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Sample records for exudates and transudates

  1. Differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion : MR appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether MR images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA can differentiate exudative and transudative pleural effusion. We studied 18 patients with ten exudative and eight transudative pleural effusions diagnosed clinically and by thoracentesis. We analysed the relationship between T1 value(normalized to fat) and the ratio of effusion/serum protein of pleural effusion. We also assessed the contrast enhancement of exudative and transudative pleural effusion on T1 weighted SE images taken at 15 and 30minutes after administration of Gd-DTPA. The relationship between the effusion/serum protein ratio and T1 value(normalized to fat) was statistically not significant(r=0.27, P=0.381). On precontrast spin-echo T1WI, mean signal intensity of the transudate was 0.18(±0.04) and that of the exudate was 0.24(±0.07), values which were not significant differences(P>0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensities of transudates at 15 and 30 were 0.20±0.06 and 0.26±0.08, respectively, values which were not significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensity values of exudative pleural effusions at 15 and 30 minutes(0.32±0.06 and 0.39±0.06, respectively) were, on the other hand, significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast T1-weighted SE images at 15 and 30 minutes can be helpful in the differentiation of transudative and exudative plion of transudative and exudative pleural effusion

  2. Differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion : MR appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kang, Ho Yeong; Kim, Soo Rhan; Yang, Sang Kyu; Shin, So Young; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether MR images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA can differentiate exudative and transudative pleural effusion. We studied 18 patients with ten exudative and eight transudative pleural effusions diagnosed clinically and by thoracentesis. We analysed the relationship between T1 value(normalized to fat) and the ratio of effusion/serum protein of pleural effusion. We also assessed the contrast enhancement of exudative and transudative pleural effusion on T1 weighted SE images taken at 15 and 30minutes after administration of Gd-DTPA. The relationship between the effusion/serum protein ratio and T1 value(normalized to fat) was statistically not significant(r=0.27, P=0.381). On precontrast spin-echo T1WI, mean signal intensity of the transudate was 0.18({+-}0.04) and that of the exudate was 0.24({+-}0.07), values which were not significant differences(P>0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensities of transudates at 15 and 30 were 0.20{+-}0.06 and 0.26{+-}0.08, respectively, values which were not significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensity values of exudative pleural effusions at 15 and 30 minutes(0.32{+-}0.06 and 0.39{+-}0.06, respectively) were, on the other hand, significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast T1-weighted SE images at 15 and 30 minutes can be helpful in the differentiation of transudative and exudative pleural effusion.

  3. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP and total protein (TP, can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic. CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10 % of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S was 0.10 ± 0.13 . For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15 , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration ( r = 0.764 ; p < 0.0001 . The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5un g/mL. SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates

  4. Enhanced CT in the patients with pleural effusion : differential findings between exudates and transudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Han, Young Min; Chung, Jin Young [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the differential findings of CT in the differention of pleural exudates and transudates. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (113 effusions) underwent enhanced thoracic CT ; the scans were evaluated for the presence or absence and apearance of enhancing parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening. Thoracentesis was performed to measure pleural and serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) values. Effusions were classified as exudates by using Light's criteria. Eighty-eight effusions were exudates and 25 were transudates. Eighty-three of the 88 exudates (93 %) were associated with enhanced parietal pleural thickening;seventy of the 88 (80%) were associated with extrapleural fat thickening. Four of the 25 transudates were associated with parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening, both of which were the most important factors in differentiating between pleural exudates and transudates(p<0.05). Parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening on contrast-enhanced CT almost always indicate the presence of pleural exudates.

  5. Enhanced CT in the patients with pleural effusion : differential findings between exudates and transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the differential findings of CT in the differention of pleural exudates and transudates. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (113 effusions) underwent enhanced thoracic CT ; the scans were evaluated for the presence or absence and apearance of enhancing parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening. Thoracentesis was performed to measure pleural and serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) values. Effusions were classified as exudates by using Light's criteria. Eighty-eight effusions were exudates and 25 were transudates. Eighty-three of the 88 exudates (93 %) were associated with enhanced parietal pleural thickening;seventy of the 88 (80%) were associated with extrapleural fat thickening. Four of the 25 transudates were associated with parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening, both of which were the most important factors in differentiating between pleural exudates and transudates(p<0.05). Parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening on contrast-enhanced CT almost always indicate the presence of pleural exudates

  6. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 ?g/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudand PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 ?g/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  7. The use of spectral CT imaging in characterization of pleural fluid: a new method to differentiate transudates from exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of characterizing pleural fluid on the basis of spectral imaging features utilizing spectral CT imaging. Methods: Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) was used to examine 20 pleural fluids filled tubes (11 exudates and 9 transudates) following diagnostic thoracentesis. Effusions were classified as transudates or exudates using laboratory markers based on Light criteria. CT values on 140 kVp QC image were compared between two groups. Using GSI viewer, various CT spectral imaging parameters (CT values on different energy level, effective-Z, iodine-water concentration, calcium-water concentration and calcium-fat concentration) were calculated and compared between two groups. The difference of these spectral characteristic parameters was evaluated statistically by independent- samples t test. Results: According to Light criteria, the mean CT value on QC image of exudates [(19.56±4.10) HU] was higher than that of transudates [(13.44±3.46) HU] (t=3.002, P=0.010). Difference of CT value was found more obvious in the lower keV. On 40 keV images, the difference of CT value of two groups was the largest, the mean value of exudates [(47.49±14.60) HU] was significantly higher than that of transudates [(19.76±6.85) HU ] (t=5.520, P=0.000). While On 140 keV, the mean CT value were (9.76±4.16) and (6.22±3.17) HU and the difference of the two group has no statistically significant difference (t= 2.107, P=0.050). The mean slope rates of exudates (0.51±0.23) was significantly larger than that of transudates (0.1±0.08) (t=4.287, P=0.001). The effective-Z (7.89±0.16), iodine-water concentration [(5.74±1.28) g/L], calcium-water concentration [(7.89± 1.78) g/L] and calcium-fat concentration [(25.95±1.74) g/L] of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates [7.67±0.07, (1.70±0.95) g/L, (2.53±1.37) g/L, (20.82±1.40) g/L] (t= 4.080, 6.998, 6.546, 6.301, P<0.05). Conclusions: The spectral curve and spectral imaging parameters of exudates is found to be different from transudates. The low energy spectral imaging plays an important role in the characterization of pleural fluid. Gemstone spectral CT imaging provides a new multiparameter method to differentiate transudates and exudates. (authors)

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Bulut, T.; Dusak, A.; Dogan, M. [Department of Radiology, Inoenue University School of Medicine, Turgut Oezal Medical Center, 44069, Malatya (Turkey); Goekirmak, M.; Kalkan, S. [Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Inoenue University School of Medicine, Turgut Oezal Medical Center, 44069, Malatya (Turkey)

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42{+-}0.76 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18{+-}1.82 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

  9. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm2) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42±0.76 x 10-3 mm2/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18±1.82 x 10-3 mm2/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10-3 mm2/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesque may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

  10. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz, Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da, Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva, Chibante; Gilberto Perez, Cardoso.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre es [...] se novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  11. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  12. CORRELATIONS AMONG INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN PLASMA, SALIVA AND ORAL MUCOSAL TRANSUDATE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH PAST INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki E.; Newton, Tamara L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among...

  13. Pharmacokinetics (PK), Pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD Integration of Danofloxacin in Sheep Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Aliabadi, F. Shojaee; Landoni, M. F.; Lees, P.

    2003-01-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug danofloxacin was administered to sheep intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of danofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate) were established by using a tissue cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of danofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic str...

  14. Sodium valproate as a cause of recurrent transudative pleural effusion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tryfon Stavros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are few reported cases of neutrophilic pleural effusions associated with valproic acid therapy. Most of them are of eosinophilic exudates with or without blood eosinophilia. Case presentation This case study describes a 70-year-old man with recurrent episodes of eosinophilic transudative pleural effusions associated with sodium valproate treatment. The recurrence of effusion after re-administration of the drug is strongly suggestive of an association between them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with a pleural effusion with these characteristics caused by sodium valproate. Conclusion This is the first report in the literature, with a full understanding of the etiology but with an unknown drug mechanism. This case report is of interest to different medical specialists (such as pulmonologists, neurologists, cardiologists and pharmacologists.

  15. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  16. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14.47-19.92) g/cm(2) hour (mean, 95% CI) in smokers and 13.89 (9.46-18.33) in never smokers (p<0.01). In abstinent smokers TEWL was 18.95 (15.20-22.70)(p<0.01, when compared with smokers). In smokers, MMP-8 was 36.4 (24.3-48.5) ng/mL (mean, 95% CI) and 15.2 (1.4-30.2) ng/mL in never smokers (p<0.01). Abstinent smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation.

  17. Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency

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    Bless Aplena Elen Siane

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -Pwith pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, rapeseed cultivars lost about 80% of its shoot fresh weight, but the roots did not exude any organic acids such as citrate, malate or oxalate. Both lupin and rapeseed cultivars exuded citrate only under phosphorus deficiency. The exudation rates of Feodora and Energy were 3.89 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1 and 3.45 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1, respectively, while that of Dunkeld was 15.1 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1. The results indicated that lupin and rapeseed lost their production under Zn deficiency but they did not exude organic acid, while under P deficiency both plants exuded citrate.

  18. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

  19. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil microorganisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic methods ...

  20. Exudate protein composition and Warner-Bratzler shear force in broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle exudate is often associated with pale color and poor water-holding capacity in broiler breast meat. The relationship between exudate protein composition and breast meat tenderness is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between exudate protein composition a...

  1. Exudate flavonoids in some Gnaphalieae and Inuleae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Eckhard; Christ, Matthias; Dunstan, R Hugh; Roitman, James N; Stevens, Jan F

    2005-01-01

    Three members of the tribe Gnaphalieae and six members of the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae) were analyzed for their exudate flavonoids. Whereas some species exhibit rather trivial flavonoids, others produce rare compounds. Spectral data of rare flavonoids are reported and their structural identification is discussed. 6-Oxygenation of flavonols is a common feature of two Inula species and Pulicaria sicula. By contrast, flavonoids with 8-oxygenation, but lacking 6-oxygenation, are common in two out of three Gnaphalieae species examined. In addition, B-ring deoxyflavonoids are abundantly present in the leaf exudates of Helichrysum italicum (Gnaphalieae). These distinctive features of the two Asteraceae tribes are in agreement with previous flavonoid surveys of these and related taxa. PMID:16323316

  2. Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Moretti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como muestra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%. Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas.Oral mucosal transudate (OMT is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Chagas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

  3. Organic anion exudation by lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) at zinc and phosphorus deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffland, E.; Wei, C.Z.; Wissuwa, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine (1) if lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants respond similarly to low zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) availability by increased root exudation of low-molecular weight organic anions (LMWOAs) and (2) if genotypic variation in tolerance to low soil supply of either Zn or P is related to LMWOA exudation rates. Exudation of LMWOAs can increase bioavailability of both Zn and P to the plant, through partly similar chemical mechanisms. We used seven lowlan...

  4. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  5. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Exudate Detection between Machine Learning and Traditional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas

    To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.

  7. Studies on photosynthate distribution and root exudates of cinesische by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinesische (Cunninghamia sinesis R. Br.) plants grown in nutrient solution were exposed to 14CO2 for 24 hours to study the photosynthate distribution and root exudates. One day after feeding 14CO2, the majority of 14C assimilate was remained in leaves, only 27.38% of 14C assimilate was translocated into new shoots, main branches, lateral branches and roots. 3 days after feeding 14CO2, the distribution rate of 14C photosynthate in leaves was still the highest, but the percentage decreased and it correspondingly increased in other plant parts. 22 days after feeding 14CO2, the distribution rate in new shoots became the highest, roots ranked the second, main branches were the third, leaves and lateral branches were the lowest. The photosynthate in the root could rapidly convert into root exudates. The amount of root exudates reached a peak after 4 days of feeding 14CO2, afterward the amount of 14C root exudates decreased rapidly. The amount of sugar was the highest among all kinds of root exudates, the amount of organic acid was the second, the content of amino acid was much lower than that of the other two root exudates

  8. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization. The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  9. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. E.; Darby, B. A.; Giasson, M.-A.; Kramer, M. A.; Phillips, R. P.; Finzi, A. C.

    2013-02-01

    Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N) content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics") containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10) through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization). The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  10. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  11. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  12. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  13. How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

  14. Decontamination activity of ryegrass exudates towards bisphenol a in the absence and presence of dissolved natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Kiersch, Kristian; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound widespread in terrestrial and aquatic systems of urbanized and industrialized regions. This study evaluated the capacity of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) aqueous exudates to degrade BPA at a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) both in the absence and in the presence of an organic fraction often coexisting with plant exudates, i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), tested at a concentration of 20 mg L(-1). In exudates alone, BPA degradation ceased after one day from the product addition when residual BPA resulted 65% of the initial BPA, whereas in exudates with the addition of NOM the degradation process continued for 4 days when residual BPA resulted 49%. Measurements of peroxidase and laccase activities in exudates suggested a significant involvement of these enzymes in BPA degradation. This finding was further confirmed by the almost complete absence of BPA degradation in aqueous exudates strongly acidified. In some BPA-contaminated exudates, chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of a newly formed compound identified as a BPA oxidation product by Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis. In conclusion, ryegrass exudates possess a relevant decontamination capacity towards BPA which persists and appears to be enhanced by the addition of NOM. PMID:25174419

  15. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation – insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exo-enzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The causal role of exudation, however, is difficult to isolate with in-situ observations, given the complex nature of the rhizosphere environment. We investigated the potential effects of root exudation on microbial and exo-enzyme activity using a theoretical model of decomposition and a field experiment, with a specific focus on the stoichiometric constraint of nitrogen (N availability. The field experiment isolated the effect of exudation by pumping solutions of exudate mimics through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils over two 50-day periods. Using a combined model-experiment approach, we tested two hypotheses: (1 exudation alone is sufficient to stimulate microbial and exo-enzyme activity in rhizosphere soils, and (2 microbial response to C-exudates (carbohydrates and organic acids is constrained by N-limitation. Experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exo-enzymes that decompose labile components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exo-enzymes that degrade recalcitrant SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. However, delivery of C-only exudates had no effect on microbial biomass or overall exo-enzyme activity, and only increased microbial respiration. The theoretical decomposition model produced complementary results; the modeled microbial response to C-only exudates was constrained by limited N supply to support the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exo-enzymes, while exuding C and N together elicited an increase in modeled microbial biomass, exo-enzyme activity, and decomposition. Thus, hypothesis (2 was supported, while hypothesis (1 was only supported when C and N compounds were exuded together. This study supports a cause-and-effect relationship between root exudation and enhanced microbial activity, and suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  16. The thickness of exudate: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, June

    2015-03-01

    The majority of chronic wounds are managed in the community by the district nursing team. With increasing constraints on the health-care budget, it can be tempting to manage exudate by focusing solely on the exudate-handling capability of some of the more absorbent dressings available. However, exudate levels and viscosity can change depending on the patient and the wound, with exudate being a marker of potential infection. Ongoing assessment of the wound, the exudate and the patient is pivotal to effective wound management, with timely and appropriate intervention being key. This article discusses this management, with particular focus on dealing with thick exudate. PMID:25757380

  17. Chemical composition and biological activity of leaf exudates from some Lamiaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, A A; Bankova, V; Kujumgiev, A; Galabov, A; Ignatova, A; Todorova, C; Popov, S

    1995-01-01

    Leaf exudates from 39 species, belonging to 26 genera of Lamiaceae, have been isolated and their antibacterial and antiviral activity investigated. Some of the active compounds (ursolic acid, siderol and nepetalactone) were isolated and identified, most of them for the first time in the investigated plants. Some chemotaxonomic conclusions were drawn. PMID:7886127

  18. Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz Mariângela S. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

  19. An Efficient Integrated Approach for the Detection of Exudates and Diabetic Maculopathy in Colour fundus Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Ramasubramanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a major cause of blindness. Exudates are one of the primary signs ofdiabetic retinopathy which is a main cause of blindness that could be prevented with an early screeningprocess In this approach, the process and knowledge of digital image processing to diagnose exudatesfrom images of retina is applied. An automated method to detect and localize the presence of exudatesand Maculopathy from low-contrast digital images of Retinopathy patient’s with non-dilated pupils isproposed. First, the image is segmented using colour K-means Clustering algorithm. The segmentedimage along with Optic Disc (OD is chosen. To Classify these segmented region, features based oncolour and texture are extracted. The selected feature vector are then classified into exudates and nonexudatesusing a Support Vector Machine (SVM Classifier. Also the detection of Diabetic Maculopathy,which is the severe stage of Diabetic Retinopathy is performed using Morphological Operation. Using aclinical reference standard, images with exudates were detected with 96% success rate. This methodappears promising as it can detect the very small areas of exudates.

  20. Tomato seed and root exudate sugars: composition, utilization by Pseudomonas biocontrol strains and role in rhizosphere colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, B J; Kravchenko, L V; Simons, M

    1999-10-01

    The role of tomato seed and root exudate sugars as nutrients for Pseudomonas biocontrol bacteria was studied. To this end, the major exudate sugars of tomato seeds, seedlings and roots were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. Glucose, fructose and maltose were present in all studied growth stages of the plant, but the ratios of these sugars were strongly dependent on the developmental stage. In order to study the putative role of exudate sugar utilization in rhizosphere colonization, two approaches were adopted. First, after co-inoculation on germinated tomato seeds, the root-colonizing ability of the efficient root-colonizing P. fluorescens strain WCS365 in a gnotobiotic quartz sand-plant nutrient solution system was compared with that of other Pseudomonas biocontrol strains. No correlation was observed between the colonizing ability of a strain and its ability to use the major exudate sugars as the only carbon and energy source. Secondly, a Tn5lacZ mutant of P. fluorescens strain WCS365, strain PCL1083, was isolated, which is impaired in its ability to grow on simple sugars, including those found in exudate. The mutation appeared to reside in zwf, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The mutant grows as well as the parental strain on other media, including tomato root exudate. After inoculation of germinated sterile tomato seeds, the mutant cells reached the same population levels at the root tip as the wild-type strain, both alone and in competition, indicating that the ability to use exudate sugars does not play a major role in tomato root colonization, despite the fact that sugars have often been reported to represent the major exudate carbon source. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the growth of mutant PCL1083 in vitro is inhibited by glucose, a major exudate sugar, at a concentration of 0.001%, which indicates that the glucose concentration in the tomato rhizosphere is very low. PMID:11207764

  1. [TRALI and TACO: diagnostic and clinical management of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M

    2009-05-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the inflammatory, exudative form and Transfusion-associated cardiac overload (TACO) is the hydrostatic, transudative form of transfusion-induced acute pulmonary edema. The distinction between these two entities may be difficult, but important because of different clinical management strategies and different implications. There is no unique diagnostic tool. The diagnostic search should gather several clinical information and may be helped by various techniques listed in this article. PMID:19442558

  2. The stoichiometry of root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. E.; Finzi, A. C.

    2011-12-01

    Forest trees allocate large amounts of C belowground to fuel root processes and the activity of soil microbes through root exudation, rhizodeposition, and the support of mycorrhizal associations. There is a growing recognition that the microbial response to this flux of C belowground can have large impacts on ecosystem function. Here, we use a theoretical enzyme-driven model of decomposition and a field experiment of exudation treatments using root simulators to develop the idea that the response of decomposition to root exudation (i.e. priming of decomposition) depends on the interaction between exudate and microbial stoichiometry (C:N ratios). We added an exudation module to an existing model of decomposition (Schimel and Weintraub, 2003, Soil Biology & Biochemistry). In this model, microbes expend resources (C and N) for maintenance, growth, and the synthesis of exo-enzymes. These exo-enzymes solubilize soil organic C and N (SOC and SON) into dissolved forms (DOC and DON), which are then available for microbial uptake. Exuding DOC had little influence on priming of SOC decomposition, because microbes became N-limited following an exudate pulse and were thus unable to synthesize the N-rich exo-enzymes. However, exuding small amounts of DON in addition to DOC resulted in a large priming pulse of SOC decomposition, as the microbes utilized the DON for exo-enzyme synthesis, and the resulting pulse of enzyme activity decomposed SOC and SON. We tested these model simulations at Harvard Forest (MA- USA) by pumping exudation solutions into forest soils at realistic rates for 6-weeks using an automated system of peristaltic pumps and microlysimeters. Delivering C and N exudates with a C:N ratio of 10 significantly increased soil respiration, microbial biomass, and rates of exo-enzyme activity, while adding C exudates or water only did not affect these measurements of microbial biomass and activity. These results suggest that plants may achieve a positive return on investment by exuding small amounts of N to fuel microbial enzyme synthesis, even in N-limited forests. Additionally, we suggest that the ecosystem consequences of C allocation belowground may depend more on microbial physiology and stoichiometry than the overall magnitude of the C flux.

  3. Allantoin and Allantoic Acid in Tissues and Stem Exudate from Field-grown Soybean Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, John G.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of stem exudate and plant tissue collected from field-grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants were analyzed for allantoin and allantoic acid. Nitrogen in nitrate plus amino acids exceeded ureide N concentration in stem exudate prior to flowering. During all of reproductive development (from about 40 days after planting until maturity), ureide N concentration was two to six times greater than amino acid plus nitrate N concentration. Allantoin and allantoic acid, not asparagine, are the principal forms of nitrogen transported from nodulated roots to shoots of the soybean plant. During pod and seed development ureide N comprised as high as 2.3, 37.7, and 15.8% of total N in leaf blades, stems + petioles, and fruits, respectively. The concentration of ureide in stems and fruits declined to nearly zero at maturity. Maximum ureide concentration of exudate collected from soybean nodules was 5.3 milligrams N per milliliter (94 micromoles allantoin per milliliter). This result supports evidence published by others that the site of allantoin synthesis is the nodule. PMID:16660751

  4. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

    2009-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

  5. Systems Approach with Inflammatory Exudates Uncovers Novel Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    Using a systems approach to mine spontaneously resolving inflammatory exudates, novel families of lipid- derived mediators were identified in animal systems that control both the duration and magnitude of acute inflammation. These new families were coined the resolvins and protectins because they posses potent bioactions and novel chemical structures. The mapping of these new resolution circuits has already provided new avenues for appreciating the molecular basis of many inflammatory disease...

  6. Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2012-09-15

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates. PMID:22843613

  7. Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

  8. Dehydrocostus lactone is exuded from sunflower roots and stimulates germination of the root parasite Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daniel M; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Steffens, John C

    2011-05-01

    The germination of the obligate root parasites of the Orobanchaceae depends on the perception of chemical stimuli from host roots. Several compounds, collectively termed strigolactones, stimulate the germination of the various Orobanche species, but do not significantly elicit germination of Orobanche cumana, a specific parasite of sunflower. Phosphate starvation markedly decreased the stimulatory activity of sunflower root exudates toward O. cumana, and fluridone - an inhibitor of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway - did not inhibit the production of the germination stimulant in both shoots and roots of young sunflower plants, indicating that the stimulant is not a strigolactone. We identified the natural germination stimulant from sunflower root exudates by bioassay-driven purification. Its chemical structure was elucidated as the guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL). Low DCL concentrations effectively stimulate the germination of O. cumana seeds but not of Phelipanche aegyptiaca (syn. Orobanche aegyptiaca). DCL and other sesquiterpene lactones were found in various plant organs, but were previously not known to be exuded to the rhizosphere where they can interact with other organisms. PMID:21353686

  9. Root Exudation of Phytochemicals in Arabidopsis Follows Specific Patterns That Are Developmentally Programmed and Correlate with Soil Microbial Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; Bakker, Matthew G.; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis rev...

  10. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the biogeochemical processes acting in the rhizosphere which can play an important role in the availability of trace elements (either nutrient or toxic) for plant uptake. Research is supported by MIUR - FIRB "Futuro in ricerca", internal grant of Unibz (TN5031 & TN5046) and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Rhizotyr TN5218).

  11. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

  12. Anointing chemicals and ectoparasites: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to Citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some birds and mammals rub their feathers or fur with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae, presumably to deter ectoparasites. We measured avoidance and other responses by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate a...

  13. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root exudates. We found that mucilage and 14C concentrations were higher around the young root segments. Mucilage concentration was particularly high in the most apical 3-5 cm of the roots. Drought stress increased 14C exudation relative to C fixation and led to higher mucilage concentrations around roots. However, it remains unclear, whether the lower mucilage concentration around roots grown at higher soil moisture was caused by the faster diffusion of mucilage in wet soils. Therefore, a second experiment was focused on diffusion of mucilage in soil at varying water contents. The diffusion of mucilage in soil was not very sensitive to soil water content. We conclude that mucilage release was higher for plants exposed to drought stress. In summary, the combination of neutron radiography and 14C imaging can successfully be used to visualize and to quantify the distribution of mucilage and root exudates in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil. References Kroener, E., Zarebanadkouki, M., Kaestner, A., & Carmintati, A. (2014). Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils. Water Resources Research, 37. Pausch, J., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2011). Photoassimilate allocation and dynamics of hotspots in roots visualized by 14C phosphor imaging. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174(1), 12-19.

  14. Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilhan Mennan; Haddish Melakeberhan

    2006-01-01

    Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L.) has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Rutgers) on Meloidogyne hapla greenhouse populations from Manhattan (MH), New York (NY) and Michigan (MI) in order to understand the way of effect of OSRC (Oil seed radish). In a laboratory, 3 mL exudates of OSRC,...

  15. [Assessment of the effectiveness of sinuforte used for the combined treatment of rhinosinusitis and exudative otitis media in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomil'ski?, M R; Garashchenko, T I; Denisova, O A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate efficiency, safety, and tolerability of two single doses of sinuforte (INVAR, Russia) used in the combined treatment of rhinosinusitis (including that with concurrent exudative otitis media) in children at the age from 5 to 12 years. The data obtained suggest high efficiency of sinuforte in the treatment of mild and moderately severe acute rhinosinusitis and exudative otitis media. Inclusion of sinuforte in combined therapy of these conditions makes it possible to avoid drainage procedures and decreases duration of antibacterial treatment. Simultaneous acceleration of the recovery of functional activity of endonasal mucosa suggests pronounced anti-recurrent action of sinuforte. PMID:21105351

  16. Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2011-04-01

    Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, ?-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals. PMID:21409496

  17. Vibrational, 1H-NMR spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, P; Tugnoli, V; Bottura, G; Dallavalle, E; Zechini D'Aulerio, A

    2002-01-01

    Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) and IR (FTIR) and (1)H-NMR spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (Spic Span and White Prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. This work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. Spectroscopic analysis showed that White Prosperity root exudate differs from Spic Span root exudate by a higher relative amount of the aromatic-phenolic and sugarlike components and a lower relative amount of carbonylic and aliphatic compounds. DSC analysis confirmed the spectroscopic results and showed that White Prosperity root exudate is characterized by an aromatic component that is present in a higher amount than in the Spic Span root exudate. The results are discussed in relation to the spore germination tests showing that White Prosperity, which is characterized by a remarkable resistance toward F. oxysporum gladioli, exudes substances having a negative influence on microconidial germination of the pathogen; root exudates from Spic Span, one of the most susceptible cultivars to F. oxysporum gladioli, proved to have no effect. White Prosperity's ability to inhibit conidial germination of F. oxysporum gladioli can be mainly related to the presence of a higher relative amount of aromatic-phenolic compounds. PMID:12209451

  18. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  19. Segmentation and texture analysis with multimodel inference for the automatic detection of exudates in early diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and may cause blindness if not treated at an early stage. Exudates are the primary sign of DR. Currently there is no fully automated method to detect exudates in the literature and it would be useful in large scale screening if fully automatic method is available. In this paper we developed a novel method to detect exudates that based on interactions between texture analysis and segmentation with mathematical morphological technique by using multimodel inference. The texture analysis involves three components: they are statistical texture analysis, high order spectra analysis, and fractal analysis. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy using the public data DIARETDB1. Our results show that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 95.7%, 97.6% and 98.7% (SE = 0.01, respectively. It is shown that the proposed method can be run automatically and also improve the accuracy of exudates detection significantly over most of the previous methods.

  20. Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giacomini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated with the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90. Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM.

  1. Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Giacomini; A., Bisio; E., Giacomelli; S., Pivetti; S., Bertolini; D., Fraternale; D., Ricci; G., Romussi; N., De Tommasi.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated wi [...] th the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity) and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90). Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM).

  2. Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1444, selected for efficient root colonization and naphthalene degradation, effectively utilizes root exudate components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Irene; Kravchenko, Lev V; Bloemberg, Guido V; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we have described the selection of a plant-bacterium pair that is efficient in rhizoremediating naphthalene pollution in microcosm studies. After repeated selection for efficient root tip colonization upon inoculation of seeds of grass cv. Barmultra and for stable and efficient growth on naphthalene, Pseudomonas putida PCL1444 was selected as the most efficient colonizer of Barmultra roots. Here, we report the analysis of Barmultra root exudate composition and our subsequent tests of the growth rate of the bacterium and of the expression of the naphthalene degradation genes on individual exudate components. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the organic acid and sugar root-exudate components revealed that glucose and fructose are the most abundant sugars, whereas succinic acid and citric acid are the most abundant organic acids. Tn5luxAB mutants of PCL1444 impaired in naphthalene degradation appeared to be impaired in genes homologous to genes of the upper naphthalene degradation pathway present in various Pseudomonas strains and to genes of the lower pathway genes for naphthalene degradation in P. stutzeri. Highest expression for both pathways involved in naphthalene degradation during growth in minimal medium with the carbon source to be tested was observed at the start of the logarithmic phase. Naphthalene did not induce the upper pathway, but a different pattern of expression was observed in the lower pathway reporter, probably due to the conversion of naphthalene to salicylic acid. Salicylic acid, which is described as an intermediate of the naphthalene degradation pathway in many Pseudomonas strains, did induce both pathways, resulting in an up to sixfold higher expression level at the start of the logarithmic phase. When expression levels during growth on the different carbon sources present in root exudate were compared, highest expression was observed on the two major root exudate components, glucose and succinic acid. These results show an excellent correlation between successful naphthalene rhizoremediation by the Barmultra-P. putida PCL1444 pair and both efficient utilization of the major exudate components for growth and high transcription of the naphthalene catabolic genes on the major exudate components. Therefore, we hypothesize that efficient root colonizing and naphthalene degradation is the result of the applied colonization enrichment procedure. PMID:12118890

  3. Root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants of pakistan exhibit allelopathic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants commonly used in Pakistan by plant box and sandwich methods, respectively. In sandwich method, lettuce seedlings were grown with the dry leaf leachates of the selected plant species in a growing media at the rate of 5, 10 and 50 mg dish-1 in a completely randomized design with three replications. Their effects on hypocotyl and radicle growth of the lettuce were recorded as a percentage of untreated control. Data was subjected for analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by Tukey's HSD test at p<0.05. Results indicated that allelopathic effects of the leaf leachates of all selected plant species on the hypocotyl and radicle elongations of the lettuce varied significantly in all concentrations used in experiments. The hypocotyl growth of the lettuce seedlings was affected from promotion (6.71% inhibition) caused by Phlaris minor to inhibition (78.40%) by Withania somnifera. Both species suppressed the radicle length from 33.69-93.30%. Leachates of W. somnifera and Sarcococca saligna exhibited strong inhibitory results in a concentration dependant manner. After the growth period of 50 days, root exudates of S. saligna appeared most detrimental (78.00% inhibition) to radicle growth of the lettuce seedling followed by W. somnifera (75.00%) when tested by plant box method. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature and in the development of new and potent bioherbicides to combat environmental risk. (author)

  4. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  5. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GünterNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  6. Detection of specific antibodies in gingival crevicular transudate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-rami?rez, L. E.; Herna?ndez-go?mez, L.; Sifuentes-osornio, J.; Barriga-angulo, G.; Duarte Lima, D.; Lo?pez-portillo, M.; Ruiz-palacios, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this open and multicenter trial was to determine the usefulness of antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in gingival crevicular transudate (GCT), which was collected with an investigational device (Orasure; Epitope, Beaverton, Oreg.), for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and to compare it with antibody detection in serum. A total of 1,880 individuals were tested, as follows: 354 HIV-1-infected individuals (111 asym...

  7. Organic acids, sugars, and L-tryptophane in exudates of vegetables growing on stonewool and their effects on activities of rhizosphere bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Azarova, Tatiyana; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-03-01

    The influence of stonewool substrate on the exudation of the major soluble carbon nutrients and of the auxin precursor tryptophane for Pseudomonas biocontrol agents was studied. To this end, the composition of the organic acids and sugars, as well that of tryptophane, of axenically collected exudates of seed, seedlings, and roots of tomato, cucumber, and sweet pepper was determined. The major results were as follows. i) The total amount of organic acid is much higher than that of total sugar. ii) Exudation of both organic acids and sugars increases during plant growth. iii) Citric, succinic, and malic acids represent the major organic acids, whereas fructose and glucose are the major sugars. iv) Compared with glass beads as a neutral substrate, stonewool substantially stimulates exudation of organic acids and sugars. v) It appeared that enhanced root-tip-colonizing bacteria isolated previously from the rhizosphere of tomato and cucumber grow much better in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source than other, randomly selected rhizobacteria do. This indicates that the procedure which selects for excellent root-tip colonizers enriches for strains which utilize the major exudate carbon source citrate. vi) The content of L-tryptophane, the direct precursor of auxin, is approximately 60-fold higher in seedling exudates of tomato and sweet pepper than in cucumber seedling exudates, indicating a higher possibility of plant growth stimulation after inoculation with auxin-producing rhizobacteria for tomato and sweet pepper crops than for cucumber. However, the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, which is able to convert tryptophane into auxin, did not stimulate growth of these three crops. In contrast, this strain did stimulate growth of roots of radish, a plant which exudes nine times more tryptophane than tomato does. PMID:16570655

  8. [Action of low-frequency ultrasound on the peritoneum, peritoneal exudate cells and the course of experimental peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukov, V S; Morozov, P N; Kaufman, O Ia; Ermakova, N G; Ambrozevich, E G

    1984-08-01

    The authors studied the action of low-frequency ultrasound on rat and guinea-pig peritoneal exudate cells during aseptic peritonitis, on the intact peritoneum of these animals, and on experimental peritonitis in guinea-pigs. It was shown that ultrasound "hammers in" India ink solutions and antibacterial drugs into the peritoneum and in combination with antibiotics, it increases the guinea-pig survival rate in peritonitis. Ultrasound was not found to produce a direct bactericidal effect in vivo. Exposure of peritoneal exudate to ultrasound (1 s/cm2) demonstrated an increase in chemotaxis of neutrophil leukocytes to autologic serum and appreciable phagocytic activity. A longer exposure (up to 3-5 s/cm2 or 6-8 s/cm2) resulted in the partial damage to the peritoneum. Leukocytes, mesotheliocytes and subperitoneal striated muscles were found to be especially sensitive to ultrasound. PMID:6466850

  9. Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri-Majalan Nader; Masoumi Roghayyeh; Halvani Abolhasan; Moghaddasi Sara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the u...

  10. Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L. and Lupinus luteus L. as affected by phosphorus supply

    OpenAIRE

    Egle, Komi; Römer, Wilhelm; Keller, Holger

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of $P$ fertilizer application on the quality and quantity of organic acid exuded by six cultivars of three lupin species: Lupinus albus L. (cultivars Minori and Nelly), Lupinus angustifolius L. (cultivars Borweta and Bordako) and Lupinus luteus L. (cultivars Borsaja and Borselfa). We also investigated the influence of the exudate collection medium (deionized water, 0.05 mM CaCl$_2$ solution) on the composition and the intensity of...

  11. Pale, soft, and exudative poultry meat--Reviewing ways to manage at the processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on ways the industry can currently deal with pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) poultry meat. Overall, the rapid increase in poultry meat consumption and the move toward selling more cut-up parts have resulted in some complaints associated with meat quality. Because no genetic marker related to PSE in poultry used by breeders has yet been identified, processors can employ several pre- and postrigor strategies to minimize the magnitude of the problem. They include reducing stress before slaughter (e.g., during catching, transportation, waiting period, unloading) and during stunning (gas vs. electrical). Later, there is a need to better understand and adjust processing conditions such as electrical stimulation, chilling rate, and maturation. When dealing with cut-up parts or deboned meat, strategies such as identifying and separating PSE meat, diverting it to no or low moisture-added products, and including additives to compensate for the poor water holding and texture can be beneficial. The potential contribution of ingredients such as starches (regular, modified), carrageenans, and enzymes is discussed. When it comes to formed products (e.g., nuggets), gentle brine addition and the use of low-pressure forming equipment can also help to minimize the effects of using PSE meat. PMID:19531724

  12. Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Rani, T. Swaroopa; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells e...

  13. Plasticity of Leukocytic Exudates in Resolving Acute Inflammation Is Regulated by MicroRNA and Proresolving Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongsheng; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Baron, Rebecca M.; Quintana, Carolina; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of acute inflammation are controlled by active resolution programs involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs; resolvins and maresins) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that miR-466l was temporally regulated in murine exudate-infiltrating leukocytes. Neutrophil miR-466l overexpression in vivo promoted initiation of inflammation that anteceded macrophage expression of this miRNA, which accelerated resolution when overexpressed. In macrophages, miR-466l ...

  14. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayka Reghiany, Pedrão; Talita, Kato; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia, Coró; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paião; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  15. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayka Reghiany, Pedrão; Talita, Kato; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia, Coró; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paião; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  16. [Impact of exogenous paraquat on enzyme exudation and biochemical changes of lignin degradation fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yuru; Huang, Haixia; Yu, Zui

    2009-08-01

    To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:19938450

  17. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

  18. Application of a modified EDTA-mediated exudation technique and guttation fluid analysis for Potato spindle tuber viroid RNA detection in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Owens, Robert; Baker, C Jacyn; Deahl, Kenneth; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2014-03-01

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a small plant pathogenic circular RNA that does not encode proteins, replicates autonomously, and traffics systemically in infected plants. Long-distance transport occurs by way of the phloem; however, one report in the literature describes the presence of viroid RNA in the xylem ring of potato tubers. In this study, a modified method based on an EDTA-mediated phloem exudation technique was applied for detection of PSTVd in the phloem of infected tomato plants. RT-PCR, nucleic acid sequencing, and Southern blot analyses of RT-PCR products verified the presence of viroid RNA in phloem exudates. In addition, the guttation fluid collected from the leaves of PSTVd-infected tomato plants was analyzed revealing the absence of viroid RNA in the xylem sap. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSTVd RNA detection in phloem exudates obtained by the EDTA-mediated exudation technique. PMID:24388932

  19. Response of several Limulus amoebocyte lysates to native endotoxin present in gonococcal and nongonococcal urethral exudates from human males.

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, R. B.; Spagna, V. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) preparations obtained from three different suppliers were comparatively evaluated for sensitivity to native endotoxin contained in urethral exudates from 28 men with gonococcal urethritis and 16 men with nongonococcal urethritis. One LAL preparation was not extracted with organic solvents during manufacture, whereas the other two were extracted with chloroform. All three LAL preparations had equivalent sensitivities (0.06 ng/ml) to an established referenc...

  20. Accelerated degradation of a variety of aromatic compounds by Spirodela polyrrhiza-bacterial associations and contribution of root exudates released from S. polyrrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hai; Yu, Ning; Toyama, Tadashi; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-01-01

    Removal experiments of phenol, aniline, 2,4-dichlorophenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A (BPA) using Spirodela polyrrhiza-bacterial associations revealed that all compounds but BPA underwent accelerated removal. The mechanisms differed depending on the substrates. It was found that S. polyrrhiza has a great ability to release phenolic compound-rich root exudates, and the exudates seem to stimulate bacterial degradation of a variety of aromatic compounds. PMID:20617723

  1. Looking beyond sugars: phytochemical profiling and standardization of manna exudates from Sicilian Fraxinus excelsior L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Tonelli, Letizia; Palla, Gerardo; Marseglia, Angela; Rossi, Damiano; Bruni, Renato

    2013-10-01

    Different grades of genuine and counterfeit Fraxinus excelsior exudates, marketed as natural sweeteners or mild laxatives, were evaluated for their proximate composition and for saccharidic, organic acids, lipidic and phenolic profile by means of GC-MS and (1)H NMR. Genuine samples contained mannitol (39-48 g/100 g, according to the grade), fructose (9-16 g/100 g), glucose (2-3.7 g/100 g), sorbitol (0,5-0,6 g/100 g), galactose (0.02-0.74 g/100 g), oligosaccharides as mannotriose (13-22 g/100 g) and stachyose (1-11 g/100 g), and traces of myo-inositol, mannose, sucrose. On the contrary, counterfeit samples contained mostly mannitol and sorbitol, with traces of fructose, glucose and mannose. Differences in ash, total polyphenolic content and fatty acid composition allowed a quick identification of counterfeit products, confirmed by a distinct mono-, oligosaccharidic and phenolic pattern. Elenolic acid (63-1628 mg/kg), tyrosol (15-774 mg/kg), homovanillic acid (2,39-52.8 mg/Kg), dopaol (0.8-63 mg/kg), pinoresinol (4.2-18.5 mg/kg) and fraxetin (0.25-11.64 mg/kg), albeit showing a wide concentration range, were the most abundant substances detected in the phenolic fraction of Fraxinus manna, while esculetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenacetic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxy-pinoresinol, medioresinol and siringaresinol were present in low amounts. The polyphenolic profile may be used as a marker for authentication and should be considered in the evaluation of nutritional and health properties ascribed to Fraxinus manna. PMID:23850543

  2. Modeling the Interaction of H2 on Root Exudate Degradation and Methanogenesis in Wetland Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are many potential sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2 while the H2 and CO2 is synthesized to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. Since H2 is used in methane production and produced in propionate fermentation, increased subsurface H2 concentrations can simultaneously inhibit propionate fermentation and acetate production and enhance hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. For this study, we incubated soil samples from vegetated wetland sediments with propionate or acetate and four different hydrogen concentrations. The headspaces from these incubations were simultaneously analyzed for H2 and CH4 at multiple time points over two months. The comparison of methane production between different hydrogen concentrations and different carbon sources can indicate which process is most affected by increased hydrogen concentrations. The results from this study were combined with a newly formulated steady-state model of propionate degradation and formation of methane, that also accounts for the venting off both gases via plants. The resulting model indicates how methane production and emissions would be affected by plant volatilization.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of semirigid thoracoscopy in exudative pleural effusions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willendrup, Fatin; BØdtger, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and the safety of medical thoracoscopy (MT) performed with the semirigid thoracoscope. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients who underwent MT with semirigid thoracoscope under local anesthesia for unexplained exudative pleural effusion from March 1, 2009 to September 1, 2013 in Denmark. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were retrospectively studied. In 13 patients it was not possible to perform the scheduled MT, in 9 cases due to an insufficient pneumothorax, in 3 due to an insufficient pleural effusion, and in 1 due to a purulent pleuritis. In 56 patients in whom MT was completed, the procedure was diagnostic in 44 cases: malignancy was reported in 26 patients and a benign diagnosis in 18. In the remaining 12 patients a definite diagnosis was not reached, and further testing was required.In an "intention-to-treat analysis" (69 patients in total), the diagnostic accuracy of MT was 63%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 59% [95% confidence interval (CI)=43%-73%], the specificity was 100% (95% CI=86%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.41 (95% CI=0.29-0.58). Considering the 56 patients in whom it was possible to complete the procedure, the diagnostic accuracy was 78%, the sensitivity for malignancy was 74% (95% CI=54%-87%), the specificity was 100% (95% CI=83.75%-100%), and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.27 (95% CI=0.15%-0.45%). No mortality was reported. CONCLUSIONS: MT performed under local anesthesia with a semirigid scope is a simple and safe procedure with an acceptable sensitivity for malignancy.

  4. Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skorupska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

  5. Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Maloso, Ramos; Eduardo Francisquine, Delgado.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of [...] pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i) investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii) the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

  6. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  7. Evaluation of pleural and pericardial effusions by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR examinations of 36 patients with pleural and/or pericardial effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine of MR imaging is capable of differentiating between pleural and pericardial effusions of different compositions using standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and nongated spin echo pulse sequences. Additional data was obtained from experimental pleural effusions in 10 dogs. The results of this study indicate that old haemorhages into the pleural or pericardial space can be differentiated from other pleural or pericardial effusions. However, further differentiation between transudates, exudates and sanguinous effusions is not possible on MR images acquired with standard spin echo pulse sequences. (orig./MG)

  8. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Fabrício Marchi; Alexandre Oba; Iris Lamberti Ziober; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Elza Iouko Ida; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-...

  9. A Comparative Study on the Organic Acid Content and Exudation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings under Conditions of Copper and Cadmium Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Radhouane Chaffai; Ali Tekitek; Ezzedine El Ferjani

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the comparative effects of copper and cadmium on the organic acid content and exudation in maize (Zea mays L.). We have also discussed the role of organic acids in copper and cadmium tolerance. The maize seedlings were grown in hydroponics for 8 days and then treated with 100 ?M copper or cadmium for 4 days. The copper reduced more than cadmium root fresh wt and shoot dry wt, while Cd had more decreasing effect on root dry wt. Analysis of organic acids in root exudates ...

  10. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  11. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substratess as primary substrates

  12. The 11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2 . The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The 11 C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. 11 C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with 11 C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs 11 CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive 11 CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with 11 C and translocated throughout the plant similar to 12 C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or 11 CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  13. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  14. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  15. The Composition of Root Exudates from Two Different Resistant Peanut Cultivars and Their Effects on the Growth of Soil-Borne Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; ZHAO, LING; Han, Zheng-min

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materia...

  16. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Rhizodeposition affects the microbial community in the rhizosphere, and microbial composition and activity may therefore differ in soil depending on plant species. We hypothesised that these differences increase over the plant growth period because roots occupy larger soil volumes and release more rhizodeposits. We tested how such medium-term responses of the microbial community can be explained by the short-term utilisation of root exudates. To test this we analysed 15N incorporation into microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition and 13C incorporation into the PLFAs of specific microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following leaf-labelling with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-urea. In this way microbial N and 15N and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response of microorganisms to rhizodeposits, whereas the 13C-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and 15N were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass exudates initially to be incorporated into bacterial PLFA and into fungi over time, but surprisingly fungi had the highest utilisation of ryegrass-derived C over the week. At 0–5 cm soil depth, white clover exudates were utilised only by bacteria, whereas fungi dominated at 5–15 cm. This reflects differences in the quality of white clover exudates or differences in the microbial community composition at the two depths. We conclude that despite clear short-term differences in microbial response to the exudates of white clover and ryegrass, this is only to a limited extent transferred into medium-term defects on the composition of the microbial communities under the two plant species. Hence, our study showed that different short-term C utilisation patterns may lead to similar medium-term responses of the microbial community.

  17. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59 resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with the presence of a 4.4 kb plasmid in 17 strains studied. Resistance to penicillin, observed in 44 strains, and resistance to kanamycin, observed in 15 strains, could not be related to plasmids in any of these strains. The 11.5 kb plasmid was observed in 39% of the strains isolated from piglets with EE, and in 7% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets.

  18. Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri-Majalan Nader

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the uniformly negative results of a lung perfusion scan, Doppler ultrasound, and culture of bronchoalveolar lavage and plural effusion, and because our patient showed spontaneous improvement. Conclusions False positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause lung trauma presenting as pulmonary contusion and cavitation with plural effusion.

  19. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  20. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2013-01-01

    Lauric acid is a bioactive root exudate component in crown daisy. Mi-flp-18 is a pivotal gene regualting nematode chemotaxis and infection. Lauric acid regulates the nematode chemotaxis and disrupts the Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner

  1. Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2011-06-01

    A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates. PMID:21348886

  2. Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: automatic extraction of optic disc and exudates from retinal images using marker-controlled watershed transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Eswaran, C; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2011-12-01

    Due to increasing number of diabetic retinopathy cases, ophthalmologists are experiencing serious problem to automatically extract the features from the retinal images. Optic disc (OD), exudates, and cotton wool spots are the main features of fundus images which are used for diagnosing eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a new algorithm for the extraction of these bright objects from fundus images based on marker-controlled watershed segmentation is presented. The proposed algorithm makes use of average filtering and contrast adjustment as preprocessing steps. The concept of the markers is used to modify the gradient before the watershed transformation is applied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the test images of STARE and DRIVE databases. It is shown that the proposed method can yield an average sensitivity value of about 95%, which is comparable to those obtained by the known methods. PMID:20703768

  3. Clinical value of detection of malignant ascites and thoracic exudate by means of six tumor-markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical value of six potential tumor markers including serums CA125, CYFRA21-1, CA-50, CA15-3, HCG, ?-HCG. These were determined in effusions of malignant ascites and hydrothorax of 170 patients, with cellular examination as control. Methods: Using IRMA. Results: The data of our experiments revealed that of all six tumor-markers, CA125 was the highest in positive rate as well as concordance rate with cytology examination. In or- der CA125, CA-50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1, ?-HCG. It was valuable to point out that the specificity of HCG and ?-HCG was very strong and there was no false positivity had yet been found with them. Though their positivity was not so high as that of CA125. Have to higher specificity of detection of malignant ascites by CYFRA21-1. Conclusions: It suggested that + CYFRA21-1 should be the preferred choice in diagnosing malignant hydrothorax next + CA-50,CYFRA21-1 +CA-50; for malignant ascites as well, CA125 + ?-HCG determination is just as good, next CA125 + CYFRA21-1. We believe that when a clear diagnosis of a primary focus of cancer is made clinically, or a malignant ascites or thoracic exudate come highly under suspicion, the diagnosis of malignancy of the ascites or thoracic exudate can be established even though the exfoliative cells, provided the detection by tumor-markers, it has got one of the following results: the roles of tumor-markers determination in malignant serous effusions, two of CA125, CYFRA21-1. CA15-3 and CA-50 markers are positive; anyone of the above markers plus HCG or ?-HCG positivity; both HCG and ?-HCG or CA15-3 are positive. (author)

  4. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggregates having a fractal dimension D = 2.55. When this value was applied to historical TEP size spectra from a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent from that of the cells.

  5. Detección y diferenciación de exudados en retinografías a color / Detection and differentiation of retinal exudates in color retinal images

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán, Sánchez Torres; Jorge Rudas, Castaño; Ricardo, Toscano Cuello.

    2011-07-15

    Full Text Available La retinopatía diabética en etapas tempranas suele ser imperceptible para los pacientes diabéticos. Sus primeras manifestaciones, tal como los microaneurismas, suelen pasar desapercibidas en exámenes especializados por su difícil detección; además, su presencia única no implica necesariamente relaci [...] ón directa con la retinopatía diabética, puesto que existen otras patologías que también pueden producirlas. Solo hasta la detección de la presencia de exudados un especialista puede deducir la presencia de la retinopatía diabética. Este artículo presenta un método que permite asistir la identificación y diferenciación de exudados sobre retinografías mediante la utilización de una variedad de clasificadores de tipo k-nn. El método propuesto demostró ser un método sensible y específico en la detección de lesiones brillantes, capaz de determinar con certeza suficiente una posible lesión en una retinografía a color, con una especificidad de 99%. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy early is not usually perceivable in patients with diabetic. Their first signs, like micro-aneurysms, often are unnoticed in preliminary test due to its difficult detection by means specialists. In addition, its presence is necessarily not directly related to diabetic retinopathy [...] , since there are others pathologies that may also cause those. Until the detection of the presence of exudates, a specialist can deduce the presence of diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents a method to assist the identification and differentiation of exudates on color retinal images based on a variety of k-nn filters. The proposed method proved to be a sensitive and specific detection of bright lesions, able to determine with sufficient certainty, a possible injury, with a specificity of 99%.

  6. Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Umoren, S. A.; Obot, I. B.; Ebenso, E. E.; Okafor, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exud...

  7. Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Antonangelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos exsudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada.The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be collected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

  8. Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural / Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila, Antonangelo; Vera Luiza, Capelozzi.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos ex [...] sudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada. Abstract in english The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be c [...] ollected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

  9. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author) these cereals. (author)

  10. Exudation primes human and guinea pig neutrophils for subsequent responsiveness to the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine and increases complement component C3bi receptor expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli, W; Seligmann, B; Gallin, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    After circulating in the vascular system a short time, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) migrate to extravascular sites in response to chemotactic stimuli. Prestimulation of PMN in vitro by secretagogues has been shown to increase their number of N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fmet-leu-phe) and complement component C3bi (CR3) receptors. We investigated whether the same phenomenon occurred in vivo, comparing characteristics of human skin chamber and guinea pig peritoneal exudate and bl...

  11. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  12. RE-SORPTION OF ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS BY ROOTS OF ZEA-MAYS L AND ITS CONSEQUENCES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE .2. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL EVIDENCE FOR SIMULTANEOUS EXUDATION AND RE-SORPTION OF SOLUBLE C COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D.; Darrah, P.

    1993-01-01

    The exudation of soluble carbon compounds from Zea mays roots was investigated over a 10 day growth period under sterile and non-sterile solution culture conditions. The results showed that plants grown in sterile static solution culture, where C was allowed to accumulate, released 8 times less C than plants grown under culture conditions in which the solutions were replaced daily. The increased C loss from plant cultures in which exudates were removed daily was attributable to, (a) the reduc...

  13. Allelopathic Potential of Oxalis pes-caprae Tissues and Root Exudates as a Tool for Integrated Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    I.S. Travlos; E. Paspatis; E. Psomadeli

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential usefulness of Oxalis pes-caprae L. as allelopathic ground-cover species for integrated weed management. The effects of the extracts of several tissues and the exudates from living roots of O. pes-caprae plants were tested for their allelopathic activity on several plants. Duckweed fresh weight was significantly inhibited from phytotoxic activity of petiole tissues (and secondly leaves and stems) of O. pe...

  14. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  15. Salivary gland structure of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (MASKELL, 1890 (Hemiptera and phloem exudate in Eucalyptus globulus LABILLARDIÈRE, 1799 (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anamika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the salivary glands of the free-living aphalarid Ctenarytaina eucalypti, which infests multiple species of Eucalyptus in Australasia and has been introduced into many other regions of the world, is described and illustrated. The principal salivary gland is multilobed whereas the accessory gland is tubular. 1-D electrophoresis revealed proteins of approximately 58 and 64 kDa in the salivary gland extracts and proteins of similar molecular weights in the extracted plant exudates, including phloem, from infested leaves and tender shoots of E. globulus. Proteins that could fall within this range include, but are not limited to, glucosemethanol- choline-oxidoreductase (53-66 kDa, Zn-binding dehydrogenase (67 kDa and esterase (65-96 kDa, in addition to cytochrome P-450 (50-55 kDa, trehalase (56 kDa, amylase (50-75 kDa and lipase (48-52 kDa. Previous studies indicate that glucose-methanol-cholineoxidoreductase, Zn-binding dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 and trehalase suppress plantdefence mechanisms, whereas the cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase, lipase and esterase have a possible role in enabling C. eucalypti to insert its stylet into leaf and shoot tissues of E. globulus.

  16. Plasticity of leukocytic exudates in resolving acute inflammation is regulated by MicroRNA and proresolving mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Dalli, Jesmond; Chiang, Nan; Baron, Rebecca M; Quintana, Carolina; Serhan, Charles N

    2013-11-14

    The magnitude and duration of acute inflammation are controlled by active resolution programs involving specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs; resolvins and maresins) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that miR-466l was temporally regulated in murine exudate-infiltrating leukocytes. Neutrophil miR-466l overexpression in vivo promoted initiation of inflammation that anteceded macrophage expression of this miRNA, which accelerated resolution when overexpressed. In macrophages, miR-466l overexpression increased prostanoids and SPMs (e.g., resolvin D1 [RvD1] and RvD5), which enhanced resolution. RvD1, RvD2, maresin 1 (MaR1), and apoptotic neutrophils reduced miR-466l expression within human macrophages, a feedback regulation that most likely prepares for homeostasis. miR-466l was upregulated in peripheral blood of sepsis patients, and its increase correlated with nonsurvival from sepsis. SPMs and miR-466l regulated transcription factors activator protein 1 and nuclear factor ?B1 in miRNA biogenesis. These results demonstrate pivotal roles for SPMs and miR-466l in dynamic leukocyte plasticity during resolution of acute inflammatory responses. PMID:24238341

  17. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pi?tka

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2005-08-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

  19. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy / Associação entre vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar subclínica e distrofia de cones e bastonetes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdullah, Ilhan; Umit, Yolcu; Fatih Cakir, Gundogan; Fahrettin, Akay.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Um homem caucasiano de 21 anos foi avaliado com queixa de nictalopia. A acuidade visual era 20/20 em ambos os olhos. Biomicroscopia do segmento anterior era normal. A fundoscopia revelava zonas avasculares periféricas, exsudação mínima dos vasos retinianos periféricos da retina, telangiectasias da r [...] etina periférica com anastomoses em ambos os olhos e deslocamento vascular da retina em direção a periferia temporal em ambos os olhos. O eletrorretinograma (ERG) de campo total apresentava respostas de bastonetes praticamente indetectáveis e redução das respostas de cones. A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) macular mostrava estrutura normal em AO. As alterações vasculares foram atribuídas à forma subclínica da vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar. Este é um caso interessante com a associação de vitreoretinopatia exsudativa familiar e distrofia de cones e bastonetes (RCD). Abstract in english A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal t [...] elangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

  20. The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild steel corrosion in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? In this study, a comparative study of two oleo-gum resins was performed. ? The adsorption of both oleo-gum resins is well described by Langmuir isotherm model. ? Oleo-gum resins behave as mixed type inhibitors. ? Inhibition efficiency of both oleo-gum resins in 2 M HCl decreased with rise in temperature. ? Quantum chemical calculations used to explain the difference in behavior of two resins. - Abstract: A comparative study of two oleo-gum resins exudate from Ferula assa-foetida (F. assa-foetida) and Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum), as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in 2 M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both oleo-gums behave as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency was studied. At all temperatures, the experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm for both oleo-gum resin exudates. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of two oleo-gum resin exudates.

  1. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm(C) and two both erm(A) and erm(C). The presence of erm(B) was confirmed by hybridization to plasmid profiles in all 13 PCR-positive isolates. Of 52 tetracycline resistant isolates examined, two contained tet(L), 38 tet(K) and 12 both tet(K) and tet(L). (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina Maria Ludowika

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)?, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. RESULTS: We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFN? were low and not associated with AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNF? can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells.

  3. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for exudative age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, J. B.; Kreissig, I.; Hugger, P.; Sauder, G.; Panda-jonas, S.; Degenring, R.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on the visual acuity of patients with exudative age related macular degeneration, to assess the duration of a possible effect, and to evaluate clinical side effects of the treatment.

  4. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislaine Silveira, Simões; Alexandre, Oba; Tiemi, Matsuo; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aval [...] iar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b*) foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE. Abstract in english The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehic [...] le microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*). Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.

  5. Clustering Technique for Segmentation of Exudates in Fundus Image .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Muhid Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exudates are a category of lipid retinal lesions visible through optical fundus imaging, and indicative of diabetic retinopathy. we tend to propose a clustering-based methodology to phase exudates, using multi-space clustering, and colorspace options. The tactic was evaluated on a group of eighty nine pictures from a publically obtainable dataset, and achieves an accuracy of 89.7% and positive prophetical price of 87%.

  6. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  7. Detection of Exudates for the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Somasundaram

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is caused by the abnormalities in the retina due to insufficient insulin in the body. Diabetic Retinopathy affects 80% of all patients who had diabetes for 10 years or more, which can also lead to vision loss. The most primitive sign of Diabetic Retinopathy is Exudates. Exudates in the retina are opacities that result from the escape of plasma and white blood cells from defective blood vessels. Detecting the exudates in an earlier stage can prevent the vision loss. In this paper, an automated algorithm has demonstrated to detect and localize the presence of exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils. In this method, first the retinal fundus image is pre-processed. Then, Mask Technique and Score Computation technique is used for segmenting the exudates in the retinal fundus images. This method does not require supervised learning which requires labeled set, may cause human error and it is time consuming process. It can effectively identify the lesions because exudates were clearly distinguished from optic disc and blood vessels. It helps the ophthalmologists apply proper treatments that might eliminate the disease or decrease the severity of it.

  8. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source (60Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  9. Plant root-driven hydraulic redistribution, root nutrient uptake and carbon exudation interact with soil properties to generate rhizosphere resource hotspots that vary in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by plants occurs in seasonally dry ecosystems worldwide. During drought, water flows from deep moist soil, through plant roots, into dry (often litter-rich) upper soil layers. Using modeling, we explored how physical transport processes driven by transpiration and hydraulic redistribution interact with root physiology (nutrient uptake and carbon exudation) and soil properties (soil texture and cation exchange) to influence nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. At the single root scale, we modeled a 10-cm radial soil domain, and simulated solute transport, soil cation exchange, and root exudation and nutrient uptake under two water flow patterns: daytime transpiration without nighttime HR, and daytime transpiration with nighttime HR. During HR, water efflux flushed solutes away from the root, diluting the concentrations of key nutrients like nitrate. The transport of cations by transpiration in the day and their accumulation near the root led to competitive desorption of ammonium from soil further from the root and generation of hotspots of ammonium availability at night. HR influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of these hotspots and their intensity. They were also influenced by soil properties of texture and cation exchange capacity. This dynamic resource landscape caused by diel cycling between transpiration and hydraulic redistribution presents a stage for greater complexity of microbial interactions. We are currently embedding a microbial community and small food web into this rhizosphere model in order to explore how organisms responsible for nutrient and soil carbon cycling respond to these fluctuating resource regimes.

  10. PHYTOREMEDIATION: PLANT UPTAKE OF ATRAZINE AND THE ROLE OF ROOT EXUDATES. (R825549C060)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

  12. The nodD gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum is autoregulatory and in the presence of plant exudate induces the nodA,B,C genes

    OpenAIRE

    Rossen, L.; Shearman, C A; Johnston, A W B; Downie, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    To analyse nod gene expression in Rhizobium leguminosarum, a broad host-range lacZ protein fusion vector was constructed. Two protein fusions, nodC-lacZ and nodD-lacZ, were used to measure the regulation of expression of the promoters of the nodA,B,C and the nodD transcripts by measuring the induced levels of ?-galactosidase activity in R. leguminosarum. In the absence of plant root exudate the nodD-lacZ hybrid was expressed but the nodC-lacZ hybrid was not. The expression of the nodD-lacZ hy...

  13. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and myelocyte/metamyelocyte (MC/MM) stages of development. These 135 miRNAs were divided into six clusters according to the pattern of their expression. Several miRNAs demonstrate a pronounced increase or reduction at the transition between MB/PM and MC/MM, which is associated with cell cycle arrest and the initiation of terminal differentiation. Seven miRNAs are differentially up-regulated between peripheral blood PMNs and extravasated PMNs and only one of these (miR-132) is also differentially regulated during granulopoiesis. The study indicates that several different miRNAs participate in the regulation of normal granulopoiesis and that miRNAs might also regulate activities of extravasated neutrophils. The data present the miRNA profiles during the development and activation of the neutrophil granulocyte in healthy humans and thus serves as a reference for further research of normal and malignant granulocytic development.

  14. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Alexandre, Oba; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

  15. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fabrício Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

  16. Potato spindle tuber viroid detection in phloem exudates and guttation fluid of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a single-stranded, non protein-encoding, covalently-closed circular RNA molecule (359nt) that infects many horticultural and agricultural crops. PSTVd is mechanically transmitted, replicates in the nucleus, and moves cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata. Though i...

  17. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  18. Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Obaisi, Saif; Al-Sheikh, Osama; Galvez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein, we present a case of unilateral orbital pseudotumor in a young male who presented with chief complaints of painful decreased vision which was attributed to optic neuritis and macular edema as a result of scleritis. Imaging studies were helpful in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and patient’s complaints improved with administration of systemic corticosteroids. PMID:23961032

  19. Unilateral optic neuritis, scleritis and exudative retinal detachment due to recurrent orbital pseudotumor

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-obaisi, Saif; Al-sheikh, Osama; Galvez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation, also known as orbital pseudotumor, describes a spectrum of idiopathic, non-neoplastic, non-infectious, space-occupying orbital lesions without identifiable local or systemic cause. The condition occurs mainly in young adults who may present with acute pain, proptosis, chemosis and limitations of extraocular movements. Decreased vision due to optic nerve infiltration and macular edema as a result of scleritis is less common sequel of orbital pseudotumor. Herein...

  20. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  1. Xylem exudate composition and root-to-shoot nickel translocation in Alyssum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved understanding of Ni root-to-shoot translocation mechanism in hyperaccumulators is necessary to increase Ni uptake efficiency for phytoextraction technologies. It is presumed that an important aspect of Ni translocation and storage involves chelation with organic ligands. It has been re...

  2. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal agg...

  3. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  4. Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Anaerolineae populations are enriched on anodes of root exudate-driven microbial fuel cells in rice field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Angela; Pommerenke, Bianca; Boon, Nico; Friedrich, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Plant-based sediment microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) couple the oxidation of root exudates in living rice plants to current production. We analysed the composition of the microbial community on anodes from PMFC with natural rice field soil as substratum for rice by analysing 16S rRNA as an indicator of microbial activity and diversity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the active bacterial community on anodes from PMFCs differed strongly compared with controls. Moreover, clones related to Deltaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly abundant (49% and 21%, respectively) on PMFCs anodes. Geobacter (19%), Anaeromyxobacter (15%) and Anaerolineae (17%) populations were predominant on anodes with natural rice field soil and differed strongly from those previously detected with potting soil. In open circuit (OC) control PMFCs, not allowing electron transfer, Deltaproteobacteria (33%), Betaproteobacteria (20%), Chloroflexi (12%), Alphaproteobacteria (10%) and Firmicutes (10%) were detected. The presence of an electron accepting anode also had a strong influence on methanogenic archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active on PMFC (21%) than on OC controls (10%), whereas acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae were more active on OC controls (31%) compared with PMFCs (9%). In conclusion, electron accepting anodes and rice root exudates selected for distinct potential anode-reducing microbial populations in rice soil inoculated PMFC. PMID:25683328

  5. Profiling of secondary metabolites in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Böttcher, Christoph; Schmidt, Stephan; Scheel, Dierk

    2014-12-01

    To explore the chemical composition of root exudates of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a workflow for nontargeted metabolite profiling of the semipolar fraction of root exudates was developed. It comprises hydroponic plant cultivation and sampling of root exudates under sterile conditions, sample preparation by solid-phase extraction and analysis by reversed-phase UPLC/ESI-QTOFMS. Following the established workflow, root exudates of six-week-old plants were profiled and a set of reproducibly occurring molecular features was compiled. To structurally elucidate the corresponding metabolites, accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry and on-line hydrogen/deuterium exchange were applied. Currently, a total of 103 compounds were detected and annotated by elemental composition of which more than 90 were structurally characterized or classified. Among them, 42 compounds were rigorously identified using an authenticated standard. The compounds identified so far include nucleosides, deoxynucleosides, aromatic amino acids, anabolites and catabolites of glucosinolates, dipeptides, indolics, salicylic and jasmonic acid catabolites, coumarins, mono-, di- and trilignols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and oxylipins and exemplify the high chemical diversity of plant root exudates. PMID:25457500

  6. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1?cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400?mg, ibuprofen tablets (400?mg, NAC (400?mg/ibuprofen (200?mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- ?, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p?=?0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p?=?0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p?=?0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  7. Optimisation of stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), targeting medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked ham exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Iu; Ibañez, Carles; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of our research was to optimise the extraction conditions of the stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) targeting the identification of lipid compounds particularly medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked cured pork ham exudates. The analytical conditions of extraction (including sample volume, extraction time, stirring speed, pH and dilution of the sample) were checked using the Simplex method approach. As a result of the SBSE optimisation, improved detection limits and linear ranges for hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic and tetradecanoic fatty acids were obtained. When comparing results with those obtained by the commonly used SPME methodology, optimisation of SBSE achieved better results for volatile compounds of low volatility, such as medium and long-chain free fatty acids, whereas compounds with high volatility and polarity were only detected by SPME. SBSE also confirmed its potential as a tool to help identify undesirable contaminants/residues in meat products. PMID:25952843

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  10. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  11. Proteome of Soybean Seed Exudates Contains Plant Defense-Related Proteins Active against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Raquel O; Morais, Janne K S; Oliveira, Jose T A; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Sousa, Daniele O B; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Antonino de Souza Júnior, José Dijair; Grossi de Sá, Maria F; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-06-10

    Several studies have described the effects of seed exudates against microorganisms, but only few of them have investigated the proteins that have defensive activity particularly against nematode parasites. This study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of soybean seeds and evaluated their nematicidal properties against Meloidogyne incognita. A proteomic approach indicated the existence of 63 exuded proteins, including ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase, all of which are related to plant defense. The presence of some of these proteins was confirmed by their in vitro activity. The soybean exudates were able to reduce the hatching of nematode eggs and to cause 100% mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2). The pretreatment of J2 with these exudates resulted in a 90% reduction of the gall number in tobacco plants. These findings suggest that the exuded proteins are directly involved in plant defense against soil pathogens, including nematodes, during seed germination. PMID:26034922

  12. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Trujillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  13. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo D. Mariano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The environmental impact of the large amounts of root exudates possibly conferred by these genetically modified plants is discussed, with special emphasis on soil microbiota.Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande qua

  14. Influence of plant root exudates, germ tube orientation and passive conidia transport on biological control of fusarium wilt by strains of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeel, Qaher A

    2006-03-01

    In earlier studies, biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains C5 and C14 of Fusarium oxysporum. Strain C14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain C5 required wounds to achieve biocontrol. In the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced resistance by nonpathogenic biocontrol agents strains to Fusarium wilt of cucumber and pea were further investigated. In pre-penetration assays, pathogenic formae specials exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spore germination in 4-day-old root exudates of cucumber and pea than nonpathogens. Also, strain C5 exhibited the lowest significant reduction in spore germination in contrast to strain C14 or control. One-day-old cucumber roots injected with strain C14 resulted in significant reduction in germ tube orientation towards the root surface, 48-96 h after inoculation with F. o. cucumerinum spores, whereas strain C5 induced significantly lower spore orientation of the pathogen and only at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. In post-penetration tests, passive transport of microconidia of pathogenic and nonpathogens in stems from base to apex were examined when severed plant roots were immersed in spore suspension. In repeated trials, strain C5, F. o. cucumerinum and F. o. pisi were consistently isolated from stem tissues of both cucumber and pea at increasing heights over a 17 days incubation period. Strain C14 however, was recovered at a maximum translocation distance of 4.6 cm at day 6 and later height of isolation significantly declined thereafter to 1.2 cm at day 17. In pea stem, the decline was even less. Significant induction of resistance to challenge inoculation by the pathogen in cucumber occurred 72 and 96 h after pre-inoculation with biocontrol agents. Nonetheless, strain C14 induced protection as early as 48 h and the maximum resistance was reached at 96 h. The presented data confirm the previous findings that attributes important for nonpathogenic fusaria to induce resistant are: rapid spore germination and orientation in response to root exudate; active root penetration and passive conidia transport in stem to initiate defence reaction without pathogenicity and enough lag period between induction and challenge inoculation. Strain C14 possesses all these qualifications and hence its ability to enhance host resistance is superior than strain C5. PMID:16482390

  15. SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING) OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BRENDA, MODAK; RENÉ, TORRES; ALEJANDRO, URZÚA.

    Full Text Available In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating) of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatograph [...] y of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin did not follow a pattern related with hydric stress, UV radiation or high temperature during the year, a relationship between pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin was found. On average during the months of September to August, excluding March, the amount of pinocembrin decreased wile the amount of 3-O-methylgalangin increased. The results suggest that the above compounds may play different ecophysiological functions during plant development and are consistent with the biosynthetic relationship between the two compounds.

  16. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Umoren, S. A.; Obot, I. B.; Ebenso, E. E.; Obi-egbedi, N.

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. ...

  17. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  18. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  19. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  20. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jensen, Lars BogØ

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm

  1. Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paul O., Ameh; Anduang O., Odiongenyi; Nnabuk O., Eddy.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 [...] M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the respective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

  2. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  3. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  4. Caracterização química e efeitos alelopáticos de exsudatos radiculares de plântulas de sorgo sobre alface / Chemical characterization and allelopathic effects of radicular exudates of plants of sorghum over lettuce leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tânia Maria L., Barbosa; Francisco A., Ferreira; Itamar F. de, Souza; Luiz Cláudio de A., Barbosa; Vicente W. D., Casali.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise química do exsudato radicular do sorgo resultou na identificação da quinona sorgoleona 1 e da diidroquinona 2, como seus principais constituintes. Em testes in vitro, uma solução a 20 mM do exsudato causou redução de 13,1% no crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa L. Em um sistema de cult [...] ura hidropônico recirculante, o exsudato radicular produzido por quatro plantas de sorgo causou uma redução de 62,4% na área foliar da alface, 33 dias após o plantio. Abstract in english A chemical analysis of the Sorghum bicolor root exudate lead to the identification of the quinone sorgoleone 1 and the corresponding dihydroquinone 2 as the major components. An in vitro essay have shown that at the concentration of 20 mM this exudate caused a 13.1% reduction on the radicular growth [...] of Lactuca sativa L. In a recirculating hydroponic culture system, the exudate produced by the roots of four plants of sorghum caused a 62.4% reduction on the lettuce leaf area after 33 days of planting.

  5. Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images Using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine (SVM has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification. In this paper, we present a simple and effective method of detect and classify hard exudates. Automatic detection of hard exudates from retinal images is worth-studying problem since hard exudates are associated with diabetic retinopathy and have been found to be one of the most prevalent earliest signs of retinopathy. The algorithm is based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT analysis and SVM makes use of color information to perform the classification of retinal exudates. We prospectively assessed the algorithm performance using a database containing 1200 retinal images with variable color, brightness, and quality. Results of the proposed system can achieve a diagnostic accuracy with 97.0% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity for the identification of images containing any evidence of retinopathy.

  6. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

  7. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress / Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo D., Mariano; Renato A., Jorge; Willem G., Keltjens; Marcelo, Menossi.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO) de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al) presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes [...] celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande quantidade de exsudatos radiculares de plantas geneticamente modificadas pode causar, especialmente na microbiota do solo, é discutido. Abstract in english Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the [...] root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The

  8. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using de...

  9. Rapid Appearance of Resolvin Precursors in Inflammatory Exudates: Novel Mechanisms in Resolution*

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuga, Kie; Yang, Rong; Porter, Timothy F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Petasis, Nicos A.; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    Resolution of inflammation is essential. While supplementation of ?-3 fatty acids is widely used, their availability at sites of inflammation is not known. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach was taken to determine the relationship of circulating ?-3 to inflammatory exudates and the generation of resolution signals. Here, we monitored resolvin precursors in evolving exudates, which initially paralleled increases in edema and infiltrating neutrophils. We also prepared novel microfluidi...

  10. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of Helianthus tuberosus L. root exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, Aldo; TESIO, FRANCO; Vidotto, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathy has been defined as the ability of a plant to inhibit or stimulate the growth of another plant through the release of chemicals into the environment by volatilisation, leaching, plant residues decomposition, and root exudation. Several studies have shown that Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke), a species belonging to the Asteraceae family can exhibit allelopathic activity. Experiments conducted with leaf extracts and degradation of plant residues into the soil have poin...

  11. A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinouchi T

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneumonia, and its intraalveolar lesions were compared between M. pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia containing fibrin (BOOP. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody and anti-pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. In pathologic findings, more fibrin deposits in intaalveolar lesions were observed in M. pneumonia than in BOOP. In intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, a larger amount of nuclear debris, more neutrophils, and more erythrocytes were noted. Myofibroblasts were observed in the organization of BOOP, while in the intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, myofibroblasts were not observed. These results suggest that M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates responds well to corticosteroid and its intraalveolar lesions apparently differed from those in BOOP.

  12. In situ measurements of root exudation in three hardwood species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, D. A.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Phillips, R.

    2012-12-01

    Root exudation - the release of soluble organic compounds to soil - has long been considered a black box in ecology owing to methodological difficulties associated with measuring this flux in situ. This knowledge gap is significant given recent findings that suggest exudate inputs are appreciable in magnitude (2-5% of net primary production) and are coupled to microbial activities, nutrient release and soil organic matter decomposition. We developed a novel experimental system for collecting exudates from intact roots of field-grown trees using cuvettes filled with sterile glass beads. We measured root exudation for three tree species in ~80 year old mixed hardwood forest in south central Indiana, USA in the summer of 2012. Exudation rates varied from 0 to 1413 ug C/g root/day, and differed by sampling date and among trees species. Overall, rates were greater in early relative to late July, and greater in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and white oak (Quercus alba) relative to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Across all species, exudation rates were correlated with root mass, indicating that greater allocation to roots likely increases the amount of C available to fuel soil microbial activity. Collectively, the results of this study should enable us to develop improved model parameterizations of the C costs associated with nutrient acquisition, an important feedback for predicting the role of vegetation in mediating climate change.

  13. Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion with pleural biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion by histopathological examination of pleural biopsy in patients with suspected tuberculous or malignant pleural effusion. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pulmonology Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi for two years 1999-2000. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4 biopsy specimens were obtained in each patient which were examined histopathologically. Patients in whom a definite diagnosis was not possible were further investigated with repeat pleural biopsy, sputum examinations, bronchoscopy etc. Results definite histopathological diagnosis with pleural biopsy was possible in 59 (49.16% patients, including 13 diagnosed on repeat pleural biopsy. Two commonest diagnoses made were tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma, 64.40% and 13.55% respectively. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation of pleural biopsy specimens can lead to diagnosis in 49.16% patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. (author)

  14. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  15. The predictive value of subjective symptoms and clinical signs for the presence of treatment-requiring exudative age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders; Larsen, Dorte Ancher

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has increased the referral rates of AMD patients with visual symptoms to treating centres considerably. However, a large proportion of the referred patients do not qualify for treatment implying that considerable resources could be saved if these patients could be identified on the basis of the clinical data available in the referring nonspecialized setting.

  16. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; N., Obi-Egbedi.

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition effici [...] ency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

  17. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Umoren

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

  18. Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-10-01

    The effects of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. Conditions were selected under which introduction of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with P. fluorescens WCS365 decreased the percentage of diseased plants from 96 to 7%. This is a much better disease control level than was observed in potting soil. Analysis of root exudate revealed that the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici did not alter the total amount of organic acids, but that the amount of citric acid decreased and that of succinic acid increased compared with the nontreated control. In contrast, in the presence of the P. fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, the total amount of organic acid increased, mainly due to a strong increase of the amount of citric acid, whereas the amount of succinic acid decreased dramatically. Under biocontrol conditions, when both microbes are present, the content of succinic acid decreased and the level of citric acid was similar to that in the nontreated control. The amount of sugar was approximately half that of the control sample when either one of the microbes was present alone or when both were present. Analysis of the interactions between the two microbes grown together in sterile tomato root exudate showed that WCS365 inhibited multiplication of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, whereas the fungus did not affect the number of CFU of the bacterium. PMID:17022176

  19. Onicólisis exudativa y paroniquia bacteriana aguda en relación con BIBF-1120 y paclitaxel: respuesta a la terapia tópica / Exudative onycholysis and acute bacterial paronychia related to BIBF-1120 and paclitaxel: response to topical therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Azael, Freites-Martínez; Diego, Martinez-Sánchez; Nieves, Puente de Pablo; Angélica, Calderón-Komaromy; Susana, Córdoba; Jesús, Burbujo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad con cáncer de mama tratada con paclitaxel y BIBF 1120 semanal. La paciente desarrolló al final del duodécimo ciclo de quimioterapia una onicólisis distal, con exudado seroso intenso en el hiponiquio, dolor y mal olor en todas las uñas de las man [...] os. Se trató con ácido fusídico tópico y aceponato de metilprednisolona al 1% dos veces al día, con una excelente respuesta desde los tres primeros días de tratamiento. A la semana de iniciar la terapia tópica, se observó una paroniquia bacteriana con la pérdida de la uña del quinto dedo de la mano izquierda, con cultivos positivos para Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina. Hay pocos casos publicados de onicólisis exudativa asociada a quimioterapia. Sin embargo, están especialmente relacionados con paclitaxel. No se observaron recurrencias de las alteraciones ungueales semanas después de culminar la quimioterapia. Los corticoides tópicos y el ácido fusídico podrían ser considerados como una opción terapéutica cuando la onicólisis exudativa relacionada con paclitaxel esté establecida. Abstract in english A case of a 50 years-old breast cancer patient treated with weekly paclitaxel and BIBF 1120 is reported herein. At the end of the twelfth cycle of chemotherapy, the patient developed distal onycholysis with intense hyponychium serous exudates, pain and malodor in all her fingernails. It was treated [...] with topical fusidic acid and 1% methylprednisolone aceponate two times daily, with an excellent clinical response from the first three days of treatment. Bacterial paronychia with nail plate loss of the fifth left fingernail was observed a week after the topical therapy was started, with positive cultures for Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. There are few reported cases of exudative onycholysis associated with chemotherapy. However, these are especially related to paclitaxel. No recurrences of nail disturbances were observed weeks after the end of chemotherapy. Topical corticosteroids and fusidic acid could be considered as a therapeutic option when exudative onycholysis related to paclitaxel is established.

  20. Actinide (Pu, U) interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: Fundamental chemistry and effects on environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the environmental behavior of metals we must consider a tremendous range of phenomena, from simple individual reactions, such as ligand complexation and solubility equilibria, to quite complicated and collective processes, such as metal-mineral-microbial interactions. Because of pressing contamination problems at DOE sites and the paucity of relevant actinide chemistry knowledge, research is needed in this entire range of science. The determination and evaluation of key thermodynamic data for actinide species and the development of geochemical, hydrological, and environmental transport models are progressing. In contrast, we know almost nothing about how actinides interact with microorganisms. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, reduce, oxidize, solubilize, or precipitate actinides, thereby affecting their speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration. These effects are due to both direct and indirect interactions, such as sorption to the cell wall and reaction with microbial byproducts, respectively. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions, both to develop this area of fundamental research and to determine how the interactions may be exploited to affect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts

  1. Broiler chicken PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and water release during chicken carcass thawing and brazilian legislation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita, Kato; Claudia Freitas, Barbosa; Elza Iouko, Ida; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Massami, Shimokomaki; Mayka Reghiany, Pedrao.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59) (pH [...] H >5.8). Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30) and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.

  2. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825960)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela S. S., Diz; André O., Carvalho; Valdirene M., Gomes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

  4. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. PMID:25194775

  5. Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos GD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A and serous PED (Group B in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05. In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01. The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

  6. Importance of CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 in Alveolar Neutrophil and Exudate Macrophage Recruitment in Response to Pneumococcal Lung Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Herbold, Wiebke; Maus, Regina; Hahn, Ines; Ding, Nadine; Srivastava, Mrigank; Christman, John W.; Mack, Matthias; Reutershan, Jo?rg; Briles, David E.; Paton, James C.; Winter, Christine; Welte, Tobias; Maus, Ulrich A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustained neutrophilic infiltration is known to contribute to organ damage, such as acute lung injury. CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is the major receptor regulating inflammatory neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic inflamed tissues. Whether or not the abundant neutrophil recruitment observed in severe pneumonia is essential for protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections is incompletely defined. Here we show that CXCR2 deficiency severely perturbs the recruitmen...

  7. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  8. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

  9. Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Schalchli; F, Pardo; E, Hormazábal; R, Palma; J, Guerrero; E, Bensch.

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to prote [...] ct the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1). IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA EN CANALES DE CERDO DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson E CASTRILLÓN H

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24, en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca. El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23% y DFD (0.77% disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P The PSE (pale, soft and exudative meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluated by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45 and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry. The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 is found for the three meat conditions evaluated at pH45 and pH24.

  11. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  12. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  13. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  14. Yield of abrams needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleural effusion is the abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space resulting from excessive fluid production or decreased absorption and it is one of the most common clinical conditions that we come across in pulmonology clinics and in hospitals. The objective of prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of Abrams Needle Biopsy in Exudative Pleural Effusion The study was performed at the Department of Pulmonology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad over a period of 1 year, i.e., January 2008 to December 2008. Sixty-three patients of either sex and all ages with exudative pleural effusion, on whom Abrams Needle Biopsy was performed were included in the study. Minimum of four specimens from each patient were taken and histopathology done. Out of 63 patients, histopathology revealed the cause in 60 (95%) cases. Tuberculosis, malignancy and rheumatoid pleurisy were confirmed in 34, 24, and 2 cases respectively. Specimens of 3 patients did not reveal any result and showed non-specific inflammation and were further investigated accordingly. The diagnostic yield of Biopsy was 95%. Pleural biopsy is still a reliable and valuable investigation in diagnosing pleural effusion, provided that adequate pleural specimen is taken. (author)

  15. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals – compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings g...

  16. Bradykinin-induced plasma exudation in guinea-pig airways: involvement of platelet activating factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, D. F.; Dijk, S.; Barnes, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    1. We studied the effect of bradykinin on plasma exudation in the airways of the anaesthetized guinea-pig in vivo. Tissue content of extravasated Evans blue dye was used as an index of protein exudation in the larynx, trachea, main bronchi and intrapulmonary airways (i.p.a.). 2. Bradykinin increased the content of Evans blue in all tissues studied in a dose-related manner. The response was greatest in the main bronchi and i.p.a., less in the trachea and least in the larynx. A dose of 47 nmol ...

  17. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showe...

  18. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    OpenAIRE

    Buchweishaija, J.; Mhinzi, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency abo...

  19. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  20. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor Fábián; Pál Fejérdy; Anita Beck; Péter Hermann; Tibor Károly Fábián

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune ...

  1. Relationship of muscle exudate protein characteristics to broiler breast meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of muscle exudate measured as drip loss is often used as an indicator of poultry meat quality. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between meat quality and the amount, protein content, and protein profile of drip liquid in broiler breast fillets. Fifty-six broi...

  2. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Pablyana L.R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Sierakowski, Maria Rita [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed {eta}{sub CGOX}/{eta}{sub CG} ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

  3. Clinical outcomes of the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration with Pegaptanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate the results of intravitreal use of Pegaptanib in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Material end methods. Our study includes 77 patients with exudative AMD, who received 9 injections of Pegaptanib 0.3mg with 6-weeks intervals between them. So the primary treatment lasted one year. During and after the treatment these patients underwent fluorescent angiography (FAG, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fundus photography and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA examination. According to the results of these examinations a decision about a further treatment, whether it was necessary, was taken. Results. By the end of our 2-year study 38 patients after therapy with Pegaptanib had complete obliteration of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV, 19 patients were switched to Ranibizumab, one patient underwent photodynamic therapy with Visudyne, 14 patients had severe progression of AMD, when there was no sense in further treatment, 2 patients dropped out the study because of cerebral insult, 3 patients refused of any further treatment, in spite of persisting exudative activity of the CNV after the primary treatment. Conclusion. Intravitreal ?pplication of Pegaptanib is a relatively effective treatment option of exudative AMD as BCVA was stabilized or improved in 55.8% of patients, macular edema decreased in 67.5% of patients and neovascular membrane was obliterated in 49.35% of patients.

  4. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24972380

  5. Vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar: nuestra experiencia / Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy: our experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Piñero; J., Sempere; J., Nadal; J., Elizalde-Montagut.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evidenciar la variabilidad de la presentación inicial de la vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar (VREF) y la importancia de su diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Así como, valorar la respuesta al tratamiento de los diferentes estadios clínicos. Métodos: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo, [...] intervencional y descriptivo de 11 pacientes (17 ojos) afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar tratados en nuestro centro. Resultados: De los pacientes afectos de vitreorretinopatía exudativa familiar, un 33,3% se encontraban en el estadio I, un 16,6% en el estadio II y el 50% restante en estadio III. Los resultados tras el tratamiento fueron los siguientes. En los estadios I y II, la agudeza visual se mantuvo estable (agudeza visual media 0,8 y 0,4 respectivamente). En el estadio III se observó un empeoramiento de la agudeza visual. Conclusiones: El tratamiento en estadios iniciales puede mejorar el pronóstico visual y evitar complicaciones como la exudación subfoveal crónica y la contracción y fibrosis en la interfase retino vítrea periférica que pueden provocar ectopia macular. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe our experience in the diagnosis of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) at its different clinical stages. We also report our outcomes in early treatment of this inherited disorder. Methods: Retrospective interventional and descriptive case series of 11 patients (17 eyes) [...] affected by FEVR evaluated and treated in our hospital. Results: In our series, 33.3% of patients were classified as stage I, while 16.7% and 50% were classified as stage II and III, respectively. Visual acuity (VA) remained stable after treatment in stages I and II (mean VA was 0.8 and 0.4, respectively) but decreased in stage III. Conclusions: Early treatment of FERV may improve the visual prognosis and avoid complications such as subfoveal chronic exudation and vitreoretinal peripheral interphase contraction and fibrosis.

  6. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  7. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C

    2012-04-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals--compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings grown in the presence of cress allelochemical(s) had longer, thinner hypocotyls and shorter, thicker roots--effects previously attributed to lepidimoide. The active principle was more abundant in cress seed exudate than in seedling (root) exudates. It was present in non-imbibed seeds and releasable from heat-killed seeds. Release from live seeds was biphasic, starting rapidly but then continuing gradually for 24 h. The active principle was generated by aseptic cress tissue and was not a microbial digestion product or seed-treatment chemical. Crude seed exudate affected hypocotyl and root growth at ~25 and ~450 ?g ml(-1) respectively. The exudate slightly (28%) increased epidermal cell number along the length of the Amaranthus hypocotyl but increased total hypocotyl elongation by 129%; it resulted in a 26% smaller hypocotyl circumference but a 55% greater epidermal cell number counted round the circumference. Therefore, the effect of the allelochemical(s) on organ morphology was imposed primarily by regulation of cell expansion, not cell division. It is concluded that cress seeds exude endogenous substances, probably including lepidimoide, that principally regulate cell expansion in receiver plants. PMID:22268144

  8. Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korn Malerbi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exame oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL. A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg. Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas.PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

  9. Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso / Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Korn, Malerbi; Ramon Coral, Ghanem; Jeane, Chiang; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exam [...] e oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL). A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg). Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity [...] of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg). After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

  10. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:25165149

  11. Interleukin 3 (IL 3) regulates the in vitro proliferation of both blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages: synergism between a macrophage lineage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and IL 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of interleukin 3 (IL 3) on regulation of macrophage proliferation was examined. Although IL 3 alone stimulates the colony formation in bone marrow cells, it fails to stimulate the colony formation by both peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and blood monocytes. However, IL 3 greatly enhances the proliferative capacity of both PEM and monocytes in responding to suboptimal concentrations of CSF-1. At supraoptimal concentrations of CSF-1, IL 3 did not increase the number of colonies, but greatly increased colony size. Kinetic studies showed that IL 3 enhances CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation by shortening the cell doubling time. Monocytes were more sensitive to the action of IL 3 and possessed higher proliferative potential than PEM. Binding studies with radioactive labeled CSF-1 (125I-CSF-1) showed that IL 3 treatment induced an increased expression of CSF-1 receptor activity by PEM which appears to be a result of increased number of available receptor sites. The effect of IL 3 on the expression of receptor activity is both dose- and time-dependent. IL 3 also augments the rate of receptor-mediated CSF-1 endocytosis by PEM which appears to be a direct result of increased expression of CSF-1 binding sites. These results demonstrate that, in addition to stimulating the growth and differentiation of several blood cell lineages by hemopoietic stem cells, IL 3 also possesses the ability to modulate CSF-1 receptors, thereby affecting proliferation of more mature blood monocytes and tissue-derived macrophages

  12. Flagella-driven chemotaxis towards exudate components is an important trait for tomato root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weert, Sandra; Vermeiren, Hans; Mulders, Ine H M; Kuiper, Irene; Hendrickx, Nico; Bloemberg, Guido V; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Mot, René; Lugtenberg, Ben J J

    2002-11-01

    Motility is a major trait for competitive tomato root-tip colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens. To test the hypothesis that this role of motility is based on chemotaxis toward exudate components, cheA mutants that were defective in flagella-driven chemotaxis but retained motility were constructed in four P. fluorescens strains. After inoculation of seedlings with a 1:1 mixture of wild-type and nonmotile mutants all mutants had a strongly reduced competitive root colonizing ability after 7 days of plant growth, both in a gnotobiotic sand system as well as in nonsterile potting soil. The differences were significant on all root parts and increased from root base to root tip. Significant differences at the root tip could already be detected after 2 to 3 days. These experiments show that chemotaxis is an important competitive colonization trait. The best competitive root-tip colonizer, strain WCS365, was tested for chemotaxis toward tomato root exudate and its major identified components. A chemotactic response was detected toward root exudate, some organic acids, and some amino acids from this exudate but not toward its sugars. Comparison of the minimal concentrations required for a chemotactic response with concentrations estimated for exudates suggested that malic acid and citric acid are among major chemo-attractants for P. fluorescens WCS365 cells in the tomato rhizosphere. PMID:12423023

  13. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

  14. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buchweishaija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

  15. Comparación del crecimiento de Malassezia furfur y Malassezia slooffiae en los medios del exudado gomoso de spondias dulcis y dixon / Comparison of the growth of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae on Spondias dulcis gum exudate and Dixon media

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Mila, Mesa C; Marynes, Díaz; Paola, Ocampo; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Marvelys, Larrazabal; Paula, Guerra; Gladys, León de Pinto.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las levaduras del género Malassezia son hongos que producen afecciones en la piel. El desarrollo de estos microorganismos requiere condiciones especiales. El medio Dixon es generalmente usado para su cultivo. Se ensayo el exudado gomoso de Spondias dulcis como sustrato para Malassezia furfur y Malas [...] sezia slooffiae en comparación con el medio Dixon. Se determino la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado rango de tiempo (0-120h), a diferentes concentraciones (1,2 %) y pH (4,0;6,0;7,0). La relativa alta biomasa obtenida para las dos levaduras probadas demostró que el sustrato preparado con el exudado gomoso de S. dulcis es adecuado para su desarrollo. Spondias dulcis especie localizada en Venezuela produce abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podría ser útil para preparar un nuevo sustrato que pueda competir con Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia. Abstract in english Malassezia yeasts are fungi that produce skin affections. Growth of these microorganisms requires specific conditions. The Dixon medium has generally been used for their culture and has been tested. The use of Spondias gum as a substrate for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae was tried and c [...] ompared with the Dixon medium. The growth kinetic for a given time range(0-120 h) was determined at different concentrations (1.2%) and pH levels (4,0; 6,0;7,0). The relatively high biomass obtained for the two tested yeasts demonstrated that the substrate prepared with S. dulcis gum exudate is suitable for their growth. Spondias dulcis, a species located in Venezuela, yields abundant gum. This fact and the results discussed above indicate that it could be used to prepare a substrate that could compete with Dixon for isolating and characterizing the Malassezia species.

  16. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Kissel; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and co...

  17. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, substituted cyanatophenol, cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates: Novel metabolites with allelopathic activity on Orobanche seed germination and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Avolio, Fabiana; Yoneyama, Koichi; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Orobanche and Phelipanche species (the broomrapes) are root parasitic plants, some of which represent serious weed problems causing heavy yield losses on important crops. Current control relies on the use of certain agronomic practices, resistant crop varieties, and herbicides, albeit success has been marginal. Agronomic practices such as the use of allelopathic species in intercropping or cover crops, or the use of direct seedling over residues of allelopathic species incorporate the principle of allelopathy exerted by molecules exuded from roots or released by crop residues to control broomrapes. In addition, the isolation of natural substances from root exudates of plants with potential to inhibit broomrape development opens the door to the design of new herbicides based on natural and benign sources. Ryecyanatines A and B and ryecarbonitrilines A and B, the first new substituted cyanatophenol, substituted cyanatobenzo[1,3]dioxole, and the latter two new substituted benzo[1,3]dioxolecarbonitriles were isolated from rye (Secale cereale L.) root exudates. They were characterized as 4-cyanato-2-methoxyphenol, 2-cyanato-benzo[1,3]dioxole, 2-methoxybenzo[1,3]dioxole-5-carbonitrile and benzo[1,3]dioxole-2-carbonitrile by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS spectra) methods. These compounds were investigated for allelopathic activity on Orobanche germination and development. Ryecarbonitriline A induced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds, and this germination can be considered as suicidal because O. cumana does not parasite rye roots and cannot survive without host resources beyond germination stage. In addition, ryecyanatine A promotes a rapid cessation of O. cumana, Orobanche crenata and Orobanche minor radicle growth with the promotion of a layer of papillae at the radicle tip in O. cumana and O. crenata hampering the contact of the parasite to the host. Ryecarbonitriline B also displayed the same activity although being less active than ryecyanatine A and mainly restricted to O. cumana. PMID:25468713

  18. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-01

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 ?M reduced the activity, and application of 100 ?M inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction. PMID:24117219

  19. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  20. Root-exuded malic acid versus chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in four plant species under different phosphorus levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y. Y, Wu; K, Zhao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of root-exuded malic acid and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence; the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) in four plant species (Broussonetia papyrifera, Morus alba, Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) at different phosphorus levels was [...] studied. A linear equation presents the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) or the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the amount of root-exuded malic acid. Broussonetia papyrifera and Orychophragmus violaceus easily adapted to a low-phosphorus environment. A low-cost method was used for assessing plant adaptability to a low-phosphorus environment when no chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was available.

  1. Temporary Exudative Retinal Detachment following Photodynamic Therapy in a Patient with Retinal Capillary Hemangioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Selver, Ozlem Barut; Yaman, Aylin; Saatci, Ali Osman

    2011-01-01

    A 21-year-old male with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome was treated for a retinal hemangioblastoma with photodynamic therapy (PDT). We employed the standard PDT protocol with doubled treatment duration. Seven days after the procedure, there were some perilesional intra- and subretinal hemorrhages and significant exudative retinal detachment extending inferiorly. Four weeks later, the hemorrhages had mostly cleared, and diminished subretinal fluid and partial regression of the hemangioblastoma were...

  2. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    LEONORA MENDOZA; BRENDA MODAK; RENE TORRES; MILENA COTORAS

    2008-01-01

    The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was analyzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compo...

  3. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN? Ag in exuding chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kotz, Paula; Fisher, Jane; Mccluskey, Pat; Hartwell, Samantha D.; Dharma, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a mul...

  4. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  5. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2014-03-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere. PMID:24271005

  6. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  7. The plant stigma exudate: A biochemically active extracellular environment for pollen germination?

    OpenAIRE

    Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan de Dios; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Castro, Antonio J

    2014-01-01

    During sexual reproduction, pollen performance is greatly influenced by the female tissues. The stigma exudate, i.e., the extracellular secretion that covers the stigma outermost surface, has been usually regarded as a reservoir of water, secondary metabolites, cell wall precursors and compounds that serve as energy supply for rapid pollen tube growth. In an attempt to identify the proteins present in the stigma secretome, we performed a large-scale analysis in two species (Lilium longiflorum...

  8. Copper complexing properties of dissolved organic materials exuded by the freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, A T; Hidalgo, T M R; Vieira, A A H

    2005-07-01

    Dissolved organic materials released by the freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus acuminatus were fractionated into low- and high-molecular weight materials, which were investigated for their capacity to bind copper. The high-molecular weight material was also investigated for its monosaccharide composition and is further discussed in relation to the copper binding property. S. acuminatus was grown in batch cultures under laboratory controlled conditions and harvested at the beginning of stationary growth phase when exuded organic materials were obtained. Copper-complexing property of the total exuded organic materials and exopolysaccharides before and after freeze-drying was evaluated by complexometric titrations and Scatchard Plot Analysis of the titration data. The results revealed the presence of two copper-complexing ligands in the total exuded material, but only one in the exopolysaccharide. Stronger copper-complexing ligands are associated to low molecular weight compounds (LogK'1=7.3, LogCL1=-5.6; LogK'2=6.3, LogCL2=-5.1), whereas weaker ligands to the high molecular weight fraction (LogK'2=6.4, LogCL2=-5.6). Although freeze-drying the polymeric organic material (exopolysaccharide) may result in conformational changes of the molecule, no effect on copper-complexing properties was detected. Gas chromatography was used to evaluate the monosaccharide composition of the microalgal exopolysaccharide, which detected high content of mannose and 12% of acid monosaccharides. PMID:15950037

  9. A proteomic approach to Physcomitrella patens rhizoid exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Novo-Uzal, Esther

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between plants and the surrounding environment has been widely studied, specially the defence reactions and the plant-plant interactions. One of the most remarkable metabolic features of plant roots is the ability to secrete a vast array of compounds into the rhizosphere, not only of low molecular weight but also polysaccharides and proteins. Here, we took advantage of proteomics to study the rhizoid exudates of Physcomitrella patens at early and late development stages (7 and 28 days of culture in liquid medium). Samples were extracted, separated and detected with nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS, identifying 47 proteins at the development stage of 7 days, and 66 proteins at 28 days. Moreover, 21 proteins were common to the two analyzed periods. All the identified proteins were classified into 8 functional categories: response to stress, response to stimulus, oxido-reduction, cell wall modification, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, transport, DNA metabolic process and regulation/signalling. Our results show important differences in the protein expression profile along the development of P. patens, mainly at the level of regulation- and senescence-related proteins. Defence-related proteins, such as chitinases, thaumatins and peroxidases have a major role in the interaction of P. patens with the environment. PMID:25179523

  10. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  11. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. CST3 genotype associated with exudative age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Zurdel, Jan; Finckh, Ulrich; Menzer, Gunnar; Nitsch, Roger M; Richard, Gisbert

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether allelic variants of the cystatin C gene CST3 are genetically associated with exudative age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor that regulates the activity of cathepsin S, a protease with central regulatory functions in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

  13. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; T?íska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  14. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin and anthocyanin metabolites. We describe here the metabolites present in the root exudates using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) metabolomics approach. Using this approach, biased rhizosphere for another class of PGPR strains can now be created. In this case, lignin- and anthocyanin- utilizing strains will be selectively preferred. We have set up a platform to perform metabolomics of exudates at the root surface. This has allowed us to use the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) system using a Thermo Velos Pro Orbitrap-MS to identify differences in exudate profiles along the root system of Arabidopsis. This platform enables direct sampling and measurement from plant roots grown aeroponically. As the metabolites are extracted from root surface and directly injected into the mass spectrometer, there is minimal loss of sample in this process. This method will now allow us to further dissect rhizosphere properties from places such as young root apex, as well as from the more mature base of roots. Taken together, these resources of altered rhizosphere, nutrient utilization pathways in microbes and surface analysis technology will help in extending our understanding of the processes in the plant rhizosphere.

  15. Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

  16. Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Helena Inoue, Oda; Alexandre Lima, Nepomuceno; Mônica Corrêa, Ledur; Maria Cristina Neves de, Oliveira; Silvana Regina Rockenbach, Marin; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    1519-15-01

    Full Text Available As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m) com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8) e não-PSE (4453) de duas linhagens distintas, de cor [...] te e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ) foram inferiores (p0,05) na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1) de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina. Abstract in english Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53) meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ) [...] values were lower (p0.05) in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1) of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.

  17. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?aki? Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and ?-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  18. Enhanced root exudation induces microbial feedbacks to N cycling in a pine forest under long-term CO2 fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard P; Finzi, Adrien C; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2011-02-01

    The degree to which rising atmospheric CO(2) will be offset by carbon (C) sequestration in forests depends in part on the capacity of trees and soil microbes to make physiological adjustments that can alleviate resource limitation. Here, we show for the first time that mature trees exposed to CO(2) enrichment increase the release of soluble C from roots to soil, and that such increases are coupled to the accelerated turnover of nitrogen (N) pools in the rhizosphere. Over the course of 3 years, we measured in situ rates of root exudation from 420 intact loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Trees fumigated with elevated CO(2) (200 p.p.m.v. over background) increased exudation rates (?g C cm(-1) root h(-1) ) by 55% during the primary growing season, leading to a 50% annual increase in dissolved organic inputs to fumigated forest soils. These increases in root-derived C were positively correlated with microbial release of extracellular enzymes involved in breakdown of organic N (R(2) = 0.66; P = 0.006) in the rhizosphere, indicating that exudation stimulated microbial activity and accelerated the rate of soil organic matter (SOM) turnover. In support of this conclusion, trees exposed to both elevated CO(2) and N fertilization did not increase exudation rates and had reduced enzyme activities in the rhizosphere. Collectively, our results provide field-based empirical support suggesting that sustained growth responses of forests to elevated CO(2) in low fertility soils are maintained by enhanced rates of microbial activity and N cycling fuelled by inputs of root-derived C. To the extent that increases in exudation also stimulate SOM decomposition, such changes may prevent soil C accumulation in forest ecosystems. PMID:21176050

  19. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  20. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth) / Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André G. da, Silva; Judith F., Rodrigues; Regina Célia M. de, Paula.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma [...] nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+) foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5) g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4) g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4) g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro. Abstract in english A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysac [...] charide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+) were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5) g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4) g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4) g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  1. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman?s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman?s correlation test, the retinal hard exudates showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (P=0.019, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL (P=0.002 and TG (P=0.014 levels. The incidence of dyslipidemia varied from as high as nearly 70% among patients of Group 3 compared to as low as 18% among Group 1 patients. Conclusion: Serum cholesterol and LDL are independent risk factors for retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients who suffer from a remarkably high incidence of dyslipidemia.

  2. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LEONORA, MENDOZA; BRENDA, MODAK; RENE, TORRES; MILENA, COTORAS.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was anal [...] yzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compound fihfohnyl senecionate was inactive in all the tested conditions. The extract of H'. filifolium and filifolinol retarded the germination of conidia of the fungus

  3. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF BOTRYTIS CINÉREA TO RESINOUS EXUDATES OF HELIOTROPIUM FILIFOLIUMAND GERANYL DERIVATIVES COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONORA MENDOZA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the extract ofHeliotropium filifolium, of the natural compounds obtained from its resinous exudates, filifolinol and fihfohnyl senecionate, and of the synthetic derivative of filifolinol, filifolinoic acid, on the mycehal growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinérea was analyzed in liquid and solid media. The extract of H'. filifolium, filifolinol, and filifolinoic acid reduced mycehal growth of this fungus. The effect of these compounds was dose-dependant. The compound fihfohnyl senecionate was inactive in all the tested conditions. The extract of H'. filifolium and filifolinol retarded the germination of conidia of the fungus

  4. Frequency of causative factors for pleural effusions: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of various causative factors of pleural effusion in adults. Combined Military Hospital, Attock and PAF hospital Faisal Karachi. One hundred and fifty patients of clinical signs of pleural effusion, were selected and then, further classified in to transudative and exudative variety by carrying out pleural fluid routine testing and using Light's criteria . Later the final etiological diagnosis was made with the help of appropriate laboratory tests. Out of total 150 patients who were studied, 123 patients were found to have exudative effusions whereas 27 cases had transudative effusion. A total of five 5 patients (3.33%) were lost to follow up. Three patients were out of exudative variety and 02 were from transudative variety. Out of 120 patient of exudative pleural effusion, 70(58.2%) had tuberculosis, 28(23.2%) had malignancy, 12(10%) had pneumonia, 5(6%) were uraemic, 2(1.6%) had pulmonary embolism, and rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosis and liver abscess were causative factors in 1(0.8%) each patient. Out of transudative effusions, 14(56%) had congestive cardiac failure, 5(20%) had cirrhosis liver, 4(16%) had nephrotic syndrome and 1(4%) each had cardiac tamponade and myxoedema. The most common cause of pleural effusion remains tuberculosis. (author)

  5. Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution experiment were conducted to test if this occurs in six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes varying in tolerance to low Zn supply. In both experiments, low Zn supply resulted in a marked decrease in b...

  6. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P?0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  7. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-03-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. PMID:25382456

  8. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  9. The fate of siderophores: antagonistic environmental interactions in exudate-mediated micronutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James M; Duckworth, Owen W; Haselwandter, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    Organisms acquire metals from the environment by releasing small molecules that solubilize and promote their specific uptake. The best known example of this nutrient uptake strategy is the exudation of siderophores, which are a structurally-diverse class of molecules that are traditionally viewed as being integral to iron uptake. Siderophores have been proposed to act through a variety of processes, but their effectiveness can be mitigated by a variety of chemical and physical processes of both biotic and abiotic origin. Processes that occur at the surface of minerals can degrade or sequester siderophores, preventing them from fulfilling their function of returning metals to the organism. In addition, biotic processes including enzymatic degradation of the siderophore and piracy of the metal or of the siderophore complex also disrupt iron uptake. Some organisms have adapted their nutrient acquisition strategies to address these potential pitfalls, producing multiple siderophores and other exudates that take advantage of varying kinetic and thermodynamic factors to allow the continued uptake of metals. A complete understanding of the factors that contribute to metal uptake in nature will require a concerted effort to study processes identified in laboratory systems in the context of more complicated environmental systems. PMID:25619589

  10. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  11. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  12. Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Trinity Nijkamp

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del. Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root dry weight was observed. Expression of Striga seed germination in % g-1 root dry weight (GIC was found a suitable solution as stable values for GIC were obtained despite considerable variation in root dry weight. GIC was significant for 25 species and highest with Commelina forskalaei and Sesamum alatum (9.91; 9.78 % g-1 dry root, respectively. Striga seeds did not germinate following application of exudates from Mitracarpus scaber and Phyllanthus pentrandus. These results show that a substantial number of indigenous weed species may serve as alternative trap crops to control the parasites seed bank. Furthermore, the timing of weeds in the cropping system may provide a (partial explanation for the erratic infestation levels found across fields and years that have dazed researchers for many years.

  13. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassiana, Kissel; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de [...] soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA), perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE), e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphat [...] e, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.

  14. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  15. Endogenous C-terminal fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein from Xenopus laevis skin exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamagirand, Christine; El Abida, Boutaïna; Der Garabedian, P Arsene; Hanquez, Chantal; Dubost, Lionel; Marie, Arul; Rholam, Mohamed; Friguet, Bertrand; Cohen, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody against the entire C-terminal end of human APP(695) (643-695 sequence) and a monoclonal antibody directed against human beta[1-40] amyloid peptide (betaA), we show the existence of endogenous peptides proteolytically derived from APP in skin exudate of the non transgenic Xenopus laevis frog. The majority of the immunoreactivity is found associated with a 30 kDa molecular species. Biochemical fractionation followed by mass spectrometry identification allowed us to assign this molecular species to C-terminal APP fragments containing all or part of betaA. According to the nature of N- and C-terminal amino acids we identified endogenous beta-, gamma-, epsilon-secretase-like activities, caspase-like activity and numerous endogenous cleavage sites within the beta-amyloid sequence at same sites as those observed in human betaA sequence. All these homologies with human indicate that X. laevis skin exudate is a good natural model to study betaA metabolism. In this way, interestingly, we identified endogenous cleavages at prohormone convertase-like sites not yet described at the same sites in human. Finally, all identified peptide fragments were stably associated with a 20.2 kDa protein. These new observed features suggest new research pathways concerning human betaA metabolism and carriage of hydrophobic peptide fragments issued from APP processing. PMID:17270477

  16. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  17. Coriorretinopatía serosa central con exudados subretinianos bilaterales / Bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy with subretinal exudation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Normand-de-la-Sotilla; J.M., Camacho-Sampelayo; F., Romero-Guerrero; S., Muiños-Muro.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Varón de 37 años con disminución de agudeza visual bilateral y metamorfopsia. Presenta exudados subretinianos bilaterales amarillentos con levantamiento neurosensorial en el polo posterior, que en la angiografía se corresponden con puntos hiperfluorescentes en fases precoces. Tratado c [...] on fotocoagulación de los puntos de fuga, a los 6 meses recuperó su agudeza visual con una remisión prácticamente completa de las lesiones. Discusión: La exploración clínica, las pruebas complementarias y la evolución del cuadro nos permiten descartar el diagnóstico de enfermedad de Best. La presencia de exudados subretinianos amarillentos no nos debe hacer desechar de entrada el diagnóstico de coriorretinopatía serosa central. Abstract in english Clinical case: A 37-year-old man was referred because of a bilateral loss of visual acuity and metamorphopsia. On examination there was yellowish exudation bilaterally associated with serous retinal detachments, corresponding to hyperfluorescence spots in the early stage of fluorescein angiography. [...] Photocoagulation of the leakage spots was performed in both eyes. Six months later he had recovered his visual acuity and the lesions had remitted. Discussion: The clinical findings, ancillary tests and subsequent clinical course allowed a diagnosis of Best's disease to be ruled out. The presence of sub-retinal yellowish exudation in the posterior pole does not necessarily rule out the diagnosis of central serous chorioretinopathy.

  18. Biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance by cultured peritoneal exudate macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated changes in radiosensitivity of peritoneal exudate macrophage colony-forming cells (PE-CFC) when exudative peritoneal macrophages were cultured in vitro. The change in the shape of the dose-response curve of PE-CFC to ionizing irradiation was partly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the gas phase of the incubators. When cells were incubated in an environment containing 20% oxygen, the value of both Dq and D0 for PE-CFC increased. The dose-response curve of PE-CFC cultured for 3 days resembled that of alveolar macrophage colony-forming cells (AL-CFC). The changes in radiosensitivity were accompanied by an increase in the level of three antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, when they were cultured in a 6% oxygen environment, only the value of Dq increased. When alveolar macrophages were incubated in vitro, no significant change in the shape of the dose-response curve of AL-CFC was noted whether they were cultured in gas phase containing either 20 or 6% oxygen. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of PE-CFC changes when they are cultured in vitro. The increase in D0 appears to be related to the intracellular level of antioxidant enzymes

  19. Exsudação radicular do glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto e na respiração microbiana do solo Root exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants and microbial soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar a exsudação radicular por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto cultivadas em solo e em solução nutritiva; e quantificar a respiração microbiana no solo em diferentes manejos com o herbicida glyphosate. Vasos com 8,0 L de solução nutritiva, contendo cinco perfurações na tampa, receberam uma muda de Eucalyptus grandis e quatro mudas de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, sendo cada vaso considerado como parcela experimental. As plantas de eucalipto e braquiária permaneceram em consórcio na solução hidropônica por 30 dias, sendo as plantas de braquiária podadas aos 15 dias após o transplante, visando estimular o perfilhamento. Após esse período foram aplicados os tratamentos correspondentes a 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate sobre as plantas de braquiária. No experimento em solo, mudas de E. grandis foram plantadas em 72 vasos de 10 L, 36 contendo solo arenoso e 36 solo argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com seis repetições, montado em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (dois tipos de solo e seis combinações de manejo. Após o plantio das mudas de eucalipto, 48 vasos (24 de cada solo receberam cinco mudas por vaso de Brachiaria decumbens, sendo estas cultivadas em consórcio com a muda de eucalipto. O restante dos vasos de eucalipto foi cultivado em monocultivo. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária (testemunha; 2 - eucalipto sem braquiária + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate aplicado no solo; 3- eucalipto com braquiária cortada após pulverização com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate; 4, 5 e 6 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária pulverizada respectivamente com 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. A aplicação foi feita sobre as plantas de braquiária nos tratamentos 4, 5 e 6, protegendo a planta de eucalipto do contato com o herbicida. O tratamento 2 recebeu a aplicação do glyphosate diretamente no solo. No tratamento 3, os vasos de eucalipto receberam a parte aérea de plantas de braquiária cortadas, sete dias após estas terem sido pulverizadas com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos dois ensaios houve controle acima de 95% da gramínea por todas as doses testadas, não sendo verificados sintomas de toxidez nas plantas de eucalipto. A atividade microbiana foi maior no solo arenoso, principalmente com o aumento das doses de glyphosate aplicadas nas plantas de braquiária.This study aimed to evaluate root exudation of the herbicide glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt cultivated in soil and in nutritive solution; and to quantify microbial respiration in soil under different managements. One Eucalyptus grandis and four Brachiaria decumbens seedlings were planted in pots with lids with five perforations holding 8.0 L of the nutritive solution. A randomized block design in six replications was used, each pot being considered an experimental plot. The eucalypt and brachiaria plants were interplanted in a hydroponic solution for 30 days. Fifteen days after the transplant, the brachiaria plants were pruned to stimulate tillering. After this period, glyphosate treatments of 0, 720, 1440, 2160, and 2880 g a.e. ha-1 were applied to the brachiaria plants. In the soil experiment, E. grandis seedlings were planted in 72 10-liter pots, half containing sandy soil and half clayey soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme (two soil types and six management combinations. Following the eucalypt seedlings, five Brachiaria decumbens seedlings per pot were planted in 48 pots (24 of each soil, and interplanted with a eucalypt seedling. The remaining eucalypt pots were cultivated in monoculture. The tested treatments were: 1- interplanted eucalypt and brachiaria (control; 2- Eucalypt without brachiaria + 1440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate applied in the soil; 3- interplanted eucalypt

  20. Exsudação radicular do glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto e na respiração microbiana do solo / Root exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants and microbial soil respiration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.D., Tuffi Santos; F.A., Ferreira; N.F., Barros; C.H., Siqueira; I.C., Santos; A.F.L., Machado.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: avaliar a exsudação radicular por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto cultivadas em solo e em solução nutritiva; e quantificar a respiração microbiana no solo em diferentes manejos com o herbicida glyphosate. Vasos com 8,0 L de solução nu [...] tritiva, contendo cinco perfurações na tampa, receberam uma muda de Eucalyptus grandis e quatro mudas de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis repetições, sendo cada vaso considerado como parcela experimental. As plantas de eucalipto e braquiária permaneceram em consórcio na solução hidropônica por 30 dias, sendo as plantas de braquiária podadas aos 15 dias após o transplante, visando estimular o perfilhamento. Após esse período foram aplicados os tratamentos correspondentes a 0, 720, 1.440, 2.160 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate sobre as plantas de braquiária. No experimento em solo, mudas de E. grandis foram plantadas em 72 vasos de 10 L, 36 contendo solo arenoso e 36 solo argiloso. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com seis repetições, montado em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (dois tipos de solo e seis combinações de manejo). Após o plantio das mudas de eucalipto, 48 vasos (24 de cada solo) receberam cinco mudas por vaso de Brachiaria decumbens, sendo estas cultivadas em consórcio com a muda de eucalipto. O restante dos vasos de eucalipto foi cultivado em monocultivo. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária (testemunha); 2 - eucalipto sem braquiária + 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate aplicado no solo; 3- eucalipto com braquiária cortada após pulverização com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate; 4, 5 e 6 - eucalipto consorciado com braquiária pulverizada respectivamente com 720, 1.440 e 2.880 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. A aplicação foi feita sobre as plantas de braquiária nos tratamentos 4, 5 e 6, protegendo a planta de eucalipto do contato com o herbicida. O tratamento 2 recebeu a aplicação do glyphosate diretamente no solo. No tratamento 3, os vasos de eucalipto receberam a parte aérea de plantas de braquiária cortadas, sete dias após estas terem sido pulverizadas com 1.440 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Nos dois ensaios houve controle acima de 95% da gramínea por todas as doses testadas, não sendo verificados sintomas de toxidez nas plantas de eucalipto. A atividade microbiana foi maior no solo arenoso, principalmente com o aumento das doses de glyphosate aplicadas nas plantas de braquiária. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate root exudation of the herbicide glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt cultivated in soil and in nutritive solution; and to quantify microbial respiration in soil under different managements. One Eucalyptus grandis and four Brachiaria decumbens se [...] edlings were planted in pots with lids with five perforations holding 8.0 L of the nutritive solution. A randomized block design in six replications was used, each pot being considered an experimental plot. The eucalypt and brachiaria plants were interplanted in a hydroponic solution for 30 days. Fifteen days after the transplant, the brachiaria plants were pruned to stimulate tillering. After this period, glyphosate treatments of 0, 720, 1440, 2160, and 2880 g a.e. ha-1 were applied to the brachiaria plants. In the soil experiment, E. grandis seedlings were planted in 72 10-liter pots, half containing sandy soil and half clayey soil. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with six replications, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme (two soil types and six management combinations). Following the eucalypt seedlings, five Brachiaria decumbens seedlings per pot were planted in 48 pots (24 of each soil), and interplanted with a eucalypt seedling. The remaining eucalypt pots were cultivated in monoculture. The tested treatments were: 1- interplanted eucalypt and brachiaria (control); 2- Eucalypt without brachiaria + 1440 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate appl

  1. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

    2014-06-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures. PMID:24033339

  2. Rhinovirus infection induces interleukin-13 production from CD11b-positive, M2-polarized exudative macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yutein; Hong, Jun Young; Lei, Jing; Chen, Qiang; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2015-02-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) causes asthma exacerbations. Previously, we showed that adherent bronchoalveolar cells from allergen-treated mice produce IL-13 when stimulated with RV ex vivo, implicating cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in viral-induced airway inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that RV infection of allergen-treated mice results in IL-13 production by CD11b+ exudative macrophages in vivo. We sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA), after which mice were inoculated with RV or sham HeLa cell lysate. After 1 day, lungs were harvested, and cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. We repeated this process in IL-13 reporter mice, CD11b-DTR mice in which diphtheria toxin selectively depletes CD11b+ cells, and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) null mice. We found that lungs of mice infected with RV alone showed increases in CD45+, CD68+, F4/80+, Ly6C+, and CD11b(high) cells, indicating an influx of inflammatory monocytes and exudative macrophages. The combination of OVA and RV had synergistic effects on the exudative macrophage number. However, CD11b+ cells from OVA-treated, RV-infected mice showed M2 polarization, including expression of CD206 and CD301 and production of IL-13. Similar results were obtained in IL-13 reporter mice. Diphtheria toxin depleted CD11b+, IL-13-producing cells in OVA-treated, RV-infected, CD11b-DTR mice, decreasing airway inflammation and responsiveness. CD11b+, Ly6C+ cells were reduced in CCR2 knockout mice. We conclude that, in contrast to naive mice, RV infection of mice with allergic airways disease induces an influx of IL-13-producing CD11b+ exudative macrophages bearing M2 macrophage markers. This finding further implicates alternatively activated macrophages in RV-induced asthma exacerbations. PMID:25029349

  3. Efeito de exsudatos de colônias e de filtrados de culturas de actinomicetos na eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica Effect of colony exudates and culture filtrates of actinomycetes on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Coimbra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dez filtrados de culturas de actinomicetos causaram redução na motilidade e 100% de mortalidade de J2 de Meloidogyne javanica. A diluição de alguns causou redução de 75 a 85% de mortalidade. Contudo, o filtrado do isolado PIC 1 causou, mesmo em diluição, 100% de mortalidade. Alguns filtrados reduziram a motilidade sem causar mortalidade. Dos isolados que causaram mortalidade também reduziram eclosão de J2. Entretanto, a porcentagem de redução variou ao longo do período de crescimento do actinomiceto em meio líquido. Exsudatos obtidos de colônias de alguns isolados de actinomicetos crescidos em meio sólido causaram 100% de mortalidade e redução na motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. Os isolados de actinomicetos ALF 4 e QUI 4 produziram substâncias tóxicas a J2 tanto em filtrado quanto em exsudato de colônia.Ten filtrates of actinomycetes cultivated in liquid medium, induced reduction of motility and 100% mortality of Meloidogyne javanica J2. Some of them, when diluted in water, reduced mortality to 75 a 85%. However, the isolate PIC 1, maintened J2 mortality of 100%, even after dilution in water. Some filtrates reduced motility, without causing mortality. Among the isolates that caused mortality, some also reduced J2 hatching. Nevertheless, the level of hatching inhibition varied with the growing status of the actinomycete in liquid medium. Exudates obtained from some actinomycete cultures in solid medium induced 100% mortality and reduction on motility of J2 of M. javanica. The isolates of actinomycetes ALF 4 and QUI 4 produced substances toxic to J2 in filtrates and in colony exudates as well.

  4. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-? was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications. PMID:25857980

  5. Correlação da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentração de lactato com a classificação de efusões em cães Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nunes Rosato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As efusões são problemas clínicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequência de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuição da pressão coloidosmótica intravascular, elevação da pressão hidrostática local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfáticos. Dessa maneira, a avaliação laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clínicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possível diagnóstico e instituída ação terapêutica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificação de uma efusão em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos críticos para a elucidação do diagnóstico e condução do caso clínico. Em Medicina Veterinária, o método tradicional de classificação de uma efusão é baseado na contagem celular e na concentração de proteínas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parâmetros não são suficientes para a correta classificação de todas as efusões. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlação de outros parâmetros bioquímicos com a diferenciação das efusões transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH das efusões, a relação de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentração de lactato das efusões, o gradiente de concentração de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentração de proteínas das efusões. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relação LDH efusão/soro, a concentração de lactato e o gradiente de concentração de lactato soro/efusão apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa (PThe effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic vases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P<0.05, as well as a high correlation with the classification of an exudative effusion.

  6. Influence of root exudates on the extracellular proteome of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierul, Kinga; Voigt, Birgit; Albrecht, Dirk; Chen, Xiao-Hua; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Proteins secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, a root-associated plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, are thought to play an important role in the establishment of beneficial interactions with plants. To investigate the possible role of proteins in this process, extracellular proteome maps of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 during the late exponential and stationary growth phases were generated using 2D gel electrophoresis. Out of the 121 proteins identified by MALDI-TOF MS, 61 were predicted to contain secretion signals. A few of the others, bearing no signal peptide, have been described as elicitors of plant innate immunity, including flagellin proteins, cold-shock proteins and the elongation factor Tu, suggesting that B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 protects plants against disease by eliciting innate immunity. Our reference maps were used to monitor bacterial responses to maize root exudates. Approximately 34 proteins were differentially secreted in response to root exudates during either the late exponential or stationary phase. These were mainly involved in nutrient utilization and transport. The protein with the highest fold change in the presence of maize root exudates during the late exponential growth phase was acetolactate synthase (AlsS), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the volatile acetoin, known as an inducer of systemic resistance against plant pathogens and as a trigger of plant growth. PMID:25355936

  7. Host-root exudates increase gene expression of asparagine synthetase in the roots of a hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavault, P; Estabrook, E; Albrecht, H; Wrobel, R; Yoder, J I

    1998-11-19

    Triphysaria is a facultative root parasite in the Scrophulariaceae family. Similar to other related parasites, the development of the parasitic life cycle is initiated by molecular signals released from appropriate host roots. Using a differential display, we isolated cDNAs preferentially abundant in T. versicolor roots exposed to Trifolium repens (white clover) root exudates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that one of the differentially expressed cDNAs had significant homology to the nitrogen-assimilating enzyme, asparagine synthetase (AS). T. versicolor AS cDNA clones were isolated and placed into three distinct classes on the basis of nucleotide sequence variations. All three classes encoded identical AS proteins. AS was expressed in both roots and shoots of in-vitro-cultured T. versicolor. Steady-state levels of AS mRNA increased in T. versicolor roots several-fold when seedlings were exposed to exudate obtained from hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Therefore, AS transcript levels increased in response to exudates from two different hosts (Trifolium and Arabidopsis). The T. versicolor AS message levels increased to a similar magnitude when seedlings were incubated in the dark. Interestingly, AS levels were unaffected by treatment with the Striga haustoria inducer 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone. The potential role of AS in root parasitism is discussed. PMID:9831643

  8. The role of physical rehabilitation in the treatment of exudative pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojevi? Momir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Exudates are due to a variety of diseases, the major and most common ones being tuberculosis, nonspecific inflammation and malignancy. They are usually treated conservatively, sometimes combined with surgery and physical treatment. Physical the-rapy includes positional exercises, breathing exercises and biostimulation. Aim of the study The study was aimed to find out the following: 1 Is lung function improved by physical therapy; 2 Can adhesions be diminished and mobility of the affected hemidiaphragm improved by physical treatment; 3 Is there a direct positive correlation between physical treatment and obtained improvement, or the same can be achieved in patients receiving medicamentous treatment only; 4 What are the effects of some factors we cannot influence (sex, age, effusion level, position of adhesions on lung function and diaphragm mobility improvement, that is on the efficiency of physical treatment; 5 How do the factors we can influence (the time interval before initiating the treatment and its duration affect improvement of the same lung function parameters, that is treatment efficacy? Material and methods Physical treatment of patients with exudative pleurisy was accomplished at the Department of Rehabilitation in our Institute and it consisted of directed breathing exercises and laser biostimulation. Its effects were examined in a group of 175 patients, who received both conservative and physical treatment, and results were compared with the control group patients, treated only conservatively (with antibiotics, antituberculotics, corticosteroids. RESULTS Comparative analysis confirmed a significant improvement of lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, PEF as well as of hemidiaphragm mobility on the affected side of the thorax in favour of the examined group. The severity of the lung function and diaphragm mobility impairments have been found to be in correlation with the localization of adhesions, whereas the degree of improvement correlated with the time interval before the treatment initiation, as well as with its duration. DISCUSSION and conclusion The applied physical therapy resulted in: 1 significant improvement of all examined lung function parameters in the examined group, which was not registered in the control group; 2 significant improvement of the diaphragm mobility in general; 3 factors such as sex, age and effusion level have no effects on the physical treatment results; 4 treatment results are affected by the time interval passed before the treatment initiation and its duration, as well as the localization of adhesions; anterior adhesions affected lung function and diaphragm mobility least, posterior ones more, while the influence of lateral adhesions was most significant. It is finally concluded that physical treatment should necessarily be included in the treatment of exudative pleurisy.

  9. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone. PMID:25046756

  10. Structural features of an arabinogalactan gum exudates from Spondias dulsis (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Maritza; León de Pinto, Gladys; Sanabria, Lilian; Beltrán, Olga; Igartuburu, José M; Bahsas, Ali

    2003-03-28

    The tree Spondias dulcis, located in Venezuela, exudes a light-brown gum. The polysaccharide, isolated from the original gum, contains galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, and its 4-O-methyl derivative. Application of chemical methods, in combination with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy afforded interesting structural features of the gum polysaccharide. The unequivocal presence of rhamnose in the polymer structure was confirmed by chemical and spectral data [1H (1.03 ppm); 13C (16.92 ppm)]. Also confirmed was the existence of 3-O- and 6-O-substitutes galactose residues by the spectral data correlations observed in Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence (HMQC) and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC). Also observed were unequivocal resonances for beta-D-glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivative, and the presence of 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranose and 3-O-beta-L-arabinopyranose residues. PMID:12644375

  11. Unilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment as the Sole Presentation of Relapsing Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Az?k

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocular findings are rarely the initial symptom of leukemia, although up to 90% of all leukemia patients have fundus changes during the course of the disease. Herein we report a relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient with the sole presentation of sudden visual loss and exudative retinal detachment. An 8-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed sudden visual loss during his first remission period. Bullous retinal detachment with total afferent pupillary defect was observed. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraocular mass lesion; simultaneously obtained bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed no evidence of leukemic cells. Following local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy the mass disappeared. Local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy effectively controlled the isolated ocular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and eliminated the need for enucleation.

  12. Evaluation of colloidal radioactive chromium phosphate retention in the articular exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope measurements were carried out in patients receiving intra-articular injection of colloidal solution of radioactive chromium phosphate for chronic synovial exudates in knee joints. The degree of isotope escape outside the joint and its accumulation in the inguinal lymph nodes and liver were evaluated. Twenty-three joints were studied, in 9 cases some escape of the isotope from the joint and absence of accumulation in lymph nodes was observed. In the remaining 14 cases the accumulation in lymph nodes was observed, in 12 of them the amount of isotope was below 1% of the administered dose, in 2 cases was about 2%. In these cases the amount of the isotope escaping from the joint was from several to over ten per cent. In one case some accumulation of the isotope was observed also in the liver. (author)

  13. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ?G° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively. PMID:24941285

  14. Comportamiento de Malassezia furfur en medios de cultivo con base en los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin: Producción de lipasa extracelular / Growth of Malassezia furfur in Media With Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin Gum Exudates: Production of Extracellular Lipase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Mila, Mesa C; Octoban, Urdaneta; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Viluzca, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto; Rafael, Villalobos.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de las levaduras del género Malassezia requiere condiciones especiales, estos hongos que producen afecciones en la piel, son generalmente cultivados en el medio Dixon. Se ensayaron los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin como sustratos para Malassezia furfur. Se evalu [...] ó también la producción de lipasa. Se determinó la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado intervalo de tiempo (0-168h), y a diferente concentración (0,5; 1%) y pH (4,5; 6,0). La biomasa obtenida para la levadura probada demostró que los sustratos preparados con los exudados gomosos son adecuados para su desarrollo. La mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular se observó al tiempo inicial de estudio (18h) en ambos sustratos, en las condiciones usadas: concentración (0,5 y 1%) y pH (4,5 y 6,0). Estas especies botánicas, ampliamente localizadas en Venezuela, especialmente en los Estados Zulia y Falcón, producen abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la obtención de un nuevo sustrato, que pueda competir con el medio Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia, y para la producción de lipasa. Abstract in english The development of genus Malassezia yeasts requires special conditions. This fungus, which produces skin diseases, is generally cultivated in the Dixon medium. Gum exudates from Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin were tested as substrates for Malassezia furfur. Lipase production was also evaluated. [...] The growth kinetic was determined for a given time range (0-168h) at different concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH levels (4.5; 6.0). The biomass obtained for the tested yeast showed that substrates prepared with S. dulcis and S.mombin gum exudates are suitable for its development. The highest extracellular lipase activity was observed at 18h on both substrates at given concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH (4.5; 6.0). These botanical species, widely located in Venezuela, especially in the States of Zulia and Falcon, yield abundant gum. Findings may be useful for obtaining new substrates that could compete with the Dixon medium for isolation and characterization of Malassezia species and for lipase production.

  15. COLOMBIAN BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA) ATTRACTED TO TREE EXUDATES / MARIPOSAS COLOMBIANAS ATRAÍDAS POR EXUDACIONES DE CORTEZAS DE ÁRBOLES (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julián A., Salazar-E..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se publica una lista preliminar de especies de mariposas frugívoras, que se alimentan de exudados segregados por las cortezas de siete especies de árboles existentes en varias regiones de Colombia. Adicionalmente, se suministran datos de los tipos de secreciones, composición, hábitos [...] de las mariposas y de otros insectos que comparten dicho fenómeno. Abstract in english A preliminary checklist is presented of fruit-feeding butterflies that visit the exudation of seven species of trees observed in several zones of Colombia. Additional data on secretion types, composition, butterfly behavior and the other insects sharing the same phenomena are included. [...

  16. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, C

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at pre-specified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (correlation coefficients=0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to four years after the first vaccine dose.

  17. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  18. Correlação da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentração de lactato com a classificação de efusões em cães / Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Nunes, Rosato; Letícia Abrahão, Anai; Aureo Evangelista, Santana.

    1582-15-01

    Full Text Available As efusões são problemas clínicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequência de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuição da pressão coloidosmótica intravascular, elevação da pressão hidrostática local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfátic [...] os. Dessa maneira, a avaliação laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clínicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possível diagnóstico e instituída ação terapêutica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificação de uma efusão em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos críticos para a elucidação do diagnóstico e condução do caso clínico. Em Medicina Veterinária, o método tradicional de classificação de uma efusão é baseado na contagem celular e na concentração de proteínas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parâmetros não são suficientes para a correta classificação de todas as efusões. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlação de outros parâmetros bioquímicos com a diferenciação das efusões transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH) das efusões, a relação de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentração de lactato das efusões, o gradiente de concentração de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentração de proteínas das efusões. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relação LDH efusão/soro, a concentração de lactato e o gradiente de concentração de lactato soro/efusão apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa (P Abstract in english The effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic v [...] ases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P

  19. Comparing the results of VATS pleurectomy and talc pleurodesis with small sized catheter in randomised patients with malign pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tunçözgür

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural effusion occurs as a result of detoriationin equilibrium between absorption and secretion.We aimed to investigate the clinical responses of talkpleurodesis and pleurectomy with video assisted thoracoscopicsurgery (VATS in patients with malignant pleuraleffusion.Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with malignantpleural effusion between June 2007 and June 2008were included in this study. Thoracentesis was performedin order to study the biochemical, microbiologic, cytologicalanalysis. Glucose, total protein, albumin, lactic dehydrogenasesand cytological examination were studied ineffusion and blood sample simultaneously. Cases wereclassified into two groups; in group I (n=25, small calibratedcatheter and talk pleurodesis were performed. Ingroup II (n=20, VATS pleurectomy was performed.Results: There were 32 females and 13 males with meanage 51.58 (27-75 years. Diagnosis was made with cytologicexamination of pleural fluid that was aspirated withthoracentesis. Transudate- exudate discrimination wasdone according to Light’s criteria. Success rates of thegroups were as complete response; 84% (n=21 in groupI, 85% (n=17 in group II. Unsuccessful response was16% (n=4 in group I and 15% (n=3 in group II. Therewas no statistically significant difference between hospitalstay and tube duration of groups when compared to eachother.Conclusion: The treatment of malignant pleural effusionis palliative due to poor prognosis. The purpose isto eliminate dyspnea in patients with short survival time.There was no significant difference between the VATSpleurectomy and talc pleurodesis that has been known aseffective sclerosant agent. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:223-228

  20. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  1. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  2. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p?fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p?>?0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest. PMID:23733822

  3. Regulation of macrophage populations. The immunologic induction of exudates rich in Ia-bearing macrophages is a radiosensitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluted some of the conditions regulating the selective augmentation of the Ia-positive macrophage population within immunologically induced exudates. Antigen-stimulated T cells secrete a protein referred to as macrophage- (Ia-positive) recruiting factor (MIRF), which when injected i.p. stimulates a 10- to 20-fold increase in the number of Ia-positive exudate macrophages. This response is totally abrogated when mice are lethally irradiated before injection of MIRF or immune T cells. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells to irradiated mice substantially restores their abillity to respond to the immunologic stimuli, even if the transferred bone marrow has itself been depleted of Ia-positive cells. It was also found that the high level of Ia-positive macrophages induced by MIRF requires a renewable stem cell source in oder to be maintained. Finally, even when macrophages were elicited by injecting thioglycollate before irradiation, Ia-positive cells were not induced in response to MIRF. These findings suggest that the target of MIRF in vivo may be restricted to a developmentally young cell within or recently derived from a stem cell compartment such as the bone marrow, and that Ia-positive and Ia-negative macrophages ultimately derive from a potentially common Ia-negative stem cell

  4. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  5. Biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 inhibits germination of Fusarium oxysporum spores in tomato root exudate as well as subsequent formation of new spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Lamers, Gerda; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis-licopersici (Forl) is a soilborne pathogenic fungus which can cause tomato foot and root rot (TFRR). Tomato root exudate is a good source of nutrients for both Forl and the TFRR-suppressing biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365. Incubation of Forl microconidia in tomato root exudate stimulates their germination. This phenomenon is observed, to a lesser extent, upon incubation in plant nutrient solution supplemented with citrate or glucose, the major organic acid and sugar components, respectively, of tomato root exudate. Here we show that induction of germination of microconidia is significantly reduced in the presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 in all tested media. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that P. fluorescens WCS365 colonizes developing hyphae. Efficient colonization correlates with low nutrient availability. Eventually, new microconidia are formed. The presence of P. fluorescens WCS365 reduces the number of newly formed microconidia. This reduction does not depend on physical contact between bacteria and hyphae. We discuss that the ability of P. fluorescens WCS365 to slow down the processes of microconidia germination and development of new microconidia of the phytopathogen, and therefore the ability to reduce fungal dissemination, is likely to contribute to the biocontrol efficacy of this strain. PMID:18430156

  6. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1?4)-linked ?-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked ?-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked ?-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of ?-Araf, ?-Arap, ?-Galp, and ?-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of ?-GlcpA O-3 linked at ?-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, ?-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. PMID:23544593

  7. Enzyme Partitioning Using PEG-Anacardium occidentale L. Exudate Gum Polysaccharide Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Tambourgi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of PEG molecular weight, system polymer concentrations (tie-line lengths, pH and sodium chloride concentration, on the partition coefficient of trypsin in PEG-purified Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree exudate gum polysaccharide aqueous two-phase systems have been investigated. Changes in PEG molecular weight, tie-line length and pH, had relatively little effect on trypsin partitioning, with partition coefficients (? < 0.3, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the A. occidentale L. gum (lower phase. However, addition of sodium chloride (0.1 M resulted in dramatic increases in ? values with increasing pH using the PEG 4000 (9% w/w-purified A. occidentale L. gum (18% w/w system, increasing to 3.70 at pH 7.0 and 9.77 at pH 8.0, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the PEG 4000 (upper phase. Relative trypsin activities in the phases were investigated for these systems (with different sodium chloride levels and high activities were obtained at pH 7.0 (70.9% and pH 8.0 (90.9% in 0.1 M sodium chloride, which in conjunction with their ? values, clearly demonstrates their suitability as lower cost enzyme purification procedures (compared with PEG-dextran.

  8. Retinal pigment epithelial tears after intravitreal bevacizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Saad; Olson John; Richmond Preston

    2007-01-01

    We report a series of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Retinal pigment epithelial tears were estimated to occur at an incidence of 1.6% in this patient population at our institution. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this rare but serious finding associated with exudative macular degeneration therapy.

  9. A Murine Genital-Challenge Model Is a Sensitive Measure of Protective Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus Infection ?

    OpenAIRE

    Longet, Ste?phanie; Schiller, John T.; Bobst, Martine; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-haefliger, Denise

    2011-01-01

    The available virus-like particle (VLP)-based prophylactic vaccines against specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types afford close to 100% protection against the type-associated lesions and disease. Based on papillomavirus animal models, it is likely that protection against genital lesions in humans is mediated by HPV type-restricted neutralizing antibodies that transudate or exudate at the sites of genital infection. However, a correlate of protection was not established in the clinical tria...

  10. Biophysical investigation of plant exudate of Acacia senegal (L Willd. from Sudan-savannah ecological zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yusuf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant gum exudate harvested from Acacia senegal (Acacia gum/gum Arabic is the most widely used plant gum especially in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its non toxicity and excellent properties as emulsifiers and stabilizers in emulsions. It consists of complex polysaccharides and glycoprotein, and its qualities are defined by the biophysical properties of the gum. Analyses of some biophysical properties using range of techniques were carried out for harvested, untreated gum Arabic from Sudan-savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. The results revealed that it has some qualities which were in agreement with the international standard specified for gum Arabic. The soil type of the study area was found to be clayey-sandy in nature.

  11. Clinical diagnostic of pleural effusions using a high-speed viscosity measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurth, Cedric; Klein, Katherine; van Nimwegen, Lena; Korn, Ronald; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel bio-analytical method to discriminate between transudative and exudative pleural effusions based on a high-speed video analysis of a solid glass sphere impacting a liquid. Since the result depends on the solution viscosity, it can ultimately replace the battery of biochemical assays currently used. We present results obtained on a series of 7 pleural effusions obtained from consenting patients by analyzing both the splash observed after the glass impactor hits the liquid surface, and in a configuration reminiscent of the drop ball viscometer with added sensitivity and throughput provided by the high-speed camera. The results demonstrate distinction between the pleural effusions and good correlation with the fluid chemistry analysis to accurately differentiate exudates and transudates for clinical purpose. The exudative effusions display a viscosity around 1.39 ± 0.08 cP whereas the transudative effusion was measured at 0.89 ± 0.09 cP, in good agreement with previous reports.

  12. Role of plant root exudate and Sym plasmid-localized nodulation genes in the synthesis by Rhizobium leguminosarum of Tsr factor, which causes thick and short roots on common vetch.

    OpenAIRE

    Brussel, A. A.; Zaat, S. A.; Cremers, H. C.; Wijffelman, C. A.; Pees, E.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that cocultivation of Rhizobium leguminosarum with the plant Vicia sativa subsp. nigra on solid medium causes a changed mode of growth of the plant roots, resulting in thick and short roots (Tsr). The Sym plasmid present in the bacterium appeared to be essential for causing Tsr (A. A. N. van Brussel, T. Tak, A. Wetselaar, E. Pees, and C. A. Wijffelman, Plant Sci. Lett. 27:317-325, 1982). In the present paper, we show that a role in causing Tsr is general for S...

  13. Strontium-90 brachytherapy for exudative, age related macular degeneration: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARMD is the leading cause of visual loss in the 55 and older population. Recent data suggests that low dose external beam irradiation seems to have a beneficial effect in stabilizing the central visual acuity, by arresting or delaying the progression of the central scotoma. The authors decided to use a newly designed Strontium-90 Macular Applicator in a pilot study to ascertain its effectiveness in controlling exudative, age related macular degeneration. Two groups of 10 patients each were treated. The first group received a total dose of 10 Gy at 1.5 mm depth in a total time of 4 minutes and 20 seconds, fractionated in 4 applications of 1 minute and 5 seconds with 1 minute rest in between to allow blood perfusion. The second group was treated with 15 Gy at the same depth of 1.5 mm in a total time of 6 minutes, in 5 fractions of 1 minute and 20 seconds and 1 minute rest. The first group of patients had a mean follow-up time of 6.7 months, the visual acuity improved at least two Snellen gradations in one eye (10%), stabilized in six eyes (60%) and worsened in three eyes (30%). Among the nine eyes with fluorescein angiographic documentation at four and six months post treatment, the choroidal neovascular membrane remained stable in eight eyes (85%). Strontium-90 brachytherapy appears to be an effective treatment for stabilizing the extent of choroidal neovascular membrane growth on a short term basis. Whether this therapy stabilizes or improves visual acuity, as compareizes or improves visual acuity, as compared to the natural history of the untreated disease, remains uncertain. The second group will complete six months follow-up soon and the results will be discussed at the time of this presentation

  14. Use of exudated gum produced by Samanea saman in the potabilization of the water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Griselda, González; Magaly, Chávez; Donaldo, Mejías; Marielba, Mas y Rubí; Nola, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la clarificación del agua potable se utiliza sulfato de aluminio para remover materia coloidal y sustancias orgánicas, mejorando la calidad del agua. Elevadas concentraciones de aluminio residual en el agua potable tienen implicaciones en la salud humana, siendo necesario el desarrollo de coagula [...] ntes alternativos, ambientalmente aceptables para reemplazar los productos químicos. En esta investigación se estudió el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman como coagulante natural, estableciendo su dosis óptima mediante la prueba de jarro y determinando los parámetros: turbidez, color, pH, alcalinidad total, número más probable y conteo de heterótrofos, usando agua turbia sintética inoculada con un cultivo puro de Escherichia coli y solución de coagulante en dosis de 10-500 mg/L, con valores de turbidez inicial entre 10-100 NTU. La dosis óptima del coagulante resultó entre 10-25 mg/L, obteniendo disminuciones significativas en los valores de turbidez (1NTU) y color (5 UC), los valores de pH y alcalinidad total no presentaron variaciones significativas, los coliformes fecales y totales tuvieron remociones significativas (99,7% y 99,8% respectivamente) y el conteo de heterótrofos de observó con 0 UFC. Los parámetros evaluados cumplen con los estándares establecidos para garantizar la calidad del agua para consumo humano, usando el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman, demostrando la eficiencia de este coagulante natural. Abstract in english For the clarification of drinking water aluminium sulphate is used to remove colloids and organic substances to improve the water quality. High concentrations of residual aluminium in the drinkable water can have implications on human health, thus, it is necessary to develop alternative environmenta [...] lly acceptable coagulants. The exudates gums from Samanea saman were studied as natural coagulants, establishing optimum dose according to the jar test and determining parameters such as: turbidity, colour, pH, total, alkalinity, MPN and heterotrophic count; using synthetic turbid water inoculated with pure culture of E. Coli and coagulant solution on the volume range of 50 to 500 mg/L. The initial turbidity used was between 10 to 100 NTU. The optimum coagulant dose was found to be between 10 to 25 mg/L, with significant reduction of turbidity and colour, i, e,: 1 NTU for turbidity and 5 U for colour. The pH and total alkalinity did not present significant variations. On the other hand, for fecal coliforms a significant removal of 99.7%, and for total coliforms (99.8%) was found. And finally, the heterotrophic count was observed with 0 UFC. The parameters evaluated using the exudates gum from Samanea saman, comply with the standard established to guarantee the quality of water for human consumption, showing the efficiency of this natural coagulant.

  15. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for crossection but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the coffee seeds viability by exudates/ Avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café por exsudatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick evaluation of the germination quality of the seeds is very important for coffee growers. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coefficient between the germination and the liberation of brown exudates of coffee seeds with different times after preparation. Petri dishes and humid filter were used to place the seeds. The seeds were obtained from lots of seeds with several aging degrees. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with seven replications and plots constituted by 10 seeds. High negative correlations (P=0.01 were obtained between the germination and germinative vigour with the liberation of brown exudates at different times. The variance analyses indicated significant differences to germination among seeds of different aging degrees at different evaluation times. The advantage of this technique is to evaluate the germinative quality in six or twelve hours, without the use of specialized labour and expensive equipments.Existe uma grande necessidade de testes que possibilitem uma avaliação rápida e segura da qualidade das sementes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o coeficiente de correlação existente entre a germinação de sementes de café e a liberação de exsudato marrom. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri e papel-toalha umedecido onde foram colocadas as sementes. Os materiais foram obtidos de lotes de sementes com vários níveis de envelhecimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 7 repetições e parcelas constituídas de 10 sementes. Obtiveram-se correlações negativas altas e significativas a 1% entre a germinação e vigor germinativo com a liberação de exsudato marrom. As análises de variância indicaram diferenças significativas na germinação entre sementes de diferentes graus de envelhecimento em relação aos exsudatos marrons. A vantagem desta técnica é avaliar o poder germinativo em poucas horas, sem o uso de mão-de-obra especializada e equipamentos caros.

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans: pitfalls in diagnosis through evaluation of gram-stained smears of purulent exudates.

    OpenAIRE

    Bottone, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram-stained smears of purulent exudates may be hampered by the presence of the large gelatinous capsule which apparently prevents definitive staining of the yeast-like cells. In such stained preparations, C. neoformans may appear either as round cells with gram-positive granular inclusions impressed upon a pale lavender cytoplasmic background or as gram-negative lipoid bodies.

  18. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des substances et particulierement dans le transport de l'or colloidal radioactif. Les fractions sanguines qui peuvent participer au transport de l'or colloidal sont les hematies, les leucocytes et elements histiocytaires, et le plasma. La repartition de la radioactivite dans ces elements est precisee en pratiquant des autoradiographies de coupes de culots de sang centrifuge et congele apres incubation avec de l'or colloidal. Cette etude montre l'importance du plasma dans le transport des particules radioactives. Nous avons alors recherche une fixation eventuelle de l'or colloidal 198 sur les diverses proteines seriques en appliquant certaines methodes de separation a savoir une filtration-exclusion sur colonne de gel de Sephadex G-200 et un fractionnement electrophoretique sur papier et sur acetate de cellulose gelatineux (cellogel). Nous avons etudie la liaison ''in vitro'' et ''in vivo'' des particules colloidales d'or 198 d'abord avec les proteines seriques de sujets sains puis avec les proteines des liquides d'epanchement d'origine pathologique, chez l'homme, ou du a une inflammation experimentale a la carragenine chez le rat. Les particules d'or colloidal 198 de 30 m{mu} (S-2) sont liees dans une certaine mesure aux {alpha}2 globulines sanguines ou ascitiques, celles de 5 m{mu} (S-6) sont liees aux {alpha}1 globulines de meme que les grains contenus dans l'or polydisperse. Cette liaison semble intervenir grace a la couche protectrice de macromolecules constituees par la gelatine. Seules les caracteristiques physicochimiques de grains colloidaux peuvent expliquer leur difference de localisation sur l'electrophoregramme. L'or sous forme ionique, par contre, est combine, aux seules albumines si la quantite de metal presente ne depasse pas une certaine limite. (auteur)

  19. Lipoxygenase products in inflammatory synovial fluids and other exudates.

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, P. B.; Baer, A. N.; Green, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    Forty six synovial fluid samples from 42 patients with inflammatory joint disease were analysed by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography to determine 5-lipoxygenase products, specifically dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs). Twenty eight per cent of the fluids which were assayed had one or more products of 5-lipoxygenase activation. Seven fluids contained leukotriene B4 (0.1-28.1 ng/ml); three fluids had low concentrations of 20 carboxy/hydroxy-leukotriene B4 (0.01-0.05 ...

  20. Efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum Sisymbriifolium na enclosão de Meloidogyne SPP / Hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum Sisymbriifolium on Meloidogyne SPP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Luci, Conceição; Ana Margarida Caetano, Dias; Isabel, Abrantes; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nemátodes-das-galhas-radiculares (NGR), Meloidogyne spp., são fitoparasitas com uma grande distribuição e economicamente importantes, causando reduções significativas na quantidade e qualidade da produção agrícola. O seu controlo é difícil e muitos dos métodos utilizados são ineficazes. Algumas p [...] lantas libertam fitoquímicos naturais com propriedades nematodicidas e os exsudatos radiculares podem actuar como estimuladores ou inibidores da eclosão de jovens do segundo estádio (J2). O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) na eclosão de J2 de cinco isolados de Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica e M. javanica), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de protecção alternativas à utilização de nematodicidas. Os exsudatos radiculares obtidos através da lixiviação sucessiva do solo foram testados, com contagens diárias, durante o período de 15 dias. O exsudato de tomateiro (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) e a água destilada foram utilizados como testemunhas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are widespread and economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, causing significant reduction on quantity and quality of agricultural production. Its control is difficult and many methods are inefficient. Some plants release natural phytochemicals th [...] at have been identified and proved to have nematicides properties. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. The goal of this research was to evaluate the hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) on five Meloidogyne isolates (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica and M. javanica) and to contribute for the development of an alternative strategy to the use of the nematicides. The root exudates, obtained by successive soil leaching, were tested, with daily counts, for a period of 15 days. The exsudate from tomato (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) and distilled water were used as controls.

  1. The effects of formoterol on plasma exudation produced by a localized acute inflammatory response to bradykinin in the tracheal mucosa of rats in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    O Donnell, S. R.; Anderson, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of formoterol, a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, on plasma protein exudation and microvascular permeability induced by topical, i.e. applied onto the tracheal mucosal surface, bradykinin (10 nmol; 20 microM, 5 min, 0.1 ml min-1) were studied in a perfused segment of trachea prepared in situ in anaesthetized rats. 2. Bradykinin increased the amount of plasma (fluorimetric assay for protein) in the perfusate (response; 10.98 +/- 0.357 microliters, n = 69; total increase in plasma ov...

  2. A biovar-specific signal of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae induces increased nodulation gene-inducing activity in root exudate of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra.

    OpenAIRE

    Brussel, A. A.; Recourt, K.; Pees, E.; Spaink, H. P.; Tak, T.; Wijffelman, C. A.; Kijne, J. W.; Lugtenberg, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Flavonoids in root exudate of leguminous plants activate the transcription of Rhizobium genes involved in the formation of root nodules (nod genes). We report that inoculation with the homologous symbiont R. leguminosarum bv. viciae results in an increased nod gene-inducing activity (Ini) in root exudate of V. sativa subsp. nigra, whereas inoculation with heterologous Rhizobium strains results in exudates with nod gene-inducing activity comparable to that of uninfected plants. Ini can be demo...

  3. New structural features of Acacia tortuosa gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Maritza; Beltrán, Olga; Rincón, Fernando; León de Pinto, Gladys; Igartuburu, José Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Acacia tortuosa produces a clear gum, very soluble in water. Previous reports showed that it was constituted by four fractions, one of them an arabinogalactan-protein complex. The elucidation of the A. tortuosa gum structure by the combination of classical chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, was the objective of this investigation. The data obtained show that the heteropolysaccharide is an arabinogalactan type II, highly ramified, with lateral chains at C-2 as well as at C-6 of the galactose 3-O residues; mono-O-substituted galactoses were not detected. There are residues of mannose, the arabinose, pyranose predominantly, is terminal and 2-O-linked. The abundance of the 4-O-methyl-?-d-glucuronic acid was not previously reported. The proteic fraction is probably represented by an arabinogalactan-protein complex that binds poorly with ?-glucosyl Yariv reagent, and two glycoproteins. The NMR spectra suggest that the carbohydrate links to hydroxyproline through the galactose (galactosylation). PMID:25842315

  4. Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar simulando doença de Coats: relato de caso Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy simulating Coats disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes Lavezzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente de sete anos, nascido a termo, sem intercorrências perinatais, encaminhado ao Setor de Retina/Vítreo para elucidação diagnóstica. Apresentava história de redução da acuidade visual à esquerda, de caráter insidioso/progressivo, há quatro anos. Ao exame, apresentava diminuição do diâmetro corneano e corectopia do olho direito (OD, sem alterações à biomicroscopia do olho esquerdo (OE. A fundoscopia do OD revelava descolamento de retina (DR total e, do OE, inicialmente, mostrava alterações vasculares retinianas periféricas e exsudação retiniana, associado à tração vitreorretiniana no setor temporal. As tomografias e ressonâncias de crânio/órbitas não apresentavam anormalidades, com exceção de achados sugestivos de DR antigo no OD, confirmado pela ultrassonografia do globo ocular, que também demonstrou microftalmia. Diante disso, aventou-se a hipótese diagnóstica de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar, doença rara de caráter autossômico dominante e relacionada com casamentos consanguíneos, inicialmente simulando doença de Coats. O paciente foi tratado com fotocoagulação a laser diodo na periferia temporal do OE, com melhora das áreas de tração vitreorretiniana.We report the case of a seven year-old male patient, born at term without any perinatal complications, referred to the Retina/Vitreous Service for diagnostic elucidation. He had a history of progressive visual acuity loss on his left eye that started four years ago. On examination, he had decreased corneal diameter and corectopia of the right eye (OD, without any noteworthy findings on the biomicroscopy of the left eye (OS. The fundus of the OD revealed total retinal detachment, and the OS initially showed peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities and retinal exudation, associated with retinal vitreous traction on the temporal sector. The CT and MRI of the brain/orbits showed no abnormalities, except for findings suggestive of an old retinal detachment on the OD, confirmed by ultrasonography, which also showed microphthalmia of the OD. The diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease of autosomal dominant inheritance and related to consanguineous marriages, that can initially simulate Coats disease, was proposed. The patient was treated with diode laser photocoagulation in the temporal periphery of the OS, with improvement in the areas of vitreoretinal traction.

  5. Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar simulando doença de Coats: relato de caso / Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy simulating Coats disease: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Mendes, Lavezzo; Alan Kardec, Barreira Jr; Leandro Cabral, Zacharias; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente de sete anos, nascido a termo, sem intercorrências perinatais, encaminhado ao Setor de Retina/Vítreo para elucidação diagnóstica. Apresentava história de redução da acuidade visual à esquerda, de caráter insidioso/progressivo, há quatro anos. Ao exame, apre [...] sentava diminuição do diâmetro corneano e corectopia do olho direito (OD), sem alterações à biomicroscopia do olho esquerdo (OE). A fundoscopia do OD revelava descolamento de retina (DR) total e, do OE, inicialmente, mostrava alterações vasculares retinianas periféricas e exsudação retiniana, associado à tração vitreorretiniana no setor temporal. As tomografias e ressonâncias de crânio/órbitas não apresentavam anormalidades, com exceção de achados sugestivos de DR antigo no OD, confirmado pela ultrassonografia do globo ocular, que também demonstrou microftalmia. Diante disso, aventou-se a hipótese diagnóstica de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar, doença rara de caráter autossômico dominante e relacionada com casamentos consanguíneos, inicialmente simulando doença de Coats. O paciente foi tratado com fotocoagulação a laser diodo na periferia temporal do OE, com melhora das áreas de tração vitreorretiniana. Abstract in english We report the case of a seven year-old male patient, born at term without any perinatal complications, referred to the Retina/Vitreous Service for diagnostic elucidation. He had a history of progressive visual acuity loss on his left eye that started four years ago. On examination, he had decreased [...] corneal diameter and corectopia of the right eye (OD), without any noteworthy findings on the biomicroscopy of the left eye (OS). The fundus of the OD revealed total retinal detachment, and the OS initially showed peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities and retinal exudation, associated with retinal vitreous traction on the temporal sector. The CT and MRI of the brain/orbits showed no abnormalities, except for findings suggestive of an old retinal detachment on the OD, confirmed by ultrasonography, which also showed microphthalmia of the OD. The diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease of autosomal dominant inheritance and related to consanguineous marriages, that can initially simulate Coats disease, was proposed. The patient was treated with diode laser photocoagulation in the temporal periphery of the OS, with improvement in the areas of vitreoretinal traction.

  6. Clinically relevant pain relief with an ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing : Results from a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial in exuding, painful venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Karsten; Andersen, Maibritt B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this 6-week, 120-patient, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate if a foam dressing with ibuprofen provided clinically relevant pain relief (PAR) for exuding, painful venous leg ulcers in comparison with a similar foam dressing without ibuprofen. Primary outcome parameter was PAR compared with baseline pain during the first 5 days of the investigation. PAR was registered by the patient morning and evening. Main end point was proportion of patients reporting a summed PAR score of at least 50% of the total maximum PAR (i.e., responders) and the corresponding number needed to treat (NNT). Wound-related parameters such as ulcer healing, ulcer area reduction, and peri-ulcer skin condition as well as adverse events were recorded during all 6 weeks of the investigation. PAR was significantly greater in the ibuprofen foam group than the comparator group (p?=?0.0438). There were 34% responders in the ibuprofen foam group vs. 19% in the comparator group (NNT?=?6.8). When evening data were analyzed separately to evaluate PAR over daytime, NNT was 5.3. Wound healing parameters and adverse events were comparable. In conclusion, in this study, the ibuprofen foam dressing provided clinically relevant PAR for patients with exuding, painful venous ulcers.

  7. Clinically relevant pain relief with an ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing : results from a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial in exuding, painful venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Karsten; Andersen, Maibritt B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this 6-week, 120-patient, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate if a foam dressing with ibuprofen provided clinically relevant pain relief (PAR) for exuding, painful venous leg ulcers in comparison with a similar foam dressing without ibuprofen. Primary outcome parameter was PAR compared with baseline pain during the first 5 days of the investigation. PAR was registered by the patient morning and evening. Main end point was proportion of patients reporting a summed PAR score of at least 50% of the total maximum PAR (i.e., responders) and the corresponding number needed to treat (NNT). Wound-related parameters such as ulcer healing, ulcer area reduction, and peri-ulcer skin condition as well as adverse events were recorded during all 6 weeks of the investigation. PAR was significantly greater in the ibuprofen foam group than the comparator group (p?=?0.0438). There were 34% responders in the ibuprofen foam group vs. 19% in the comparator group (NNT?=?6.8). When evening data were analyzed separately to evaluate PAR over daytime, NNT was 5.3. Wound healing parameters and adverse events were comparable. In conclusion, in this study, the ibuprofen foam dressing provided clinically relevant PAR for patients with exuding, painful venous ulcers.

  8. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

  9. Isolation of mast cells from the peritoneal exudate of the teleost fish gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-González, Nuria Esther; García-García, Erick; Montero, Jana; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is the first response of animals to infection or tissue damage. Sparus aurata (Perciformes) was the first fish species shown to possess histamine-containing mast cells at mucosal tissues. We report a separation protocol for obtaining highly enriched (over 95% purity) preparations of fish mast cells in high numbers (5-20 million mast cells per fish). The peritoneal exudate of S. aurata is composed of lymphocytes, acidophilic granulocytes, macrophages and mast cells. We separated the lymphocyte fraction through discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The remaining cells were cultivated overnight in RPMI-1640 culture medium containing 5% fetal calf serum, which allowed macrophages to adhere to the cell culture flasks. Finally, acidophilic granulocytes were separated from the mast cells though a Magnetic-Activated Cell Separation (MACS) protocol, using a monoclonal antibody against these cells. The purity of mast cells-enriched fractions was analyzed by flow cytometry and by transmission electron microscopy. The functionality of purified mast cells was confirmed by the detection of histamine release by ELISA after stimulation with compound 48/80 and the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-8 following stimulation with bacterial DNA. This fish mast cells separation protocol is a stepping stone for further studies addressing the evolution of vertebrate inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:25047357

  10. Cell Origins and Diagnostic Accuracy of Interleukin 27 in Pleural Effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wei-bing; Liang, Qiu-li; Ye, Zhi-jian; Niu, Chun-mi; Ma, Wan-li; Xiong, Xian-zhi; Du, Rong-hui; Zhou, Qiong; Zhang, Jian-chu; Shi, Huan-zhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of interleukin (IL)-27 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural IL-27. The concentrations of IL-27 were determined in pleural fluids and sera from 68 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, 63 malignant pleural effusion, 22 infectious pleural effusion, and 21 transudative pleural effusion. Flow cytometry was used to identify which pleural cell types expressed IL-27. It was found that the ...

  11. Diagnostic utility of pleural fluid and serum markers in differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczynski P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of four different tumor markers: cancer antigen 125 (CA-125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1 and neuron specific enolase (NSE in patients with malignant and non-malignant pleural effusion. Material and methods One hundred and two patients with pleural effusion treated in the University Hospital in Warsaw between 2001 and 2003 were studied. They underwent an extensive, diagnostic work-up in order to determine the pleural effusion etiology. Patients with known pleural fluid etiology were labeled as the study group and submitted for further analysis. Pleural fluid and serum samples for CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE measurements were collected during the first thoracentesis, centrifuged, and frozen until further use. Pleural fluid and serum concentration of tumor markers were assessed by electrochemiluminescence methods using commercial kits. Results 74 patients (32 M, 42 F; mean age 65 ± 14 years composed the final study group. Exudative pleural effusion was found in 62 patients; of these 36 were malignant (48.6% of all effusions, 20 parapneumonic (or pleural empyema, and 6 tuberculous. In 12 patients, pleural transudate was diagnosed. The highest diagnostic sensitivity for malignant pleural effusion was found for NSE (94.4% and 80.6% in the pleural fluid and serum, respectively. However, the specificity of NSE measurement was relatively low (36.1% and 47.4% in pleural fluid and serum, respectively. The most specific markers of malignant pleural fluid etiology were pleural fluid CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels (92.1% and 92.1%, respectively. CA-125 was found to be the most specific serum marker of pleural malignancies (78.9%. The AUC for combined pleural markers was 0.89, combined serum markers 0.82, combined ratio pleural/serum markers 0.88. Conclusions There are significant differences between the diagnostic value of various pleural fluid and serum markers. Overall, pleural fluid markers are superior to serum markers in determining the pleural fluid etiology. A combination of two or more tumor markers may help improve their diagnostic accuracy. Pleural fluid and serum measurements of different tumor markers play a limited role in the differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions.

  12. Urinothorax—An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Dyspnea: Report of a Bilateral and of an Ipsilateral Urinothorax Case

    OpenAIRE

    Laskaridis, Leonidas; Kampantais, Spyridon; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Chachopoulos, Basileios; Perdikis, Ioannis; Tahmatzopoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Urinothorax (UT) is a rare and often undiagnosed condition, defined as the presence of urine in the pleural cavity due to the retroperitoneal leakage of urine accumulation, known as urinoma, into the pleural space. UT usually is a transudative pleural effusion that presents in patients with obstructive uropathy and it may occur following surgical procedures in the ureter or kidney such as ESWL, PCNL, and URS. Its diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion since the respiratory sym...

  13. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L.) root

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela Maria Gattás, Hallak; Lisete Chamma, Davide; Itamar Ferreira, Souza.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados experimentos em casa de vegetação da Empresa Agropecuária de MG (EPAMIG) e laboratório da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) em 1994, com o objetivo de testar a ação alelopática de exsudados de raiz de sorgo (sorgoleone - SGL), variedade BR-601, sobre plantas jovens do feijoeiro, [...] variedade Carioca MG. Sorgoleone foi extraído das raízes de sorgo 7 dias após a semeadura em placas de Petri. Soluções de 0,01, 0,05, 0,10 e 0,15 mM de SGL foram preparadas usando solução de Johanson como solvente. Plantas de feijão com 7 dias de idade, germinadas em vermiculita, em casa de vegetação, foram transplantadas para estas soluções. O feijoeiro não mostrou sinais de fitotoxicidade durante o período de tratamento; porém, observações citogenéticas mostraram que concentrações de 0,01 mM e acima reduziram o número de células nas fases de prófase, metáfase e anáfase em relação à testemunha. Entre as células em metáfase, observaram-se metáfases colchicínicas. As percentagens de metáfases colchicínicas no 3o e 5o dias após o transplante variaram com as concentrações de SGL; no 7o dia, estes valores foram inversamente proporcionais às concentrações, variando de 34,3% para 0,01 mM a 6,6% para 0,15 mM de SGL. Pode-se observar ainda nas células em anáfase e telófase cromossomos formando pontes e atrasados, bem como a ocorrência de metáfases poliplóides. Abstract in english Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG) and in a laboratory of th [...] e Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL), was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.

  14. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Gattás Hallak

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL, was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.Foram instalados experimentos em casa de vegetação da Empresa Agropecuária de MG (EPAMIG e laboratório da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA em 1994, com o objetivo de testar a ação alelopática de exsudados de raiz de sorgo (sorgoleone - SGL, variedade BR-601, sobre plantas jovens do feijoeiro, variedade Carioca MG. Sorgoleone foi extraído das raízes de sorgo 7 dias após a semeadura em placas de Petri. Soluções de 0,01, 0,05, 0,10 e 0,15 mM de SGL foram preparadas usando solução de Johanson como solvente. Plantas de feijão com 7 dias de idade, germinadas em vermiculita, em casa de vegetação, foram transplantadas para estas soluções. O feijoeiro não mostrou sinais de fitotoxicidade durante o período de tratamento; porém, observações citogenéticas mostraram que concentrações de 0,01 mM e acima reduziram o número de células nas fases de prófase, metáfase e anáfase em relação à testemunha. Entre as células em metáfase, observaram-se metáfases colchicínicas. As percentagens de metáfases colchicínicas no 3o e 5o dias após o transplante variaram com as concentrações de SGL; no 7o dia, estes valores foram inversamente proporcionais às concentrações, variando de 34,3% para 0,01 mM a 6,6% para 0,15 mM de SGL. Pode-se observar ainda nas células em anáfase e telófase cromossomos formando pontes e atrasados, bem como a ocorrência de metáfases poliplóides.

  15. In-depth proteomic analysis of six types of exudative pleural effusions for nonsmall cell lung cancer biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Jun; Chen, Chi-De; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Lee, Chien-Wei; Huang, Lien-Hung; Yu, Jau-Song; Chang, Yu-Sun; Wu, Chih-Ching; Yu, Chia-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Pleural effusion (PE), a tumor-proximal body fluid, may be a promising source for biomarker discovery in human cancers. Because a variety of pathological conditions can lead to PE, characterization of the relative PE proteomic profiles from different types of PEs would accelerate discovery of potential PE biomarkers specifically used to diagnose pulmonary disorders. Using quantitative proteomic approaches, we identified 772 nonredundant proteins from six types of exudative PEs, including three malignant PEs (MPE, from lung, breast, and gastric cancers), one lung cancer paramalignant PE, and two benign diseases (tuberculosis and pneumonia). Spectral counting was utilized to semiquantify PE protein levels. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Gene Ontology of cellular process analyses revealed differential levels and functional profiling of proteins in each type of PE. We identified 30 candidate proteins with twofold higher levels (qcancer MPEs than in the two benign PEs. Three potential markers, MET, DPP4, and PTPRF, were further verified by ELISA using 345 PE samples. The protein levels of these potential biomarkers were significantly higher in lung cancer MPE than in benign diseases or lung cancer paramalignant PE. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for three combined biomarkers in discriminating lung cancer MPE from benign diseases was 0.903. We also observed that the PE protein levels were more clearly discriminated in effusions in which the cytological examination was positive and that they would be useful in rescuing the false negative of cytological examination in diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung cancer-MPE. Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that MET overexpression in lung cancer cells would contribute to the elevation of soluble MET in MPE. Our results collectively demonstrate the utility of label-free quantitative proteomic approaches in establishing differential PE proteomes and provide a new database of proteins that can be used to facilitate identification of pulmonary disorder-related biomarkers. PMID:25638566

  16. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. (Zábila) / Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. Exudate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Saavedra; Carlos, Rondón; Máximo, Gallignani; Carlos, Ayala; Margarelli, Nicola.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (zábila) mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolect [...] adas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz. Abstract in english The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was use [...] d 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  17. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. (Zábila Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Saavedra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. (zábila mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolectadas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz.The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was used 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  18. Root exudation of imazapyr by eucalypt, cultivated in soil / Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por eucalipto cultivado em solo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M.M., Silva; L.R., Ferreira; F.A., Ferreira; G.V., Miranda.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O imazapyr tem sido utilizado para controle de brotações na reforma de cultivos florestais com Eucalyptus, por meio de sua aplicação no caule no pré-corte das árvores; dessa forma, o herbicida é aplicado exclusivamente na planta, porém há pouco conhecimento sobre o destino final da molécula. A exsud [...] ação radicular do imazapyr por eucalipto, cultivado em solo, foi avaliada em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se diferentes doses do herbicida (0,000; 0,375; 0,750; 1,125; 1,500; e 3,000 kg ha-1 i.a.) sobre a parte aérea de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis, com oito meses de idade, as quais foram cultivadas em recipientes com 18,0 dm³ de solo. Quarenta dias após a aplicação do herbicida procedeu-se à recepa do eucalipto e abertura de uma das laterais do recipiente, a qual foi inclinada 90º, recebendo a semeadura de plantas indicadoras da presença do herbicida (sorgo e pepino) ao longo da superfície exposta. Quinze dias após a semeadura, foi feita a avaliação dos sintomas de intoxicação na parte aérea, determinando-se a biomassa seca desta e do sistema radicular das plantas indicadoras. Os resultados evidenciaram que o eucalipto apresenta exsudação radicular do imazapyr e/ou de seus metabólitos em quantidade capaz de causar toxicidade nos bioindicadores, sendo esta observada em todas as plantas ao longo do vaso, com maior intensidade sob doses maiores. Abstract in english Imazapyr has been used to control stump sprouting in stand of Eucalyptus plantations, where herbicide is applied to the tree trunk before cutting. The herbicide is applied exclusively on the stump to be killed, but little is known about the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr exudation via roots of [...] eucalypt grown in soil as the substrate was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, 1.500, and 3.000 kg ha-1 a.i.) were applied on the aerial parts of 8-month-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal seedlings, cultivated in pots with 18.0 dm³ of soil. Forty days after this treatment, the eucalypt plants were cut and a lateral opening in the containers was made and the plants inclined 90º, with plants sensitive to herbicide presence (sorghum and cucumber) sown into the openings along the exposed soil surface. After 15-day sowing, toxicity symptoms on the shoots as well as the shoot and root system dry biomass of the bio-indicators were evaluated. The results suggest that eucalypt roots do exude imazapyr, and/or its metabolites, at concentrations high enough to cause toxicity to the bio-indicators. Toxicity effects were observed in all plants sown along the exposed soil profile of the container, with higher intensity at higher doses.

  19. PORFIRIA AGUDA: REPORTE DE CASO Y REVISIÓN DE TEMA URINOTÓRAX: REPORTE DE UM CASO E REVISÃO DA LITERATURA URINOTHORAX: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE SALINAS P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El urinotórax es una causa inusual de derrame pleural, que implica la presencia de orina en el espacio pleural, asociado generalmente a uropatía obstructiva bilateral, o a trauma del sistema urinario. Las características bioquímicas del derrame están en relación directa con las características de la orina y sufren una ligera, pero sustancial modificación, tras su paso al espacio pleural, donde se entremezcla con el líquido pleural. Característicamente, el líquido pleural es un transudado con un pH O urinotórax é uma causa infreqüente de derrame pleural, que implica a presença de urina no espaço pleural, associado geralmente a uropatía obstrutiva bilateral, ou a trauma do sistema urinário. As características bioquímicas do derrame estão em relação direta com a urina e sofrem uma ligeira, mas substancial modificação, depois do seu passo ao espaço pleural, onde se mistura com o líquido pleural. Caracteristicamente, o líquido pleural é um transudado com um PH The urinothorax is an uncommon cause of pleural effusion; it involves the presence of urine in the pleural space, generally associated with bilateral obstructive uropathy or trauma of the urinary system. The biochemical characteristics of the effusion are related with to those of urine and they suffer a slight, but substantial modification as it passes into the pleural space where it mixes with the pleural fluid (PF. Characteristically, the PF is a transudate, with a pH < 7,3; however there have been publications where it has been classified as an exudate, associated with high LDH levels. In general, glucose and proteins levels are low (glucose levels < 60 mg/dl, while LDH levels are very high. The accepted biochemical parameter for the diagnosis of urinothorax is a ratio higher than 1 between pleural fluid creatinine and serum creatinine. To date, only few cases have been reported worldwide, probably due to misdiagnosis, to a low index of suspicion and the quick resolution of the pleural effusion with the removal of the urinary tract obstruction. In this study we review one case of urinothorax in a patient with bilateral obstruction of the urinary system by bladder cancer. She was admitted to the Internal Medicine Service of the Hospital Militar Central in Bogotá. It is important that physicians familiarize themselves with this pathology to be able to establish an early diagnosis and provide adequate treatment.

  20. Conditioned mediums of different rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells against damage of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei QING

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using the method of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay, to observe the activities of rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs intervened by Tongluo Jiunao Injection (TLJNI, a traditional Chinese compound drug removing toxin to dredge brain collaterals, and then further study the effects of different kinds of conditioned mediums (CMECs-CM of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells on ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion cerebral cortex cells, and to probe into the drug pharmacological mechanisms of CMECs in modulating the neurons. Methods: Three kinds of CMECs (normal, ischemic and ischemic/reperfusional were all treated by TLJNI previously, and then the three pairs of CMECs-CM without serum were collected respectively for LDH assay. Rat cerebral cortex neurons were also primarily cultured and then divided into similar three groups (normal, ischemic and ischemic/reperfusional. The neuron responses caused by CMECs-CM at different concentrations were observed by using LDH transudation rate assay. Results: The LDH release values of ischemic and ischemic/reperfusional CMECs with TLJNI treatment were obviously reduced (P?0.01 compared with the same kinds of CMECs untreated. For ischemic neurons, both conditioned medium of ischemic CMECs (Is-CM and conditioned medium of ischemic CMECs with drug treatment (IsT-CM in high concentration of 100% increased the LDH transudation rate (P?0.01, while in low concentration of 10%, IsT-CM reduced the transudation rate (P?0.05. For ischemia/reperfusion neurons, all kinds of CMECs-CM reduced the transudation rate respectively (P?0.05 or P?0.01. As far as each group concentration was concerned, 10% or 50% showed relatively stronger effects, and both conditioned medium of normal CMECs (N-CM group and conditioned medium of ischemic/reperfusional CMECs (Rp-CM group had statistical significance (P?0.05 or P?0.01. For normal neurons, all kinds of CMECs-CM increased the transudation rate respectively (P?0.05 or P?0.01. As far as each group concentration was concerned, only conditioned medium of normal CMECs (N-CMhad statistical significance (P?0.05 or P?0.01. Conclusion: The study shows that TLJNI is capable of preventing the damage of CMECs from both ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion states. Chinese drug can restrain the brain ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion damage by the media that CMECs modulate the neurons, demonstrating the pharmacological mechanisms of TLJNI. This work also indicates that there exist some active substances against ischemia/reperfusion injury secreted from CMECs-CM with TLJNI treatment

  1. Evaluation of exudated gum produced by Acacia siamea as coagulant in the clarification of the waters for human consumption / Evaluación del exudado gomoso de Acacia siamea como coagulante en la clarificación de las aguas para consumo humano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreína, Fernández1; Francisco, Herrera; Marielba, Mas y Rubí3; Donaldo, Mejías; Altamira, Diaz.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de sustancias de origen natural como agentes coagulantes en el proceso de la clarificación del agua se ha incrementado en los países latinoamericanos, debido al carácter inocuo que representan para la salud humana. La presente investigación evaluó la aplicación del exudado gomoso deri [...] vado del árbol Acacia siamea, como agente coagulante, con la finalidad de seleccionar la dosis óptima para la clarificación de las aguas naturales y determinar el potencial de reducción de microorganismos no deseados en agua tratada. Con la aplicación de 50 mg/L de exudado gomoso de A. siamea, como dosis óptima, se alcanzó una disminución en los niveles de turbiedad (NTU) de 80-95%. La alcalinidad total y el pH no presentaron variaciones significativas, por lo cual no se adicionaron sustancias químicas para la regulación del carácter físico-químico del agua tratada. Los resultados obtenidos con las pruebas microbiológicas indican el potencial del exudado gomoso de esta planta en la remoción del 98% de microorganismos patógenos. Se concluye que el exudado gomoso de A. siamea puede ser empleado como agente coagulante natural en la potabilización de las aguas destinadas a consumo humano. Abstract in english Utilization of the natural origin substances as coagulant in the water clarification process have been increased in Latin American countries, due to present innocuous character for the human health. The present investigation evaluated the application of the exudates gum derived from the tree Acacia [...] siamea (A. siamea), as coagulant with the purpose to determinate the optimal dosage for the clarification of natural waters and to achieve the potential of the reduction for not desirable microorganisms in treated water. The application of 50 mg/L of exudates gum of A. siamea, as optimal dosage, was reached to reduction the turbidity (NTU) level between 80 to 95%. The total alkalinity and pH did not presented significant Magaly Chávez2variations, thus did not add chemical substances for the regulation of the physical-chemistry charapter of the treated water. The results obtained with the microbiological tests indicate the potential of the exudates gum to use in this treatment plant to remove 98% for pathogenic microorganisms. One concludes that the gummed exudates of A. siamea can be used as natural coagulant for drinking water.

  2. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS); asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS). [...] Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza) encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias. Abstract in english In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The plants were cult [...] ivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  3. Efecto de los exudados orgánicos de Phaeodactylum tricornutum en la constante de velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) / Effect of organic exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AG, González; JM, Santana-Casiano; M, González-Dávila; N, Pérez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de oxidación del Fe(II) en agua de mar y en agua de mar enriquecida con exudados excretados por Phaeodactylum tricornutum como modelo de ligando orgánico. Se seleccionaron los exudados producidos después de 2, 4 y 8 días de cultivo, correspondientes a 6.21 x 10(7), 2.29 x 10(8 [...] ) y 4.98 x 10(8) células L-1. Se estudió el efecto del pH (7.2-8.2), la temperatura (5-35 °C) y la salinidad (10-36.72) en la velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II). Todos los datos se compararon con los resultados obtenidos en agua de mar sin exudados (control). La constante de velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) disminuyó en función del tiempo de cultivo y la concentración de células a diferentes valores de pH, temperatura y salinidad. Todos los datos experimentales obtenidos en este estudio se ajustaron a una función polinómica con el objetivo de cuantificar la contribución parcial de los exudados orgánicos de diatomeas a la velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) en agua de mar. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que los exudados orgánicos excretados por P. tricornutum afectan a la oxidación del Fe(II) incrementando su tiempo de vida media en agua de mar. Se aplicó un modelo cinético para calcular la especiación de Fe(II) y la contribución de cada especie a la velocidad total del proceso de oxidación. Abstract in english Fe(II) oxidation kinetics were studied in seawater and in seawater enriched with exudates excreted by Phaeodactylum tricornutum as an organic ligand model. The exudates produced after 2, 4, and 8 days of culture at 6.21 x 10(7), 2.29 x 10(8), and 4.98 x 10(8) cell L-1 were selected. The effects of p [...] H (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), and salinity (10-36.72) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate were studied. All the data were compared with the results for seawater without exudates (control). The Fe(II) rate constant decreased as a function of culture time and cell concentration in the culture at different pH, temperature, and salinity. All the experimental data obtained in this study were fitted to a polynomial function in order to quantify the fractional contribution of the organic exudates from the diatoms to the Fe(II) oxidation rate in natural seawater. Experimental results showed that the organic exudates excreted by P. tricornutum affect Fe(II) oxidation, increasing the lifetime of Fe(II) in seawater. A kinetic model approach was carried out to account for the speciation of each Fe(II) type together with its contribution to the overall rate.

  4. Long-lasting effects of anti-VEGF/photodynamic combination therapy in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration: a retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Garcia, Rosemary; McLellan, Colleen; Shaya, Fadi S; Small, Kent W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential long-term benefit of an anti-VEGF/photodynamic therapy (PDT) combination on patients treated for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on 29 eyes (subjects) from 26 patients (eight male and 18 female) that showed sustained, positive response to combination therapy for exudative AMD for a minimum of 1 year. Collected data included: visual acuity, central retinal thickness, intraocular pressure and history of glaucoma, wet AMD onset and treatment history, concomitant use of anticoagulants and past history or development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease while receiving combination therapy. Results Subjects underwent an average of five injections and two PDT treatments in total over 16 months before the choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) stabilized and became inactive for at least 1 year. Prior to the effective anti-VEGF/PDT combination therapy the median Snellen visual acuity ranged from 20/200 to 20/250 and presented at no worse than 20/200 at 1 year after treatment. Some subjects were followed for up to 5 years and remained inactive. Conclusion Combination therapy can cause long-lasting closure of the CNVM, even with advanced disease resistant to anti-VEGF monotherapy. PMID:25548512

  5. 2D DIGE proteomic analysis of early post mortem muscle exudate highlights the importance of the stress response for improved water-holding capacity of fresh pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Alessio; Elia, Giuliano; Hamill, Ruth; Mullen, Anne Maria

    2013-05-01

    Variation in water-holding capacity (WHC), which presents a major economic burden to the swine industry, is considered to be underpinned by variation at a molecular and biochemical level. High-resolution 2D DIGE followed by MS analysis and Western blot were used to unravel the proteome of muscle exudate, collected following centrifugation, in the pH 4-7 range. A first 2DE-based protein map of this substrate was produced where 89 spots were successfully characterised. Two phenotypes divergent for WHC plus one intermediate were compared with a view to deciphering the biochemical processes impacting on variation in WHC. Twenty spots were observed to be altered across the phenotypes. Of these, 14 represented sixteen proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress response proteins and structural proteins. Triosephosphate isomerase and transferrin showed a major difference between the two extreme phenotypes, and may have potential as biological markers for WHC prediction. Several members of the HSPs family were highlighted. This proteomic study makes an important contribution towards a more detailed molecular view of the processes behind WHC and will provide a valuable resource for future investigations. PMID:23456991

  6. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99mTc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  7. Test of exudates color hues for evaluating the physiological potential of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seeds / Teste de coloração de exsudatos para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Cesar, Hilst; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias; Eveline Mantovani, Alvarenga; Bruna Luiza de, Souza.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de café têm germinação lenta e desuniforme, perdendo rapidamente a viabilidade durante o armazenamento e a condução do teste de germinação exige, pelo menos, 30 dias. Além disso, os resultados obtidos poderão não mais refletir a real condição fisiológica das sementes. Objetivou-se desenvolv [...] er um teste rápido e prático para a avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café, baseado na interpretação das diferentes intensidades dos tons da coloração dos exsudatos das sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de seis lotes da cultivar Catuai 44, que foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado e condutividade elétrica. No teste de coloração dos exsudatos, sementes sem o pergaminho e a película prateada (quatro repetições de 10 sementes cada) foram distribuídas sobre papel toalha umedecido e mantidas em germinador a 25 ºC por 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 h. Foram estabelecidas três classes de intensidade de tons da coloração: ausência de coloração; intensidade de coloração leve; e coloração forte, atribuindo valores de 0, 1 e 3, para cada classe, respectivamente. O teste de coloração do exsudato proposto pode ser recomendado para avaliação rápida da viabilidade das sementes de café. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos em sementes com 12% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72, 96 e 120 h; e com 30% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72 e 120 h. Abstract in english Coffee seeds have slow and irregular germination, losing fast their viability during storage, and the standard germination test of these seeds requires at least 30 days. Besides, the results may not reflect the actual physiological quality of these seeds. The objective of this work was to develop a [...] fast and practical test for evaluating the viability of coffee seeds, which is based on the interpretation of different color hues of exudates from seeds. Coffee seeds of the cultivar Catuai 44 from six lots were submitted to germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity tests. In the exudates color hue test, coffee seeds without the parchment and the silvery pellicle (four replications of 10 seeds each) were distributed on top of paper towels moistened and then maintained into a germinator, at 25 ºC for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Three classes of color hues were established: colorless, light color hue, and dark color hue, assigning the values of 0, 1, and 3, for each class, respectively. The proposed exudates color hue test can be recommended for the fast assessment of viability for coffee seeds. The most promising results were obtained for seeds with 12% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72, 96, and 120 h; and with 30% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72 and 120 h.

  8. Test of exudates color hues for evaluating the physiological potential of coffee (Coffea arabica L. seeds Teste de coloração de exsudatos para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Hilst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee seeds have slow and irregular germination, losing fast their viability during storage, and the standard germination test of these seeds requires at least 30 days. Besides, the results may not reflect the actual physiological quality of these seeds. The objective of this work was to develop a fast and practical test for evaluating the viability of coffee seeds, which is based on the interpretation of different color hues of exudates from seeds. Coffee seeds of the cultivar Catuai 44 from six lots were submitted to germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity tests. In the exudates color hue test, coffee seeds without the parchment and the silvery pellicle (four replications of 10 seeds each were distributed on top of paper towels moistened and then maintained into a germinator, at 25 ºC for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Three classes of color hues were established: colorless, light color hue, and dark color hue, assigning the values of 0, 1, and 3, for each class, respectively. The proposed exudates color hue test can be recommended for the fast assessment of viability for coffee seeds. The most promising results were obtained for seeds with 12% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72, 96, and 120 h; and with 30% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72 and 120 h.Sementes de café têm germinação lenta e desuniforme, perdendo rapidamente a viabilidade durante o armazenamento e a condução do teste de germinação exige, pelo menos, 30 dias. Além disso, os resultados obtidos poderão não mais refletir a real condição fisiológica das sementes. Objetivou-se desenvolver um teste rápido e prático para a avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café, baseado na interpretação das diferentes intensidades dos tons da coloração dos exsudatos das sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de seis lotes da cultivar Catuai 44, que foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado e condutividade elétrica. No teste de coloração dos exsudatos, sementes sem o pergaminho e a película prateada (quatro repetições de 10 sementes cada foram distribuídas sobre papel toalha umedecido e mantidas em germinador a 25 ºC por 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 h. Foram estabelecidas três classes de intensidade de tons da coloração: ausência de coloração; intensidade de coloração leve; e coloração forte, atribuindo valores de 0, 1 e 3, para cada classe, respectivamente. O teste de coloração do exsudato proposto pode ser recomendado para avaliação rápida da viabilidade das sementes de café. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos em sementes com 12% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72, 96 e 120 h; e com 30% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72 e 120 h.

  9. Isoschaftoside, a C-glycosylflavonoid from Desmodium uncinatum root exudate, is an allelochemical against the development of Striga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Antony M; Tsanuo, Muniru K; Chamberlain, Keith; Tittcomb, Kay; Scholes, Julie; Hassanali, Ahmed; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A

    2010-06-01

    In East African small-holder farming of maize, the cattle forage legume, Desmodium uncinatum is used as an intercrop due to its allelopathic inhibition of parasitism by Striga hermonthica, an obligate parasitic weed that can devastate the maize crop. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root extract of D. uncinatum revealed isoschaftoside to be the main compound in the most potent fraction inhibiting growth of germinated S. hermonthica radicles. Bioassays repeated with isoschaftoside isolated from a different plant source, Passiflora incarnata, proved it to be a biologically active component. Analysis of the root exudates produced by hydroponically grown D. uncinatum showed isoschaftoside to be present in the hydroponic media at biologically active concentrations of 10-100 nM. PMID:20211477

  10. Intracranial synthesis of specific IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid of neurocysticercosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung Yull; Kim, Suk Il; Kang, Shin Yong; Park, Ae Ja

    1988-03-01

    To determine the source of Cysticercus-specific IgG antibody in cerebro-spinal fluid(CSF), paired samples of serum and CSF were collected from confirmed neurocysticercosis, other neurologic diseases and normal control. The antibody levels in serum and CSF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). With the measurement of total protein, albumin and IgG concentration in serum and CSF, the contribution of IgG in CSF were calculated in transudation, exudation and intracranial synthesis using the formula of Tourtellotte and Ma (1978). Mean concentrations of total protein, albumin, IgG and proportional IgG levels in CSF by transudation, exudation and intracranial synthesis were elevated in neurocysticercosis. But only the intracranial synthesis of IgG showed a statistically significant correlation with the specific IgG antibody levels in CSF. In CSF from lateral ventricle in the 4th ventricular neurocysticercosis, the protein concentrations were normal and the specific antibody levels were negative. However, in consecutively secured lumbar CSF from the same patients, the former were increased and the latter were positive. These results indicated that, in neurocysticercosis, the specific IgG antibody in CSF was a local product of intracranial synthesis. PMID:12811029

  11. Inoculação do feijoeiro com Rhizobium tropici associada à exsudato de Mimosa flocculosa com diferentes doses de nitrogênio / Rhizobium tropici associated with Mimosa flocculosa exudates inoculation effect on bean plants under different nitrogen rates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eulene Francisco da, Silva; Marlene Estevão, Marchetti; Luiz Carlos Ferreira de, Souza; Fábio Martins, Mercante; Edson Talarico, Rodrigues; Antonio Carlos Tadeu, Vitorino.

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de rizóbio, associada à adição de exsudatos de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa, e/ou de N-mineral nas características agronômicas do feijoeiro, em sucessão à soja e ao milho. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, c [...] om quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas sub-subdivididas. As culturas soja e milho antecessoras à cultura do feijoeiro formaram as parcelas. As subparcelas foram constituídas pelos tratamentos: testemunha sem inoculação, inoculação de Rhyzobium tropici, estirpes CIAT 899 e PRF 81 e a associação deste com os exsudados das sementes de Mimosa flocculosa. As sub-subparcelas constituiram-se de quatro doses de N aplicadas em cobertura: 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. A inoculação de rizóbio associada à adição de exsudato de sementes de Mimosa flocculosa contribuiu para o melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea do feijoeiro. A adubação nitrogenada reduziu, de forma linear, a nodulação do feijoeiro. O milho como cultura antecessora ao feijão contribuiu para o aumento do peso de 100 grãos e a adição de N combinado não contribuiu para o aumento do número de vagens por planta e produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro, independente da dose utilizada. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Rhizobium inoculation, associated with seed exudates of Mimosa flocculosa, under different rates of nitrogen fertilization was evaluated in bean crops following soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) and corn (Zea mays L.). The experimental design was [...] randomized blocks with four replications, with treatments arranged in sub-divided parcels. The parcels were constituted of two summer crops preceding the common bean crop: soybean and corn. In the sub-parcels three treatments involving inoculation of the common bean seeds were considered: control treatment without inoculation; bean seeds inoculated with Rhizobium tropici, strains CIAT 899 and PRF 81, and the association of Rhizobium with the exudates of the Mimosa flocculosa seeds. The sub-subparcels received of four doses of nitrogen fertilization applied on covering: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 N. The inoculation of Rhizobium associated with the addition of exudates of Mimosa flocculosa seeds resulted in higher shoot dry weight. Besides that, the nitrogen fertilization, on the tested doses, reduced, in a linear way, the nodulation of the bean plant. It was also verified that corn as a preceding crop for bean has contributed to the increase of the weight of 100 grains, while the addition of combined N did not contribute to the improvement on the number of beans per plant, neither of the grain yield of bean plants, independent of the dose that was used.

  12. Diagnostic approach to pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguil, Aaron; Wyrick, Kristen; Hallgren, John

    2014-07-15

    Pleural effusion affects more than 1.5 million people in the United States each year and often complicates the management of heart failure, pneumonia, and malignancy. Pleural effusion occurs when fluid collects between the parietal and visceral pleura. Processes causing a distortion in body fluid mechanics, such as in heart failure or nephrotic syndrome, tend to cause transudative effusions, whereas localized inflammatory or malignant processes are often associated with exudative effusions. Patients can be asymptomatic or can present with cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Dullness to percussion on physical examination suggests an effusion; chest radiography can confirm the diagnosis. Thoracentesis may be indicated to diagnose effusion and relieve symptoms. Ultrasound guidance is preferred when aspirating fluid. Routine assays for aspirated fluid include protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, Gram staining, cytology, and pH measurement. Light's criteria should be used to differentiate exudative from transudative effusions. Additional laboratory assays, bronchoscopy, percutaneous pleural biopsy, or thoracoscopy may be required for diagnosis if the initial test results are inconclusive. PMID:25077579

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. 2. Comparison of methods for the direct detection of specific antigen or nucleic acid sequences in respiratory exudates.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R.; Marmion, B. P.; Varkanis, G.; Kok, T.; Lunn, B.; Martin, J.

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of the direct detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory exudates by an antigen capture, indirect enzyme immunoassay (Ag-EIA), has been compared with its detection with a cDNA probe ('Gen-Probe assay') directed against the specific ribosomal RNA sequences of the organism ('Mycoplasma pneumoniae Rapid Diagnostic System', Gen-Probe, San Diego, California). Both assays showed excellent specificity against a range of mycoplasma species suspended in negative nasopharyngeal as...

  14. Coupling of pelagic bacteria abundances and production with phytoplankton primary production and exudation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškrábová, Viera; Nedoma, Ji?í; Šimek, Karel; Vrba, Jaroslav

    Messina : Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L32 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : primary production * bacterial production Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychrová, E.; Št?pánkdová, T.; Nováková, K.; Bláha, Lud?k; Giesy, J.P.; Hilscherová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 1 (2012), s. 134-140. ISSN 0160-4120 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/08/0496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * endocrine disruption * estrogenicity * algae * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.248, year: 2012

  16. 75 FR 70112 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Non-Powered Suction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification...apparatus (e.g., reflux of waste exudate to wound, incorrect...Testing. (e.g., reflux of waste exudate to wound, incorrect...follows: PART 878--GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES 0 1. The...

  17. Amelioration of Pb and Mn toxicity to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices by maize root exudates.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 47, ?. 2 (2003), s. 297-299. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA MŠk OC 838.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : heavy metals * hyphal growth * Zea mays Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  18. Methods of collection of plant root exudates in relation to plant metabolism and purpose: A review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vránová, V.; Rejšek, K.; Skene, K. R.; Janouš, Dalibor; Formanek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 176, ?. 2 (2013), s. 175-199. ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : allelochemical / CAM / C3 * C4 metabolism * retrieval * rhizodeposition * rhizosphere Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  19. Ecophysiological characterization of carnivorous plant roots: oxygen fluxes, respiration, and water exudation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 49, ?. 2 (2005), s. 247-255. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA6005909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : terrestrial carnivorous plants * soil anoxia * Genlisea traps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  20. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa en canales de cerdo Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative to meat in porcine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson E Castrillón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET® a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (pThe presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474 were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p<0.01 between pH45 and variables as density, food, type of truck, genetic and the resting time. The sex and the time of transportation also had significant association (p<0.05, but only with pH45 . Additionally, differences between genetic, sex (highest values of pH45 to males and food (p<0.05 were found. Also, there were interactions between: sex - fasting, sex - food, sex - resting and sex - transportation (p<0.05. According to the results, PSE condition is not a unicausal phenomenon and consequently it needs an integral managment.

  1. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa) en canales de cerdo / Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) to meat in porcine carcasses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson E, Castrillón; Jorge A, Fernández; Luis F, Restrepo.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa) en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Sci [...] entific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET®) a 45 minutos (pH45) y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (p Abstract in english The presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative) condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The ai [...] m of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474) were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 ) and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p

  2. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila) es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de [...] hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na), calcio (Ca), magnesio (Mg) y potasio (k) por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS). Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zabila). Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It w [...] as no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572) of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  3. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na, calcio (Ca, magnesio (Mg y potasio (k por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS. Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zabila. Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  4. Lucentis® using Visudyne® study: determining the threshold-dose fluence of verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Matthew S Benz, Eric Kegley, Joel Cox, Richard H Fish, Rosa Y KimRetina Consultants of Houston, Texas, USAPurpose: Combination verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy may decrease the need for injections while maintaining visual acuity in exudative age-related macular degeneration. This pilot study was designed to determine the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (the dose required to demonstrate an effect on choroidal perfusion combined with ranibizumab.Methods: Seven patients were randomized to sham vPDT (two patients, 20% fluence vPDT (two patients, or 40% fluence vPDT (three patients in combination with three-monthly intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injections. Intravitreal ranibizumab was reinjected if disease activity was seen on fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, or clinical examination. Indocyanine green-determined choroidal hypoperfusion was graded in a masked fashion.Results: Patients with 20% vPDT had mild hypoperfusion defects at seven days that resolved by week 4 (threshold dose; patients with 40% fluence vPDT had marked hypoperfusion at seven days that persisted as long as 12 months. Recruitment was stopped after limited efficacy was observed. One patient with 20% fluence vPDT lost 19 letters at one year; no other patient lost or gained >10 letters. Central retinal thickness decreased in six of seven patients, but ranibizumab injections did not decrease.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (when combined with ranibizumab is approximately 20% standard fluence, and that mild and transient choroidal hypoperfusion can occur. Forty percent fluence vPDT causes a more prolonged and striking hypoperfusion. Despite hypoperfusion, no decrease in visual acuity or injections required was noted, suggesting that even higher fluence levels of vPDT may be necessary to decrease the number of anti-VEGF injections.Keywords: neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal hypoperfusion, threshold dose, verteporfin photodynamic therapy

  5. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  6. Characterization of biofilm-forming microorganisms isolated from vaginal exudate in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, P; Castro, J.; Cereija, Tatiana; Henriques, Ana Filipa Frutuoso Mendes; Cerca, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynaecological conditions affecting women in the reproductive age, and can lead to increase risk gynaecological infections and pre-term labour. The aetiology of this pathology is still poorly understood, but recent reports referring to the presence of anaerobic biofilms both in the healthy and BV vagina (with different microbial compositions) have led to the theory that the microorganisms that form biofilms may be relevant for the aetiology o...

  7. Reduced Germination of Orobanche cumana Seeds in the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi or Their Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Be?card, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic p...

  8. MEASURING THE DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENTS OR RHIZOSPHERE EXUDATES IN SOIL .2. THE DIFFUSION OF SORBING COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    DARRAH, P

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed which was capable of simulating the diffusion of compunds with a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, by virtue of their sorption on the solid phase of the soil. Methods were developed which allowed the sorption characteristics and the effective diffusion coefficient of several organic compounds to be inferred from their measured diffusion profiles. -Author

  9. Exudate-gathering ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) at three different liquid food rewards / Hormigas melívoras (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) en tres diferentes fuentes de alimento líquido

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana M., BUFFA; Pedro, JAUREGUIBERRY; Miguel Ángel, DELFINO.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nectarios extraflorales (NEFs) y el melado excretado por hemípteros son fuentes de alimento (FsA) que favorecen la participación de hormigas en las interacciones mutualistas que establecen con las plantas y/o hemípteros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, en una zona serrana del centro de [...] la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, la diversidad, distribución e interacción de hormigas melívoras en tres FsA diferentes: néctar de NEFs de Croton sarcopetalus (Euphorbiaceae) y melado de Aphis spiraecola y Dysaphis foeniculus en Eupatorium hookerianum (Asteraceae) y en Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae), respectivamente. En cada FA se contabilizaron e identificaron los áfidos y hormigas melívoras presentes. Se obtuvo la riqueza y abundancia de hormigas y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener y Sorenson (cualitativo y cuantitativo) para comparar las comunidades de hormigas en las diferentes FsA. Por último se realizó una regresión lineal entre la abundancia de áfidos y la abundancia de hormigas melívoras en las dos últimas FsA mencionadas, para determinar si las variables estaban asociadas. De las 23 especies de hormigas registradas, ocho (34.8%) se alimentaron tanto en NEFs como en las colonias de áfidos, de las cuales 4 spp. (17.4%) fueron encontradas simultáneamente en las tres fuentes. Además, dos especies de hormigas visitaron ambas especies de áfidos y 13 especies visitaron exclusivamente alguna de las FsA. Brachymyrmex brevicornis fue la especie más abundante, mientras que Pheidole sp.2 registró la mayor ocurrencia. Tanto la diversidad como la riqueza de especies de hormigas fue mayor en NEFs de C. sarcopetalus. Se encontró una relación positiva significativa entre la abundancia de áfidos y la abundancia de hormigas melívoras tanto sobre E. hookerianum como sobre F. vulgare. Podemos concluir que las tres FA estudiadas mostraron una similitud modesta en su fauna de hormigas. Además se observó selectividad por parte de las hormigas hacia los NEFs de C. sarcopetalus, que podría deberse a las características de la fuente de alimento más que a factores co-evolutivos. Abstract in english Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) and hemipteran honeydew are liquid food rewards (FRs) that encourage ant visitation in many plant families in a wide variety of habitats. In this study we explored the diversity, distribution and interactions of exudate-gathering ants at three different liquid food rewar [...] ds: nectar from EFNs on Croton sarcopetalus and honeydew from the aphids Aphis spiraecola and Dysaphis foeniculus on Eupatorium hookerianum (Asteraceae) and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) respectively. For each FR we measured ant diversity and performed quantitative and qualitative comparisons among ants associated with the FRs. In addition, a linear regression was performed to test for possible associations between aphid and ant abundances in the case of honeydew FRs. Eight out of the 23 ant species found fed on both nectar from EFNs and honeydew from aphids, four of which fed at all FRs. Two ant species visited both aphid species and 13 were found exclusively at either one of the FRs. Brachymyrmex brevicornis was the most abundant ant species and Pheidole sp.2 had the greatest occurrence. Both ant species diversity and richness were higher at EFNs of C. sarcopetalus. Regressions showed positive significant association between ants and aphids abundances both on E. hookerianum and F. vulgare. We can conclude that the three liquid food rewards compared here showed modest similarity in their ant fauna. Furthermore, there was selectiveness of ants towards EFNs of C. sarcopetalus, which might be due to food source attributes rather than co-evolutionary factors.

  10. The Role of Pleural Fluid Procalcitonin Level in the Diagnosis of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Cirit Koçer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Procalcitonin (PCT may lead a more rapid and specific result than other infectious markers in the differentation of infectious diseases from those of noninfectious conditions. In several studies, higher pleural fluid PCT levels in parapneumonic effusion (PPE than other causes of pleural effusion has been found and it has been reported that it is a useful marker in the diagnosis of PPE. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of pleural fluid PCT levels in the diagnosis of PPE.Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients with pleural effusion consisting of 26 transudative pelural effusion, 26 malignant pleural effusion (MPE, 24 PPE and 11 tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE were enrolled in the study. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for the pleural fluid PCT, serum PCT and pleural fluid PCT/serum PCT ratio. The patients were divided into transudative and exudative groups and there was no difference in the pleural fluid PCT and serum PCT between these two groups. In the PPE group, the correlation between pleural fluid PCT level and pleural fluid albumin, protein, LDH, glucose and ADA was studied and no correlation was found.Conclusion: In our study, in PPE, a diagnostic efficiacy of pleural fluid and serum PCT could not be found.

  11. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated

  12. Diagnostic pitfalls of discriminating lymphoma-associated effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Tseng, Guan-Chin; Chen, Li-Hsiou; Bai, Li-Yuan; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Tu, Chih-Yen; Light, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    High serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, immunologic defects, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, and frequent hydration and diuresis in lymphoma patients may affect the development of pleural effusion (PE). The study was to assess the clinical utility of "Light criteria" and the "recommended algorithm for investigating PEs" in patients with lymphoma.The characteristics of 126 PEs of lymphoma patients who underwent diagnostic thoracentesis between January 1, 2003, and April 30, 2012, were reviewed. Using Light criteria, 29 (23%) PEs were incorrectly classified. The sensitivity for exudates in Light criteria was 88% and the specificity was only 44%. In 32 transudates, PE LDH correlated with blood LDH concentration (P?thoracentesis for microbiological testing and cytology is imperative. Carefully clinical correlation in addition to the result from Light criteria and differential cell count is essential for prompt management. PMID:25929933

  13. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F. [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  14. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose

  15. Pleural fluid drainage: Percutaneous catheter drainage versus surgical chest tube drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 4 years, 55 cases (one transudate, 28 exudates, and 26 empymas) were drained. Surgical chest tubes alone were used in 35 drainages, percutaneous catheters alone in five drainages, and both types in 15 drainages. Percutaneous catheter drainage was successful in 12 of 20 drainages (60%). Surgical tube drainage was successful in 18 of 50 drainages (36%). The success rate for the nonempyema group was 45% with both types of drainage. For the empyema group, the success rate for percutaneous catheter drainage was 66% vs 23% for surgical tube drainage. Seven major complications occurred with surgical tube drainage, but only one major complication occurred with percutaneous catheter drainage. Radiologically guided percutaneous catheter drainage should be the procedure of choice for pleural fluid drainage. It has a higher success rate for empyemas and is associated with less complications

  16. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical.59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers KL1 and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  17. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa / Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maydelín, Frontela Noda; Isis, Amores Sánchez; Sanda, Yepe Oliveros; Vivian, Kourí; Raúl, Ferreira Capote; Lorenzo, Mallea Sánchez.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) [...] con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP) de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical. Abstract in english 59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers KL1 [...] and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP) of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  18. Determinación de germanio en muestras de exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm . f. (zábila, mediante la espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica Determination of germanium in leaves exudate samples of Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. (zábila, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS. El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de la planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS. The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infections, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD% was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  19. Determinación de germanio en muestras de exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm . f. (zábila), mediante la espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica / Determination of germanium in leaves exudate samples of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila), by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Randon.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación trata sobre la determinación de germanio en exudado de hojas de zábila, mediante la técnica ana lítica espectrometría de absorción atómica con atomización electrotérmica (ETAAS). El exudado de las hojas de zábila es el líquido amarillo y de sabor amargo que emana de las hojas de l [...] a planta cortadas en la base. Es también conocido como zumo o látex. Ha sido utilizado en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones tales como: tratamiento de heridas, infecciones bucales, irritaciones de la piel, otras. El germanio es un oligoelemento que ha sido utilizado como inmunoestimulante y en pacientes con neoplasia. La concentración del germanio presente en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. fue de 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g. La metodología empleada fue validada por estudio de recuperación, ubicándose en un valor promedio de 97.43 ± 2.22%. La desviación estándar relativa fue de 2.88%, lo que es un indicativo de la precisión. El método utilizado para la determinación del elemento en cuestión es exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of germanium in Aloe vera (zábila) from leaves exudated, using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technic (ETAAS). The exudated is a yellow and bitter liquid, used in wounds healing, skin irritations, mouth infec [...] tions, etc. The germanium is a trace element used as immunestimulant in patients with tumour. A concentration of 7.42 ± 2.33 ?g/g was found. The method for the determination of germanium was validated by recovery studies, a value of 97.43 ± 2.22% was obtained for germanium, and the relative standar deviation (RSD%) was 2.88%. The method was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  20. Evaluación in vitro de las propiedades de seis apósitos para la cura en ambiente húmedo de heridas exudativas / Evaluation in vitro of the properties of six dressings for the healing wet environments of exudative wounds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joan, Rius Tarruella; Ramón, López Bertrán.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Dentro de los apósitos destinados a la cura en ambiente húmedo, las espumas constituyen un tipo de apósito especialmente indicado para el tratamiento de heridas altamente exudativas debido a su gran capacidad de absorción. Son apósitos atraumáticos que protegen la zona perilesional y m [...] antienen el lecho húmedo favoreciendo la epitelización y aliviando el dolor, por lo que ocupan un espacio muy específico en el cuidado de las úlceras vasculares y por presión. Material y método: Estudio experimental in vitro para evaluar las características de 6 tipos de apósitos de espuma polimérica: SKINFOAM no adhesivo (SF1) y adhesivo (SF2), ALLEVYN no adhesivo (A1) y adhesivo (A2) y BIATAIN no adhesivo (B1) y adhesivo (B2). Las características valoradas fueron: capacidad de absorción y control de exudados, caracterización de la superficie en contacto, capacidad de transpiración, conformabilidad y protección antimicrobiana. Resultados: Las pruebas de absorción y control de exudados muestran cómo los apósitos SF1 y SF2 obtienen la mayor absorción por unidad de peso mientras que los modelos B1 y B2 se deforman de manera evidente; incluso en el caso del apósito adhesivo B2 la almohadilla de foam se despegó del film adhesivo. El experimento por goteo no pudo realizarse con los apósitos A1 y A2 por no retener las gotas de solución, ya que la capa adherente de contacto interna evita la retención. Las medidas de rugosidad mostraron la excelente suavidad de los apósitos SF1 y SF2, comportamiento que influirá directamente sobre el síntoma del dolor. Las tasas de transpiración de vapor de agua, más altas, particularmente para los modelos adhesivos, fueron para los apósitos SF2 y B1. El apósito más fácilmente extensible fue el SF1 y la protección bacteriana fue similar en todos los apósitos. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran que los apósitos SF1 entre los no adhesivos y SF2 entre los adhesivos (modelos SKINFOAM) son los que mejor comportamiento global tienen de las propiedades estudiadas. Respecto a los otros modelos, cabe destacar la capacidad de absorción por unidad de superficie de los modelos A1 y B2, la retención de exudados bajo presión y la mínima cantidad de agua libre del modelo B1 y los resultados en la prueba de transpiración del modelo A2. Abstract in english Introduction: Of the dressings used for healing in wet environments, foam is a type of dressing that is particularly indicated for the treatment of highly exudative wounds due to its great absorption capacity. They are atraumatic dressings that protect the perilesional area and keep the bed moist pr [...] omoting epithelialization and providing pain relief, thus occupying a very specific space in the care of vascular and pressure ulcers. Material and method: In vitro experimental study to evaluate the characteristics of 6 types of polymeric foam dressings: Non-adhesive (SF1) and adhesive (SF2) SKINFOAM, non-adhesive (A1) and adhesive (A2) ALLEVYN and non-adhesive (B1) and adhesive (B2) BIATAIN. The characteristics assessed were: exudate absorption and control capacity, characterisation of the contact surface, transpiration, conformability and antimicrobial protection capacity. Results: The exudate absorption and control tests show how dressings SF1 and SF2 obtain greater absorption per unit of weight while models B1 and B2 are evidently deformed, and even in the case of the adhesive B2 dressing, the foam padding detached from the adhesive film. The drip experiment could not be carried out with dressings A1 and A2 as the drops of solution could not be retained since the internal contact adherence layer prevents retention. The roughness measurements demonstrated the excellent softness of the SF1 and SF2 dressings, a behaviour that will have a direct impact on pain symptoms. The highest water vapour transpiration rates, particularly for adhesive models, were for dressings SF2 and B1. The easiest-to-extend dressing was the SF1, and bacterial protection was similar in all the dressings. The dres

  1. Evaluación in vitro de las propiedades de seis apósitos para la cura en ambiente húmedo de heridas exudativas Evaluation in vitro of the properties of six dressings for the healing wet environments of exudative wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Rius Tarruella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Dentro de los apósitos destinados a la cura en ambiente húmedo, las espumas constituyen un tipo de apósito especialmente indicado para el tratamiento de heridas altamente exudativas debido a su gran capacidad de absorción. Son apósitos atraumáticos que protegen la zona perilesional y mantienen el lecho húmedo favoreciendo la epitelización y aliviando el dolor, por lo que ocupan un espacio muy específico en el cuidado de las úlceras vasculares y por presión. Material y método: Estudio experimental in vitro para evaluar las características de 6 tipos de apósitos de espuma polimérica: SKINFOAM no adhesivo (SF1 y adhesivo (SF2, ALLEVYN no adhesivo (A1 y adhesivo (A2 y BIATAIN no adhesivo (B1 y adhesivo (B2. Las características valoradas fueron: capacidad de absorción y control de exudados, caracterización de la superficie en contacto, capacidad de transpiración, conformabilidad y protección antimicrobiana. Resultados: Las pruebas de absorción y control de exudados muestran cómo los apósitos SF1 y SF2 obtienen la mayor absorción por unidad de peso mientras que los modelos B1 y B2 se deforman de manera evidente; incluso en el caso del apósito adhesivo B2 la almohadilla de foam se despegó del film adhesivo. El experimento por goteo no pudo realizarse con los apósitos A1 y A2 por no retener las gotas de solución, ya que la capa adherente de contacto interna evita la retención. Las medidas de rugosidad mostraron la excelente suavidad de los apósitos SF1 y SF2, comportamiento que influirá directamente sobre el síntoma del dolor. Las tasas de transpiración de vapor de agua, más altas, particularmente para los modelos adhesivos, fueron para los apósitos SF2 y B1. El apósito más fácilmente extensible fue el SF1 y la protección bacteriana fue similar en todos los apósitos. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran que los apósitos SF1 entre los no adhesivos y SF2 entre los adhesivos (modelos SKINFOAM son los que mejor comportamiento global tienen de las propiedades estudiadas. Respecto a los otros modelos, cabe destacar la capacidad de absorción por unidad de superficie de los modelos A1 y B2, la retención de exudados bajo presión y la mínima cantidad de agua libre del modelo B1 y los resultados en la prueba de transpiración del modelo A2.Introduction: Of the dressings used for healing in wet environments, foam is a type of dressing that is particularly indicated for the treatment of highly exudative wounds due to its great absorption capacity. They are atraumatic dressings that protect the perilesional area and keep the bed moist promoting epithelialization and providing pain relief, thus occupying a very specific space in the care of vascular and pressure ulcers. Material and method: In vitro experimental study to evaluate the characteristics of 6 types of polymeric foam dressings: Non-adhesive (SF1 and adhesive (SF2 SKINFOAM, non-adhesive (A1 and adhesive (A2 ALLEVYN and non-adhesive (B1 and adhesive (B2 BIATAIN. The characteristics assessed were: exudate absorption and control capacity, characterisation of the contact surface, transpiration, conformability and antimicrobial protection capacity. Results: The exudate absorption and control tests show how dressings SF1 and SF2 obtain greater absorption per unit of weight while models B1 and B2 are evidently deformed, and even in the case of the adhesive B2 dressing, the foam padding detached from the adhesive film. The drip experiment could not be carried out with dressings A1 and A2 as the drops of solution could not be retained since the internal contact adherence layer prevents retention. The roughness measurements demonstrated the excellent softness of the SF1 and SF2 dressings, a behaviour that will have a direct impact on pain symptoms. The highest water vapour transpiration rates, particularly for adhesive models, were for dressings SF2 and B1. The easiest-to-extend dressing was the SF1, and bacterial protection was similar in all the dressings. The dressings with the greatest absorption capacity were

  2. Interaccion de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con celulas de exudado peritonial de ratones mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina Interaction of Leishmania donovani promastigotes with mouse peritoneal exudate cells under the influence of the Chymotripsine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Arcay

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio de la interacción de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con células de exudado peritoneal de ratón (c e p mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina. La adhesión de los promastigotes a las c e p fue terminal y marginal, y en observaciones hechas a partir de los 10 minutos de enfrentamiento, esta adhesión fue nula hasta los 30 minutos en el grupo tratado, y sólo a las das horas hubo un pequeño incremento (2.4% con respecto al control. Se observa marcada disminución en todos los parámetro medidos, tales como enlace, penetración, multiplicación intracelular, división de formas flageladas, en el grupo tratado. La quimotripsina favorece la formación de formas intermedias flageladas, heciendose el parásito piriforme y esférico, apareciendo una forma aberrante de extremo anterior cilindrico que semeja a una forma coanoflagelada. Se sospecha que la enzima reduce efectivamente fragmentos proteicos o péptidos, los cuales pueden haber sido tan pequeños como para esconder a otros ligandos relacionados con la adhesión macrófago-parásito.The interaction of promastigotes of Leishmania donovani with mouse peritoneal exudate cells (cep under the influence of Chymotripsine was studied. The promastigote adhered to the cep terminally and marginally. At 10-30 minutes postchallange, adhesion was absent in the treated group, and only after two hours was there any adhesión (24% in comparison with the controls. The experimental group was markedly deficient in all the parameters of activity measured: attachment, penetration, intracellular multiplication and division of flagellates forms in comparison to controls. The Chymotripsine favored the development of intermediate flagellates forms, these being spheroid or pyriform, with example of an aberrant form having the anterior end cylindrical similar to a choanoflagellate. It is suspected that the Chymotripsine effectively reduces protein or peptide fragments; these may have been so small as to conceal other ligands associated with macrophage-parasite adhesion.

  3. Effects of reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations on physiology and fluorescence of hermatypic corals and benthic algae

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas F.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Melissa Thompson; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2014-01-01

    While shifts from coral to seaweed dominance have become increasingly common on coral reefs and factors triggering these shifts successively identified, the primary mechanisms involved in coral-algae interactions remain unclear. Amongst various potential mechanisms, algal exudates can mediate increases in microbial activity, leading to localized hypoxic conditions which may cause coral mortality in the direct vicinity. Most of the processes likely causing such algal exudate induced coral mort...

  4. A physiological and molecular approach to study organic acid exudation and development of cluster roots in Lupinus albus L

    OpenAIRE

    Langlade, Nicolas Bernard; Martinoia, E.

    2004-01-01

    Les racines protéoïdes sont des structures en écouvillon, développées par des centaines d'espèces végétales (principalement de la famille des Protéacées, mais aussi de la légumineuse Lupinus albus, L.). Induites par des stress nutritifs, spécialement le phosphore, ces structures sont caractérisées par une forte capacité d'exsuder le citrate (jusqu'à 7 µmol .h-1 .g-1) et le malate dans la rhizosphère et donc d'augmenter la disponibilité du P, Fe et Mn. De plus, une grande variété de réponses à...

  5. Epididymitis and orchitis caused by Brucella melitensis biovar 3 in a Merino ram

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?yu?kcangaz, Esra; Demi?rer, Aylin Alasonyalilar; Erdenli?g?, Sevil; Misirliog?lu, Sabire Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a case of fibrinopurulent epididymitis and orchitis in a Merino ram owing to Brucella melitensis biovar 3, detected by histopathology, bacteriology, and PCR. Gross lesions included enlargement of the scrotum by abundant fibrinous exudate and adhesions between testicular tunics. Histopathologic lesions were characterized by epididymal abscesses and testicular atrophy. B. melitensis was cultured from the exudate as well as the internal organs of the ram. After conventional ...

  6. Novel Lipid Mediators and Resolution Mechanisms in Acute Inflammation: To Resolve or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    Because inflammation is appreciated as a unifying basis of many widely occurring diseases, the mechanisms involved in its natural resolution are of considerable interest. Using contained, self-limited inflammatory exudates and a systems approach, novel lipid-derived mediators and pathways were uncovered in the resolution of inflammatory exudates. These new families of local mediators control both the duration and magnitude of acute inflammation as well as the return of the site to homeostasis...

  7. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani on Egg Hatching and Infectivity of Rotylenchulus reniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaralingam, A.; Mcgawley, E. C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of culture filtrates of Rhizoctonia solani and root exudates of R. solani-infected cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seedlings on hatching of eggs and infectivity of females of Rotylenchulus reniformis were evaluated in an attempt to account for the enhanced nematode reproduction observed in the presence of this fungus. Crude filtrates of R. solani cultures growing over sterile, deionized distilled water did not affect egg hatching. Exudates from roots of cotton seedlings increased hatc...

  8. Resolvin D3 and Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D3 Are Potent Immunoresolvents

    OpenAIRE

    Dalli, Jesmond; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Colas, Romain A.; Arnardottir, Hildur; Cheng, Chien-yee C.; Chiang, Nan; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Resolvins are a new family of n-3 lipid mediators initially identified in resolving inflammatory exudates that temper inflammatory responses to promote catabasis. Here, temporal metabololipidomics with self-limited resolving exudates revealed that resolvin (Rv) D3 has a distinct time frame from other lipid mediators, appearing late in resolution phase. Using synthetic materials prepared by stereocontrolled total organic synthesis and metabololipidomics, we established complete stereochemistry...

  9. Determination of the fate of 13C labelled exudates and rhizodeposit-C in two agricultural soils with different yield

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The fate of C from rhizodeposits in soil is still unanswered. A broader knowledge of the contribution of carbon (C) released by plant roots to soil can help to increase our knowledge of global C cycling. The aim of this work was to determine with different approaches the dynamics of 13C labelled rhizodeposits in the major C pools in soil. The results showed that root-C became stabilized in non-water extractable organic fractions at least in the short-term. So, despite the high degradability o...

  10. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO. PMID:20645831

  11. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Mickaël; Hamama, Latifa; Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Séraphin, Denis; Peña-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has neve...

  12. Antibacterial potential of Al2O3 nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcusaureus isolated from skin exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al2O3 nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al2O3 NPs (2O3 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700–3,400 ?g/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 ?g/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al2O3 NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al2O3 NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al2O3 NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al2O3 NPs in medical application

  13. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces ?-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier. PMID:24950405

  14. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto, Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo, Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão Amaranthus deflexus (caruru, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa.In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The samples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  15. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas / Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.A.M., Silva; F.D., Nogueira; L.L., Ribeiro; A., Godinho; P.T.G., Guimarães.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto), Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo), Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão) Amaranthus deflexus (car [...] uru), na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais), em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa. Abstract in english In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The sam [...] ples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  16. Manejo práctico del derrame pleural / Practical management of pleural effusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. M., Porcel-Pérez.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Existen numerosas enfermedades que se pueden asociar con derrame pleural. Cuando se descubre un derrame pleural, se debe dar respuesta a dos preguntas: 1) ¿es el derrame un trasudado o un exudado? y 2) si el derrame es un exudado, ¿cuál es la enfermedad que lo ha producido?. El análisis del líquido [...] pleural mediante toracocentesis permite establecer un diagnóstico definitivo en más de dos terceras partes de los pacientes. El resto pueden requerir un período de observación en espera de la resolución espontánea o el empleo de métodos diagnósticos no invasivos (técnicas de imagen) o invasivos (broncoscopia, biopsia pleural, toracoscopia). Abstract in english There are many different diseases that can be associated with pleural effusions. When a pleural effusion is discovered, two questions need to be answered: 1) is the effusion a transudate or is it an exudate?, and 2) if the effusion is an exudate, what is the disease responsible for its production?. [...] Answers to these questions can be obtained in more than two-thirds of patients testing the pleural fluid by diagnostic thoracentesis. The remainder may require watchful waiting until resolution or further diagnostic procedures, either non-invasive (radiologic imaging) or invasive (bronchoscopy, pleural biopsy, thoracoscopy).

  17. Resistencia a antimicrobianos en cepas de Mannheimia haemolytica aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos productores de leche / Antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica strains isolated from dairy cattle nasal exudate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Luisa, Samaniego B.; José Luis, Contreras J.; Carlos J., Jaramillo-Arango; Francisco, Aguilar-Romero; Jesús, Vázquez Navarrete; Rigoberto, Hernández-Castro; Francisco, Suárez-Güemes F.; Francisco, Trigo Tavera.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se emplearon 201 cepas de Mannheimia haemolytica provenientes de muestras de exudado nasal de bovinos productores de leche, 123 de bovinos clínicamente sanos (CS) y 78 de bovinos enfermos de neumonía (CE), obtenidas de un complejo lechero en la región de Tizayuca, Hidalgo, México, las cuales fueron [...] identificadas previamente mediante pruebas convencionales de cultivo y bioquímicas, y serotipificadas mediante la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta. Se les realizó la prueba de difusión en placa para determinar la resistencia a diversos antimicrobianos como ampicilina, gentamicina, ceftiofiur, penicilina, estreptomicina, trimetoprim con sulfametoxazol, tetraciclina y eritromicina. Las frecuencias más altas en la resistencia a antimicrobianos se presentaron a la estreptomicina (81.6%) y gentamicina (24.4%), todas las cepas fueron susceptibles a la ampicilina y penicilina. Debido a la alta frecuencia (81.6%) de cepas de M. haemolyfica resistentes a St con la técnica de Kirby-Bauer, se buscó la presencia del gen sfrA. Se realizó la técnica de PCR para comprobar la presencia del gen sfrA que codifica para la enzima aminoglycoside-3-phosphofransferase que proporciona resistencia contra la estreptomicina. Del total de cepas estudiadas (n = 201), 42.7% presentaron el gen sfrA, del cual 17.4% pertenecía al serotipo A1, 1.4% al A6 y 23.8% a cepas no tipificables. De las 78 cepas de CE y las 123 de CS, 80.0% y 18.7% respectivamente, presentaron el gen sfrA. Abstract in english Two hundred and one strains of M. haemolytica isolated from nasal exudate of dairy cattle were used, 123 strains from clinically healthy (CH) bovines and 78 from clinically ill (CI) bovines affected by pneumonia, obtained from a dairy complex in the Tizayuca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. S [...] trains were previously identified by conventional culture and biochemical tests, and serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Disk diffusion test was performed to determine antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics, such as: ampicillin, gentamicin, ceftiofiur, penicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and erythromycin. Frequencies of higher antimicrobial resistance were: streptomycin (81.6%) and gentamicin (24.4%), all strains were susceptible to ampicillin and penicillin. Because of the high resistant strain frequency (81.6%) of M. haemolytica to streptomycin, obtained by Kirby-Bauer test, presence of the strA gene, which encodes the enzyme aminoglycoside-3-phosphotransferase that provides resistance to streptomycin, PCR was performed by testing the presence of the strA gene. Of the 201 strains tested, 42.7% showed the gene sfrA, 17.4% of which was serotype A1, 1.4% serotype A6 and 23.8% non-typeable strains. Of the 78 CI strains and 123 CH strains, 80% and 18.7%, had the gene sfrA, respectively.

  18. Retinal Image Analysis Using Morphological Process and Clustering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Radha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the Retinal image analysis through efficient detection of exudates an d recognizes the retina to be normal or abnormal. The contrast image is enhanced by curvelet transform. Hence, morphology operators are applied to the enha nced image in order to find the retinal image ridge s. A simple thresholding method along with opening and closing operation indicates the remained ridges belonging to vessels. The clustering method is used for effective detection of exudates of eye. Experi mental result proves that the blood vessels and exudates c an be effectively detected by applying this method on the retinal images. Fundus images of the retina were co llected from a reputed eye clinic and 110 images we re trained and tested in order to extract the exudates and blood vessels. In this system we use the Proba bilistic Neural Network (PNN for training and testing the p re-processed images. The results showed the retina is normal or abnormal thereby analyzing the retinal im age efficiently. There is 98% accuracy in the detec tion of the exudates in the retina .

  19. Discrimination of retinal images containing bright lesions using sparse coded features and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibé, Désiré; Sadek, Ibrahim; Mériaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature which is among the major causes of vision loss in the world. The diagnosis of DR is based on the detection of retinal lesions such as microaneurysms, exudates and drusen in retinal images acquired by a fundus camera. However, bright lesions such as exudates and drusen share similar appearances while being signs of different diseases. Therefore, discriminating between different types of lesions is of interest for improving screening performances. In this paper, we propose to use sparse coding techniques for retinal images classification. In particular, we are interested in discriminating between retinal images containing either exudates or drusen, and normal images free of lesions. Extensive experiments show that dictionary learning techniques can capture strong structures of retinal images and produce discriminant descriptors for classification. In particular, using a linear SVM with the obtained sparse coded features, the proposed method achieves superior performance as compared with the popular Bag-of-Visual-Word approach for image classification. Experiments with a dataset of 828 retinal images collected from various sources show that the proposed approach provides excellent discrimination results for normal, drusen and exudates images. It achieves a sensitivity and a specificity of 96.50% and 97.70% for the normal class; 99.10% and 100% for the drusen class; and 97.40% and 98.20% for the exudates class with a medium size dictionary of 100 atoms. PMID:25935125

  20. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  1. Volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil and maize cultivars with different susceptibilities to fusariosis and smut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catská, V; Vancura, V

    1980-01-01

    The effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil cultivars more and less susceptible to fusariosis on the germination of spores of Mucor racemosus, Trichoderma viride, Verticillium dahliae and Botrytis cinerea was found to depend rather on the fungal genus than on the lentil cultivar. However, spores of Fusarium oxysporum reacted more sensitively during germination to the presence of exudates of both cultivars, when the more susceptible lentil displayed a stimulation, the less susceptible one an inhibition of spore germination. The greatest difference in the effect of exudates was observed in the more and less susceptible maize cultivars with respect to the germination of chlamydospores of Ustilago maydis, especially during the first hours of seed germination. Analysis of the exudates of germinating seeds showed the release of a greater amount of ethanol and methanol with acetaldehyde by the more susceptible cultivars of lentil and particularly maize. PMID:7189738

  2. Physiology, biomechanics, and biomimetics of hagfish slime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Douglas S; Schorno, Sarah; Ferraro, Shannon

    2015-06-01

    Hagfishes thwart attacks by fish predators by producing liters of defensive slime. The slime is produced when slime gland exudate is released into the predator's mouth, where it deploys in a fraction of a second and clogs the gills. Slime exudate is composed mainly of secretory products from two cell types, gland mucous cells and gland thread cells, which produce the mucous and fibrous components of the slime, respectively. Here, we review what is known about the composition of the slime, morphology of the slime gland, and physiology of the cells that produce the slime. We also discuss several of the mechanisms involved in the deployment of both mucous and thread cells during the transition from thick glandular exudate to ultradilute material. We review biomechanical aspects of the slime, along with recent efforts to produce biomimetic slime thread analogs, and end with a discussion of how hagfish slime may have evolved. PMID:25534639

  3. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host. PMID:25670708

  4. Structural and Biochemical Study of Apple (Malus pumilo L. Bark Splitting Disorder in Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and biochemical study of apple bark splitting (ABS disorder was conducted in Balochistan. Anatomical results revealed that the cells of the phloem were crushed and large lysigenous air cavities were formed. The cells of the vascular cambium were also crushed there was no contact between the cells of the vascular cambium and functional phloem or young xylem cells. The air cavities were present throughout the bark extended until cambial layers. The exude which was oozed out of the bark was phloem sap and rich in sugar and also contained little amount of proteins. The chemical analysis of the exude had high contents of Na, K, Mg, Fe, Ni and Co in ABS infected trees as compared to the healthy trees. However, the Cu content was same in both trees and Zn content was higher in exudates of the healthy tree as compared to ABS infected trees.

  5. Antioxidant activity in heterogeneous and homogeneous system of the resinous exudates from Heliotropium stenophylum and H. sinuatum and of 3-O-methylgalangin their main component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mar\\u00EDa CAMPOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad antioxidante de exudados resinosos obtenidos desde las especies H. stenophylum y H. sinuatum, fue evaluada a través del ensayo ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity en fase acuosa y en presencia de micelas de Triton X-100, usando como molécula prueba a pirogalol rojo (PGR y evaluando su reducción frente a la acción de radicales peróxidos obtenidos desde la termólisis de AAPH. Los resultados muestran que estos extractos protegen al PGR de la acción de los radicales. Esta protección es reducida drásticamente en presencia de micelas de Tritón X-100. El mismo efecto fue observado con el flavonoide mayoritario de estos extractos (3-O-metilgalangina. Estos resultados muestran la importancia de considerar el medio de reacción de compuestos puros y/o extractos al momento de tomar en cuenta su uso como antioxidantes.

  6. High-resolution computed tomography findings of acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute interstitial pneumonia, and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikado, Kazuya

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is the pathologic feature of rapidly progressive lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute interstitial pneumonia, and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical significance and limitation of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in these diseases were reviewed. The HRCT findings correlate well with pathologic phases (exudative, proliferative, and fibrotic) of DAD, although it cannot detect early exudative phase. Traction bronchiolectasis or bronchiectasis within areas of increased attenuation on HRCT scan is a sign of progression from the exudative to the proliferative and fibrotic phase of DAD. Extensive abnormalities seen on HRCT scans, which are indicative of fibroproliferative changes, were independently predictive of poor prognosis in patients with clinically early acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute interstitial pneumonia, and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24480142

  7. Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant

    OpenAIRE

    L.D Tuffi Santos; Santos, J. B.; F.A Ferreira; J. A. de Oliveira; S. Bentivenha; A.F.L Machado

    2008-01-01

    Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à c...

  8. CT of ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author made a comprehensive study on the role of CT for the diagnosis of ascites. 100 consecutive cases were investigated, in which CT showed ascites and its cause was established. Additional 19 cases, in which CT scans were obtained from the upper abdomen to the pelvis, were also analyzed to investigate the distribution of ascitic fluid. The study was focussed on (1) preponderant site for ascites, (2) relationship between the amount of ascites and the underlying disease, (3) specific CT features for each disease causing ascites, (4) attenuation values of ascites, and (5) diseases (or conditions) to be distinguished from ascites. Ascites was most often first noticed in the pouch of Douglas and right subphrenic space. Ascites was observed in the Morrison's pouch only after when there was a certain amount of accumulation. The amount of ascites showed no significant difference between benign and malignant diseases. There were a number of specific CT features for each disease. Liver cirrhosis and hepatoma as causes of ascites were often diagnosed by CT alone. CT was also useful in the diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei, peritoneal mesothelioma and peritonitis carcinomatosa. Attenuation value of exudate was higher than that of transudate. Finally, cystic neoplasm, lymphangioma, fluid collection caused by pancreatitis, pleural effusion, lymphocele and hematoma were listed as diseases which could closely mimic ascites. (author)

  9. CT findings of peripheral atelectasis associated with pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of pleural effusion in the formation of rounded atelectasis (RA) was evaluated using CT in 159 patients with 210 pleural effusions. The forms of peripheral atelectasis associated with pleural effusion (PA-PE) were classified into five types: type 1: no atelectasis, type 2: flat or crescent type, type 3: convex type, type 4: mass-like type, type 5: consolidation type. Atelectasis (types 2-5) accounted for 78% (164/210) of all lesions. Type 2 was the commonest type of PA-PE, followed by type 5. Types 2 and 5 accounted for 79% (130/164) of all lesions with PA-PE. In most lesions of types 2 and 5, the collapsed pulmonary parenchyma re-expanded following decrease or disappearance of pleural effusion. Types 3 and 4 accounted for only 15% (25/164) and 5% (9/164), respectively. Most lesions of type 4 satisfied the criteria of CT findings of RA. Type 3 was similar to type 4 except for the obtuse angle between the collapsed pulmonary parenchyma and the pleura. As a consequence, it is reasonable to regard type 4 as RA, type 3 as the similar lesion of RA. Most lesions of types 3 and 4 were found in patients with small or moderate inflammatory exudate and pleural thickening, and most of them remained the same type in the follow-up studies. Three lesions of type 3 changed to type 4. This study showed that RA was mainly formed in the patients with inflammatory exudate and thickened pleura, rarely in the patients with transudate. It is concluded that inflammatory pleural effis concluded that inflammatory pleural effusion plays an important role in the formation of RA formation. (author)

  10. Peculiarities of X-ray picture of lingering lung edema in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray appearance of alveolar lung edema in 104 patients with myocardial infarction was analysed. Depending on the period of edema new peculiarities of its signs were marked and 3 stages of this pathological condition singled out. The 1st stage of edema (140 patients) was observed in the first 2-3 days of the desease and corresponded to a classical description of the X-ray signs of noticeably cardiac insufficiency. At the 2nd stage of edema (26 patients) lasting 5-7 days more intense and restricted zones of consolidation appearing gradually in the root and posterior lung area were noted. The 3rd stage of edema (12 patients) lasted over 2-3 weeks and was characterized by a higher transparence of the pulmonary fields with a simultaneous increase in the intensity of lung mottling resulting from the appearance of the alveolar contents. According to the results of roentgenomorphological correlations, X-ray changes were determined by the replacement of alveolar transudate for exudate with shedding the fibrin alveoli in the lumen and a subsequent progress to diffuse focal pneumosclerosis

  11. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) activated root malate and citrate exudation plays an important role in Al tolerance in many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al tolerance genes, here shown to encode an Al-activ...

  12. Changes in trachea and bronchus mucosa of dogs as estimated by bronchoscomy data obtained after the combined exposure to 239Pu and gamma-radiation and separate application of both factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that under conditions of combined exposure of dogs to external ?- and internal ?-radiation, a preirradiation with 51.6 mC/kg ?-rays prevents the development of the signs of endobronchitis which are typical for endobronchitis induced by inhalation of submicron 239Pu dioxide and manifested by hyperemia of trachea and bronchus mucosa, edema, and the presence of mucopurulent exudate

  13. Current approaches and perspectives in the medical treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    PORTA, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized countries. Its classification includes preclinical, nonproliferative (mild, moderate, and severe or preproliferative diabetic retinopathy) and proliferative stages (low risk, high risk, and advanced). Diabetic maculopathy (exudative, edematous, or ischemic) may be associated with either nonproliferative or proliferative retinopathy. Prevention requires the tightest possible control of both blood glucose and blood pressur...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1600a - Nystatin, neomycin, thiostrepton, and triamcinolone acetonide ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Topically: Use either ointment in dogs and cats for anti-inflammatory...inflammation and dry or exudative dermatitis, particularly associated with...petrolatum base ointment in dogs and cats for the treatment of...interdigital cysts, and in dogs for anal gland...

  15. Newly diagnosed exudative age-related macular degeneration treated with pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in US community-based practices: medical chart review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that early detection and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NV-AMD can delay vision loss and blindness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy/safety of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium monotherapy in treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed NV-AMD and to gain insight into characteristics of lesions treated in community-based practices. Methods From seven private US practices, charts were retrospectively reviewed on 73 subjects with previously untreated subfoveal choroidal NV-AMD treated with their first dose of pegaptanib monotherapy on/after 4/1/2005 through 6/5/2006, receiving ?4 treatments at 6-week intervals over 21 weeks. Primary endpoint: mean visual acuity (VA change from baseline to month 6. Results 75% of lesions were occult, and 82% were subfoveal. From baseline to month 6, mean VA change was -0.68 lines; 58% and 16% gained ?0 and ?3 lines of VA, and 70% were responders ( Conclusion Pegaptanib is effective in real-world patients with treatment-naïve NV-AMD in uncontrolled community-based retina practices.

  16. Ischemic necrosis and osteochondritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteonecrosis indicates that ischemic death of the cellular constituents of bone and marrow has occurred. Historically, this first was thought to be related to sepsis in the osseous segments. However, continued studies led to the use of the term aseptic necrosis. Subsequent observations indicated that the necrotic areas of bone were not only aseptic, but were also avascular. This led to the terms ischemic necrosis, vascular necrosis and bone infarction. Ischemic necrosis of bone is discussed in this chapter. It results from a significant reduction in or obliteration of blood supply to the affected area. The various bone cells, including osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, usually undergo anoxic death in 12 to 48 hours after blood supply is cut off. The infarct that has thus developed in three-dimensional and can be divided into a number of zones: a central zone of cell death; an area of ischemic injury, most severe near the zone of cell death, and lessening as it moves peripherally; an area of active hyperemia and the zone of normal unaffected tissue. Once ischemic necrosis has begun, the cellular damage provokes an initial inflammatory response, which typically is characterized by vasodilatation, transudation of fluid and fibrin, and local infiltration of flammatory cells. This response can be considered the first stage in repair of the necrotic area

  17. Antibacterial potential of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcusaureus isolated from skin exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam, E-mail: azammicro@gmail.com; Khan, Haris M. [Aligarh Muslim University, Nanotechnology and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital (India); Khan, Aijaz A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital (India); Pal, Ruchita [Jawaharlal Nehru University, Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (India); Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh [CSIR, Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH) (India)

    2013-10-15

    To date very little studies are available in the literature on the interaction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcusaureus. Considering the paucity of earlier reports the objective of present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (<50 nm) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci by various methods. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The MIC was found to be in the range of 1,700-3,400 {mu}g/ml. Almost no growth was observed at 2,000 {mu}g/ml for up to 10 h. SEM micrograph revealed that the treated cells were significantly damaged, showed indentation on cell surface and clusters of NPs on bacterial cell wall. HR-TEM micrograph shows disruption and disorganization of cell membrane and cell wall. The cell membrane was extensively damaged and, most probably, the intracellular content has leaked out. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs not only adhered at the surface of cell membrane, but also penetrated inside the bacterial cells, cause formation of irregular-shaped pits and perforation on their surfaces and may also interact with the cellular macromolecules causing adverse effect including cell death. The data presented here are novel in that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs are effective bactericidal agents regardless of the drug resistance mechanisms that confer importance to these bacteria as an emergent pathogen. Therefore, in depth studies regarding the interaction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs with cells, tissues, and organs as well as the optimum dose required to produce therapeutic effects need to be ascertained before we can expect a more meaningful role of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs in medical application.

  18. Vasculopatia retiniana exsudativa tipo Coats associada a retinose pigmentar: ocorrência familiar / Coats' type exudative vasculopathy associated with retinitis pigmentosa: familial occurrence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdir Balarin, Silva; Paulo Henrique, Spirandeli; Jaqueline Mendonça Lopes de, Faria.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam dois casos de vasculopatia retiniana tipo Coats associada a retinose pigmentar. Estes são os primeiros casos entre irmãos descritos no Brasil e nosso objetivo é anexar mais 2 casos, aos 47 descritos na literatura mundial. [...] Abstract in english The authors presents two cases of Coats' type exsudative vasculopathy associated with retinitis pigmentosa. These are the first cases in siblings described in Brazil and our purpose is to add two more cases, to the 47 described in the world literature. [...

  19. Combined use of an ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing and silver dressing on infected leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, B.; Gottrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and safety of an ibuprofen-releasing foam (Biatain-Ibu, Coloplast A/S) combined with an ionised silver-releasing wound contact layer (Physiotulle Ag, Coloplast A/S) on painful, infected venous leg ulcers. METHOD: This open non-comparative study involved 24 patients with painful, exuding, locally infected, and stalled venous leg ulcers. Persistent pain and pain at dressing change were monitored using a 11-point numerical box scale (NBS). The composition of the wound bed, the dressing combination's ability to absorb exudate and minimise leakage, ibuprofen content in the exudate, reduction in wound area and adverse effects were also recorded. RESULTS: Persistent wound pain decreased from a mean of 6.3 +/- 2.2 to 3.0 +/- 1.7 after 12 hours and remained low thereafter. Pain at dressing change also decreased and remained low. Forty-eight hours after the first dressing application, the mean concentration of ibuprofen in the wound exudate reached a constant level of 35 +/- 21 microg/ml.After 31 days, the relative wound area had reduced by 42%, with an associated decrease in fibrin and an increase in granulation tissue.The number of patients with wound malodour decreased from 37% to 4%. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The combined use of the ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing and silver-releasing contact layer reduced wound pain and promoted healing without compromising safety Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5

  20. Stigma development and receptivity of two Kalanchoë blossfeldiana cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traoré, Leila Thérèse; Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross-pollination in the Kalanchoë blossfeldiana. Pollen tube growth after pollination of K. blossfeldiana ‘Jackie’ and ‘Reese’ was examined at different stigma developmental stages. Five distinct developmental stages were identified based on changes in morphology and activity of stigmatic peroxidase. After reciprocal pollination at the five stigma developmental stages, fluorescence microscopy was used to estimate the number of pollen tubes in situ. Both cultivars had receptive stigmas from stage I to IV, which concurred with the continuous expansion of the stigma covered with exudates. No pollen tube growth was observed at stage V for both cultivars. The number of pollen tubes was significantly higher in carpels pollinated at stage III, characterized by loose arrangement of the papillae and maximal amount of exudates, compared to all other developmental stages. Stigmas showing drying exudates and absence of peroxidase exhibited a relatively decreased number of pollen tubes in situ. No pollen tubes germinated on wilting stigmas. The arrangement of the papillae, the presence of exudates and peroxidase activity affected the number of pollen tubes in cross-pollination of K. blossfeldiana cultivars ‘Jackie’ and ‘Reese’. These results will help breeders to better select the optimal time for effective pollination. The findings may be applicable for other cultivars of K. blossfeldiana and relevant for different species of Kalanchoë.

  1. ANNUAL REPORT. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS: PLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS AND ORGANIC MATTER AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the factors that influence metal availability to soil-grown plants, one of the least understood is the influence of root/soil interfaces on metal mobilization and subsequent transport into the root. These include root exudation for chelating and reducing metal ions, cell wa...

  2. Concurrent synthesis and release of nod-gene-inducing flavonoids from alfalfa roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Alfalfa roots release three major nod-gene inducers: 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone. The objective of the present study was to define temporal relationships between synthesis and exudation for those flavonoids. Requirements for concurrent flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed by treating roots of intact alfalfa seedlings with [U-14C]-L-phenylalanine in the presence or absence of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). In the absence of AOPP, each of the three flavonoids in exudates contained 14C. In the presence of AOPP, 14C labeling and release of all the exuded nod-gene inducers were reduced significantly. AOPP inhibited labeling and release of the strongest nod-gene inducer, methoxychalcone, by more than 90%. The release process responsible for exudation of nod-gene inducers appears to be specific rather than a general phenomenon such as a sloughing off of cells during root growth

  3. Dermoscopy assisting the diagnosis of mycetoma: case report and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Montanheiro dos, Reis; Brunno Zeni de, Lima; Fernando da Cunha, Zillo; Camila Makino, Rezende; Lincoln Helder Zambaldi, Fabricio; Camila Araujo Scharf, Pinto.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycetomas are a chronic skin infection characterized by perilesional edema, formation of sinus tracts, and discharge of purulent or seropurulent exudate containing grains. This report aims to demonstrate the clinical diagnosis (by dermoscopy) of a skin lesion that initially bared no clinical feature [...] s of a mycetoma.

  4. Dermoscopy assisting the diagnosis of mycetoma: case report and literature review*

    OpenAIRE

    dos Reis, Larissa Montanheiro; de Lima, Brunno Zeni; Zillo, Fernando da Cunha; Rezende, Camila Makino; Fabricio, Lincoln Helder Zambaldi; Pinto, Camila Araujo Scharf

    2014-01-01

    Mycetomas are a chronic skin infection characterized by perilesional edema, formation of sinus tracts, and discharge of purulent or seropurulent exudate containing grains. This report aims to demonstrate the clinical diagnosis (by dermoscopy) of a skin lesion that initially bared no clinical features of a mycetoma.

  5. ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF A PAINTING BY KEES VAN DONGEN: FTIR AND ELISA AS COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUES IN THE ANALYSIS OF ART MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Klausmeyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent examination and treatment of the Worcester ArtMuseum’s Reclining Nude, c. 1925, oil on canvas, by theDutch-born Fauve artist Kees Van Dongen (1877-1968 indicatethat the artist used unorthodox materials and techniques,including selective varnishing to adjust color saturationand surface sheen. Examination also revealed resinlikebeads exuded from unvarnished passages of paint consideredartist-applied retouches. ATR-FTIR micro-spectroscopyof the exudate suggests the presence of gum arabicand sucrose, two common components in watercolorformulations. In order to verify the presence of gum arabicin the exudate, a newly developed ELISA protocol wasused, which confirmed the presence of gum arabic. Thismay indicate that the artist modified his oil paint withgouache or watercolor, ultimately resulting in phase separationand subsequent beading up of water-soluble componentsfrom within the paint’s predominantly oil component.The identification of water-soluble materials within an otherwisenon-water-soluble paint surface proved critical informulating an appropriate cleaning approach. Although theexact cause of the exudate is debatable, it ser ves as a cautionarynote for conservators faced with the challenge oftreating paintings by Van Dongen.

  6. Difference in Striga-susceptibility is reflected in strigolactone secretion profile, but not in compatibility and host preference in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in two maize cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kaori; Arakawa, Ryota; Ishimoto, Keiko; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Nomura, Takahito; Kanampiu, Fred; Yokota, Takao; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    Strigolactones released from plant roots trigger both seed germination of parasitic weeds such as Striga spp. and hyphal branching of the symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Generally, strigolactone composition in exudates is quantitatively and qualitatively different among plants, which may be involved in susceptibility and host specificity in the parasite-plant interactions. We hypothesized that difference in strigolactone composition would have a significant impact on compatibility and host specificity/preference in AM symbiosis. Strigolactones in root exudates of Striga-susceptible (Pioneer 3253) and -resistant (KST 94) maize (Zea mays) cultivars were characterized by LC-MS/MS combined with germination assay using Striga hermonthica seeds. Levels of colonization and community compositions of AM fungi in the two cultivars were investigated in field and glasshouse experiments. 5-Deoxystrigol was exuded exclusively by the susceptible cultivar, while the resistant cultivar mainly exuded sorgomol. Despite the distinctive difference in strigolactone composition, the levels of AM colonization and the community compositions were not different between the cultivars. The present study demonstrated that the difference in strigolactone composition has no appreciable impact on AM symbiosis, at least in the two maize cultivars, and further suggests that the traits involved in Striga-resistance are not necessarily accompanied by reduction in compatibility to AM fungi. PMID:25754513

  7. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol – Part 2: Composition, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fuentes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of colloidal and dissolved organic matter <0.2 ?m, secreted by marine biota, on the hygroscopic growth and droplet activation behaviour of the primary marine aerosol was studied. Seawater proxies were prepared by the combination of artificial seawater devoid of marine organics and natural seawater enriched in organic exudate released by laboratory-grown phytoplankton cultures, as described in a companion paper. The primary aerosol was produced by bubble bursting, using a plunging multijet system as an aerosol generator.

    The aerosol generated from seawater proxies enriched with marine exudate presented organic volume fractions on the order of 5–37%, as derived by applying a simple mixing rule. The hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of the marine organics-enriched particles where 9–17% and 5–24% lower, respectively, than those of the aerosol produced from artificial seawater devoid of exudate. Experiments in a companion paper indicated that the cloud nuclei formation could be enhanced in diatom bloom areas because of the increase in the primary particle production induced by marine organics. The experiments in the present study, however, indicate that the impacts of such an enhancement would be counteracted by the reduction in the CCN activity of the primary particles enriched in marine organics.

    The extent of the effect of the biogenic matter on the particle behaviour was dependent on the seawater organic concentration and type of algal exudate. Aerosol produced from seawater proxies containing diatomaceous exudate presented higher hydrophobicity and lower CCN activity than those enriched with nanoplankton exudate. The organic fraction of the particles increased with increasing seawater organic concentration, with the highest organic enrichment found for the diatomaceous exudate. These findings are indicative that, besides the differences induced by the aerosol generator employed, discrepancies between different studies in the behaviour of the organics-enriched primary seaspray could partly be explained by the difference in the nature and concentration of the organic material in the source seawater employed.

    Consistently across the experiments, theoretical analysis based on the Köhler model predicted a reduction in the primary seaspray CCN activity upon the incorporation of marine organics into the particle composition. This effect is consequence of the replacement of small inorganic sea salt molecules by large molar mass organic molecules, together with a moderate suppression of the surface tension at the point of activation of 5–0.5%, which leads to a dominance of the reduction in the dissolved solute in the Raoult term.

  9. Postmortem abdominal CT: Assessing normal cadaveric modifications and pathological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the interest of postmortem non-enhanced computer tomography (CT) for abdominal lesions in a forensic context of suspicions death and to list the different radiological cadaveric modifications occurring normally at abdominal stage, which must be known by non forensic radiologists in case of any postmortem exam. Materials and methods: 30 cadavers have been submitted to a body CT-scan without injection of contrast material. CT exams were reviewed by two independent radiologists and radiological findings were compared with forensic autopsy data. Results: False positive CT findings included physiological postmortem transudates misdiagnosed with intra-abdominal bleedings, and putrefaction gas misdiagnosed with gas embolism, aeroporty, aerobily, digestive parietal pneumatosis. Incidentalomas without any role in death process were also reported. False negative CT findings included small contusions, vascular thromboses, acute infarcts foci, non radio-opaque foreign bodies. Normal cadaveric modifications were due to livor mortis and putrefaction, and are seen quickly (some hours) after death. Conclusion: The non forensic radiologist should be familiar with the normal abdominal postmortem features in order to avoid misdiagnoses, and detect informative lesions which can help and guide the forensic practitioner or the clinical physician.

  10. Modelling carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Völker

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During phytoplankton growth a fraction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC assimilated by phytoplankton is exuded in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, which can be transformed into extracellular particulate organic carbon (POC. A major fraction of extracellular POC is associated with carbon of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP; carbon content = TEPC that form from dissolved polysaccharides (PCHO. The exudation of PCHO is linked to an excessive uptake of DIC that is not directly quantifiable from utilisation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, called carbon overconsumption. Given these conditions, the concept of assuming a constant stoichiometric carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N ratio for estimating new production of POC from DIN uptake becomes inappropriate. Here, a model of carbon overconsumption is analysed, combining phytoplankton growth with TEPC formation. The model describes two modes of carbon overconsumption. The first mode is associated with DOC exudation during phytoplankton biomass accumulation. The second mode is decoupled from algal growth, but leads to a continuous rise in POC while particulate organic nitrogen (PON remains constant. While including PCHO coagulation, the model goes beyond a purely physiological explanation of building up carbon rich particulate organic matter (POM. The model is validated against observations from a mesocosm study. Maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters, such as nitrogen- and carbon loss rates of phytoplankton, are determined. The optimisation yields results with higher rates for carbon exudation than for the loss of organic nitrogen. It also suggests that the PCHO fraction of exuded DOC was 63±20% during the mesocosm experiment. Optimal estimates are obtained for coagulation kernels for PCHO transformation into TEPC. Model state estimates are consistent with observations, where 30% of the POC increase was attributed to TEPC formation. The proposed model is of low complexity and is applicable for large-scale biogeochemical simulations.

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of Triphala recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Triphala recipe were studied in animal models. Triphala recipe (4 mg/ear) significantly exhibited an inhibitory effect on the ear edema formation induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced, but not on the arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in rats. Furthermore, Triphala recipe at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. Next, the anti-inflammatory action in chronic inflammation was measured using the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation assay in rats. Triphala recipe (1,200 mg/kg) reduced neither transudative weight nor granuloma formation. It also did not affect on body weight gain and thymus weight indicating that Triphala recipe does not have a steroid-like effect. In antinociceptive study, Triphala recipe (300, 600, 1,200 mg/kg), elicited significant inhibitory effect on both phases, especially in late phase, of the formalin test in mice suggesting that the antinociceptive action of Triphala recipe may be via both peripheral and at least partly centrally acting. PMID:24146447

  12. PORFIRIA AGUDA: REPORTE DE CASO Y REVISIÓN DE TEMA / URINOTHORAX: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW / URINOTÓRAX: REPORTE DE UM CASO E REVISÃO DA LITERATURA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JORGE, SALINAS P.; FRANCISCO, RODRÍGUEZ.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O urinotórax é uma causa infreqüente de derrame pleural, que implica a presença de urina no espaço pleural, associado geralmente a uropatía obstrutiva bilateral, ou a trauma do sistema urinário. As características bioquímicas do derrame estão em relação direta com a urina e sofrem uma ligeira, mas s [...] ubstancial modificação, depois do seu passo ao espaço pleural, onde se mistura com o líquido pleural. Caracteristicamente, o líquido pleural é um transudado com um PH Abstract in spanish El urinotórax es una causa inusual de derrame pleural, que implica la presencia de orina en el espacio pleural, asociado generalmente a uropatía obstructiva bilateral, o a trauma del sistema urinario. Las características bioquímicas del derrame están en relación directa con las características de la [...] orina y sufren una ligera, pero sustancial modificación, tras su paso al espacio pleural, donde se entremezcla con el líquido pleural. Característicamente, el líquido pleural es un transudado con un pH Abstract in english The urinothorax is an uncommon cause of pleural effusion; it involves the presence of urine in the pleural space, generally associated with bilateral obstructive uropathy or trauma of the urinary system. The biochemical characteristics of the effusion are related with to those of urine and they suff [...] er a slight, but substantial modification as it passes into the pleural space where it mixes with the pleural fluid (PF). Characteristically, the PF is a transudate, with a pH

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of novel absorptive and antibacterial polyurethane membranes as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Abbas; Yeganeh, Hamid; Bakhshi, Hadi

    2012-09-01

    Preparation and evaluation of new polyurethane membranes for wound dressing application was considered in this work. The membranes were prepared through amine curing reaction of epoxy-terminated polyurethane prepolymers and an antibacterial epoxy-functional quaternary ammonium compound (glycidyltriehtylammonium chloride, GTEACl. To render the prepared membranes to be highly absorptive of wound exudates, poly (ethylene glycol) polyols were introduced into the polyurethane networks. Evaluation of biocompatibity via both MTT assay and direct contact with two different cell lines (fibroblast and epidermal keratinocytes) reveled that membranes with appropriate loading of GTEACl showed proper biocompatibility. Promising antibacterial activity of the prepared membranes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria was confirmed by both agar diffusion and shaking flask methods. The membranes with balanced crosslink density and ionic groups' concentration possessed appropriate hydrophilicity and water vapor transmission rate; therefore, they could prevent the accumulation of exudates and decrease the surface inflammation in the wounded area. PMID:22639152

  14. Ecology and Evolution of Soil Nematode Chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmann, S.; Ali, J. G.; Helder, J.; Putten, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Plants influence the behavior of and modify community composition of soil-dwelling organisms through the exudation of organic molecules. Given the chemical complexity of the soil matrix, soil-dwelling organisms have evolved the ability to detect and respond to these cues for successful foraging. A key question is how specific these responses are and how they may evolve. Here, we review and discuss the ecology and evolution of chemotaxis of soil nematodes. Soil nematodes are a group of diverse...

  15. Histopathological Changes in Skin and Lymph Nodes of Sheep Following Vaccination with Anthrax, Capripox and Combined and Anthrax and Capripox Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mukhtar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin sections of sheep inoculated with live spores anthrax vaccine revealed edema, intense effusion of mononuclear cells and proliferation fibroblast in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues, whereas sections of skin of those inoculated with capripox vaccine showed hyperplasia and hydrophopic degeneration of epidermal epithelium and instance infilteration of cellular exudates in dermis and subcutaneous tissues. However, the lesions presented by the combined vaccine included the fore mentioned lesions.

  16. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Grzesiuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  17. Propolis: A Wonder Bees Product and Its Pharmacological Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Wagh, Vijay D.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honey bees from substances collected from parts of plants, buds, and exudates. Due to its waxy nature and mechanical properties, bees use propolis in the construction and repair of their hives for sealing openings and cracks and smoothing out the internal walls and as a protective barrier against external invaders like snakes, lizards, and so forth, or against weathering threats like wind and rain. Bees gather propolis from different plants, ...

  18. Recent Progress of Propolis for Its Biological and Chemical Compositions and Its Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Cristina Toreti; Helia Harumi Sato; Glaucia Maria Pastore; Yong Kun Park

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is the generic name given to the product obtained from resinous substances, which is gummy and balsamic and which is collected by bees from flowers, buds, and exudates of plants. It is a popular folk medicine possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities. These biological properties are related to its chemical composition and more specifically to the phenolic compounds that vary in their structure and concentration depending on the region of production, availability of sources...

  19. Aspects of tobacco diterpene biosynthesis and accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamina, midveins, stalks and flowers of most Nicotiana species are covered with trichomes. The exudate which accumulates around glandular trichome heads has been suggested to be responsible for the characteristics flavor and aroma associated with different tobaccos. Many classes of compounds have been identified in cuticular surface washes and exudates of tobacco, in particular diterpenes such as the labdanes and duvanes. It has been assumed that most of the components present in the cuticular surface washes and trichome exudates are synthesized by the trichomes. However, there is little definitive evidence to support this assumption. Utilizing radiolabeled precursors, studies were undertaken to determine the site or sites of 1S- and 1R-4.8, 13-duvatriene-1,3-diol (1S- and 1R-diol) biosynthesis. Experiments using midvein sections of Tobacco Introduction 1068 treated with [2-14C]acetate or mevalonic acid indicated that radioactivity was incorporated into surface components, including 1S- and 1R-diol. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that all of the labeled duvatrienediols found were associated with the exudate and surface extracts. Experiments using incubated detached glandular trichome heads unequivocally demonstrated that the glandular heads have the biosynthetic capacity to incorporate [2-14C]acetate or mevalonic acid into 1S- and 1R-diol. The influence of nitrogen fertilization, water stress, time of topping and curing conditions on the accf topping and curing conditions on the accumulated levels of 1S- and 1R-diol in field grown Ky 14 was also examined

  20. Clinical and in vitro efficacy of amoxicillin against bacteria associated with feline skin wounds and abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Jose?e; Messier, Serge; Labrecque, Olivia; Cox, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A clinical trial involving 122 cats with infected skin wounds or abscesses presented to 10 veterinary clinics was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2 oral amoxicillin drug products (a paste and a suspension). A 2nd objective of the study was to identify bacteria involved in such infections and verify their in vitro sensitivity to amoxicillin. Samples of wound exudate were harvested at the time of presentation and submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture. The sensitivity to amoxicillin ...

  1. The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Raaijmakers, J. M.; Paulitz, T. C.; Steinberg, C.; Alabouvette, C.; Moe?nne-loccoz, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The rhizosphere is a hot spot of microbial interactions as exudates released by plant roots are a main food source for microorganisms and a driving force of their population density and activities. The rhizosphere harbors many organisms that have a neutral effect on the plant, but also attracts organisms that exert deleterious or beneficial effects on the plant. Microorganisms that adversely affect plant growth and health are the pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and nematodes. Most of th...

  2. Accessory and stimulating properties of dendritic cells and macrophages isolated from various rat tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkert, Wef; Labadie, Jh; Bowers, We

    1982-01-01

    Single cell suspensions of rat lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues were fractionated on discontinuous gradients of bovine serum albumin into high density and low density subfractions. In general, accessory activity required for responses of periodate-treated T lymphocytes was recovered only in a low density population containing a small percent of the total fractionated cells from lymph nodes, spleen, liver, skin, and peritoneal exudates. Further purification always led to an increase of both ac...

  3. Plant and soil microbe interactions in controlled conditions: rhizosphere protozoa and bacterial community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Aragno, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Plants influence the soil system by the large proportion of photosynthesized matters translocated to the roots and secreted into the soil. This root exudation provides an abundant energy source for rhizosphere living microorganisms. Plants are also strongly affected, positively and negatively, by the presence of soil microbiota, particularly bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Throughout the experiments conducted in this work, we aimed to better understand the influence of protozoa on plant growth....

  4. Different pathways for copper sulphate and copper nitrate antioxidation and organic acid excretion in Typha latifolia?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubenova L.; Kuhn A.; Höltkemeier A.; Bipuah H.; Belford E.; Schröder P.

    2013-01-01

    The major topic of the present experiment was the investigation of the antioxidative enzymes and the root exudate excretion after plant exposure to copper. The copper was added for each treatment as copper sulphate and copper nitrate in the concentrations of 10 ?M, 50 ?M and 100 ?M, respectively. The plant species chosen for the study was Typha latifolia. The experiment gives insight into the plant responses to different copper supplies during the same conditions of exposure. Remarkable re...

  5. On the impacts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter on the properties of the primary marine aerosol – Part 2: Composition, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fuentes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanogel colloidal and dissolved organic matter <0.2 ?m, secreted by marine biota, on the hygroscopic growth and droplet activation behaviour of the primary marine aerosol was studied. Seawater proxies were prepared by the combination of artificial seawater devoid of marine organics and natural seawater enriched in organic exudate released by laboratory-grown phytoplankton cultures, as described in a companion paper. The primary aerosol was produced by bubble bursting, using a plunging multijet system as an aerosol generator.

    The aerosol generated from seawater proxies enriched with marine exudate presented organic volume fractions on the order of 8–37%, as derived by applying a simple mixing rule. The hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of the marine organics-enriched particles where 9–17% and 5–24% lower, respectively, than those of the aerosol produced from artificial seawater devoid of exudate. Experiments in a companion paper indicated that the cloud nuclei formation could be enhanced in diatom bloom areas because of the increase in the primary particle production induced by marine organics. The experiments in the present study, however, indicate that the impacts of such an enhancement would be counteracted by the reduction in the CCN activity of the primary particles enriched in marine organics.

    The extent of the effect of the biogenic matter on the particle behaviour was dependent on the seawater organic concentration and type of algal exudate. Aerosol produced from seawater proxies containing diatomaceous exudate presented higher hydrophobicity and lower CCN activity than those enriched with nanoplankton exudate. The organic fraction of the particles was found to correlate with the seawater organic concentration, without observing saturation of the particle organic mass fraction even for unrealistically high organic matter concentration in seawater. These findings are indicative that discrepancies on the composition of the primary aerosol between different studies could partly be explained by the difference in the nature and concentration of the organic matter in the source seawater employed.

    Consistently across the experiments, theoretical analysis based on the Köhler model predicted a reduction in the primary marine aerosol CCN activity upon the incorporation of marine organics into the particle composition. This effect is consequence of the replacement of small inorganic sea salt molecules by large molar mass organic molecules, together with a moderate suppression of the surface tension at the point of activation of 5–0.5%, which leads to a dominance of the reduction in the dissolved solute in the Raoult term.

  6. Comparison of acridine orange and Gram stains for detection of microorganisms in cerebrospinal fluid and other clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, B. A.; Reller, L. B.; Mirrett, S.

    1981-01-01

    Acridine orange, a fluorochrome strain, is potentially superior to the Gram stain in the direct microscopic examination of clinical specimens because it gives striking differential staining between bacteria and background cells and debris. Its value in clinical laboratories was evaluated by testing 209 cerebrospinal fluids and 288 other body fluids, tissues, and exudates by both techniques. Smears were made in duplicate, fixed with methanol, stained, and examined without knowledge of the resu...

  7. Comparison of different tests to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin; Binder, Christina; Hirschberger, Johannes; Cole, Dana; Reinacher, Manfred; Schroo, Simone; Frost, Jens; Egberink, Herman; Lutz, Hans; Hermanns, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Clinical data from 488 cats (1979-2000) with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and 620 comparable controls were evaluated retrospectively to assess the value of several diagnostic tests frequently used in the evaluation of cats with suspected FIP. Diagnostic utility of serum albumin to globulin ratio for the diagnosis of FIP was greater than of the utility of serum total protein and gamma-globulin concentrations. Diagnostic utility of these variables was higher when performed on effusion. On effusion, positive and negative predictive values of Rivalta's test, a test that distinguishes between exudates and transudates (0.86 and 0.97), anti-coronavirus antibody detection (0.90 and 0.79), and immunofluorescence staining of coronavirus antigen in macrophages (1.00 and 0.57) were investigated. The positive and negative predictive values of presence of anti-coronavirus antibodies were 0.44 and 0.90, respectively, antibody concentrations (1:1,600) were 0.94 and 0.88. presence of immune complexes measured by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 0.67 and 0.84, and detection of viral RNA by serum reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were 0.90 and 0.47. Effusion RT-PCR was performed in 6 cats; it was positive in all 5 cats with FIP and negative in the cat with another disease. Diagnostic assays on the fluid in cats with body effusion had good predictive values. Definitive diagnosis of FIP on the basis of measurement of various variables in serum was not possible. Serum tests can only be used to facilitate the decision for more invasive diagnostic methods. PMID:14658713

  8. Properties of layered double hydroxide micro- and nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Lumbidzani; Focke, Walter Wilhelm; Heidenreich, D.; Labuschagne, F.J.W.J.; Radusch, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate and stearate intercalated layered double hydroxides were used as fillers to prepare polymer micro- and nanocomposites, respectively. The stearate modified starting material was bilayerintercalated clay. During melt compounding excess stearates were released and the clay reverted to a monolayer-intercalated form. The exuded stearate acted as a lubricant lowering the melt viscosity of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and linear low density polyethylene matrices. Strong hydr...

  9. UTILIZATION OF GUM ARABIC FOR INDUSTRIES AND HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic, a natural polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is a commonly used food hydrocolloid. The highlight of this study was to review the utilization of gum Arabic for industries and human health. Gum Arabic has a unique combination of excellent emulsifying properties and low solution viscosity. These properties make gum Arabic very useful in several industries but especially in the food industry where it is used as a flavor and stabilizer of cit...

  10. A practical and low cost microbiotest to assess the phytotoxic potential of growing media and soil

    OpenAIRE

    De Blok, C.; Persoone, G.; Wever, G.

    2008-01-01

    For routine toxicity testing of composts and growing media, two different types of assays are usually applied. One approach is the use of growing trials in pots with various mixtures of the material. In extract-based tests, seeds are germinated in petri dishes and exposed to an exudate from the material to be tested. In this study, one of these methods, the Phytotoxkit microbiotest, was compared to the standard phytotoxicity test with Lactuca sativa as used by the RHP foundation. The Phytotox...

  11. Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones