treated with diode laser who was subsequently lost to follow-up. Upon re-establishing care 3 years later, the patient demonstrated renewed bilateral vitreoretinopathy. This manuscript underscores the importance of accurate distinction between FEVR and ROP for the purpose of optimal patient management. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:xxx-xxx.].

Gologorsky D; Chang JS; Hess DJ; Berrocal AM

2013-10-01

242

[Familial exudative Criswick-Schepens vitreoretinopathy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors describe their own observation of a very rare form of vitreoretinal degeneration in a young man classified as familial exudative Criswick-Schepens vitreoretinopathy. The disease was detected in the second clinical stage on the right eye and in the third clinical stage on the left eye. The transmission of the disease is autosomal dominant with incomplete penetration. In the paper special emphasis is laid on differential diagnostic problems and the possibility of treatment of this disease.

Chynoranský M; Gerinec A; Streicher T

1989-09-01

243

Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE).

Brenda Modak; Melissa Salina; Jesús Rodilla; René Torres

2009-01-01

244

Study of the chemical composition of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium sclerocarpum and evaluation of the antioxidant properties of the phenolic compounds and the resin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae) is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1), one flavanone: naringenin (2) and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE) and total reacting equivalents (TRE).

Modak B; Salina M; Rodilla J; Torres R

2009-01-01

245

Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots to aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amino acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes

1985-01-01

246

[Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM. PMID:13677026

Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

2003-01-01

247

Detection of Exudates for the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is caused by the abnormalities in the retina due to insufficient insulin in the body. Diabetic Retinopathy affects 80% of all patients who had diabetes for 10 years or more, which can also lead to vision loss. The most primitive sign of Diabetic Retinopathy is Exudates. Exudates in the retina are opacities that result from the escape of plasma and white blood cells from defective blood vessels. Detecting the exudates in an earlier stage can prevent the vision loss. In this paper, an automated algorithm has demonstrated to detect and localize the presence of exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils. In this method, first the retinal fundus image is pre-processed. Then, Mask Technique and Score Computation technique is used for segmenting the exudates in the retinal fundus images. This method does not require supervised learning which requires labeled set, may cause human error and it is time consuming process. It can effectively identify the lesions because exudates were clearly distinguished from optic disc and blood vessels. It helps the ophthalmologists apply proper treatments that might eliminate the disease or decrease the severity of it.

Anitha Somasundaram; Janardhana Prabhu

2013-01-01

248

Effects of polyphosphate additives on Campylobacter survival in processed chicken exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Campylobacter spp. are responsible for a large number of the bacterial food poisoning cases worldwide. Despite being sensitive to oxygen and nutritionally fastidious, Campylobacter spp. are able to survive in food processing environments and reach consumers in sufficient numbers to cause disease. To investigate Campylobacter persistence on processed chicken, exudates from chickens produced for consumer sale were collected and sterilized. Two types of exudates from chicken products were collected: enhanced, where a marinade was added to the chickens during processing, and nonenhanced, where no additives were added during processing. Exudates from enhanced chicken products examined in this study contained a mixture of polyphosphates. Exudate samples were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli strains and incubated under a range of environmental conditions, and viable bacteria present in the resultant cultures were enumerated. When incubated at 42 degrees C in a microaerobic environment, exudates from enhanced chicken products resulted in increased survival of C. jejuni and C. coli compared with that in nonenhanced exudates in the range of <1 to >4 log CFU/ml. Under more relevant food storage conditions (4 degrees C and normal atmosphere), the exudates from enhanced chicken products also demonstrated improved Campylobacter survival compared with that in nonenhanced exudates. Polyphosphates present in the enhanced exudates were determined to be largely responsible for the improved survival observed when the two types of exudates were compared. Therefore, polyphosphates used to enhance chicken quality aid in sustaining the numbers of Campylobacter bacteria, increasing the opportunity for disease via cross-contamination or improperly cooked poultry.

Gunther NW 4th

2010-04-01

249

The short-term effect of cadmium on low molecular weight organic acid and amino acid exudation from mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong) roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term concentration and time effects of cadmium on Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong root exudation, thereby evaluating and predicting the ecophysiological effects of mangrove to heavy metals at the root level. Mature K. obovata propagules were cultivated in a sandy medium for 3 months, and then six concentrations of Cd (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1)) were applied. After exposure time of 24 h and 7 days, respectively, the root exudates of K. obovata were collected and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and amino acids of which were analyzed. In addition, we measured glutathione, soluble protein content, and Cd concentration in the plant. We found 10 and 15 types of LMWOAs and amino acids in root exudates of K. obovata with total concentrations ranging from 29.54 to 43.08 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW) roots and from 737.35 to 1,452.46 ng g(-1) DW roots, respectively. Both of them varied in quality and quantity under different Cd treatment strengths and exposure times. Oxalic, acetic, L-malic, tartaric acid, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, and arginine were dominant. Both LMWOAs and amino acids excreted from K. obovata roots play a key role in Cd toxicity resistance. The responsiveness of amino acids was less than that of LMWOAs. We suggest that the ecological effect of root-excreted free amino acids in the rhizosphere is mainly based on the role of nutrients, supplemented with detoxification to heavy metals. PMID:22729874

Xie, Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J; Weng, Bosen; Liu, Jingchun; Lu, Haoliang; Yan, Chongling

2012-06-24

250

The short-term effect of cadmium on low molecular weight organic acid and amino acid exudation from mangrove (Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong) roots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term concentration and time effects of cadmium on Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong root exudation, thereby evaluating and predicting the ecophysiological effects of mangrove to heavy metals at the root level. Mature K. obovata propagules were cultivated in a sandy medium for 3 months, and then six concentrations of Cd (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1)) were applied. After exposure time of 24 h and 7 days, respectively, the root exudates of K. obovata were collected and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and amino acids of which were analyzed. In addition, we measured glutathione, soluble protein content, and Cd concentration in the plant. We found 10 and 15 types of LMWOAs and amino acids in root exudates of K. obovata with total concentrations ranging from 29.54 to 43.08 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW) roots and from 737.35 to 1,452.46 ng g(-1) DW roots, respectively. Both of them varied in quality and quantity under different Cd treatment strengths and exposure times. Oxalic, acetic, L-malic, tartaric acid, tyrosine, methionine, cysteine, isoleucine, and arginine were dominant. Both LMWOAs and amino acids excreted from K. obovata roots play a key role in Cd toxicity resistance. The responsiveness of amino acids was less than that of LMWOAs. We suggest that the ecological effect of root-excreted free amino acids in the rhizosphere is mainly based on the role of nutrients, supplemented with detoxification to heavy metals.

Xie X; Weiss DJ; Weng B; Liu J; Lu H; Yan C

2013-02-01

251

Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

2007-12-21

252

Exudative pleurisy of coccidioidomycosis: A case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common manifestation in primary coccidioides infections (Coccidioides immitis, C. posadasii). It is essential that this endemic dimorphic fungus be considered in order to proceed with the most appropriate diagnostic tools and therapy. Case presentation We present a rare case of primary pleural coccidioides and a review of the current literature for optimal diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies. Conclusion With increased domestic and international travel, coccidioidomycosis will likely be encountered in nonendemic regions. Recognition by physicians is critical for a timely diagnosis and therapy. Tissue culture can assist in the diagnosis and polymerase chain reaction analysis shows potential as a possible addition.

Afshar Kamyar; BoydKing Ayana; Sharma Om P

2008-01-01

253

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR ELECTRICALLY DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF EXUDATE IN DRESSINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systems and methods are provided for sensing fluid in a dressing on a patient and producing an electrical signal. In one instance, a galvanic cell is used as an electronic detection device. The galvanic cell is placed in the dressing and produces voltage when the dressing is substantially saturated. In one instance, the dressing is a reduced-pressure, absorbent dressing. Other systems, methods, and dressings are presented.

COULTHARD RICHARD DANIEL JOHN; THOMSON MALCOLM; JAEGER RICO

254

Flavonoids and terpenoids from the resinous exudates of Madia species (Asteraceae, Helenieae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The resinous material accumulated on aerial parts of Madia species is shown to consist mainly of diterpenes, containing a series of flavonoid aglycones. A6- and/or 8-O-substitution is characteristic for many of these flavonoids. Three known rare diterpenes were found and the structure elucidation of a diterpene with a new carbon skeleton, named madiaol, is reported. PMID:12710719

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Dörr, Marion; Dörsam, Marco; Hassan, Abu El-Hamed; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Hegazy, M F; Zeller, Klaus-Peter

255

[Exudative uveitis, chronic labial herpes and interstitial pneumonia in an HIV-positive child  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents the case of a 6 and a half year-old child, with marked hipotrophy in height and weight (15 kg weight, which make a deficit of about 6 kg). The right eye presented pupilar sinekies, loaded vitreous and two white-yellow exsudative coroidal placards. One of them was inter-maculo-papilar having 4DP in diameter, difuse margins and aspect, the other was infero-macular. The right eye vision was only 2/50 n.c. The child also presented cronical labial herpes and intersti?ial pneumony. The ELISA test (+) confirmed the HIV suspicion. The paper insisted on the herpetical ethiology of the corio-retineal exsudative lesions.

Popa GC

1996-01-01

256

[Exudative age-related macular degeneration: efficacy and limits of the different treatments].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular neovascularizations are responsible for irreversible loss of vision in various diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Treatments have changed greatly, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin has come into common use. However, the visual prognosis remains poor. The recent approval of new antiangiogenic molecules such as ranibizumab and pegaptanib should allow for new therapeutical possibilities. The unapproved ophthalmological use of bevacizumab requires further studies. This paper updates what is known about old and new neovascularization treatments: their mechanism of action, their efficacy, and their toxicity. It reviews the principal clinical studies, and concludes with the recognized recommendations. For the first time, ophthalmologists can hope not only to stabilize loss of vision, but also to improve visual acuity. Complementary treatments can now be tested in associations, concomitantly or not, with the hope of improving visual results. PMID:18641588

Polak, M Berdugo; Behar-Cohen, F

2008-05-01

257

[Exudative age-related macular degeneration: efficacy and limits of the different treatments].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ocular neovascularizations are responsible for irreversible loss of vision in various diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Treatments have changed greatly, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin has come into common use. However, the visual prognosis remains poor. The recent approval of new antiangiogenic molecules such as ranibizumab and pegaptanib should allow for new therapeutical possibilities. The unapproved ophthalmological use of bevacizumab requires further studies. This paper updates what is known about old and new neovascularization treatments: their mechanism of action, their efficacy, and their toxicity. It reviews the principal clinical studies, and concludes with the recognized recommendations. For the first time, ophthalmologists can hope not only to stabilize loss of vision, but also to improve visual acuity. Complementary treatments can now be tested in associations, concomitantly or not, with the hope of improving visual results.

Polak MB; Behar-Cohen F

2008-05-01

258

Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein, we present a case of unilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young male who presented with chief complaints of painful decreased vision which was attributed to optic neuritis and macular edema as a result of scleritis. Imaging studies were helpful in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and patient's complaints improved with administration of systemic corticosteroids.

Chaudhry IA; Al-Obaisi S; Al-Sheikh O; Galvez A

2012-10-01

259

Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein, we present a case of unilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young male who presented with chief complaints of painful decreased vision which was attributed to optic neuritis and macular edema as a result of scleritis. Imaging studies were helpful in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and patient's complaints improved with administration of systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23961032

Chaudhry, Imtiaz A; Al-Obaisi, Saif; Al-Sheikh, Osama; Galvez, Alberto

2012-10-17

260

Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, s...

Kaldy James

 
 
 
 
261

Cost effectiveness of using carboxymethylcellulose dressing compared with gauze in the management of exuding venous leg ulcers in Germany and the USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of using carboxymethylcellulose dressing (CMCD; Aquacel Hydrofiber) compared to gauze in the management of exuding venous leg ulcers in Germany and the USA. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a modelling study performed from the perspective of payers (i.e. the sickness funds in Germany and the community sector in the USA). METHODS: Clinical outcomes attributable to managing exuding venous leg ulcers were obtained from the published literature in the English language. These data were combined with resource utilisation estimates derived from a panel of clinicians enabling us to construct two decision models depicting the management of venous leg ulcers with CMCD or gauze over 18 weeks in Germany and the USA. The models were used to estimate the cost effectiveness of CMCD compared to gauze in the management of exuding venous leg ulcers in both countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS: Starting treatment with CMCD instead of gauze in both Germany and the USA is expected to heal 30% of ulcers within 18 weeks compared to 13% with gauze (p = 0.003). The healthcare cost of starting treatment with CMCD or gauze in Germany is expected to be Euro2020 and Euro 2654 respectively at 18 weeks. Additionally, the healthcare cost of starting treatment with CMCD or gauze in the USA is expected to be $3797 and $5288 respectively at 18 weeks. Hence, using CMCD instead of gauze is expected to increase the probability of healing within 18 weeks by 130% and reduce healthcare costs by at least 24%. The healthcare cost of managing CMCD-treated patients was less than that of gauze-treated patients in both countries due to decreased nursing and physician costs associated with a lower frequency of CMCD dressing changes compared to gauze dressing changes. If it were assumed that treatment with gauze in both countries heals 30% of ulcers within 18 weeks (i.e. is identical to CMCD), then the expected healthcare cost of using gauze would be reduced by only 3% (from Euro2654 to Euro2562 in Germany and from $5288 to $5148 in the USA). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of our model, starting management of an exuding venous leg ulcer with CMCD instead of gauze is the cost effective strategy in both Germany and the USA. Moreover, the purchase price of a leg ulcer dressing should not be used as an indication of the cost effectiveness of a given method of care.

Guest JF; Ruiz FJ; Mihai A; Lehman A

2005-01-01

262

[Syphilitic gastritis with secondary malabsorption syndrome (exudative hypoproteinemia). A clinical case and review of syphilitic gastropathies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The case is described of a 39 year old man referred for clinical treatment of widespread oedema in the lower half of the body, especially the lower extremities. He was suffering from a gastroenteric protein malabsorption syndrome caused by syphilitic hypertrophic gastritis (tertiary syphilis). The syphilitic origin of the gastropathy was confirmed ex iuvantibus by penicillin treatment which cured the condition completely. The various forms of gastric lues, gastrointestinal malabsorption syndromes and ex iuvantibus criteria are discussed.

Facci M; Napoli A; Alderuccio B; Nannetti A; Brunetti R; Facci A

1984-04-01

263

Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso/ Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de gordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associa (more) do ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monit (more) oring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

Veras, Rodrigo de Melo Souza; Medeiros, Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de; Araújo, Flávio Henrique Duarte de; Santana, André Macêdo; Silva, Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e

2013-03-01

264

Chromium(VI) Bioremoval by Pseudomonas Bacteria: Role of Microbial Exudates for Natural Attenuation and Biotreatment of Cr(VI) Contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

N Mercan Dogan; C Kantar; S Gulcan; C Dodge; B Coskun Yilmaz; M Ali Mazmanci

2011-12-31

265

Chromium(VI) bioremoval by pseudomonas bacteria: role of microbial exudates for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

Dogan, N.M.; Dodge, C.; Kantar, C.; Gulcan, S.; Yilmaz, B.C.; Mazmanci, M.A.

2011-02-14

266

Matrix fixed charge density modulates exudate concentration during cartilage compression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Electrolyte filtration arises due to the presence of fixed charges in cartilage extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Commonly assumed negligible, it can be important for design and interpretation of streaming potential measurements and modeling assumptions. To quantify the scale of this phenomenon, chloride ion concentration in exudate of compressed cartilage was measured by Mohr's titration and explant GAG content was colorimetrically assayed. Pilot studies indicated that an appropriate strain rate for experiments was 8 × 10(-3) s(-1) to eliminate concerns of exudate evaporation and explant damage (at low and high strain rates, respectively). Exudate chloride concentration of explants equilibrated in 1× PBS was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the bath chloride concentration at strains of 37.5, 50, and 62.5%, with clear dependence on strain magnitude. Exudate chloride concentration was also significantly lower than that of the bath when 50% strain was applied after equilibration in 0.5, 1, and 2× PBS, with a trend for an increase in this relative difference with decreasing bath concentration (p = 0.065 between 0.5 and 2× PBS). Decreasing exudate chloride concentration correlated negatively with increasing postcompression GAG concentration. No difference between exudate chloride concentration and bath chloride concentration was ever observed for compression of uncharged agarose gel controls. Findings show that exudate from compressed cartilage is dilute relative to the bath due to the presence of matrix fixed charges, and this difference can generate diffusion potentials external to the explant, which may affect streaming potential measurements particularly under conditions of low strain rates and high strains.

Ko LS; Quinn TM

2013-02-01

267

Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting that SlIAA15 is involved in trichome formation. Here, we reported that SlIAA15-suppressed transgenic lines display increased number of xylem cells compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, the monoterpene content in trichome exudates are significantly reduced in SlIAA15 down-regulated leaves. The results provide the roles of SlIAA15 in production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates and xylem development, clearly indicating that members of the Aux/IAA gene family can play distinct and specific functions.  PMID:22836503

Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Liu, Minchun; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Zhengguo

2012-07-27

268

Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting that SlIAA15 is involved in trichome formation. Here, we reported that SlIAA15-suppressed transgenic lines display increased number of xylem cells compared to wild-type plants. Moreover, the monoterpene content in trichome exudates are significantly reduced in SlIAA15 down-regulated leaves. The results provide the roles of SlIAA15 in production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates and xylem development, clearly indicating that members of the Aux/IAA gene family can play distinct and specific functions. 

Deng W; Yan F; Liu M; Wang X; Li Z

2012-08-01

269

[Effects of root exudates of squash grafted with cucumber shoot on seed germination].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.) is commonly cultivated by grafting on squash (Cucurbita moschata) in commercial production. The effects of root exudates of squash grafted with cucumber on seed germination rate of cucumber and squash were tested. In this study, the exudates of cucumber-grafted squash roots were continuously collected with XAD-4 resin, and were further diluted with distilled water to make 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations. Cucumber and squash seeds were used for bioassay. The seeds were germinated in glass petri dishes with 2 filter papers at bottoms and containing 5 mL the diluted root exudates. The results showed that the exudates of cucumber-grafted squash roots significantly inhibit germination rate, radicel and hypocotyl elongation in cucumber and squash, and the inhibitory rate positively correlate with the concentration of the grafted cucumber root exudates. So grafted cucumber still have allelopathy. The exudates of cucumber-grafted squash roots significantly stimulated IAA oxidase activity in cucumber and squash. As a result, they decrease IAA level in cucumber and squash, and restrained their growth. The exudates of cucumber-grafted squash roots also decrease significantly the activities of amylase and alpha-amylase in cucumber and squash, and this decrease effects were strengthening with the increasing of the concentration of the grafted cucumber root exudates. So the exudates of cucumber-grafted squash roots can inhibit the hydrolysis and utilization of starch in cucumber and squash, and thereby suppress germination and seedling growth. PMID:15840942

Qi, Jian-Hua; Liang, Yin-Li; Liang, Zong-Suo

2005-04-01

270

Cells in pleural fluid and their value in differential diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Both non-malignant and malignant causes of effusion can be identified by the relatively non-invasive technique of pleural fluid cytology. With this basis the present study on cytology of pleural fluids was taken up. The diagnostic significance of the cytologic study of the fluid may be attributable to the fact that the cell population present in the sediment is representative of a much larger surface area than that obtained by needle biopsy. Materials and Methods : One hundred samples of pleural fluid were examined for total cell count, cell type and cellular features. They were also subjected to biochemical study to find out the level of protein, glucose and chloride. Results : A total of 82% samples were exudative and 18% were transudative. Total leukocyte count (TLC) was less than 1000 cells/cu.mm in most (88.89%) of transudative effusions. Overall 52.44% of exudative effusions had TLC greater than 1000 cells/cu.mm. It was noted that 96.88% of tuberculous effusions had more than 50% lymphocytes, 81.25% had protein greater than 5 gm/dl and 90.63% had glucose greater than 60 mg/dl. Approximately 28% of pleural effusions were positive for malignant cells. Most (82%) of malignant effusions were exudative. The primary site could be assessed by cytological examination in 57.14% of malignant effusions. Conclusions: The most useful test in establishing the diagnosis of pleural effusion is pleural fluid cytology and pleural fluid cell count. Cytologic study of pleural fluid is a complete diagnostic modality which aims at pointing out the etiology of effusion as well as, in certain cases, a means of prognostication of disease process.

Kushwaha Rashmi; Shashikala P; Hiremath S; Basavaraj H

2008-01-01

271

Bilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment in HELLP Syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy complication, life-threatening for mother and child, characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. Blurred vision is the most common visual complaint. A rare case of bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the HELLP syndrome is described in a 30-year-old Caucasian woman at 33 weeks' gestation. The retinal detachment did reattach with good improvement in vision under steroid therapy. The case highlights the importance of early involvement of the ophthalmologist when pregnant women complain about visual disorders.

Schönfeld CL

2012-01-01

272

The kinin released from high molecular weight-kininogen is responsible for inflammatory exudation in rats: detection of kinin-free-kininogen in the exudate by immunoblot analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kinin release and its involvement in inflammatory exudation were assessed by immuno-blot analysis of the kinin-precursor protein, high molecular weight kininogen (HK). HK consists of heavy (H) chain, bradykinin and light (L) chain. After bradykinin was released by plasma kallikrein, HK remains two-chain-kinin-free form;, i.e., H-chain and L-chain link each other through a disulfide bond. By Western blot analysis using antibody recognizing the light chain of HK, a band of 110-kD mass, which corresponds to intact HK, was detected in plasma after SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, while a 46-kD band, corresponding to the light chain of HK, but no 110-kD band, was found in the exudate of rats with carrageenin-induced pleurisy at 3 hr as well as at 16 h. This result indicates that in the exudate most all of the HK molecules had released kinin to form kinin-free-HK, whereas the HK in the plasma remained intact. On the contrary, low molecular weight kininogen (LK) in the exudate was mostly in its intact form. These results indicate that plasma kallikrein could be activated in the exudate to release kinin from HK, as it reacts exclusively with HK and not with LK, and they are also mostly consistent with the features of the kinin release from the exudate and the plasma. That is, no kinin was detected in the exudate when the latter was incubated with plasma kallikrein, whereas salivary kallikrein did release kinin, indicating that kinin had already been released from HK, but not from LK in the exudate. Immunoblot analysis of HK in the pleural exudate also demonstrated no kinin involvement in phorbol myristate acetate- or zymosan-induced pleurisy, since no light chain band, but an intact HK band, was found in the exudates from these pleurisies.

Fujie H; Hayashi I; Oh-ishi S

1993-01-01

273

Uptake of phosphate and promotion of vegetative growth in glucose-exuding rice plants (Oryza sativa) inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We measured phosphorus uptake by rice plants inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) using Pseudomonas sp. strain PAC, Serratia sp. strain CMR165, and Azospirillum brasilense strain FT326. We measured plant growth parameters and phosphate solubilization and uptake. Results show that the ability to solubilize phosphates varied among PGPB strains. Strain FT326 was unable to solubilize phosphates. In the presence of glucose, PAC and CMR165 can solubilize inorganic tricalcium phosphate and organic calcium magnesium inositol hexaphosphate. Phosphate solubilization by strains PAC and CMR165 was different over time; FT326 was similar to the untreated control. Plants inoculated with PAC or CMR165 had higher concentrations of phosphates than those inoculated with FT326 and plants that were not inoculated. Glucose was the only sugar identified in rice root exudates. PAC and CMR165 promoted plant growth and uptake of phosphate and could be used as biofertilizers to optimize phosphate fertilization.

Nico M; Ribaudo CM; Gori JI; Cantore ML; Curá JA

2012-10-01

274

Matrix fixed charge density modulates exudate concentration during cartilage compression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrolyte filtration arises due to the presence of fixed charges in cartilage extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Commonly assumed negligible, it can be important for design and interpretation of streaming potential measurements and modeling assumptions. To quantify the scale of this phenomenon, chloride ion concentration in exudate of compressed cartilage was measured by Mohr's titration and explant GAG content was colorimetrically assayed. Pilot studies indicated that an appropriate strain rate for experiments was 8 × 10(-3) s(-1) to eliminate concerns of exudate evaporation and explant damage (at low and high strain rates, respectively). Exudate chloride concentration of explants equilibrated in 1× PBS was significantly (p streaming potential measurements particularly under conditions of low strain rates and high strains. PMID:23442973

Ko, Lok Shun; Quinn, Thomas M

2013-02-19

275

Effect of acupuncture on TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.

Scognamillo-Szabó Márcia Valéria Rizzo; Bechara Gervásio Henrique; Cunha Fernando de Queiroz

2005-01-01

276

Influence of oxalic and malic acids in chickpea leaf exudates on the biological activity of CryIAc towards Helicoverpa armigera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts are being made to express toxin genes from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in chickpea for minimizing the losses due to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. However, there is an apprehension that acidic exudates in chickpea leaves may influence the protoxin-toxin conversion in the insect midgut, and thus, reduce the efficacy of Bt toxins. Therefore, we studied the influence of organic acids (oxalic acid and malic acid) present in the trichome exudates of chickpea on the biological activity and binding of Bt ?-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the pod borer, H. armigera. Oxalic and malic acids in combination at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not influence the biological activity of Bt toxin Cry1Ac towards H. armigera larvae. Amounts of Cry1Ac protein in the midgut of insects reared on diets with organic acids were similar to those reared on artificial diet without the organic acids. However, very high concentrations of the organic acids reduced the amounts of Cry1Ac in the midgut of H. armigera larvae. Organic acids in the artificial diet also increased the excretion of Cry1Ac in the fecal matter. Organic acids reduced the amount of protein in the BBMV of insects reared on diets with Cry1Ac, possibly because of reduced size of the larvae. Oxalic and malic acids at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not affect the biological activity of Cry1Ac, but it will be desirable to have high levels of expression of Cry1Ac toxin proteins in chickpea for effective control of the pod borer, H. armigera.

Devi VS; Sharma HC; Rao PA

2013-04-01

277

Influence of oxalic and malic acids in chickpea leaf exudates on the biological activity of CryIAc towards Helicoverpa armigera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts are being made to express toxin genes from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in chickpea for minimizing the losses due to the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera. However, there is an apprehension that acidic exudates in chickpea leaves may influence the protoxin-toxin conversion in the insect midgut, and thus, reduce the efficacy of Bt toxins. Therefore, we studied the influence of organic acids (oxalic acid and malic acid) present in the trichome exudates of chickpea on the biological activity and binding of Bt ?-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the pod borer, H. armigera. Oxalic and malic acids in combination at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not influence the biological activity of Bt toxin Cry1Ac towards H. armigera larvae. Amounts of Cry1Ac protein in the midgut of insects reared on diets with organic acids were similar to those reared on artificial diet without the organic acids. However, very high concentrations of the organic acids reduced the amounts of Cry1Ac in the midgut of H. armigera larvae. Organic acids in the artificial diet also increased the excretion of Cry1Ac in the fecal matter. Organic acids reduced the amount of protein in the BBMV of insects reared on diets with Cry1Ac, possibly because of reduced size of the larvae. Oxalic and malic acids at concentrations present in chickpea leaves did not affect the biological activity of Cry1Ac, but it will be desirable to have high levels of expression of Cry1Ac toxin proteins in chickpea for effective control of the pod borer, H. armigera. PMID:23391855

Devi, V Surekha; Sharma, Hari C; Rao, P Arjuna

2013-02-04

278

Surgical treatment of an exudative retinal detachment associated with a giant retinal pigment epithelial tear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After cataract surgery, a 69-year-old man presented with hypotony and choroidal effusion followed by retinal pigment epithelium tear and exudative detachment of the retina. Vitrectomy with fluid-air exchange successfully led to reattachment of all layers.To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful surgical management of exudative detachment secondary to retinal pigment epithelium tears.

Desai UR; Kumar N

2013-01-01

279

Purification, cDNA cloning and recombinant protein expression of a phloem lectin-like anti-insect defense protein BPLP from the phloem exudate of the wax gourd, Benincasa hispida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Latex and other exudates in plants contain various proteins that are thought to play important defensive roles against herbivorous insects and pathogens. Herein, the defensive effects of phloem exudates against the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) in several cucurbitaceous plants were investigated. It was found that phloem exudates are responsible for the defensive activities of cucurbitaceous plants, such as the wax gourd Benincasa hispida and Cucumis melo, especially in B. hispida, whose leaves showed the strongest growth-inhibitory activity of all the cucurbitaceous plants tested. A 35 kDa proteinaceous growth-inhibitory factor against insects designated BPLP (B. hispida Phloem Lectin-like Protein) was next isolated and purified from the B. hispida exudate, using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. A very low concentration (70 ?g/g) of BPLP significantly inhibited growth of S. ricini larvae. The full-length cDNA (1076 bp) encoding BPLP was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of BPLP had 51% identity with a cucurbitaceous phloem lectin (phloem protein 2, PP2), and showed binding specificity to oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine. Some features of BPLP indicated that it does not have a cysteine residue and it is composed of two repeats of similar sequences, suggesting that BPLP is distinct from PP2. Recombinant BPLP, obtained by expressing the cDNA in Escherichia coli, showed both chitin-binding lectin activity and growth-inhibitory activity against S. ricini larvae. The present study thus provides experimental evidence that phloem exudates of Cucurbitaceae plants, analogous to plant latex, play defensive roles against insect herbivores, especially against chewing insects, and contain defensive substances toxic to them.

Ota E; Tsuchiya W; Yamazaki T; Nakamura M; Hirayama C; Konno K

2013-05-01

280

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using abs...

Sonja Pezelj-Ribari?; Karolina Magaši?; Jelena Prpi?; Ivana Mileti?; Zoran Karlovi?

 
 
 
 
281

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

Fan Ben; Carvalhais Lilia C; Becker Anke; Fedoseyenko Dmitri; von Wirén Nicolaus; Borriss Rainer

2012-01-01

282

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency (more) . Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

Umoren, S.A.; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, E.E.; Okafor, P.C.

2008-01-01

283

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A. Umoren; I.B. Obot; E.E. Ebenso; P.C. Okafor

2008-01-01

284

Broiler transportation conditions in a Brazilian commercial line and the occurrence of breast PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meat  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of road transportation conditions on the occurrence of broiler PSE-(Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meats in the Brazilian commercial slaughterhouse plant. Samples of Pectoralis major m from 47-day-old broilers of commercial lineage were analyzed. The results indicated that water-bathing birds just before journey over 3.0km promoted the occurrence of 46.0% of PSE and 4.0% of DFD-like meat, while birds under non-water bathing conditions presented 14.7 and 2.0%, respectively. For a distance of 68.0km, the occurrences of PSE-and DFD-like meat were 44.0 and 0.0% under water bathing conditions, and 52.0 and 0.0% without water bathing, respectively. Water bathing at the farm was a critical manoeuvre for increasing the unfavourable truck microenvironment for short journey, whereas conversely for longer journey it was less stressful influencing the broiler breast meat quality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito das condições do transporte na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e a-DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) de frangos nas condições brasileiras em uma planta de um frigorífico comercial. Foram analisadas amostras de peito de frango (Pectoralis major m.) da ave de 47 dias de linhagem comercial. Os resultados indicaram que o banho dos frangos imediatamente antes da viagem de 3,0km promoveu a ocorrência de 46,0% de PSE e 4,0% de a-DFD enquanto que frangos sem banho apresentaram 14,7 e 2,0%, respectivamente. Para uma distância de 68,0km, a ocorrência de carnes PSE e a-DFD foram 44,0 e 0,0%, respectivamente, de aves que sofreram banho e 52,0 e 0,0% sem banho, respectivamente. O banho ainda na granja foi uma atividade crítica aumentando as condições desfavoráveis no microambiente do caminhão para curtas distâncias e contrariamente para distâncias longas foi menos estressante influenciando na qualidade do peito do frango.

Roselane Oliveira de Souza Langer; Gislaine Silveira Simões; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alexandre Oba; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

2010-01-01

285

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Dionysia (Primulaceae): a comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 60 accessions of various Dionysia spp. were analysed for their exudate flavonoid composition. Many Dionysia spp. accumulate the typical Primula flavonoids with irregular substitution (unsubstituted flavone, its 2',5'-substituted derivatives and corresponding 5-OH-flavones), but flavones, flavonols and flavanones with regular 5,7-diOH-substitution are also encountered in their exudates. The formation of both types of flavonoids is not mutually exclusive. This paper analyses the chemodiversity of Dionysia exudates with respect to infraspecific variability, infrageneric distribution, patterns in hybrid taxa, and comparisons of biogenetic tendencies between Dionysia and closest related species of Primula. The uniqueness of occurrence of Primula-type flavonoids in the family Primulaceae, and their presumed different biosynthetic origin, suggest significance as further character in the Primula-Dionysia assemblage. Principal component analysis was applied to test the significance of variation of flavonoid composition across Dionysia. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profiles against the current taxonomic views yielded correlations, confined to the level of smaller groups, and only in parts at level of the current infrageneric concept. Flavonoid data are further discussed against the background of morphological and biogeographic differentiation of the genus. Increased diversification of flavonoid profiles may be interpreted as a derived status in Dionysia, which agrees with current views on the phylogeny of Dionysia as a specialised group within Primula. Functional aspects of exudate flavonoid formation are shortly addressed.

Valant-Vetschera KM; Bhutia TD; Wollenweber E

2010-06-01

286

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Dionysia (Primulaceae): a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 60 accessions of various Dionysia spp. were analysed for their exudate flavonoid composition. Many Dionysia spp. accumulate the typical Primula flavonoids with irregular substitution (unsubstituted flavone, its 2',5'-substituted derivatives and corresponding 5-OH-flavones), but flavones, flavonols and flavanones with regular 5,7-diOH-substitution are also encountered in their exudates. The formation of both types of flavonoids is not mutually exclusive. This paper analyses the chemodiversity of Dionysia exudates with respect to infraspecific variability, infrageneric distribution, patterns in hybrid taxa, and comparisons of biogenetic tendencies between Dionysia and closest related species of Primula. The uniqueness of occurrence of Primula-type flavonoids in the family Primulaceae, and their presumed different biosynthetic origin, suggest significance as further character in the Primula-Dionysia assemblage. Principal component analysis was applied to test the significance of variation of flavonoid composition across Dionysia. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profiles against the current taxonomic views yielded correlations, confined to the level of smaller groups, and only in parts at level of the current infrageneric concept. Flavonoid data are further discussed against the background of morphological and biogeographic differentiation of the genus. Increased diversification of flavonoid profiles may be interpreted as a derived status in Dionysia, which agrees with current views on the phylogeny of Dionysia as a specialised group within Primula. Functional aspects of exudate flavonoid formation are shortly addressed. PMID:20378133

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Bhutia, Tshering D; Wollenweber, Eckhard

2010-04-08

287

Cytology and fluid analysis of the acute abdomen.  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with acute abdominal pain, abdominal paracentesis and diagnostic peritoneal lavage often yield fluid samples for cytologic and biochemical evaluation. Cytology of the effusion from a patient with acute abdominal disease can be a crucial tool for the rapid diagnosis necessary for initiation of timely and appropriate therapy. Appropriate sample collection, handling, and preparation are essential to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the fluid sample should include gross examination of the effusion, measurement of total nucleated cell count, packed red blood cell volume, and protein concentration, as well as examination for the presence of other cells, bacteria, food particles, or plant material. Biochemical evaluation should proceed based on the clinician's index of suspicion for a particular disease process. Abdominal effusions are generally classified as transudate, modified transudate, or exudate, depending on the total nucleated cell count and protein concentration. Cytology of all fluids collected should be performed systematically, utilizing progressively higher magnifications with a microscope. Specific diseases with associated abdominal effusions include septic peritonitis, nonseptic peritonitis, hemoabdomen, uroabdomen, pancreatitis, bile peritonitis, chylous effusion, and neoplasia. A complete description of sample preparation and evaluation is reviewed. PMID:12772868

Connally, Heather E

2003-02-01

288

Cytology and fluid analysis of the acute abdomen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In patients with acute abdominal pain, abdominal paracentesis and diagnostic peritoneal lavage often yield fluid samples for cytologic and biochemical evaluation. Cytology of the effusion from a patient with acute abdominal disease can be a crucial tool for the rapid diagnosis necessary for initiation of timely and appropriate therapy. Appropriate sample collection, handling, and preparation are essential to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the fluid sample should include gross examination of the effusion, measurement of total nucleated cell count, packed red blood cell volume, and protein concentration, as well as examination for the presence of other cells, bacteria, food particles, or plant material. Biochemical evaluation should proceed based on the clinician's index of suspicion for a particular disease process. Abdominal effusions are generally classified as transudate, modified transudate, or exudate, depending on the total nucleated cell count and protein concentration. Cytology of all fluids collected should be performed systematically, utilizing progressively higher magnifications with a microscope. Specific diseases with associated abdominal effusions include septic peritonitis, nonseptic peritonitis, hemoabdomen, uroabdomen, pancreatitis, bile peritonitis, chylous effusion, and neoplasia. A complete description of sample preparation and evaluation is reviewed.

Connally HE

2003-02-01

289

Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM) inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1) and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1) showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

M. I. Trujillo; S. Mederos-Molina

1999-01-01

290

Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio  

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Full Text Available Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The environmental impact of the large amounts of root exudates possibly conferred by these genetically modified plants is discussed, with special emphasis on soil microbiota.Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO) de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al) presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande

Eduardo D. Mariano; Renato A. Jorge; Willem G. Keltjens; Marcelo Menossi

2005-01-01

291

2-O-(3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol and 2-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)glycerol and their 1-O-acetyl derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation of four new glycerides, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]glycerol and 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]glycerol. Their structures, including the configurations at the stereogenic centres, were elucidated from spectral evidence and chemical transformations.

Okawa A; Ohyama K; Fujimoto Y

2013-08-01

292

Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively.

Youssef D; Solouma NH

2012-12-01

293

Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively. PMID:22818584

Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

2012-07-18

294

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

AK Gregg; M Hatay; AF Haas; NL Robinett; K Barott; MJA Vermeij; KL Marhaver; P Meirelles; F Thompson; F Rohwer

2013-01-01

295

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

Gregg A; Hatay M; Haas A; Robinett N; Barott K; Vermeij M; Marhaver K; Meirelles P; Thompson F; Rohwer F

2013-01-01

296

Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm

Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, Lars BogØ

2002-01-01

297

Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the res (more) pective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

Ameh, Paul O.; Odiongenyi, Anduang O.; Eddy, Nnabuk O.

2012-07-01

298

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita/ Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ? (more) ?C nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and (more) submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Rocha, Fernando da Silva; Campos, Vicente P.; Souza, Ricardo Magela de

2004-12-01

299

Evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, C and N availability, and stimulated SOM decomposition caused by rhizosphere priming effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased temperatures and concomitant changes in vegetation patterns are expected to dramatically alter the functioning of northern ecosystems over the next few decades. Predicting the ecosystem response to such a shift in climate and vegetation is complicated by the lack of knowledge about the links between aboveground biota and belowground process rates. Current models suggest that increasing temperatures and rising concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) will be partly mitigated by elevated C sequestration in plant biomass and soil. However, empirical evidence does not always support this assumption, as elevated temperature and CO(2) concentrations also accelerate the belowground C flux, in many cases extending to increased decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately resulting in decreased soil C stocks. The mechanism behind the increase has remained largely unknown, but it has been suggested that priming might be the causative agent. Here, we provide quantitative evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N caused by rhizosphere priming effects. As plants tend to increase belowground C allocation with increased temperatures and CO(2) concentrations, priming effects need to be considered in our long-term analysis of soil C budgets in a changing environment. The extent of priming seems to be intimately linked to resource availability, as shifts in the stoichiometric nutrient demands of plants and microorganisms will lead to either cooperation (resulting in priming) or competition (no priming will occur). The findings lead us on the way to resolve the varying response of primary production, SOM decomposition, and release of plant available N to elevated temperatures, CO(2) concentrations, and N availability.

Bengtson P; Barker J; Grayston SJ

2012-08-01

300

Postoperative subcutaneous instillation of low-dose ketorolac but not hydromorphone reduces wound exudate concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 and improves analgesia following cesarean delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were to test the effects of low-dose ketorolac and hydromorphone added to continuous local anesthetic wound instillation on surgical-site inflammatory mediators, postoperative pain, and opioid consumption. Sixty healthy women undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were randomized to receive a subcutaneous wound instillation of bupivacaine .5% at 10 mg/hour (active control), bupivacaine .5% with ketorolac .6 mg/hour, or bupivacaine .5% with hydromorphone .04 mg/hour for 48 hours postcesarean. Wound exudate was sampled at 4, 24, and 48 hours postcesarean and assayed for interleukins IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), interferon (INF-?), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The addition of ketorolac to bupivacaine significantly decreased IL-6 (P = .012) and IL-10 (P = .005) compared to plain bupivacaine. Ketorolac, but not hydromorphone, was associated with a decrease in pain (P = .018) and analgesic use (P = .020) following cesarean delivery. Our results are compatible with the view that significant analgesics effects are mediated through local modulation of inflammatory events. Low-dose ketorolac administered into surgical wounds exert significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and may be a valuable analgesic alternative to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) but with potentially fewer side effects. PERSPECTIVE: This article demonstrates that low-dose ketorolac administered into wounds modulates local inflammatory events, decreases postoperative pain, and reduces opioid consumption. These results suggest that administration of NSAIDs into surgical wounds may be an analgesic alternative to higher systemic dosing of NSAIDs.

Carvalho B; Lemmens HJ; Ting V; Angst MS

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Caracterização química e efeitos alelopáticos de exsudatos radiculares de plântulas de sorgo sobre alface Chemical characterization and allelopathic effects of radicular exudates of plants of sorghum over lettuce leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A análise química do exsudato radicular do sorgo resultou na identificação da quinona sorgoleona 1 e da diidroquinona 2, como seus principais constituintes. Em testes in vitro, uma solução a 20 mM do exsudato causou redução de 13,1% no crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa L. Em um sistema de cultura hidropônico recirculante, o exsudato radicular produzido por quatro plantas de sorgo causou uma redução de 62,4% na área foliar da alface, 33 dias após o plantio.A chemical analysis of the Sorghum bicolor root exudate lead to the identification of the quinone sorgoleone 1 and the corresponding dihydroquinone 2 as the major components. An in vitro essay have shown that at the concentration of 20 mM this exudate caused a 13.1% reduction on the radicular growth of Lactuca sativa L. In a recirculating hydroponic culture system, the exudate produced by the roots of four plants of sorghum caused a 62.4% reduction on the lettuce leaf area after 33 days of planting.

Tânia Maria L. Barbosa; Francisco A. Ferreira; Itamar F. de Souza; Luiz Cláudio de A. Barbosa; Vicente W. D. Casali

1998-01-01

302

Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens for HIV testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children in Chimanimani district, Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of oral mucosal transudate (OMT) specimens for HIV testing in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted asThe overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV part of a community-based behavioural and HIV sero-status survey testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis of adults and children in the Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe. by sector showed (more) that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV Dried blood spot (DBS) and OMT samples were collected from testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV children aged between 2 and 14 years, inclusive. Both samples were prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and tested for HIV using the Vironostika Uniform II plus O kits. The oral hygiene could have influenced the results. main study outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of OMT samples, with DBS as the gold-standard specimen. RESULTS: Paired DBS and OMT specimens were available from 1 274 (94.4%) of the 1 350 children enrolled. Using the DBS, HIV prevalence was 3.2%. Overall sensitivity of OMT was 48.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.3 - 64.5), and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI 97.7 - 99.1). CONCLUSION: The overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and oral hygiene could have influenced the results.

Mashange, Wilson; Gwini, Stella May; Mahati, Stanford T; Buzuzi, Stephen S; Mutambanengwe, Chenjerai K; Munyati, Shungu; Chandiwana, Brian; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Gomo, Exnevia

2011-01-01

303

Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: Bile, ascitic and pleural fluids  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine body fluids such as ascitic fluid (AF), saliva, bile and pleural effusions for the presence of hepcidin using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA).METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (mean age: 36 ± 11.9 years, 11 males, 14 females). In addition bile was obtained from 12 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (mean age: 66.9 ± 16.7 years, M:F = 5:7). Saliva was collected from 17 healthy volunteers (mean age: 35 ± 9.9 years, M:F = 8:9). Pleural and AF were collected from 11 and 16 patients [(mean age: 72 ± 20.5 years, M:F = 7:4) and (mean age: 67.32 ± 15.2 years, M:F = 12:4)], respectively. All biological fluid samples (serum, exudative and transudative fluids) were tested for the presence of hepcidin-25 molecule using RIA.RESULTS: Hepcidin-25 was detected in all biological fluids tested. The mean ± SD hepcidin-25 in serum was 15.68 ± 15.7 ng/mL, bile 7.37 ± 7.4 ng/mL, saliva 3.4 ± 2.8 ng/mL, exudative fluid 65.64 ± 96.82 ng/mL and transudative fluid 14.1 ± 17.8 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: We provide clear evidence that hepcidin-25 is present in bile, saliva, pleural and ascitic fluids. Hepcidin is likely to play a role here in innate immunity.

Jayantha Arnold, Arvind Sangwaiya, Vijay Manglam, Frank Geoghegan, Mark Thursz, Mark Busbridge

2010-01-01

304

An essential role of the cysteine-rich domain of FZD4 in Norrin/Wnt signaling and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Wnt pathway plays important yet diverse roles in health and disease. Mutations in the Wnt receptor FZD4 gene have been confirmed to cause familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). FEVR is characterized by incomplete vascularization of the peripheral retina, which can lead to vitreous bleeding, tractional retinal detachment, and blindness. We screened for mutations in the FZD4 gene in five families with FEVR and identified five mutations (C45Y, Y58C, W226X, C204R, and W496X), including three novel mutations (C45Y, Y58C, and W226X). In the retina, Norrin serves as a ligand and binds to FZD4 to activate the Wnt signaling pathway in normal angiogenesis and vascularization. The cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of FZD4 has been shown to play a critical role in Norrin-FZD4 binding. We investigated the effect of mutations in the FZD4 CRD in Norrin binding and signaling in vitro and in vivo. Wild-type and mutant FZD4 proteins were assayed for Norrin binding and Norrin-dependent activation of the canonical Wnt pathway by cell-surface and overlay binding assays and luciferase reporter assays. In HEK293 transfection studies, C45Y, Y58C, and C204R mutants did not bind to Norrin and failed to transduce FZD4-mediated Wnt/?-catenin signaling. In vivo studies using Xenopus embryos showed that these FZD4 mutations disrupt Norrin/?-catenin signaling as evidenced by decreased Siamois and Xnr3 expression. This study identified a new class of FZD4 gene mutations in human disease and demonstrates a critical role of the CRD in Norrin binding and activation of the ?-catenin pathway.

Zhang K; Harada Y; Wei X; Shukla D; Rajendran A; Tawansy K; Bedell M; Lim S; Shaw PX; He X; Yang Z

2011-03-01

305

Implicating exudate macrophages and Ly-6C(high) monocytes in CCR2-dependent lung fibrosis following gene-targeted alveolar injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The alveolar epithelium is characteristically abnormal in fibrotic lung disease, and we recently established a direct link between injury to the type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) and the accumulation of interstitial collagen. The mechanisms by which damage to the epithelium induces lung scarring remain poorly understood. It is particularly controversial whether an insult to the type II AEC initiates an inflammatory response that is required for the development of fibrosis. To explore whether local inflammation occurs following a targeted epithelial insult and contributes to lung fibrosis, we administered diphtheria toxin to transgenic mice with type II AEC-restricted expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor. We used immunophenotyping techniques and diphtheria toxin receptor-expressing, chemokine receptor-2-deficient (CCR2(-/-)) mice to determine the participation of lung leukocyte subsets in pulmonary fibrogenesis. Our results demonstrate that targeted type II AEC injury induces an inflammatory response that is enriched for CD11b(+) nonresident exudate macrophages (ExM) and their precursors, Ly-6C(high) monocytes. CCR2 deficiency abrogates the accumulation of both cell populations and protects mice from fibrosis, weight loss, and death. Further analyses revealed that the ExM are alternatively activated and that ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes express mRNA for IL-13, TGF-?, and the collagen genes, COL1A1 and COLIIIA1. Furthermore, the accumulated ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes contain intracellular collagen, as detected by immunostaining. Together, these results implicate CCR2 and the accumulation of ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes as critical determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by selective type II AEC injury.

Osterholzer JJ; Olszewski MA; Murdock BJ; Chen GH; Erb-Downward JR; Subbotina N; Browning K; Lin Y; Morey RE; Dayrit JK; Horowitz JC; Simon RH; Sisson TH

2013-04-01

306

Implicating exudate macrophages and Ly-6C(high) monocytes in CCR2-dependent lung fibrosis following gene-targeted alveolar injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alveolar epithelium is characteristically abnormal in fibrotic lung disease, and we recently established a direct link between injury to the type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) and the accumulation of interstitial collagen. The mechanisms by which damage to the epithelium induces lung scarring remain poorly understood. It is particularly controversial whether an insult to the type II AEC initiates an inflammatory response that is required for the development of fibrosis. To explore whether local inflammation occurs following a targeted epithelial insult and contributes to lung fibrosis, we administered diphtheria toxin to transgenic mice with type II AEC-restricted expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor. We used immunophenotyping techniques and diphtheria toxin receptor-expressing, chemokine receptor-2-deficient (CCR2(-/-)) mice to determine the participation of lung leukocyte subsets in pulmonary fibrogenesis. Our results demonstrate that targeted type II AEC injury induces an inflammatory response that is enriched for CD11b(+) nonresident exudate macrophages (ExM) and their precursors, Ly-6C(high) monocytes. CCR2 deficiency abrogates the accumulation of both cell populations and protects mice from fibrosis, weight loss, and death. Further analyses revealed that the ExM are alternatively activated and that ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes express mRNA for IL-13, TGF-?, and the collagen genes, COL1A1 and COLIIIA1. Furthermore, the accumulated ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes contain intracellular collagen, as detected by immunostaining. Together, these results implicate CCR2 and the accumulation of ExM and Ly-6C(high) monocytes as critical determinants of pulmonary fibrosis induced by selective type II AEC injury. PMID:23467934

Osterholzer, John J; Olszewski, Michal A; Murdock, Benjamin J; Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Erb-Downward, John R; Subbotina, Natalya; Browning, Keely; Lin, Yujing; Morey, Roger E; Dayrit, Jeremy K; Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Simon, Richard H; Sisson, Thomas H

2013-03-06

307

The role of pleuroscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To find the diagnostic yield of a pleuroscopic pleural biopsy and to find the complication rates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Institutional based prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight consecutive patients who had undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion were recruited for pleuroscopy from September 2007 to August 2010. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients (55 males and 13 females; mean age 49 years) underwent pleuroscopy. Malignancy was diagnosed in 24 patients, 22 patients had non-specific inflammation, tuberculosis was found in 16 patients, empyema was found in 2 patients, 1 patient had sarcoidosis, 1 patient had normal pleura and it was non-diagnostic in 2 patients. The diagnostic yield was 97%. There were no major complications, only four patients had minor complication like subcutaneous emphysema (three patients) and prolonged air leak (one patient). CONCLUSIONS: Pleuroscopy is a safe, simple, and valuable tool in the diagnosis of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion with minimal complication rates.

Prabhu VG; Narasimhan R

2012-04-01

308

Molecular classification of the natural exudates of the rosids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exudates of the rosid clade of the eudicots have been surveyed and characterized by carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Of 554 samples divided roughly equally between the subclades fabids and malvids, about two-fifths are resins, a third gums, one-ninth gum resins, one-twelfth kinos, and the remaining not affiliated with these four main molecular classes. Two small new molecular classes, respectively from the Clusiaceae (xanthics) and the Zygophyllaceae (guaiacs), are identified and described.

Lambert JB; Donnelly EW; Heckenbach EA; Johnson CL; Kozminski MA; Wu Y; Santiago-Blay JA

2013-10-01

309

Molecular classification of the natural exudates of the rosids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudates of the rosid clade of the eudicots have been surveyed and characterized by carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Of 554 samples divided roughly equally between the subclades fabids and malvids, about two-fifths are resins, a third gums, one-ninth gum resins, one-twelfth kinos, and the remaining not affiliated with these four main molecular classes. Two small new molecular classes, respectively from the Clusiaceae (xanthics) and the Zygophyllaceae (guaiacs), are identified and described. PMID:23870288

Lambert, Joseph B; Donnelly, Eric W; Heckenbach, Eric A; Johnson, Connor L; Kozminski, Michael A; Wu, Yuyang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A

2013-07-16

310

Effects of short term exposure to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 production by peritoneal exudate cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and human health is of increasing interest. Exposure to EMF has been linked to leukemia and brain tumors in some but not all epidemiological studies. The effects of separate and combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production were measured in this study. Helmholtz coils and parallel plate electrodes were used to create uniform field characteristics (300 V/in., 0.3 mT). Effects were studied at a combined field frequency of 60 Hz. This frequency did not elevate culture temperatures above ambient room temperature. Murine thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) were exposed to an electric field (E), magnetic field (M), combined electric and magnetic field, (EM), or no field (control). Three samples of PEC from each mouse were cultured with lipopolysaccharide in each field. Using commercial ELISA kits, supernatants of cell cultures were tested in duplicate after 24 hours of exposure for IL-1[alpha] levels and after 48 hours of exposure for IL-6 levels. Results were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). As a group, IL-1 production by the PEC from five mice and IL-6 production by the PEC from nine mice were unaffected by electric, magnetic, or combined electric and magnetic fields. Results from these experiments indicate that the 24-hour exposure to 60 Hz electric, magnetic, or combined electromagnetic fields had no effect on IL-1 production. Forty-eight hours of exposure to the same fields did not affect IL-6 production.

Morandi, M.A.; Del Rio, J.A.; Caren, R.P.; Caren, L.D. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-01-01

311

Biological activity of soil organic matter mobilized by root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the biological activity of soil organic matter mobilized by agrarian (Zea mays: cultivars Mytos and Samantha) and forest (Picea abies Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.) root exudates, two different soils, an Eutric Cambisol (EC) and a Rendzic Leptosol (RL), were considered. Soil organic matter extracts were obtained by treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates. The extracts were characterized by hormone-like activities and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) measurements. Their effects on the nitrogen metabolism in maize seedlings were evaluated. The nitrogen organification in the maize seedlings has been greatly stimulated by all the organic acid extracts from the agrarian soil, while the extracts from the forest soil had no influence upon the metabolism; this indicated a probable link between the plant and the environment. The different biological activities of the extracts are discussed. PMID:11999770

Nardi, S; Sessi, E; Pizzeghello, D; Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G

2002-02-01

312

Biological activity of soil organic matter mobilized by root exudates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to study the biological activity of soil organic matter mobilized by agrarian (Zea mays: cultivars Mytos and Samantha) and forest (Picea abies Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.) root exudates, two different soils, an Eutric Cambisol (EC) and a Rendzic Leptosol (RL), were considered. Soil organic matter extracts were obtained by treating the soils with water (control) or plant root exudates. The extracts were characterized by hormone-like activities and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) measurements. Their effects on the nitrogen metabolism in maize seedlings were evaluated. The nitrogen organification in the maize seedlings has been greatly stimulated by all the organic acid extracts from the agrarian soil, while the extracts from the forest soil had no influence upon the metabolism; this indicated a probable link between the plant and the environment. The different biological activities of the extracts are discussed.

Nardi S; Sessi E; Pizzeghello D; Sturaro A; Rella R; Parvoli G

2002-02-01

313

[Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

Mesa LM; León-Pinto G

1993-01-01

314

Exudative Inflammatory Eye Response in Cataract Surgery: Current View on the Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been analyzed one of the most frequent and serious complications of cataract surgery — exudative inflammatory response (EIR) of eye. There has been presented current view on etiopathogenesis of the condition, classifications and the description of clinical presentation of various EIR types have been given. Known techniques of prognosis and prevention of postoperative exudative uveites have been presented. There have been given present methods of complex treatment of eye EIR: drug treatment, laser therapy and surgery.

N.Y. Belousova

2011-01-01

315

Enhanced root exudation stimulates soil nitrogen transformations in a subalpine coniferous forest under experimental warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the perceived importance of exudation to forest ecosystem function, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of elevated temperature and nutrition availability on the rates of root exudation and associated microbial processes. In this study, we performed an experiment in which in situ exudates were collected from Picea asperata seedlings that were transplanted in disturbed soils exposed to two levels of temperature (ambient temperature and infrared heater warming) and two nitrogen levels (unfertilized and 25 g N m(-2)  a(-1) ). Here, we show that the trees exposed to an elevated temperature increased their exudation rates I (?g C g(-1) root biomass h(-1) ), II (?g C cm(-1)  root length h(-1) ) and III (?g C cm(-2)  root area h(-1) ) in the unfertilized plots. The altered morphological and physiological traits of the roots exposed to experimental warming could be responsible for this variation in root exudation. Moreover, these increases in root-derived C were positively correlated with the microbial release of extracellular enzymes involved in the breakdown of organic N (R(2)  = 0.790; P = 0.038), which was coupled with stimulated microbial activity and accelerated N transformations in the unfertilized soils. In contrast, the trees exposed to both experimental warming and N fertilization did not show increased exudation rates or soil enzyme activity, indicating that the stimulatory effects of experimental warming on root exudation depend on soil fertility. Collectively, our results provide preliminary evidence that an increase in the release of root exudates into the soil may be an important physiological adjustment by which the sustained growth responses of plants to experimental warming may be maintained via enhanced soil microbial activity and soil N transformation. Accordingly, the underlying mechanisms by which plant root-microbe interactions influence soil organic matter decomposition and N cycling should be incorporated into climate-carbon cycle models to determine reliable estimates of long-term C storage in forests. PMID:23504744

Yin, Huajun; Li, Yufei; Xiao, Juan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Xinyin; Liu, Qing

2013-04-18

316

Diversification of exudate flavonoid profiles in further Primula spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In continuation of previous work, exudate flavonoid profiles of 22 new accessions of the genus Primula L. aligned to different subgenera were studied for the first time. Profiling was done by comparative TLC and UV-HPLC against authentic marker compounds. Most of the studied species accumulated the typical Primula flavonoids, comprising derivatives of unsubstituted flavone, of 5,8- or 5,6-hydroxyflavones including partly highly oxygenated flavones, together with 2,2'-diOH-chalcone in their exudate. The profile of P. edelbergii belonging to subgen. Sphondylia differed largely from the majority of Primula species studied so far, showing accumulation tendencies similar to those observed earlier for the closely related genus Dionysia. The phylogenetic significance of this diversification is shortly addressed.

Bhutia TD; Valant-Vetschera KM

2012-05-01

317

Diversification of exudate flavonoid profiles in further Primula spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In continuation of previous work, exudate flavonoid profiles of 22 new accessions of the genus Primula L. aligned to different subgenera were studied for the first time. Profiling was done by comparative TLC and UV-HPLC against authentic marker compounds. Most of the studied species accumulated the typical Primula flavonoids, comprising derivatives of unsubstituted flavone, of 5,8- or 5,6-hydroxyflavones including partly highly oxygenated flavones, together with 2,2'-diOH-chalcone in their exudate. The profile of P. edelbergii belonging to subgen. Sphondylia differed largely from the majority of Primula species studied so far, showing accumulation tendencies similar to those observed earlier for the closely related genus Dionysia. The phylogenetic significance of this diversification is shortly addressed. PMID:22799081

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

2012-05-01

318

A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

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Full Text Available Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia) are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneumonia, and its intraalveolar lesions were compared between M. pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia containing fibrin (BOOP). Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody and anti-pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. In pathologic findings, more fibrin deposits in intaalveolar lesions were observed in M. pneumonia than in BOOP. In intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, a larger amount of nuclear debris, more neutrophils, and more erythrocytes were noted. Myofibroblasts were observed in the organization of BOOP, while in the intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, myofibroblasts were not observed. These results suggest that M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates responds well to corticosteroid and its intraalveolar lesions apparently differed from those in BOOP.

Yoshinouchi T; Ohtsuki Y; Fujita J; Sugiura Y; Banno S; Sato S; Ueda R

2002-01-01

319

Influence of light on pectic enzymes in root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in vitro experiment was conduced under bacteriologically controlled conditions to examine the effect of light on the production of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and pectin polygalacturonase (PG) in the root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with an efficient strain of Rhizobium trifolii. The results revealed that PME and PG increased with an increase in the duration of light to which plants were exposed. However, both the enzymes were detected in the root exudates of nonphotosynthesizing plants.

Chhonkar PK

1978-01-01

320

Influence of light on pectic enzymes in root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with Rhizobium trifolii.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in vitro experiment was conduced under bacteriologically controlled conditions to examine the effect of light on the production of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and pectin polygalacturonase (PG) in the root exudates of Trifolium alexandrinum inoculated with an efficient strain of Rhizobium trifolii. The results revealed that PME and PG increased with an increase in the duration of light to which plants were exposed. However, both the enzymes were detected in the root exudates of nonphotosynthesizing plants. PMID:664934

Chhonkar, P K

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Exudate flavonoids of eight species of Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf glands of Ceanothus species excrete a lipophilic material that contains a variety of flavonoids. Most of these are aglycones, but some glycosides were also observed. Seven out of eight species exhibit flavonols, whereas flavones are excreted by only one species. Four species produce flavanones and dihydroflavonols; one excretes a remarkable quantity of flavonol glycosides. The exudate flavonoids thus form different patterns that might be characteristic for different Ceanothus species. PMID:15813361

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Dörr, Marion; Bohm, Bruce A; Roitman, James N

322

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson (common name: sucuba)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba) that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibi (more) ted Candida albicans, leaf methanol extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and bark methanol extracts inhibited B. subtilis. Active extracts inhibited the ATCC and clinical strains. Polar antifungal and antibacterial principles in latex and extracts are thought to be responsible for the inhibition.

Sequeira, Bianca Jorge; Vital, Marcos Jose Salgado; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Pararols, Isabel Costa; Caúper, Glaucia Socorro Barros

2009-07-01

323

The predictive value of subjective symptoms and clinical signs for the presence of treatment-requiring exudative age-related macular degeneration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has increased the referral rates of AMD patients with visual symptoms to treating centres considerably. However, a large proportion of the referred patients do not qualify for treatment implying that considerable resources could be saved if these patients could be identified on the basis of the clinical data available in the referring nonspecialized setting.

Hessellund, Anders; Larsen, Dorte Ancher

2012-01-01

324

An ABC Transporter Mutation Alters Root Exudation of Phytochemicals that Provoke an Overhaul of Natural Soil Microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that Arabidopsis root exudates can support the fungal community in native soils but not in non-native soils and recent evidence demonstrates the involvement of ABC transporters in the root secretion of phytochemicals. In this paper we examined differences in the root exudate profil...

325

Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings  

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Many plants exude allelochemicals – compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings...

Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C.

326

Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to th (more) e experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

Umoren, S.A.; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, E.E.; Obi-Egbedi, N.

2008-01-01

327

Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium  

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Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

S.A. Umoren; I.B. Obot; E.E. Ebenso; N. Obi-Egbedi

2008-01-01

328

Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p < 0.05) in the transcription levels of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes were observed. However, higher increases (p < 0.05) in transcription rates, about 50-fold for lpxE and about 30-fold for lpxA and rkpI, were observed after only 5 min of incubation with common bean seed exudates. Evolutionary analyses revealed that lpxA and lpxE of PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment. PMID:23652766

Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

2013-05-08

329

Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p < 0.05) in the transcription levels of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes were observed. However, higher increases (p < 0.05) in transcription rates, about 50-fold for lpxE and about 30-fold for lpxA and rkpI, were observed after only 5 min of incubation with common bean seed exudates. Evolutionary analyses revealed that lpxA and lpxE of PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment.

Oliveira LR; Rodrigues EP; Marcelino-Guimarães FC; Oliveira AL; Hungria M

2013-06-01

330

Association of polymorphisms in C2, CFB and C3 with exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in complement component 2 (C2), complement factor B (CFB) and complement component 3 (C3) with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the development of AMD. A total of six SNPs that are located in the C2 (rs547154, rs9332739), CFB (rs4151667, rs641153) and C3 (rs1047286, rs2230199) genes were genotyped in 350 samples comprised of 153 cases, 197 controls. The risk allele frequencies for rs547154 in C2 were 6.54% and 8.12% in AMD patients and controls. Those for rs641153 in CFB were 6.54% and 8.63% in AMD patients and controls. The risk allele frequency for rs9332739 in C2 (AMD, 0.65%, control, 2.03%) and rs4151667 in CFB (AMD, 0.65%, control, 1.78%) was very low. The protective allele of four SNPs was not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.427, P = 0.199, P = 0.312, P = 0.303, respectively). The homozygotes for the protective allele of four SNPs were not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.324, P = 0.474, P = 0.309, P = 0.411, respectively). The genetic effect of two SNPs in C3 could not be investigated because the variants were not observed. There was no evidence to support an interaction of these SNPs with LOC387715/HTRA1 variants or with environmental exposure like smoking. In conclusion, the genetic effect of C2, CFB and C3 polymorphisms, which are known to be important for AMD in Caucasian, were not significant in the Korean population. The low minor allele frequency of these SNPs in Koreans might have affected the results of this study. Ethnic differences in the roles of C2, CFB and C3 in conferring a risk of AMD should be further investigated.

Kim SJ; Lee SJ; Kim NR; Chin HS

2012-03-01

331

Association of polymorphisms in C2, CFB and C3 with exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in complement component 2 (C2), complement factor B (CFB) and complement component 3 (C3) with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the development of AMD. A total of six SNPs that are located in the C2 (rs547154, rs9332739), CFB (rs4151667, rs641153) and C3 (rs1047286, rs2230199) genes were genotyped in 350 samples comprised of 153 cases, 197 controls. The risk allele frequencies for rs547154 in C2 were 6.54% and 8.12% in AMD patients and controls. Those for rs641153 in CFB were 6.54% and 8.63% in AMD patients and controls. The risk allele frequency for rs9332739 in C2 (AMD, 0.65%, control, 2.03%) and rs4151667 in CFB (AMD, 0.65%, control, 1.78%) was very low. The protective allele of four SNPs was not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.427, P = 0.199, P = 0.312, P = 0.303, respectively). The homozygotes for the protective allele of four SNPs were not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.324, P = 0.474, P = 0.309, P = 0.411, respectively). The genetic effect of two SNPs in C3 could not be investigated because the variants were not observed. There was no evidence to support an interaction of these SNPs with LOC387715/HTRA1 variants or with environmental exposure like smoking. In conclusion, the genetic effect of C2, CFB and C3 polymorphisms, which are known to be important for AMD in Caucasian, were not significant in the Korean population. The low minor allele frequency of these SNPs in Koreans might have affected the results of this study. Ethnic differences in the roles of C2, CFB and C3 in conferring a risk of AMD should be further investigated. PMID:22273503

Kim, Suk Jin; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Na Rae; Chin, Hee Seung

2012-01-18

332

Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration  

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Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED) associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study) were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A) and serous PED (Group B) in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution) in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05). In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01). The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

Panos GD; Gatzioufas Z; Petropoulos IK; Dardabounis D; Thumann G; Hafezi F

2013-01-01

333

Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to seed and root exudates collected under different nutrient regimes  

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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) live in close association with plants and improve their growth. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 is a prominent plant root-colonizing bacterium that is able to stimulate the growth of maize. To decipher the molecular cross-talk between B. amylolique...

Carvalhais Costa, Lilia

334

Importance of CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 in Alveolar Neutrophil and Exudate Macrophage Recruitment in Response to Pneumococcal Lung Infection?  

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Sustained neutrophilic infiltration is known to contribute to organ damage, such as acute lung injury. CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is the major receptor regulating inflammatory neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic inflamed tissues. Whether or not the abundant neutrophil recruitment obser...

Herbold, Wiebke; Maus, Regina; Hahn, Ines; Ding, Nadine; Srivastava, Mrigank; Christman, John W.; Mack, Matthias

335

Bacillus Species Are Present in Chewing Tobacco Sold in the United States and Evoke Plasma Exudation from the Oral Mucosa  

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Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 ± 1) × 106 CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudat...

Rubinstein, Israel; Pedersen, Gerald W.

336

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds/ Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos básicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e (more) a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpe (more) a seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Diz, Mariângela S. S.; Carvalho, André O.; Gomes, Valdirene M.

2003-12-01

337

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

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Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos básicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa.

Mariângela S. S. Diz; André O. Carvalho; Valdirene M. Gomes

2003-01-01

338

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial/ Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castr (more) ados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades. Abstract in english The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were (more) classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Maganhini, Magali Bernardes; Mariano, Bruno; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Guarnieri, Paulo D.; Shimokomaki, Massami; Ida, Elza Iouko

2007-08-01

339

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Magali Bernardes Maganhini; Bruno Mariano; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Paulo D. Guarnieri; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

2007-01-01

340

Response to zinc deficiency of two rice lines with contrasting tolerance is determined by root growth maintenance and organic acid exudation rates, and not by zinc-transporter activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

*Zinc (Zn)-deficient soils constrain rice (Oryza sativa) production and cause Zn malnutrition. The identification of Zn-deficiency-tolerant rice lines indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints. Here, we seek to identify processes underlying Zn-deficiency tolerance in rice at the physiological and transcriptional levels. *A Zn-deficiency-tolerant line RIL46 acquires Zn more efficiently and produces more biomass than its nontolerant maternal line (IR74) at low [Zn](ext) under field conditions. We tested if this was the result of increased expression of Zn(2+) transporters; increased root exudation of deoxymugineic acid (DMA) or low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs); and/or increased root production. Experiments were performed in field and controlled environment conditions. *There was little genotypic variation in transcript abundance of Zn-responsive root Zn(2+)-transporters between the RIL46 and IR74. However, root exudation of DMA and LMWOA was greater in RIL46, coinciding with increased root expression of putative ligand-efflux genes. Adventitious root production was maintained in RIL46 at low [Zn](ext), correlating with altered expression of root-specific auxin-responsive genes. *Zinc-deficiency tolerance in RIL46 is most likely the result of maintenance of root growth, increased efflux of Zn ligands, and increased uptake of Zn-ligand complexes at low [Zn](ext); these traits are potential breeding targets.

Widodo B; Broadley MR; Rose T; Frei M; Pariasca-Tanaka J; Yoshihashi T; Thomson M; Hammond JP; Aprile A; Close TJ; Ismail AM; Wissuwa M

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.  

Science.gov (United States)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux. PMID:19183296

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

2009-01-14

342

Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

Tomasi N; Kretzschmar T; Espen L; Weisskopf L; Fuglsang AT; Palmgren MG; Neumann G; Varanini Z; Pinton R; Martinoia E; Cesco S

2009-05-01

343

Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias

2009-01-01

344

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

Ling N; Zhang W; Wang D; Mao J; Huang Q; Guo S; Shen Q

2013-01-01

345

Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-05-20

346

Development of a simple root model to study the effects of single exudates on the development of bacterial community structure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant root interface is a hot spot for microbial activities. Root exudates are the key compounds that drive microbial performance. However quality and amount of root exudates are highly dynamic in time and space, thus a direct influence of a single compound on a microbial community composition is fairly impossible to study in nature. Therefore it was the aim of this project to develop an artificial root model (ARM), and investigate the influence of three compounds which have often been described as root exudates acting as model compounds for carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids (glucose, malic acid and serine) on the development of bacterial communities and time on the ARM based on 16S rRNA derived TRFLP pattern. The ARM consisted of a slide covered with low melting agarose, where 8 different compounds which have been described as typical root exudates were embedded. The ARMs were incubated in soil for 2, 5, 9 and 20 days, before the analysis of the developed bacterial community structure was done. The bacterial community composition was in good agreement after 9 days of incubation of the ARM in soil with the root associated microflora of Arabidopsis thaliana shortly before flowering. The si