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1

A New Approach in Distinguishing Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Light’s criteria, which were accepted in 1972 for the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions as transudates or exudates, are widely used worldwide. It has been reported in various studies that Light’s criteria have lower specificity, and new recommendations have emerged. The discriminative ability of Light’s criteria and adapted formulas, which are our new proposal, were studied by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs analysis and Area Under the Curves (AUCs.Material and Method: These criteria were evaluated in 451 patients in our study. Of these cases, 151 had transudates, while 300 patients presented with exudates. Results: AUCs of Light’s criteria (P/Sprot, P/SLDH, PLDH were measured as 0.931 (95%CI: 0.899-0.963, 0.936(95%CI: 0.904-0967 and 0.957(95%CI: 0.934-0.981, respectively, and the differences between the measured values were found to be statistically significant (p<.001. AUCs of our new adapted formulas (F-1, F-2, F-3 were found to be slightly higher than those of Light’s criteria, with the values of 0.987(95%CI: 0.976-0.998, 0.935(95%CI 0:.908-0.963 and 0.980(95%CI: 0.966-0.993, respectively, and the differences were also significant (p<.001. Conclusion: In our opinion, further studies are needed with a wider study population to determine the value of the new formulas in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Proving our proposal would be useful in clinical practices.

Güngör Ate?

2010-03-01

2

Enhanced CT in the patients with pleural effusion : differential findings between exudates and transudates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the differential findings of CT in the differention of pleural exudates and transudates. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (113 effusions) underwent enhanced thoracic CT ; the scans were evaluated for the presence or absence and apearance of enhancing parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening. Thoracentesis was performed to measure pleural and serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) values. Effusions were classified as exudates by using Light's criteria. Eighty-eight effusions were exudates and 25 were transudates. Eighty-three of the 88 exudates (93 %) were associated with enhanced parietal pleural thickening;seventy of the 88 (80%) were associated with extrapleural fat thickening. Four of the 25 transudates were associated with parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening, both of which were the most important factors in differentiating between pleural exudates and transudates(p<0.05). Parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening on contrast-enhanced CT almost always indicate the presence of pleural exudates

1996-10-01

3

Evaluation of sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa on transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated for its effect on the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats. The fraction (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the increase in wet weight of the cotton pellet at 3 h (transudative phase), leakage of dye from the bloodstream around granuloma at 24 h (exudative phase) and increase in dry weight of the cotton pellet on day 6 (proliferative phase). It significantly lowered the elevated biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and significantly elevated the lowered albumin concentration in serum. The studies suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactone fraction of S. lappa may, in part, be due to stabilization of lysosomal membranes and an antiproliferative effect. PMID:12916066

Damre, A A; Damre, A S; Saraf, M N

2003-08-01

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Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs into exudates and transudates in children.Methods:Pleural fluid (PF and serum Angiopoietin (Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012. PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P< 0.001. PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01. PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P< 0.003. PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P< 0.001. Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively.Conclusion:Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

Mohammed Sanad

2011-09-01

5

Evaluation of Serum and Pleural Levels of Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 in Children with Transudative and Exudative Pleural Effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective:Angiopoietins are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. We tried to evaluate the application of pleural and serum Angiopoietin-1 and 2 in categorizing pleural effusions (PEs into exudates and transudates in children. Methods: Pleural fluid (PF and serum Angiopoietin (Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in 80 children with PEs (40 transudative and 40 exudative by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Findings:PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in pleural exudates than in transudates (P 0.012. PF Ang-2 levels were significantly higher than serum Ang-2 levels in patients with pleural exudates and transudates (P<0.001. PF Ang-2 levels were higher in tuberculous than in non-tuberculous pneumonic PEs and empyema (P=0.01. PF Ang-2 levels correlate with serum Ang-2 levels (P<0.003. PF Ang-1 levels were significantly lower than serum Ang-1 levels both in patients with exudates and those with transudates (P<0.001. Cutoff points of serum and PF Ang-2, differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions were 3ng/ml and 8ng/ml respectively. Predictive potentials of serum and PF Ang-2 cutoff points were: Sensitivity 90% and 95% respectively, specificity 92.50% and 97.50% respectively, positive predictive value 92.30% and 97.40% respectively and negative predictive value 90.20% and 95.10% respectively. Conclusion: Ang-2 levels were elevated in exudative PEs and correlated with levels of markers of pleural inflammation and pleural vascular hyperpermeability. It could categorize PE to exudates and transudates with valuable discriminative properties. That was detected more obviously in pleural fluids than in serum.

Amal F. Gharib

2011-09-01

6

Efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels in distinguishing exudates from transudates  

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Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels to classify pleural fluids. A total of 80 patients were divided in transudates and exudates on the basis of extensive clinical, radiological and biochemical evaluation. The efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid / serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP assessment along with that of Light?s criteria to accurately classify transudates and exudates were analyzed. Up to 89% transudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP evaluation. Similarly 92% exudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP evaluation. By applying a cut off value of 40.0 IU for P ALP, a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75% was found. For P/S ALP, applying a cut off value of 0.25 a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80% was found. Both P ALP and P/S ALP had a PPV of 92%. However, their respective NPV were 63% and 70%.

Gupta K

2004-01-01

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Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.  

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Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

Malde H

1993-07-01

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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm2) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42±0.76 x 10-3 mm2/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18±1.82 x 10-3 mm2/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10-3 mm2/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

2004-05-01

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre es [...] se novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Maranhão, Bernardo Henrique Ferraz; Silva Junior, Cyro Teixeira da; Chibante, Antonio Monteiro da Silva; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez.

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Detection of antibodies to HIV in homologous sets of plasma, urine and oral mucosal transudate samples using rapid assays in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available anti-HIV assays when testing plasma, urine and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) samples for the presence of antibodies to HIV. Homologous sets of plasma, urine and oral mucosal transudate specimens were collected from 288 hospitalized patients in northern Tanzania and tested for antibodies to HIV using a routine enzyme immunoassay (Recombinant 3rd Generation EIA, Abbott) and two rapid assays (Testpack HIV-1/HIV-2; Abbott and SUDS HIV-1, Murex). Incubation times and/or sample volumes when testing OMT or urine were increased as compared to those recommended for plasma. The corresponding plasma specimens from all repeatedly reactive samples and samples presenting discordant results were subjected to confirmational testing by an HIV-1/2 Western blot. A total of 15.3% (44/288) of the plasma samples were anti-HIV-1 positive by Western blot. The sensitivity using plasma was 100% by all assays, 69.7-97.7% using urine, and 92.7-100% using oral transudate specimens. The sensitivity of both rapid assays was excellent and higher than the EIA when testing OMT. Specificities ranged from 98.8-100% for plasma, 99-100% for urine and were 100% by all assays using oral samples. The results obtained using oral mucosal transudate specimens and rapid assays were at least comparable to those obtained with plasma, while the use of urine specimens produced suboptimal sensitivities with two of the three assays. The testing of alternative body fluids for antibodies to HIV is yet another strategy that may be applicable, particularly in developing countries. PMID:15566734

Holm-Hansen, C; Constantine, N T; Haukenes, G

1993-10-01

11

Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14.47-19.92) g/cm(2) hour (mean, 95% CI) in smokers and 13.89 (9.46-18.33) in never smokers (p<0.01). In abstinent smokers TEWL was 18.95 (15.20-22.70)(p<0.01, when compared with smokers). In smokers, MMP-8 was 36.4 (24.3-48.5) ng/mL (mean, 95% CI) and 15.2 (1.4-30.2) ng/mL in never smokers (p<0.01). Abstinent smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation.

Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke

2009-01-01

12

Agammaglobulinemia and lack of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis.  

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Atopic dermatitis is very frequent in the first 6 months of life, and the severe exudative form of this skin disorder is by no means rare. Failure to achieve immunization protection is a potentially life-threatening complication of exudative atopic dermatitis that may go unrecognized. We report the case of a 6-month-old infant with severe exudative atopic dermatitis in whom hypoproteinemia and agammaglobulinemia were attributed to the massive exudation after exclusion of other possible causes. The patient failed to respond to standard immunization, and adequate protection with a good antibody response could be achieved only after exudation from the skin lesions had been treated by intensive topical skin therapy and multiple intravenous immunoglobulin substitution. Two otherwise similar earlier case reports did not investigate the immune status. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to draw attention to absence of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: We hope that our case report will motivate pediatricians to check the immunization status of patients with exudative atopic dermatitis and take the necessary steps to improve their care. PMID:23625178

Lankisch, Petra; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Weiss, Michael; Borkhardt, Arndt

2014-01-01

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Third ventricular plasma-cell lesion with delayed intraventricular transudation of contrast medium  

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We report a patient presenting with hydrocephalus secondary to a posterior third ventricular plasma-cell lesion which exhibited delayed transudation of contrast medium into the adjacent aqueduct and fourth ventricle. (orig.)

Buxton, N.; Davis, G.; Robertson, I.J.A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T.; Lenthall, R.K.; Cooper, A.D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Robson, K. [Dept. of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

2001-09-01

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BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites including organic acids, amino acids and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and E. coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Psuedomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems.

KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; AJREDINI, RAMADAN; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; ROJE, SANJA; LEVINE, LANFANG H.; ZHANG, FENGLI; ROBINETTE, STEVEN L.; ALBORN, HANS T.; ZHAO, WEI; STADLER, MICHAEL; NIMALENDRAN, RATHIKA; DOSSEY, AARON T.; BRUSCHWEILER, RAFAEL; VIVANCO, JORGE M.; EDISON, ARTHUR S.

2014-01-01

15

Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

1982-01-01

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Meropenem pharmacokinetics and penetration into an inflammatory exudate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pharmacokinetics and penetration into a cantharidine-induced inflammatory exudate of meropenem was studied in six volunteers following a single 1-g intravenous dose. Concentrations in plasma, urine, and the inflammatory exudate were determined by a microbiological assay. The mean elimination half-life of meropenem in plasma was 1.1 h, with the concentration in plasma declining from a mean of 23.6 micrograms/ml at 1 h to 0.7 micrograms/ml at 6 h. The inflammatory fluid penetration was rapi...

Wise, R.; Logan, M.; Cooper, M.; Ashby, J. P.; Andrews, J. M.

1990-01-01

17

How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

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Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes ...

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

2012-01-01

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Electron capture gas-liquid chromatographic study of metabolites produced by some arthritic transudate-associated organisms in vitro and in vivo in rabbit models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computerized, frequency-pulsed, modulated electron capture gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the acid metabolites produced in vitro in fetal calf serum and in vivo in an animal chamber model. Several strains of Diplostreptococcus agalactiae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus serogroups A, B, and G were studied. All of these organisms have been reported to be associated with arthritic transudates in humans. Metabolites were detected by this method from derivatized extracts of both spent fetal calf serum and chamber fluids. Since there was little host response to the organisms cultured in the chambers, it is highly probable that the products detected represent metabolites produced in an in vivo type of environment. The metabolic patterns were reproducible and exhibited many similarities in vitro and in vivo. Production of the acids detected was reproducible, and these acids were useful identification markers. The data support published reports (J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46: 1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, G. Choudhary, R. B. Craven, D. Edman, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:625-628, 1977; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, A. R. Melton, and C. C. Alley, in H. H. Johnson and W. B. Newson, ed., Second International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation on Microbiology, 1976; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, D. Schlossberg, C. C. Alley, and F. M. Pitts, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:203-208, 1978; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, C. C. Alley, H. B. Short, and H. H. Handsfield, J. Infect. Dis. 129:660-668, 1974) that bacterial metabolites might be detectable in diseased body fluids. The growth characteristics of the organisms in the animal model and fetal calf serum are discussed, and a moderately priced computer for performing data manipulations is evaluated. PMID:721944

Brooks, J B; Melton, A R

1978-10-01

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Electron Capture Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Study of Metabolites Produced by Some Arthritic Transudate-Associated Organisms In Vitro and In Vivo in Rabbit Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Computerized, frequency-pulsed, modulated electron capture gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the acid metabolites produced in vitro in fetal calf serum and in vivo in an animal chamber model. Several strains of Diplostreptococcus agalactiae, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus serogroups A, B, and G were studied. All of these organisms have been reported to be associated with arthritic transudates in humans. Metabolites were detected by this method from derivatized extracts of both spent fetal calf serum and chamber fluids. Since there was little host response to the organisms cultured in the chambers, it is highly probable that the products detected represent metabolites produced in an in vivo type of environment. The metabolic patterns were reproducible and exhibited many similarities in vitro and in vivo. Production of the acids detected was reproducible, and these acids were useful identification markers. The data support published reports (J. B. Brooks, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, Anal. Chem. 46: 1930-1934, 1974; J. B. Brooks, G. Choudhary, R. B. Craven, D. Edman, C. C. Alley, and J. A. Liddle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:625-628, 1977; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, A. R. Melton, and C. C. Alley, in H. H. Johnson and W. B. Newson, ed., Second International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation on Microbiology, 1976; J. B. Brooks, R. B. Craven, D. Schlossberg, C. C. Alley, and F. M. Pitts, J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:203-208, 1978; J. B. Brooks, D. S. Kellogg, C. C. Alley, H. B. Short, and H. H. Handsfield, J. Infect. Dis. 129:660-668, 1974) that bacterial metabolites might be detectable in diseased body fluids. The growth characteristics of the organisms in the animal model and fetal calf serum are discussed, and a moderately priced computer for performing data manipulations is evaluated.

Brooks, John B.; Melton, A. Richard

1978-01-01

20

Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were coll...

Alemnji, George A.; Ngulefac, Gisele A.; Ndumbe, Peter M.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Metabolite composition and bioactivity of Rhizoctonia solani sclerotial exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerotia are vegetative structures that play a major role in survival of fungi under adverse conditions. The sclerotia of the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IIIB exude liquid brown droplets that were evaluated for their bioactivity and toxicity against microorganisms and plant species. Also, their metabolic composition was analyzed by integrating Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS), gas chromatography-MS (GC/MS), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that exudates are complex mixtures composed of phenolics (17.40%), carboxylic acids (12.79%), carbohydrates (6.08%), fatty acids (3.78%), and amino acids (3.47%). The presence of such metabolites contributed to their antifungal and phytotoxic activities. The biological interpretation of the results highly suggests that the exudates not only have multiple roles in fungal physiology but also are a potential bioactive source with moderate toxicity. Our findings show with certainty that the integration of different analytical platforms is a powerful approach for extracting the maximum and reliable information on the metabolic composition of complex biological samples. PMID:20527951

Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

2010-07-14

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Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate  

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Full Text Available El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como muestra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%. Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas.Oral mucosal transudate (OMT is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Chagas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

Edgardo Moretti

2004-06-01

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How do nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies affect strigolactone production and exudation?  

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Plants exude strigolactones (SLs) to attract symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere. Previous studies have demonstrated that phosphorus (P) deficiency, but not nitrogen (N) deficiency, significantly promotes SL exudation in red clover, while in sorghum not only P deficiency but also N deficiency enhances SL exudation. There are differences between plant species in SL exudation under P- and N-deficient conditions, which may possibly be related to differences between legumes and non-legumes. To investigate this possibility in detail, the effects of N and P deficiencies on SL exudation were examined in Fabaceae (alfalfa and Chinese milk vetch), Asteraceae (marigold and lettuce), Solanaceae (tomato), and Poaceae (wheat) plants. In alfalfa as expected, and unexpectedly in tomato, only P deficiency promoted SL exudation. In contrast, in Chinese milk vetch, a leguminous plant, and in the other non-leguminous plants examined, N deficiency as well as P deficiency enhanced SL exudation. Distinct reductions in shoot P levels were observed in plants grown under N deficiency, except for tomato, in which shoot P level was increased by N starvation, suggesting that the P status of the shoot regulates SL exudation. There seems to be a correlation between shoot P levels and SL exudation across the species/families investigated. PMID:22183123

Yoneyama, Kaori; Xie, Xiaonan; Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Nomura, Takahito; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Yoneyama, Koichi

2012-06-01

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Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

Shukla Dhananjay

2003-01-01

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Fungal exudates.  

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The exudates or liquid droplets on various structures of a number of fungi were examined. The droplets were enveloped in membranous material and were associated with actively growing mycelia, including fruiting structures. Osmium tetroxide vapour-fixed droplets of Claviceps purpurea, Myrothecium roridum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Thanathephorus cucumeris did not dry to a powder but remained intact as spheres when freeze-dried. Fractured spheres, examined with the scanning electron microscope, showed the presence of a membranous structure similar to that of rapidly frozen colloidal solutions with the ice crystals removed by sublimation. Locules or cavities within the freeze-dried droplets are thought to be due to the entrapment of air when droplets coalesce. Biochemical analyses of the exudates showed that acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, acid and alkaline protease. RNase polygalacturonase and cellulase enzymes as well as oxalic acid and ammonia were present. PMID:728849

Colotelo, N

1978-10-01

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ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45 and exudative (n = 80 effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, pneumonia (n = 32, and adenocarcinoma (n = 28.Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.

Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Tang-Ching Kuan, Kun-Shan Cheng, Yan-Chiou Liao, Mu-Yuan Chen, Pei-Heng Lin, Yuan-Chang Hsu, Chen-Yi Huang, Wei-Hua Hsu, Sheng-Yao Yu, Chih-Sheng Lin

2012-01-01

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Radiodiagnosis of exudative pericarditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Venous hypertension of lesser circulation was used as a criterion for differential diagnosis of diffuse lesion of the myocardium and exudative pericarditis. In 57 patients (31 with diffuse myocardial lesion and 26 with exudative pericarditis) the results of assessment of common X-ray symptoms were compared with signs of venous hypertension in this disease. The presence or absence of venous hypertension in the recognition of exudate into the pericardail cavity was emphasized

1989-01-01

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COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)  

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Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

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[Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].  

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Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil. PMID:23898672

Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

2013-04-01

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ASPECTS ON VIABILITY, CELL EXUDATE AND MITOSIS ACTIVITY IN WHEAT SEEDS  

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Full Text Available The role of the cell exudate and of the mitosis in studying of cell membrane modifications was the purpose of this work. There were analysed the seed exudate and mitosis activity values, as well as the correlations between these indices and seed viability în six different wheat seed samples. The results have indicated negative correlations significant for viability-sugars efflux and for viability-aberrant cells. Between viability and dividing cells were found positive correlations.

Liviu Fartaies

2007-12-01

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Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla  

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Full Text Available Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L. has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Rutgers on Meloidogyne hapla greenhouse populations from Manhattan (MH, New York (NY and Michigan (MI in order to understand the way of effect of OSRC (Oil seed radish. In a laboratory, 3 mL exudates of OSRC, tomato and same amount of water introduced with 1000 eggs of each nematode population that come from greenhouse mass culture separately. Hatched second stage juveniles were counted for 8 days and exudates were renewed with stock solution every day. Although tomato exudates increased hatched juvenile number but there is no statistically difference between OSRC and tomato exudates. Also all different M. hapla populations showed same responses to every exudate. As a result it may said that, OSRC does not effect M. hapla population by influencing egg hatching but, it may effect infection and/or reproduction level of nematodes.

Sevilhan Mennan

2006-01-01

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Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

Karlovsky Petr

2011-08-01

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Hygroscopic Growth and Activation of Particles containing Algea-Exudate  

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A large amount of the Earth is covered by oceans, which provide a constant source of marine aerosol particles, produced due to bubble bursting processes that depend on wind speed (O'Dowd and de Leeuw, 2007). In general, marine particles can be assumed to play an important role for the Earth atmosphere on a global scale, due to their abundance and due to their effect on clouds. E.g. marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds contribute about 30% to 40% to the Earth's albedo (Randall et al., 1984). The activation of aerosol particles to cloud droplets depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition. For marine particles, is has been and still is discussed what the effects of organic substances being present in the particles might be. These substances originate from marine biota where they enrich at the ocean surface. To mimic marine aerosol particles, algae-exudates of different algae species were mixed with artificial sea-water. These samples were used in the laboratory to produce particles via a bubble bursting process (Fuentes et al., 2009). The hygroscopic growth and activation of the (size selected) particles was measured, using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Stratmann et al., 2004) and the DMT-CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes, 2005). The hygroscopic growth was measured twice, 3 and 10 seconds after humidification, and no difference in the grown size was detected, i.e. no kinetic effect was observed for the examined time range. From LACIS and CCNc measurements, the hygroscopicity was deduced through determination of the amount of ions being effective in the particle / droplet solution (Rho(ion), Wex et al., 2007). A concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was found for particles produced from an artificial sea-water sample that contained only inorganic salts, as can be expected (see e.g. Niedermeier et al., 2008). For particles containing also algae-exudate, however, the concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was quenched, resulting in a quasi ideal solution behavior. Such solutions could be described by a single-parameter representation for all water-vapour saturations at which measurements had been done (from 0.8 up to supersaturation). References: Fuentes, E., H. Coe, D. Green, G. De Leeuw, and G. McFiggans (2009), Laboratory-generated primary marine aerosol via bubble-bursting and atomization, Aerosol Meas. Tech. Discuss., 2, 2281-2320. O'Dowd, C. D., and G. de Leeuw (2007), Marine aerosol production: A review of the current knowledge, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365(1856), 1753-1774, doi:1710.1098/rsta.2007.2043. Niedermeier, D., H. Wex, J. Voigtländer, F. Stratmann, E. Brüggemann, A. Kiselev, H. Henk, and J. Heintzenberg (2008), LACIS-measurements and parameterization of sea-salt particle hygroscopic growth and activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 579-590. Randall, D. A., Coakley, J. A., Fairall, C. W., Kropfli, R. A., and Lenschow, D. H. (1984) Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 65, 1290-1301, 1984. Roberts, G., and A. Nenes (2005), A continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber for atmospheric measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 206-221. Stratmann, F., A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt (2004), Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic super-saturation conditions, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 876-887. Wex, H., T. Hennig, I. Salma, R. Ocskay, A. Kiselev, S. Henning, A. Massling, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2007), Hygroscopic growth and measured and modeled critical super-saturations of an atmospheric HULIS sample, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(L02818), doi:10.1029/2006GL028260.

Wex, Heike; Fuentes, Elena; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Voigtländer, Jens; Clauss, Tina; Kiselev, Alexei; Green, David; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Stratmann, Frank

2010-05-01

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A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images  

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The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

2012-02-01

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Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass species. Here I evaluate how eelgrass (Zostera marina L. DOC exudation is affected by a single factor manipulation (light, temperature or salinity. Eelgrass plants were hydroponically exposed to treatments in experimental chambers (separate leaf and rhizome/root compartments with artificial seawater medium. Regression analysis of changes in the DOC concentration through time was used to calculate DOC exudation rates. Results Exudation rates were similar across all treatments in all experiments. For all experiments, pooled leaf DOC exudation ranged between 0.032 and 0.069?mg C gdw-1?h-1, while rhizodeposition ranged between 0.024 and 0.045?mg C gdw-1?h-1. These rates are consistent with previously published values and provide first-order estimates for mechanistic models. Conclusions Zostera marina carbon losses from either leaf exudation or rhizodeposition account for a small proportion of gross primary production (1.2-4.6% and appear to be insensitive to short-term (e.g., hours to days environmental variations in chamber experiments. Based on these preliminary experiments, I suggest that Z. marina DOC exudation may be a passive process and not an active transport process.

Kaldy James

2012-08-01

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Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.  

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Fifteen patients in three families with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy were examined and followed. Eleven of the 15 (73%) were asymptomatic and showed only peripheral non-vascularization of the peripheral temporal retina. An acute proliferative form resembling acute retrolental fibroplasia was characterized by dragging of the retina to the temporal side and subretinal exudation which developed in children between the ages of birth and ten years. The acute proliferative changes in pediat...

Tasman, W.; Augsburger, J. J.; Shields, J. A.; Caputo, A; Annesley, W. H.

1981-01-01

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Plant host habitat and root exudates shape soil bacterial community structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rhizosphere is active and dynamic in which newly generated carbon, derived from root exudates, and ancient carbon, in soil organic matter (SOM), are available for microbial growth. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to determine bacterial communities assimilating each carbon source in the rhizosphere of four plant species. Wheat, maize, rape and barrel clover (Medicago truncatula) were grown separately in the same soil under (13)CO(2) (99% of atom (13)C) and DNA extracted from rhizosphere soil was fractionated by isopycnic centrifugation. Bacteria-assimilating root exudates were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of (13)C-DNA and root DNA, whereas those assimilating SOM were identified from (12)C-DNA. Plant species root exudates significantly shaped rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Bacteria related to Sphingobacteriales and Myxococcus assimilated root exudates in colonizing roots of all four plants, whwereas bacteria related to Sphingomonadales utilized both carbon sources, and were identified in light, heavy and root compartment DNA. Sphingomonadales were specific to monocotyledons, whereas bacteria related to Enterobacter and Rhizobiales colonized all compartments of all four plants, used both fresh and ancient carbon and were considered as generalists. There was also evidence for an indirect important impact of root exudates, through stimulation of SOM assimilation by a diverse bacterial community. PMID:18754043

Haichar, Feth el Zahar; Marol, Christine; Berge, Odile; Rangel-Castro, J Ignacio; Prosser, James I; Balesdent, Jérôme; Heulin, Thierry; Achouak, Wafa

2008-12-01

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Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules.  

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Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J; Araújo, Welington Luiz

2013-12-01

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Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

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Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization. The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

J. E. Drake

2013-02-01

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Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Penetration of BMS 284756 into an Inflammatory Exudate  

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The pharmacokinetics of a single dose of BMS 284756 were determined following oral administration of a 600-mg dose to eight healthy male volunteers. Concentrations of the drug were measured in plasma and a cantharidine-induced inflammatory exudate by a microbiological assay. The mean peak concentration in plasma of 10.4 ?g/ml (standard deviation [SD], 1.3 ?g/ml) was attained at a mean time of 1.2 h (SD, 0.5 h) after the dose. The penetration into the inflammatory exudate was 82% (SD, 15.7%)...

Wise, R.; Gee, T.; Marshall, G.; Andrews, J. M.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

2014-05-01

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Casuarina root exudates alter the physiology, surface properties, and plant infectivity of Frankia sp. strain CcI3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The actinomycete genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants, representing more than 200 different species. Very little is known about the initial molecular interactions between Frankia and host plants in the rhizosphere. Root exudates are important in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, especially for initiating Nod factor synthesis. We measured differences in Frankia physiology after exposure to host aqueous root exudates to assess their effects on actinorhizal symbioses. Casuarina cunninghamiana root exudates were collected from plants under nitrogen-sufficient and -deficient conditions and tested on Frankia sp. strain CcI3. Root exudates increased the growth yield of Frankia in the presence of a carbon source, but Frankia was unable to use the root exudates as a sole carbon or energy source. Exposure to root exudates caused hyphal "curling" in Frankia cells, suggesting a chemotrophic response or surface property change. Exposure to root exudates altered Congo red dye binding, which indicated changes in the bacterial surface properties at the fatty acid level. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed fatty acid changes and revealed further carbohydrate changes. Frankia cells preexposed to C. cunninghamiana root exudates for 6 days formed nodules on the host plant significantly earlier than control cells. These data support the hypothesis of early chemical signaling between actinorhizal host plants and Frankia in the rhizosphere. PMID:22101047

Beauchemin, Nicholas J; Furnholm, Teal; Lavenus, Julien; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Doumas, Patrick; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S

2012-01-01

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Differences in root exudation among P-starved mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes and its relationship with P-uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus acquisition by plant is affected by the release of high and low molecular weight exudates by roots. These exudates alter the nutrient dynamics in the soil and improve the availability of sparingly soluble or immobile nutrients by bringing them in the solution. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between root exudation and P-acquisition among two mungbean genotypes, PS-16 and Pusa-105, raised under P deficient conditions. The genotypes showed differences in magnitude of degree of root exudation and its sugar and amino acid content. Interspecies differences were also observed in P-uptake studies using 32P. Uptake efficiency of the genotypes was positively related to exudation levels of roots. Compared to genotypes PS-16, Pusa-105 possessed traits that were better suited for P-deficient conditions. (author)

2000-06-01

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Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water. PMID:22208753

Sychrová, E; Št?pánková, T; Nováková, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Hilscherová, K

2012-02-01

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Chemical composition and biological activity of leaf exudates from some Lamiaceae plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf exudates from 39 species, belonging to 26 genera of Lamiaceae, have been isolated and their antibacterial and antiviral activity investigated. Some of the active compounds (ursolic acid, siderol and nepetalactone) were isolated and identified, most of them for the first time in the investigated plants. Some chemotaxonomic conclusions were drawn. PMID:7886127

Sattar, A A; Bankova, V; Kujumgiev, A; Galabov, A; Ignatova, A; Todorova, C; Popov, S

1995-01-01

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ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation [...

RENÉ, TORRES; FRANCISCO, URBINA; CLAUDIA, MORALES; BRENDA, MODAK; FRANCO DELLE, MONACHE.

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ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

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From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

2003-01-01

48

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

RENÉ TORRES

2003-09-01

49

Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

2008-09-01

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Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

2011-11-01

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Field Evaluation of Calypte's AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid  

Science.gov (United States)

As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE ™ BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE™ BSP were 100%. The AWARE™ OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE™ BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US$4.72 compared to a mean cost of US $7.33 ± 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE™ BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV heterogeneity such as Cameroon. The AWARE ™ HIV-1/2 OMT Rapid test kit appears to be the cheapest, safest and easiest to use compared with other available test kits.

Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

2009-01-01

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Field evaluation of Calypte's AWARE blood serum plasma (BSP) and oral mucosal transudate (OMT) rapid tests for detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in plasma and oral fluid.  

Science.gov (United States)

As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collected prospectively from HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons from different regions of Cameroon and tested using the AWARE BSP and OMT test kits, respectively. These results were compared to the gold standard that included a combination of Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV-1/2. The BSP Rapid test kit was further evaluated using well characterized panels of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O samples. Cost and end-user analysis of the OMT test kit was done by comparing its actual cost, consumables, safety, bench time and manipulation with other test kits. Of the 732 matched samples, 412 (56.3%) and 320 (43.7%) were from females and males, respectively. Of these samples, 23 (3.1%) gave discordant results between Determine HIV-1/2 and Enzygnost HIV1/2 and were excluded from the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the AWARE BSP were 100%. The AWARE OMT had 98.8% sensitivity, 98.9% specificity, 98.0% PPV and 99.4% NPV. The results of a well-characterized archived panel of HIV-2 (n=7) and HIV-1 group O (n=3) samples using the AWARE BSP Rapid test kit gave 100% concordance. Total per patient cost of the AWARE OMT rapid test kit was US dollars 4.72 compared to a mean cost of US dollars 7.33 +/- 0.11 for the other test kits. Both the AWARE BSP and OMT Rapid test kits demonstrated high sensitivities and specificities on all samples tested and were well adapted for use in resource-constrained settings with high HIV heterogeneity such as Cameroon. The AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT Rapid test kit appears to be the cheapest, safest and easiest to use compared with other available test kits. PMID:19543533

Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

2009-01-01

53

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds  

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Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Diz Mariângela S. S.

2003-01-01

54

Influence of the microbial loop on trophodynamics and toxicity of cadmium complexed by cyanobacterium exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial and toxic metal. Its fate and toxicity in the environment may be mediated by association with dissolved organic materials excreted by phytoplankton. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trophodynamics and toxicity of Cd complexed with Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exudates in a plankton food chain. The microbial loop involves heterotrophic bacteria as the primary consumer, which is supplemented with a Cd-exudate complex. The secondary consumer (protozoan Paramecium caudatum) was fed on the bacteria, and the tertiary consumer (copepod Mesocyclops longisetus) on the protozoa. The Cd complexing properties of the exudate were determined before the experiments, to ensure that all Cd was furnished to the organisms as the organic complex alone. The results showed that free Cd2+ ions caused the highest observed toxicity to bacteria, while Cd complexed to the cyanobacterial exudate was less toxic, but could be bioavailable and transferred through the food web. This study is a contribution to aquatic ecosystem management and to current knowledge of Cd dynamics, bioavailability and interaction with aquatic planktonic organisms. PMID:24619145

Nogueira, Patricia F M; Nogueira, Marcelo M; Lombardi, Ana T

2014-05-01

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Motility and chemotactic response of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward chemoattractants present in the exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (LAM1-hydrophilic) and (LAM2-hydrophobic) showed positive chemotaxis towards attractants (sugars, amino acids, polyols and organic acids) present in the exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina (a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus). The varied response of motility traits such as speed, rate of change in direction (RCDI) and net to gross displacement ratio (NGDR) was observed for different chemoattractants. Swimming speed of the strains was highest in 10-fold diluted exudate or 100-1000 microM strength of different attractants, but further dilutions significantly decreased the swimming speed (P = 0.05). Chemotactic response of P fluorescens was positively correlated with swimming speed (P = 0.05; r = 0.76). Relative to control, the RCDI values decreased 1.5-fold in amino acids or sugars, and 1.2-fold in polyols or organic acids. With increase in swimming speed, the NGDR of both strains also increased, but the RCDI decreased. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic strains did not show significant differences in their motility traits. The results demonstrate that M. phaseolina exudate contains chemical attractants that serve as signal for flagellar motility of P. fluorescens. Motile P fluorescens strains thus may consume fungal exudate as nutrients, and thus spores could offer a niche for these bacteria in soil. PMID:11770852

Singh, T; Arora, D K

2001-01-01

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An Efficient Integrated Approach for the Detection of Exudates and Diabetic Maculopathy in Colour fundus Images  

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Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a major cause of blindness. Exudates are one of the primary signs ofdiabetic retinopathy which is a main cause of blindness that could be prevented with an early screeningprocess In this approach, the process and knowledge of digital image processing to diagnose exudatesfrom images of retina is applied. An automated method to detect and localize the presence of exudatesand Maculopathy from low-contrast digital images of Retinopathy patient’s with non-dilated pupils isproposed. First, the image is segmented using colour K-means Clustering algorithm. The segmentedimage along with Optic Disc (OD is chosen. To Classify these segmented region, features based oncolour and texture are extracted. The selected feature vector are then classified into exudates and nonexudatesusing a Support Vector Machine (SVM Classifier. Also the detection of Diabetic Maculopathy,which is the severe stage of Diabetic Retinopathy is performed using Morphological Operation. Using aclinical reference standard, images with exudates were detected with 96% success rate. This methodappears promising as it can detect the very small areas of exudates.

B.Ramasubramanian

2012-10-01

57

ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE EXUDATE OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA  

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Full Text Available Plant is one of the important source of drugs that’s why we have done this project work to find out some biological activities of the plant exudates of Calotropis gigantea where antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity were analyzed. To test of antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method has been followed. The exudate of the plant has shown antimicrobial activity against four microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (15mm, Vibrio mimicus (15mm, Vibrio parahemolytics (15mm and Staphylococcus aureus (9mm. The exudates of the plant has shown cytotoxic activity which was done by following the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method. The result of the test has demonstrated good cytotoxic activity against Brine Shrimp Nauplii with a LC50 value of 12.66 µg ?ml. The exudate of the plant has demonstrated good antioxidant activity with a LC50 value of 3.301 µg ?ml..So from the project we can say that further investigation should be carried out to get the active principles.

Md. Shafikur Rahman*, Naznin Nahar Moly and Md. Jahid Hossen

2013-02-01

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Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

2013-12-01

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Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M.; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Araújo, Welington Luiz.

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Collection and analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates using the EDTA-facilitated Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant phloem is essential for the long-distance transport of (photo-) assimilates as well as of signals conveying biotic or abiotic stress. It contains sugars, amino acids, proteins, RNA, lipids and other metabolites. While there is a large interest in understanding the composition and function of the phloem, the role of many of these molecules and thus, their importance in plant development and stress response has yet to be determined. One barrier to phloem analysis lies in the fact that the phloem seals itself upon wounding. As a result, the number of plants from which phloem sap can be obtained is limited. One method that allows collection of phloem exudates from several plant species without added equipment is the EDTA-facilitated phloem exudate collection described here. While it is easy to use, it does lead to the wounding of cells and care has to be taken to remove contents of damaged cells. In addition, several controls to prove purity of the exudate are necessary. Because it is an exudation rather than a direct collection of the phloem sap (not possible in many species) only relative quantification of its contents can occur. The advantage of this method over others is that it can be used in many herbaceous or woody plant species (Perilla, Arabidopsis, poplar, etc.) and requires minimal equipment and training. It leads to reasonably large amounts of exudates that can be used for subsequent analysis of proteins, sugars, lipids, RNA, viruses and metabolites. It is simple enough that it can be used in both a research as well as in a teaching laboratory. PMID:24192764

Tetyuk, Olena; Benning, Urs F; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

[Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with a penetrance of nearly 100% and is mostly found in Asia. The most important sign is a temporal avascular retina with pathologically changed vessels combined with a temporal dragging of the disk and a heterotopy of the macula. In contrast to retinopathy of prematurity, only full-term children without oxygen therapy are affected. Clinical severity is highly variable. A stage of an asymptomatic gene carrier with peripheral ischemia only visible on angiography up to a massive deterioration of vision because of a combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is possible. All stages with intra- or subretinal exudates require therapy. First-line therapy is the coagulation of the leaky vessels to reduce the exudation. In addition cryocoagulation is possible. Advanced stages with complex retinal detachments usually require a vitrectomy to prevent further loss of visual function. PMID:20577745

Finis, D; Stammen, J; Joussen, A M

2010-07-01

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Root exudation of phytochemicals in Arabidopsis follows specific patterns that are developmentally programmed and correlate with soil microbial functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05) between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed. PMID:23383346

Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Badri, Dayakar V; Bakker, Matthew G; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Manter, Daniel K; Vivanco, Jorge M

2013-01-01

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The stoichiometry of root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest trees allocate large amounts of C belowground to fuel root processes and the activity of soil microbes through root exudation, rhizodeposition, and the support of mycorrhizal associations. There is a growing recognition that the microbial response to this flux of C belowground can have large impacts on ecosystem function. Here, we use a theoretical enzyme-driven model of decomposition and a field experiment of exudation treatments using root simulators to develop the idea that the response of decomposition to root exudation (i.e. priming of decomposition) depends on the interaction between exudate and microbial stoichiometry (C:N ratios). We added an exudation module to an existing model of decomposition (Schimel and Weintraub, 2003, Soil Biology & Biochemistry). In this model, microbes expend resources (C and N) for maintenance, growth, and the synthesis of exo-enzymes. These exo-enzymes solubilize soil organic C and N (SOC and SON) into dissolved forms (DOC and DON), which are then available for microbial uptake. Exuding DOC had little influence on priming of SOC decomposition, because microbes became N-limited following an exudate pulse and were thus unable to synthesize the N-rich exo-enzymes. However, exuding small amounts of DON in addition to DOC resulted in a large priming pulse of SOC decomposition, as the microbes utilized the DON for exo-enzyme synthesis, and the resulting pulse of enzyme activity decomposed SOC and SON. We tested these model simulations at Harvard Forest (MA- USA) by pumping exudation solutions into forest soils at realistic rates for 6-weeks using an automated system of peristaltic pumps and microlysimeters. Delivering C and N exudates with a C:N ratio of 10 significantly increased soil respiration, microbial biomass, and rates of exo-enzyme activity, while adding C exudates or water only did not affect these measurements of microbial biomass and activity. These results suggest that plants may achieve a positive return on investment by exuding small amounts of N to fuel microbial enzyme synthesis, even in N-limited forests. Additionally, we suggest that the ecosystem consequences of C allocation belowground may depend more on microbial physiology and stoichiometry than the overall magnitude of the C flux.

Drake, J. E.; Finzi, A. C.

2011-12-01

64

Characterization of bacterial strains isolated from cankers and exudates on hazelnut in Sardinia  

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In the last three years several bacterial isolates have been obtained from cankers and exudates observed on ‘Tonda Gentile delle Langhe’ and ‘Tonda Gentile Romana’ hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) cultivated in Sardinia (Italy). Ten representative isolates with fluorescent pigments on the medium B of King et al. (1954), hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves and variable levan production, were chosen for pathogenicity tests and serological and molecular charac...

2005-01-01

65

Role of Synthesis and Exudation of Organic Acids in Phosphorus Nutrition in Plants in Tropical Soils  

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Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to uptake adequate Phosphorus (P) under limiting conditions in tropical and sub-tropical soils, including modifications to root architecture (e.g. cluster roots in Proteaceae), carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes and enhanced expression of numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations seem to be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants as mycorr...

2005-01-01

66

Rapid Regression of Exudative Maculopathy in Idiopathic Retinitis, Vasculitis, Aneurysms and Neuroretinitis Syndrome after Intravitreal Ranibizumab  

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The idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis syndrome is a rare retinal vascular disorder characterized by multiple leaking aneurysmal dilations, retinal vasculitis, neuroretinitis and peripheral vascular ischemia. Visual loss mainly occurs due to the development of retinal neovascularization and/or exudative maculopathy. Although the treatment of choice has not yet been established, retinal photocoagulation seems to be the best option to control the disease and to preve...

Mari?n-lambi?es, Cristina; Gallego-pinazo, Roberto; Salom, David; Navarrete, Javier; Di?az-llopis, Manuel

2012-01-01

67

Sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha and their neuroprotective effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten new furanosesquiterpenoids, myrrhterpenoids A-J (1- 10), together with eight known analogues (11- 18), were isolated from the resinous exudates of COMMIPHORA MYRRHA. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by the ChemDraw 3D modeling using MM2. All isolated furanosesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP (+)-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:21830185

Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Li, Yushan; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Cuizhou; Ma, Yonggang; Gao, Jie; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

2011-12-01

68

Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants  

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Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of ...

1995-01-01

69

Comparative superoxide-generating system of granulocytes from blood and peritoneal exudates.  

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Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), upon interaction with specific chemotactic stimuli, leave the blood stream and migrate to tissues. At such a location, and upon contact with invading microorganisms, they generate superoxide (O2-) as a part of the respiratory burst of phagocytosis. We have compared the O2(-)-generating system of guinea pig peritoneal exudate PMN with that of peripheral blood PMN from the same species or of human origin. The rate of O2- production by casein-induced gui...

Zimmerli, W.; Lew, P. D.; Cohen, H. J.; Waldvogel, F. A.

1984-01-01

70

An Intelligent Approach to Detect Hard and Soft Exudates Using Echo State Neural Network  

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A novel technique of intelligent segmentation and classification of exudates for diabetic retinopathy by applying energy minimization method using a recurrent neural network that is an Echo State Neural Network (ESNN) which, yields highly satisfactory results when compared with that of an existing contextual clustering segmentation (CC) is explored in this study. The modular neural network is trained using a set of 30 images consisting of 5 normal images and 25 abnormal images. The trai...

Jayakumari, C.; Santhanam, T.

2008-01-01

71

[Exudative otitis media. Modern concepts and the importance of the problem].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present work was to analyse current concepts of etiology, pathogenesis, and classification of exudative otitis medium (EOM) in conjunction with the methods for the treatment of this pathology. Views of the problem expressed by different authors (both Russian-speaking and foreign) are discussed. Complications of the disease developing as a result of the untimely or inadequate treatment are described. PMID:23304717

Magomedov, M M; Nikitkin, A Iu; Levina, Iu V; Krasiuk, A A; Utesheva, V A

2012-01-01

72

[TRALI and TACO: diagnostic and clinical management of patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the inflammatory, exudative form and Transfusion-associated cardiac overload (TACO) is the hydrostatic, transudative form of transfusion-induced acute pulmonary edema. The distinction between these two entities may be difficult, but important because of different clinical management strategies and different implications. There is no unique diagnostic tool. The diagnostic search should gather several clinical information and may be helped by various techniques listed in this article. PMID:19442558

Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M

2009-05-01

73

Aloe exudate: characterization by reversed phase HPLC and headspace GC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the leaves of aloe, a succulent plant, a dried exudate commonly called aloe can be obtained, which is used as a natural drug for its cathartic effect and is widely employed as a bittering agent in alcoholic beverages. This investigation provides a tentative characterization of several commercial aloe exudates carried out both by reversed phase HPLC and by headspace GC-MS analysis. By means of HPLC the derivatives were evaluated, and by GC-MS the volatile fraction was investigated. Qualitative and quantitative differences among the constituents in various samples of different origins were found. In particular, these were evident in the HPLC profile of Kenya aloe and an Aloe barbadensis sample, which exuded a high content of isoaloeresin D and aloins, whereas GC-MS analysis showed the presence of anisole exclusively in Kenya aloe samples. Moreover, the results obtained by means of the latter technique suggested a reason for the prevailing use of Mosselbay and Port Elizabeth aloes in bitter spirits formulation. PMID:11599983

Saccù, D; Bogoni, P; Procida, G

2001-10-01

74

Role of Synthesis and Exudation of Organic Acids in Phosphorus Nutrition in Plants in Tropical Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to uptake adequate Phosphorus (P under limiting conditions in tropical and sub-tropical soils, including modifications to root architecture (e.g. cluster roots in Proteaceae, carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes and enhanced expression of numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations seem to be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants as mycorrhiza in roots significantly helps plants in P uptake at low P soils. The formation of cluster roots in concert with enhanced exudation of low molecular weight organic acids such as citric, oxalic, malic, fumaric, succinic etc. under P-stress by the non-mycorrhizal plants and the accompanying biochemical changes exemplify many of the plant adaptations that enhance P acquisition and use. Several biotechnological approach are now in progress to increase exudation of organic acids from the roots of economically important crop plants for sustainable crop production in tropical and sub-tropical soils.

Hasna Hena Begum

2005-01-01

75

Proteomics profiling reveals novel proteins and functions of the plant stigma exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteomic analysis of the stigmatic exudate of Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea led to the identification of 51 and 57 proteins, respectively, most of which are described for the first time in this secreted fluid. These results indicate that the stigmatic exudate is an extracellular environment metabolically active, participating in at least 80 different biological processes and 97 molecular functions. The stigma exudate showed a markedly catabolic profile and appeared to possess the enzyme machinery necessary to degrade large polysaccharides and lipids secreted by papillae to smaller units, allowing their incorporation into the pollen tube during pollination. It may also regulate pollen-tube growth in the pistil through the selective degradation of tube-wall components. Furthermore, some secreted proteins were involved in pollen-tube adhesion and orientation, as well as in programmed cell death of the papillae cells in response to either compatible pollination or incompatible pollen rejection. Finally, the results also revealed a putative cross-talk between genetic programmes regulating stress/defence and pollination responses in the stigma. PMID:24151302

Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; de Dios Alché, Juan; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Castro, Antonio Jesús

2013-12-01

76

Host Defenses in Experimental Scrub Typhus: Role of Spleen and Peritoneal Exudate Lymphocytes in Cellular Immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphocytes obtained from spleens or peritoneal exudates of immune donor mice were evaluated for their ability to passively confer protection on recipients subsequently challenged with virulent scrub typhus rickettsiae. Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PEL...

P. J. Catanzaro A. Shirai L. D. Agniel J. V. Osterman

1977-01-01

77

Influence of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions on rhizobacterial communities and natural variation in root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant species is considered to be one of the most important factors in shaping rhizobacterial communities, but specific plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere are still not fully understood. Arabidopsis thaliana, for which a large number of naturally occurring ecotype accessions exist, lacks mycorrhizal associations and is hence an ideal model for rhizobacterial studies. Eight Arabidopsis accessions were found to exert a marked selective influence on bacteria associated with their roots, as determined by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Community differences in species composition and relative abundance were both significant (P <0.001). The eight distinct and reproducible accession-dependent community profiles also differed from control bulk soil. Root exudates of these variants were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to try to establish whether the unique rhizobacterial assemblages among accessions could be attributed to plant-regulated chemical changes in the rhizosphere. Natural variation in root exudation patterns was clearly exhibited, suggesting that differences in exudation patterns among accessions could be influencing bacterial assemblages. Other factors such as root system architecture are also probably involved. Finally, to investigate the Arabidopsis rhizosphere further, the phylogenetic diversity of rhizobacteria from accession Cvi-0 is described. PMID:19342429

Micallef, Shirley A; Shiaris, Michael P; Colón-Carmona, Adán

2009-01-01

78

Bacillus Species Are Present in Chewing Tobacco Sold in the United States and Evoke Plasma Exudation from the Oral Mucosa  

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Five Bacillus species, predominantly Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from two popular brands of commercially available chewing tobacco [(5.0 ± 1) × 106 CFU/ml of supernatant; results for four experiments]. Moreover, the supernatant of the Bacillus culture evoked plasma exudation from postcapillary venules in the intact hamster cheek pouch, exudation that was mediated by the kallikrein/kinin metabolic pathway. Taken together, these data indicate that Bacillus species ...

2002-01-01

79

Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

Houston SK

2013-01-01

80

Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess  

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Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problem...

Yu, Hyeon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Hepatic venous outflow obstruction in patients with polycystic liver disease: pathogenesis and treatment.  

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Polycystic liver disease is commonly asymptomatic but may present with hepatomegaly, abdominal distension, and dull abdominal pain. Transudative ascites is a rare manifestation in these patients but may occur when portal hypertension is present resulting from associated hepatic fibrosis or after deroofing procedure of a cyst. Exudative ascites might suggest hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Four cases are described where hepatic venous outflow obstruction occurred in patients with polycysti...

Uddin, W.; Ramage, J. K.; Portmann, B.; Wilson, P.; Benjamin, I.; Tan, K. C.; Williams, R.

1995-01-01

82

Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates. PMID:22843613

Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

2012-09-15

83

Automated identification of exudates and optic disc based on inverse surface thresholding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new approach to detect exudates and optic disc from color fundus images based on inverse surface thresholding. The strategy involves the applications of fuzzy c-means clustering, edge detection, otsu thresholding and inverse surface thresholding. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not depend on manually selected parameters that are normally chosen to suit the tested databases. When applied to two sets of databases the proposed method outperforms a method based on watershed segmentation. PMID:21318328

Yazid, Haniza; Arof, Hamzah; Isa, Hazlita Mohd

2012-06-01

84

Exudados de la raiz y su relevancia actual en las interacciones alelopaticas / Root exudates and their relevance to the allelopatic interactions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Detrimental interactions among plants are expressed by competition for nutrients, chemical interferences and/or parasitism. Root exudates have an enormous potential at the modulation of these three mechanisms. These exudates play a key role as "phytoalexins release routes", being the allelochemicals [...] , which regulate the chemical interactions, an example. This review presents the most recent findings on the currently used methodologies for the study of the exudation phenomenon. The methodologies for the sampling and analysis of such chemicals, as well as all other factors considered to increase the production of root exudates, are also examined.

Alberto de J., Oliveros-Bastidas; Francisco A., Macías; Ceferino Carrera, Fernández; David, Marín; José M. G., Molinillo.

85

Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

2009-10-01

86

Effects of polyphosphate additives on the pH of processed chicken exudates and the survival of Campylobacter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter spp. are nutritionally fastidious organisms that are sensitive to normal atmospheric oxygen levels and lack homologues of common cold shock genes. At first glance, these bacteria seem ill equipped to persist within food products under processing and storage conditions; however, they survive in numbers sufficient to cause the largest number of foodborne bacterial disease annually. A mechanism proposed to play a role in Campylobacter survival is the addition of polyphosphate-containing marinades during poultry processing. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains incubated in chicken exudates collected from poultry treated with a marinade demonstrated considerable survival advantages (1 to 4 log CFU/ml) over the same strains incubated in chicken exudate from untreated birds. Polyphosphates, which constitute a large portion of the commercial poultry marinades, were shown to account for a majority of the observed influence of the marinades on Campylobacter survival. When six different food grade polyphosphates (disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, pentasodium triphosphate, sodium polyphosphate, monosodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate) were utilized to compare the survival of Campylobacter strains in chicken exudate, significant differences were observed with regard to Campylobacter survival between the different polyphosphates. It was then determined that the addition of polyphosphates to chicken exudate increased the pH of the exudate, with the more sodiated polyphosphates increasing the pH to a greater degree than the less sodiated polyphosphates. It was confirmed that the change in pH mediated by polyphosphates is responsible for the observed increases in Campylobacter survival. PMID:22004823

Gunther, Nereus W; He, Yiping; Fratamico, Pina

2011-10-01

87

Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

2010-01-13

88

Interleukin-1-like activity in the exudate of air-pouch inflammation in rats, and its participation in granuloma formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vivo production of lymphocyte activating factor (LAF) activity was investigated in the exudate of the rat air-pouch inflammation model. An inflammatory reaction was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection into the air-pouch, and the time course of LAF activity in the exudate was investigated. LAF activity in the exudate reached a peak by 6 h, and rapidly decreased at 10 to 48 h after the LPS injection. Dexamethasone revealed strong inhibitory action on LAF activity and granuloma formation. On the other hand, indomethacin could not inhibit either of the phenomena. In conclusion, LAF (IL-1) is rapidly produced after the onset of inflammation and may participate in the subsequent granuloma formation. PMID:2801324

Chiba, K; Shirota, H; Katayama, K; Yamatsu, I

1989-06-01

89

Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

2009-02-01

90

[Assessment of the effectiveness of sinuforte used for the combined treatment of rhinosinusitis and exudative otitis media in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate efficiency, safety, and tolerability of two single doses of sinuforte (INVAR, Russia) used in the combined treatment of rhinosinusitis (including that with concurrent exudative otitis media) in children at the age from 5 to 12 years. The data obtained suggest high efficiency of sinuforte in the treatment of mild and moderately severe acute rhinosinusitis and exudative otitis media. Inclusion of sinuforte in combined therapy of these conditions makes it possible to avoid drainage procedures and decreases duration of antibacterial treatment. Simultaneous acceleration of the recovery of functional activity of endonasal mucosa suggests pronounced anti-recurrent action of sinuforte. PMID:21105351

Bogomil'ski?, M R; Garashchenko, T I; Denisova, O A

2010-01-01

91

Influence of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Root Exudation of Phytoalexins, Signals, and in Disease Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organisms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3, Atnap5, and Atath10) in root exudation processes using Arabidopsis thaliana. Root exuded phytochemicals were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas ...

Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Manter, Daniel K.; Martinoia, Enrico; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

92

Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporters in root exudation of phytoalexins, signals, and in disease resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organisms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3, Atnap5, and Atath10) in root exudation processes using Arabidopsis thaliana. Root exuded phytochemicals were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas ...

Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Manter, Daniel K.; Martinoia, Enrico; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

93

Effect of water stress on abscisic acid levels in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) fruit, leaves and phloem exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abscisic acid (ABA) was identified by combined gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in sieve-tube exudate collected from the cut stylar ends of white lupin fruit. Water stress caused an increase in ABA levels in leaf, seed and pod tissues and phloem exudate. When compared with levels in extracts of these tissues, the concentration of ABA in sieve-tube sap was very high. It is suggested that ABA is actively transported out of mature leaves in the phloem and this finding is discussed in terms of the ABA balance of the plant. PMID:24408191

Hoad, G V

1978-01-01

94

Sesquiterpenoids in root exudates of Solanum aethiopicum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five known sesquiterpenoids, solavetivone, lubimin, lubiminoic acid, aethione and lubiminol were isolated from the root exudates recovered from Solanum aethiopicum by a newly proposed method using charcoal. Quantitative analysis of the sesquiterpenoids in the root exudates of S. aethiopicum and S. melongena suggested that relatively large amounts of the sesquiterpenoids were exuded from the roots. Antifungal activity of the sesquiterpenoids against Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae was also examined. PMID:11724373

Nagaoka, T; Goto, K; Watanabe, A; Sakata, Y; Yoshihara, T

2001-01-01

95

Algal exudates and stream organic matter influence the structure and function of denitrifying bacterial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within aquatic ecosystems, periphytic biofilms can be hot spots of denitrification, and previous work has suggested that algal taxa within periphyton can influence the species composition and activity of resident denitrifying bacteria. This study tested the hypothesis that algal species composition within biofilms influences the structure and function of associated denitrifying bacterial communities through the composition of organic exudates. A mixed population of bacteria was incubated with organic carbon isolated from one of seven algal species or from one of two streams that differed in anthropogenic inputs. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) revealed differences in the organic composition of algal exudates and stream waters, which, in turn, selected for distinct bacterial communities. Organic carbon source had a significant effect on potential denitrification rates (DNP) of the communities, with organics isolated from a stream with high anthropogenic inputs resulting in a bacterial community with the highest DNP. There was no correlation between DNP and numbers of denitrifiers (based on nirS copy numbers), but there was a strong relationship between the species composition of denitrifier communities (as indicated by tag pyrosequencing of nosZ genes) and DNP. Specifically, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas stutzeri-like nosZ sequences across treatments correlated significantly with DNP, and bacterial communities incubated with organic carbon from the stream with high anthropogenic inputs had the highest relative abundance of P. stutzeri-like nosZ sequences. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between bacterial community composition and function and provide evidence of the potential impacts of anthropogenic inputs on the structure and function of stream microbial communities. PMID:22828897

Kalscheur, Kathryn N; Rojas, Miguel; Peterson, Christopher G; Kelly, John J; Gray, Kimberly A

2012-11-01

96

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

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Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

M. Nausch

2012-04-01

97

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 - Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

Science.gov (United States)

The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment-related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l-1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l-1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

Endres, S.; Unger, J.; Wannicke, N.; Nausch, M.; Voss, M.; Engel, A.

2012-04-01

98

Cycloartane-type triterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum.  

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Cycloartane-type triterpenoids (1-3), seven sesquiterpenoids (7-13), and five previously reported secondary metabolites, including three cycloartane-type triterpenoids (4-6) and two sesquiterpenoids (14 and 15), were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including UV, IR, NMR, and MS, and comparison with literature data. The structures of 1, 3, and 7 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 was interpreted by the incorporation of CHCl(3) (crystallization solvent) in the crystal and that of 10 was determined by the CD exciton chirality method. Compound 12 represents the first example of a 12-norcadinane-type sesquiterpenoid. Furthermore, compounds 1, 3, 7, and 10-14 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. PMID:22277735

Yang, Jun-Li; Shi, Yan-Ping

2012-04-01

99

A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants  

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Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

Cindy Bongard

2012-08-01

100

Segmentation and texture analysis with multimodel inference for the automatic detection of exudates in early diabetic retinopathy  

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Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in blood and may cause blindness if not treated at an early stage. Exudates are the primary sign of DR. Currently there is no fully automated method to detect exudates in the literature and it would be useful in large scale screening if fully automatic method is available. In this paper we developed a novel method to detect exudates that based on interactions between texture analysis and segmentation with mathematical morphological technique by using multimodel inference. The texture analysis involves three components: they are statistical texture analysis, high order spectra analysis, and fractal analysis. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy using the public data DIARETDB1. Our results show that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 95.7%, 97.6% and 98.7% (SE = 0.01, respectively. It is shown that the proposed method can be run automatically and also improve the accuracy of exudates detection significantly over most of the previous methods.

Jack Lee

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease. Materials and methods Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed. Results There were 43 female (48.9%) and 45 males (51.1%). The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19) months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009). The mean central retinal thickness (CRT) decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 ?m at baseline to 250.85±45.48 ?m at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 ?m at baseline to 268.61±53.51 ?m at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001). Conclusion Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.

Canan, Handan; S?zmaz, Selcuk; Altan-Yayc?oglu, Rana; Sar?turk, Cagla; Y?lmaz, Gursel

2014-01-01

102

Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

2002-10-01

103

The phytochemical profile and identification of main phenolic compounds from the leaf exudate of Aloe secundiflora by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytochemical profile of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae) and the identity of eight major compounds, including the two main constituents, have been determined from the leaf exudate of this ethnoveterinary used species from Kenya and Tanzania. Analytical HPLC-MS studies of the exudate have revealed that it comprises a mixture of phenolic compounds, mainly anthrones (aloenin, aloenin B, isobarbaloin, barbaloin and other aloin derivatives), chromones and phenylpyrones with a low content of polysaccharides and aliphatic compounds. The high percentage of anthrones in the exudate could provide a first line of evidence for the use of the plant in ethnoveterinary practices. PMID:12693631

Rebecca, Waihenya; Kayser, Oliver; Hagels, Hansjörg; Zessin, Karl H; Madundo, Mtambo; Gamba, Nkwengulila

2003-01-01

104

Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin and Danofloxacin in Plasma, Inflammatory Exudate, and Bronchial Secretions of Calves following Subcutaneous Administration  

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Enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) and danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to ruminating calves (n = 8) fitted with subcutaneous tissue cages. Concentrations of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and danofloxacin in blood (plasma), tissue cage exudate (following intracaveal injection of 0.3 ml of 1% [vol/wt] carrageenan), and bronchial secretions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological assay (enrofloxacin plus cip...

1999-01-01

105

Renal vein stenosis with transudative ascites from graft after renal transplantation with good response after percutaneous stent placement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascites sometimes occurs as a result of technical complications of transplant surgery or other medical reasons, including hepatic, cardiac, or oncologic pathology. Renal vein stenosis after renal transplant resulting in transudative ascites is rare; thus there are few if any data on such cases. Stent implantation seems to be a safe and elective approach to treatment of this rare condition. We present the case of a 22-year-old woman in whom massive ascites developed 33 months after renal transplantation. After the analysis of the ascites fluid and exclusion of transplant artery stenosis, graft rejection, infection, portal hypertension, and other possible etiologies, the final diagnosis of graft renal vein stenosis with transudative ascites derived from the graft was made based on imaging studies, including Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography. The patient underwent angiographic stent placement, and the ascites markedly improved after the procedure. Renal vein stenosis complicated with ascites after renal transplantation is highly unusual; the patient's response to angiographic stent placement was beneficial, with satisfactory resolution of the blockage and ascites. PMID:24656022

Pan, M S; Wu, R H; Sun, D P; Tian, Y F; Chen, M J

2014-03-01

106

Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis  

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Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease.Materials and methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed.Results: There were 43 female (48.9% and 45 males (51.1%. The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19 months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009. The mean central retinal thickness (CRT decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 µm at baseline to 250.85±45.48 µm at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 µm at baseline to 268.61±53.51 µm at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ranibizumab, visual acuity

Canan H

2014-01-01

107

Allelopathic Potential of Oxalis pes-caprae Tissues and Root Exudates as a Tool for Integrated Weed Management  

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Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential usefulness of Oxalis pes-caprae L. as allelopathic ground-cover species for integrated weed management. The effects of the extracts of several tissues and the exudates from living roots of O. pes-caprae plants were tested for their allelopathic activity on several plants. Duckweed fresh weight was significantly inhibited from phytotoxic activity of petiole tissues (and secondly leaves and stems of O. pes-caprae. For all the kinds of tissues duckweed fresh weight was reduced with increasing extract concentrations. Besides, root exudates of Bermuda buttercup caused 62, 58 and 42% inhibition of the dry biomass production of tomato, oat and lettuce plants, respectively, confirming the remarkable allelopathic activity of this weed.

I.S. Travlos

2008-01-01

108

Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain, MycoBank accession number = 564110) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407, CBS 12361, type strain, MycoBank accession number = 564111) was isolated from the exudate on an elm tree (Ulmus americana), also growing in Peoria, Illinois. The species were resolved from divergence in gene sequences for domains D1/D2 LSU rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA, RNA polymerase subunit 1 and translation elongation factor-1?. Species of Komagataella assimilate few carbon compounds and are unlikely to be resolved from differences in standard growth and fermentation tests. For this reason, separation of species is dependent on gene sequence analysis. PMID:22302468

Kurtzman, Cletus P

2012-02-01

109

Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these di...

2010-01-01

110

Correlation between Octopus perimetry and fluorescein angiography after strontium-90 plaque brachytherapy for subfoveal exudative age related macular degeneration  

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AIM—To evaluate the correlation between the central visual field and changes in fluorescein angiography and fundus photography in patients treated with strontium plaque radiotherapy for subfoveal exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD).?METHODS—Octopus program 34 automated static perimetry, fluorescein angiography, and colour fundus photography were performed on 19 patients at baseline and at 12 months after strontium-90 plaque therapy. A schematic picture outlining the ...

Jaakkola, A.; Vesti, E.; Immonen, I.

1998-01-01

111

Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla  

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Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L.) has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Rutgers) on Meloidogyne hapla greenhouse populations from Manhattan (MH), New York (NY) and Michigan (MI) in order to understand the way of effect of OSRC (Oil seed radish). In a laboratory, 3...

Sevilhan Mennan; Haddish Melakeberhan

2006-01-01

112

Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.  

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The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. PMID:23712964

Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

2013-08-01

113

The Diagnostic Values of Protein to Lactate Dehyrogenase Ratio in Serum and Pleural Fluid in Exudate Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Different etiologies of pleural effusion are diagnosed based on serum and plural fluid characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the serum and pleural fluid protein to lactate dehyrogenase (Pr/LDH ratio in exudative pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with exudative pleural effusion including: 20 cases with parapneumonic , 20 cases with Tuberculosis (TB, and 20 cases with malignancy. The serum and pleural Pr/LDH were measured and compared among 3 groups. Result: The mean age of the patients was 55±19SD (years and male to female ratio was 36/24. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age of the patients among 3 groups (p=0.08. There were statistically significant differences in serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios among groups ( p=0.04 and p= 0.1, respectively. Additionally the comparisons of serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios between malignancy and tuberculosis groups were significant ( p=0.02 and p=0.001 , respectively. The serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios were higher in TB group. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratio can be used in differentiating the etiology of exudative pleural effusion, but needs to be confirmed by larger study.

2013-07-01

114

Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at ? 101.6, ? 75.5, ? 73.9, ? 72.5, and ? 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1?4)-linked ?-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration. PMID:24702919

Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

2014-07-17

115

Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the Gâ?², Gâ?³ or ηâ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan

2011-01-01

116

[Impact of exogenous paraquat on enzyme exudation and biochemical changes of lignin degradation fungi].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effect of exogenous oxygen, we added water solution of paraquat to 7 d cultures of Coriolus versicolor for the next 148 h. Enzyme exudation and biochemical process were investigated on the addition of paraquat. We found that compared with the control (without paraquat), the addition of 30 micromol/L paraquat stimulated the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccases (Lac) 7, 2.5 and 1.3 times, respectively. Also, addition of paraquat enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the first 48 h. Impact of paraquat on ligninolytic enzymes was significant than that on antioxidant enzyme. Addition of paraquat enhanced phenolic compounds and formaldehyde of cultures too. And concentration of malondialdehyde was increased in the first 24 h. The results showed that addition of paraquat promoted oxidative stress, but the antioxidant systems of the fungal strain are sufficient to prevent mycelia from oxidative stress. As exogenous oxygen, paraquat might be a useful substrate in degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:19938450

Zhao, Yunchen; Li, Jianlong; Chen, Yuru; Huang, Haixia; Yu, Zui

2009-08-01

117

Exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly and short stature: a new syndrome?  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of Coats disease with intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial calcification, leukodystrophy, brain cysts, osteopenia, and gastrointestinal bleeding defines Coats plus syndrome caused by mutations in the CTC1 gene, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1. Here, we report on a child with exudative retinopathy, cerebral calcifications, duodenal atresia, preaxial polydactyly, micropenis, microcephaly, and short stature, in whom no mutations in CTC1 were found. Our patient shares some features seen in other diseases associated with telomere shortening including Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson and Revesz syndromes. We therefore measured telomere length by Flow-Fish which was normal. The association of duodenal atresia and microcephaly also suggested a diagnosis of Feingold syndrome. However, direct sequencing of MYCN was normal, and we did not detect any hemizygous deletion of the miR-17?92 polycistronic miRNA cluster. To our knowledge, the phenotype we report on has not been described previously, leading us to speculate that this condition may represent a new syndrome. PMID:23824919

Isidor, Bertrand; Le Meur, Guylène; Conti, Carole; Caldagues, Emmanuelle; Lainey, Elodie; Launay, Elise; Leclair, Marc David; Le Francois, Thomas; Pichon, Olivier; Boisseau, Pierre; Migraine, Audrey; Keren, Boris; Le Caignec, Cédric; Crow, Yanick J; David, Albert

2013-08-01

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Detection of Pneumococcal Capsular polysaccharide antigens by latex agglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay in middle ear exudates in acute otitis media.  

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The presence of pneumococcal antigen in middle ear exudates during acute otitis media was studied by latex agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. The positive antigen findings were confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Latex agglutination gave a positive result in 63% and counterimmunoelectrophoresis in 76% of samples that grew Streptococcus pneumoniae. The methods were complementary; the antigen was detected by one or both of the methods in 88% of these samples. Pneumococcal antigen was fu...

Leinonen, M. K.

1980-01-01

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Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

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Abstract Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass s...

Kaldy James

2012-01-01

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VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS  

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In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Bacterial carbon dependence on freshly produced phytoplankton exudates under different nutrient availability and grazing pressure conditions in coastal marine waters.  

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The effects of grazing pressure and inorganic nutrient availability on the direct carbon transfer from freshly produced phytoplankton exudates to heterotrophic bacteria biomass production were studied in Mediterranean coastal waters. The short-term incorporation of ¹³C (H¹³CO?) in phytoplankton and bacterial lipid biomarkers was measured as well as the total bacterial carbon production (BP), viral lysis and the microbial community structure under three experimental conditions: (1) High inorganic Nutrient and High Grazing (HN + HG), (2) High inorganic Nutrient and Low Grazing (HN + LG) and (3) under natural in situ conditions with Low inorganic Nutrient and High Grazing (LN + HG) during spring. Under phytoplankton bloom conditions (HN + LG), the bacterial use of freshly produced phytoplankton exudates as a source of carbon, estimated from ¹³C enrichment of bacterial lipids, contributed more than half of the total bacterial production. However, under conditions of high grazing pressure on phytoplankton with or without the addition of inorganic nutrients (HN + HG and LN + HG), the ¹³C enrichment of bacterial lipids was low compared with the high total bacterial production. BP therefore seems to depend mainly on freshly produced phytoplankton exudates during the early phase of phytoplankton bloom period. However, BP seems mainly relying on recycled carbon from viral lysis and predators under high grazing pressure. PMID:24741704

Fouilland, Eric; Tolosa, Imma; Bonnet, Delphine; Bouvier, Corinne; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvy, Marc; Got, Patrice; Le Floc'h, Emilie; Mostajir, Behzad; Roques, Cécile; Sempéré, Richard; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Vidussi, Francesca

2014-03-01

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Induction of murine gamma interferon production by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-2 in Propionibacterium acnes-induced peritoneal exudate cells.  

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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces high levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in the circulation of mice pretreated with heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes. The following results were obtained in the present study. LPS, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2), was also able to induce IFN-gamma in vitro in peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from such mice. Splenocytes and lymph node cells from these mice or resident peritoneal cells from control mice produced trace or undetectable amount of IFN-gamma upon...

Okamura, H.; Wada, M.; Nagata, K.; Tamura, T.; Shoji, K.

1987-01-01

123

Self-assembly of marine exudate particles and their impact on the CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol  

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Spontaneous self-assembly of marine exudate particles has previously been observed in filtered seawater samples. The chemicophysical properties of these particles may alter the chemical composition and CCN properties of nascent marine aerosol, yet to date simultaneous measurement of seawater exudate particle formation rates and number distributions, with aerosol particle formation rates and CCN activity are lacking. Here, we use a novel Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (MART) system to experimentally mimic a phytoplankton bloom via sequential addition of biological surrogates, including sterol, galactose, lipopolysaccharide, BSA protein, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Nascent sea-spray aerosol are generated in the MART system via a continuous plunging waterfall. Exudate particle assembly in the water is monitored via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain both the assembly kinetics of the particles as well as particle number distributions Simultaneous characterization of both particle production rates and super-saturated particle hygroscopicity are also discussed. This study permits analysis of the controlling role of the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon in setting the production rates of colloidal material in the surface oceans.

Schill, S.; Zimmermann, K.; Ryder, O. S.; Campbell, N.; Collins, D. B.; Gianneschi, N.; Bertram, T. H.

2013-12-01

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Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum  

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Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the effects on root production, Pi uptake, Pi-related gene expression and organic carbon (C) exudation. Results Seed treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 increased root production at low environmental Pi concentrations, but significantly repressed root Pi uptake. This coincided with an auxin-mediated reduction in expression of the Pi transporters TaPHT1.8 and TaPHT1.10. Applied exogenous auxin also triggered an increase in root C exudation. At high external Pi concentrations, root production was promoted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, but Pi uptake was unaffected. Conclusions We conclude that, alongside promoting root production, auxin biosynthesis by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both re-models Pi transporter expression and elevates organic C exudation. This shows the potential importance of rhizobacterial-derived auxin following colonisation of root surfaces, and the nature of this bacteria-plant interaction in soil.

2014-01-01

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Alteration of the Profile of Organic Acid Content and Exudation under Aluminum Stress in Maize (Zea mays L.  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to contribute to the literature on the role of organic acids in Al tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.. Treatment with increasing Al concentrations from 100 to 1000 ?M for 4 days Al caused substantial inhibition of lateral roots, as well as severe alterations on root apices. In roots, the malate content was decreased significantly by Al. However, the citrate, lactate and total organic acids were not affected by Al. In shoots, the citrate, tartarate and total organic acids were decreased significantly by 100, 250 and 500 ?M Al. However, the succinate was increased by 500 and 1000 ?M Al, while that of lactate increased only by 1000 ?M Al. Only the highest Al concentration 1000 ?M induced exudation of citrate. It is shown that the enhanced citrate exudation induced by Al support the concept that organic acid exudation may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity in maize.

Radhouane Chaffai

2005-01-01

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A Study and Comparison of Automated Techniques for Exudate Detection Using Digital Fundus Images of Human Eye: A Review for Early Identification of Diabetic Retinopathy  

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Full Text Available Exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy which is the major cause of blindness in patients with diabetes. If the exudates extend into the macular area, vision loss can occur. Automated early detection of the presence of exudates can assist ophthalmologists to prevent the spread of the disease more efficiently. Hence, detection of exudates is an important diagnostic task. Exudates are found using their high grey level variation. The detection of the optic disc is indispensable in the exudates detection process since they both are similar in terms of color, contrast, etc. Here a study of various techniques like morphological approach, region growing approach, fuzzy c-means clustering technique, k-means clustering techniques is made to suggest a technique for automatic early identification of diabetic retinopathy. These four techniques are implemented and their performances are evaluated based on various metrics like sensitivity, specificity, etc. These algorithms are tested on a small image data base and their accuracies are analyzed with respect to expert ophthalmologist’s hand-drawn ground-truths.

M.Ramaswamy

2011-09-01

127

Cesium Interactions With Illite in the Presence of Bacterial Exudates  

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Biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere can significantly alter chemical reactions between contaminants and soil minerals. Several strains of bacteria that exude aluminum-chelating compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). We examined the effect of exudates from the rhizosphere bacteria on cesium desorption from illite. The exudates from some strains of rhizosphere bacteria significantly enhanced Cs desorption from illite. In addition, Cs desorption from illite increased with increasing concentration of exudates from one selected bacterial strain. There was no obvious relationship between Cs desorption and the Al-chelating ability of the exudates. Both mobilization of Al from illite and changes in the density of frayed edge sites on the illite were monitored as a function of exudate type and concentration. Results suggest that exudates from rhizosphere bacteria may play an important role in Cs interactions with illite and, therefore, could alter Cs availability in micaceous soils.

Wendling, L. A.; Ward, T. E.; Harsh, J. B.; Hamilton, M. A.; Palmer, C. D.

2003-12-01

128

Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates  

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Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

Anna Skorupska

2011-06-01

129

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin  

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The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems

1984-01-09

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The role of polysaccharides and diatom exudates in the redox cycling of Fe and the photoproduction of hydrogen peroxide in coastal seawaters  

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The effect of artificial acidic polysaccharides (PS) and exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the half-life of Fe(II) in seawater was investigated in laboratory experiments. Strong photochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of 5.2 to 10.9 nM (mg C)-1 h-1 was found in the presence of PS and diatom exudates. Furthermore when illuminated with UV light the presence of algal exudates had a net stabilising effect on ferrous iron in seawater (initial value 100 nmol L-1) above that expected from oxidation kinetics. In the dark the PS gum xanthan showed no stabilising effect on Fe(II). The photochemical formation of superoxide (O2-) in the presence of diatom exudates and its reducing effect on Fe(III) appears to result in greater than expected concentrations of Fe(II). A model of the photochemical redox cycle of iron incorporating these processes supported the observed data well. Diatom exudates seem to have the potential to play an important role for the photochemistry of iron in coastal waters.

Steigenberger, S.; Statham, P. J.; Völker, C.; Passow, U.

2010-01-01

131

Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size  

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Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

Fujihara M

2012-03-01

132

Findings and use of CT for pleural empyemas  

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Chest radiographs and CT images of 25 patients with pleural empyemas were compared retrospectively with those of 20 patients with pleural exudates and transdudates in order to determine criteria for differential diagnosis and to define the place of CT in the diagnosis of pleural empyemas. The sign which was most suggestive of an empyema on a chest radiograph was an encapsulated effusion in an atypical position (18/25); this was found in only 4 out of 20 exudates and in none of the transudates. On CT, changes in the pleura, the subcostal tissues and the configuration and position of the fluid were suggestive of an empyema. In nearly all patients with a pleural empyema there was thickening and increased contrast uptake of the parietal pleura (22/25) and thickening and increased density oft the subcostal tissues (23/25). Usually, empyemas were encapsulated and biconvex (20/25). None of the patients with pleural transudates showed any of these changes. In the presence of some pleural exudates, pleural (14/20) or thoracic (11/20) changes were noted. In part, these changes were due to previous treatment (sclerotherapy) or tumour infiltration (7/20). An attempt to correlate the CT findings with changes in the pleura and subcostal tissues with the clinical empyema stages I-III, according to Light, showed that CT was unable to distinguish between early and late empyemas. Consequently, diagnostic aspiration remains necessary for correct treatment. (orig.)

1994-11-01

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Pleural effusion: diagnosis, treatment, and management  

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Full Text Available Vinaya S Karkhanis, Jyotsna M JoshiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, TN Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: A pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. It can pose a diagnostic dilemma to the treating physician because it may be related to disorders of the lung or pleura, or to a systemic disorder. Patients most commonly present with dyspnea, initially on exertion, predominantly dry cough, and pleuritic chest pain. To treat pleural effusion appropriately, it is important to determine its etiology. However, the etiology of pleural effusion remains unclear in nearly 20% of cases. Thoracocentesis should be performed for new and unexplained pleural effusions. Laboratory testing helps to distinguish pleural fluid transudate from an exudate. The diagnostic evaluation of pleural effusion includes chemical and microbiological studies, as well as cytological analysis, which can provide further information about the etiology of the disease process. Immunohistochemistry provides increased diagnostic accuracy. Transudative effusions are usually managed by treating the underlying medical disorder. However, a large, refractory pleural effusion, whether a transudate or exudate, must be drained to provide symptomatic relief. Management of exudative effusion depends on the underlying etiology of the effusion. Malignant effusions are usually drained to palliate symptoms and may require pleurodesis to prevent recurrence. Pleural biopsy is recommended for evaluation and exclusion of various etiologies, such as tuberculosis or malignant disease. Percutaneous closed pleural biopsy is easiest to perform, the least expensive, with minimal complications, and should be used routinely. Empyemas need to be treated with appropriate antibiotics and intercostal drainage. Surgery may be needed in selected cases where drainage procedure fails to produce improvement or to restore lung function and for closure of bronchopleural fistula.Keywords: thoracocentesis, biopsy, thoracoscopy, decortication

Karkhanis VS

2012-06-01

134

A 13C-NMR study of exudation and storage of carbohydrates and amino acids in the ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius.  

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(13)C-NMR analyses of Cantharellus cibarius growth media were performed. We found exudation of trehalose and mannitol, which may explain the phenomenon of reproducing Pseudomonas bacteria observed inside fruit bodies. Exudation varied with strain and environment. NMR analyses of stored (13)C was also performed. Trehalose, mannitol, and arginine were revealed. The mannitol pathway seems to play an important role for trehalose production in this species. This is the first study of the fate of the photosynthetically derived carbon in the highly appreciated edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom Cantharellus cibarius. PMID:21156488

Rangel-Castro, J Ignacio; Danell, Eric; Pfeffer, Philip E

2002-01-01

135

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in goats.  

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In a four-period cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to goats intramuscularly (IM) at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg, both alone and in combination with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA), also administered IM at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg. Using a tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the irritant actions of carrageenan, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA were determined. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were similar for serum (5.60 microg h/mL), inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate; 5.32 microg h/mL) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate; 4.82 microg h/mL). Values of mean residence time (MRT) of MB in exudate (15.5 h) and transudate (15.8 h) differed significantly from serum MRT (4.23 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB were investigated using a caprine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Integration of PK data with ex vivo bacterial time-kill curve data for serum, exudate and transudate provided AUC(24h)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratios of 160, 133 and 121 h, respectively, for the strain of organism used. Modelling of the ex vivo time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24h)/MIC values required for bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism of 27.6, 96.2 and 147.3 h, respectively. Corresponding values for MB+TA were 20.5, 66.5 and 103.0 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules of MB for subsequent clinical evaluation. PMID:19299172

Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, F S; Lees, P

2010-05-01

136

The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al"3"+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al"3"+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al"3"+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al"3"+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

2000-06-01

137

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

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Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

2005-08-15

138

A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis  

CERN Document Server

We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

Ceseri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

139

The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.  

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The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. PMID:23332028

Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

2013-03-01

140

Root exudate enhanced contaminant desorption: an abiotic contribution to the rhizosphere effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite reports in the literature of superior contaminant degradation in the root-zone of plants, this phenomenon, known as the rhizosphere effect, is poorly understood. We investigated whether root exudates could enhance desorption of residual pollutants, thus improving bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation potential. Root exudates were harvested from three species of hydroponically grown plants, and artificial root exudates (AREs) were created using a literature recipe. Aliquots of the exudates were metabolized by soil bacteria to investigate whether biotransformed exudates exhibited different chemical characteristics or had different effects on contaminant bioavailability than 'raw exudates.' Slurries of naphthalene-aged soil containing raw exudates had a significantly lower soil-water distribution coefficient (Kd) than slurries with metabolized exudates or no-exudate controls, exhibiting median reductions of 50% and 55%, respectively. Raw exudates had a significantly lower surface tension while not increasing overall solubility, indicating the presence of surface-active compounds below the critical micelle concentration; this is a newly observed mechanism of the rhizosphere effect. Exudate samples were characterized by specific UV absorbance, spectral slope, fluorescence index, and excitation-emission matrices. Substantial changes in organic carbon character pre- and postmetabolism, and between harvested exudates and AREs, suggest that AREs are not chemically representative of plant root exudates. Overall, we present evidence that enhanced contaminant desorption in the presence of exudates provides an abiotic contribution to the rhizosphere effect. PMID:24047188

LeFevre, Gregory H; Hozalski, Raymond M; Novak, Paige J

2013-10-15

 
 
 
 
141

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a four-period, cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to calves, alone and in combination with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA). Both drugs were administered intramuscularly (IM) at doses of 2 mg/kg. A tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the actions of the mild irritant carrageenan, was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were 15.1 ?g·h/mL for serum, 12.1 ?g·h/mL for inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and 9.6 ?g·h/mL for noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). Values of C(max) were 1.84, 0.35 and 0.31 ?g/mL, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. Mean residence time (MRT) of 23.6 h (exudate) and 22.6 h (transudate) also differed significantly from serum MRT (8.6 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB was investigated using a bovine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Time-kill curves were established ex vivo on serum, exudate and transudate samples. Modelling the ex vivo serum time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24 h) /MIC values required for bacteriostatic (18.3 h) and bactericidal actions (92 h) of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism was 139 h. Corresponding values for MB + TA were 20.1, 69 and 106 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules for a bactericidal action, assuming a MIC(90) value of 0.24 ?g/mL, a dose of 2.6 mg/kg for MB and 2.19 mg/kg for MB + TA were determined, which are similar to the currently recommended dose of 2.0 mg/kg. PMID:21091727

Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, M H S; Toutain, P L; Lees, P

2011-08-01

142

Evaluation of pleural and pericardial effusions by magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR examinations of 36 patients with pleural and/or pericardial effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine of MR imaging is capable of differentiating between pleural and pericardial effusions of different compositions using standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and nongated spin echo pulse sequences. Additional data was obtained from experimental pleural effusions in 10 dogs. The results of this study indicate that old haemorhages into the pleural or pericardial space can be differentiated from other pleural or pericardial effusions. However, further differentiation between transudates, exudates and sanguinous effusions is not possible on MR images acquired with standard spin echo pulse sequences. (orig./MG)

1987-08-01

143

Pleural effusion following ventriculo-pleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients? demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience.

Kupeli Elif

2010-01-01

144

Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59 resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with the presence of a 4.4 kb plasmid in 17 strains studied. Resistance to penicillin, observed in 44 strains, and resistance to kanamycin, observed in 15 strains, could not be related to plasmids in any of these strains. The 11.5 kb plasmid was observed in 39% of the strains isolated from piglets with EE, and in 7% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

1993-01-01

145

Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the uniformly negative results of a lung perfusion scan, Doppler ultrasound, and culture of bronchoalveolar lavage and plural effusion, and because our patient showed spontaneous improvement. Conclusions False positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause lung trauma presenting as pulmonary contusion and cavitation with plural effusion.

Nouri-Majalan Nader

2010-08-01

146

14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

2014-01-01

147

Diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy: automatic extraction of optic disc and exudates from retinal images using marker-controlled watershed transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to increasing number of diabetic retinopathy cases, ophthalmologists are experiencing serious problem to automatically extract the features from the retinal images. Optic disc (OD), exudates, and cotton wool spots are the main features of fundus images which are used for diagnosing eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a new algorithm for the extraction of these bright objects from fundus images based on marker-controlled watershed segmentation is presented. The proposed algorithm makes use of average filtering and contrast adjustment as preprocessing steps. The concept of the markers is used to modify the gradient before the watershed transformation is applied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using the test images of STARE and DRIVE databases. It is shown that the proposed method can yield an average sensitivity value of about 95%, which is comparable to those obtained by the known methods. PMID:20703768

Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Eswaran, C; Dimyati, Kaharudin

2011-12-01

148

Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years. PMID:22476759

Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

2012-08-01

149

Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggregates having a fractal dimension D = 2.55. When this value was applied to historical TEP size spectra from a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent from that of the cells.

Mari, Xavier

1999-01-01

150

Detección y diferenciación de exudados en retinografías a color / Detection and differentiation of retinal exudates in color retinal images  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La retinopatía diabética en etapas tempranas suele ser imperceptible para los pacientes diabéticos. Sus primeras manifestaciones, tal como los microaneurismas, suelen pasar desapercibidas en exámenes especializados por su difícil detección; además, su presencia única no implica necesariamente relaci [...] ón directa con la retinopatía diabética, puesto que existen otras patologías que también pueden producirlas. Solo hasta la detección de la presencia de exudados un especialista puede deducir la presencia de la retinopatía diabética. Este artículo presenta un método que permite asistir la identificación y diferenciación de exudados sobre retinografías mediante la utilización de una variedad de clasificadores de tipo k-nn. El método propuesto demostró ser un método sensible y específico en la detección de lesiones brillantes, capaz de determinar con certeza suficiente una posible lesión en una retinografía a color, con una especificidad de 99%. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy early is not usually perceivable in patients with diabetic. Their first signs, like micro-aneurysms, often are unnoticed in preliminary test due to its difficult detection by means specialists. In addition, its presence is necessarily not directly related to diabetic retinopathy [...] , since there are others pathologies that may also cause those. Until the detection of the presence of exudates, a specialist can deduce the presence of diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents a method to assist the identification and differentiation of exudates on color retinal images based on a variety of k-nn filters. The proposed method proved to be a sensitive and specific detection of bright lesions, able to determine with sufficient certainty, a possible injury, with a specificity of 99%.

Germán, Sánchez Torres; Jorge Rudas, Castaño; Ricardo, Toscano Cuello.

2011-07-15

151

Detection of Exudates in Retinal Images Using Fuzzy Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is a major cause for blindness, identified early by the formation of exudates in the retina. The conventional method followed by opthalmogists is the regular supervision of the retina. As this method takes time and energy of the opthalmogists, a new feature based classification for the detection of exudates in color fundus image is proposed in this study. This method reduces the professionals work to examine on every fundus image rather than only on abnormal image. The exudates are separated from the fundus image by thresholding and removal of optic disk using morphological operation and connected component analysis. The features are extracted from processed image and fuzzy technique is used for classification of images as exudates and non-exudates.

S. Mohanapriya

2012-12-01

152

Vancomycin penetration of uninfected pleural fluid exudate after continuous or intermittent infusion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blood and pleural exudate samples were obtained from 16 patients receiving intermittent or continuous infusions of vancomycin after lung surgery. The areas under the concentration-time curves for blood and pleural exudates were identical for both administration schedules, while continuous infusion allowed the concentrations in pleural exudates to be more sustained (mean concentration, 12 mg/liter).

Byl, Baudouin; Jacobs, Fre?de?rique; Wallemacq, Pierre; Rossi, Camelia; Francquen, Philippe; Cappello, Matteo; Leal, Teresinha; Thys, Jean-pierre

2003-01-01

153

Vancomycin penetration of uninfected pleural fluid exudate after continuous or intermittent infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood and pleural exudate samples were obtained from 16 patients receiving intermittent or continuous infusions of vancomycin after lung surgery. The areas under the concentration-time curves for blood and pleural exudates were identical for both administration schedules, while continuous infusion allowed the concentrations in pleural exudates to be more sustained (mean concentration, 12 mg/liter). PMID:12760889

Byl, Baudouin; Jacobs, Frédérique; Wallemacq, Pierre; Rossi, Camelia; de Francquen, Philippe; Cappello, Matteo; Leal, Teresinha; Thys, Jean-Pierre

2003-06-01

154

Vancomycin Penetration of Uninfected Pleural Fluid Exudate after Continuous or Intermittent Infusion  

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Blood and pleural exudate samples were obtained from 16 patients receiving intermittent or continuous infusions of vancomycin after lung surgery. The areas under the concentration-time curves for blood and pleural exudates were identical for both administration schedules, while continuous infusion allowed the concentrations in pleural exudates to be more sustained (mean concentration, 12 mg/liter).

Byl, Baudouin; Jacobs, Fre?de?rique; Wallemacq, Pierre; Rossi, Camelia; Francquen, Philippe; Cappello, Matteo; Leal, Teresinha; Thys, Jean-pierre

2003-01-01

155

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING) OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating) of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembr...

2011-01-01

156

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytoto...

Al-sherif, E.; Hegazy, A. K.; Gomaa, N. H.; Hassan, M. O.

2013-01-01

157

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

158

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

2012-02-01

159

Prevalence of Mannheimia haemolytica Isolated from Bovine Nasal Exudates and Associated Factors, in Dairy Farms in the North-Central of Mexico  

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Mannheimia sp. strains obtained from bovine nasal exudates of either clinically healthy (n = 1902) or infected with pneumonia animals (n = 189) were isolated and characterised to estimate the prevalence of isolated serotypes and to identify some factors associated to prevalence in dairy farms in Mexico, by means of a transectional descriptive study. Strains were isolated and typified through conventional in vitro culture methods, biochemical and immunological tests. Chi square o...

Jaramillo-arango, C. J.; Hernandez-castro, R.; Suarez-guemes, F.; Martinez-maya, J. J.; Aguilar-romero, F.; Jaramillo-meza, L.; Trigo, F. J.

2007-01-01

160

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Fungal communities influence root exudation rates in pine seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates are hypothesized to play a central role in belowground food webs, nutrient turnover, and soil C dynamics in forests, but little is known about the extent to which root-associated microbial communities influence exudation rates in trees. We used a novel experimental technique to inoculate loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings with indigenous forest fungi to examine how diverse fungal communities influence exudation. Surface-sterilized seeds were sown in intact, unsieved soil cores for 14 weeks to promote root colonization by fungi. After 14 weeks, we transferred seedlings and root-associated fungi into cuvettes and measured exudate accumulation in trap solutions. Both the abundance and identity of root-associated fungi influenced exudation. Exudation rates were greatest in root systems least colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and most colonized by putative pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. However, the ECM community composition was not a strong determinant of exudation rates. These results suggest that environmental conditions that influence the degree to which tree roots are colonized by pathogenic and saprotrophic vs. mutualistic fungi are likely to mediate fluxes of labile C in forest soils, with consequences for soil biogeochemistry and ecosystem processes. PMID:23013386

Meier, Ina C; Avis, Peter G; Phillips, Richard P

2013-03-01

162

Effect of lidocaine- and prilocaine-based topical anesthetics on the inflammatory exudates in subcutaneous tissue of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administrated intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. In order to analyze vascular permeability, the tested substances were injected intradermally. The rats were sacrificed 3, 6, and 9 hours after injection of the substances. The dorsal skin was dissected and removed. The vascular permeability was evaluated by the measurement of area of dye extravasation and the dye was subsequently extracted after immersion in formamide. Statistical analyses were made by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test and Pearson correlation. The 2 methods to analyze the exudative phase of the inflammatory process showed statistically significant difference among the groups and periods of evaluation (P < .05). Both methods had a significant correlation (P < .0001). Under the tested conditions, the anesthetic agents showed mild initial inflammatory response when implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue. PMID:22822991

Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Neto, José Laufer; Jassen, Jocélia Lago; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André

2012-01-01

163

Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

Danuta Pi?tka

2001-06-01

164

How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus". PMID:23347972

Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N

2013-02-01

165

Diagnostic value of phage typing, antibiogram typing and plasmid profiling of Staphylococcus hyicus from piglets with exudative epidermitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 989 isolates of S. hyicus were recovered from the skin of 103 piglets (9.6 isolates per piglet) with exudative epidermitis (EE), and phage typed. Phage patterns of 806 typable isolates (81 %) could be divided into 44 distinct phage types. From 1 to 6 different phage types were found on individual piglets, with an average of 1.9 phage type per piglet. Antibiogram patterns of 384 isolates from 40 randomly selected piglets with EE showed a mean of 2.3 different antibiograms per investigated piglet, ranging from 1 to 6 antibiograms per piglet. Plasmid profiles of 248 S. hyicus isolates from 25 randomly selected piglets showed an average of 2.8 different plasmid profiles per piglet. Seven EE outbreaks in pig herds vaccinated with autogenous vaccine were investigated. In all these herds, strains recovered from the present outbreak differed by two or more type markers to the strains from the previous outbreak used for production of the autogenous vaccine. This finding suggest, that lack of protection might be due to the presence of other virulent types in the investigated herd than those used for production of autogenous vaccine.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

1993-01-01

166

The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild steel corrosion in acidic media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this study, a comparative study of two oleo-gum resins was performed. ? The adsorption of both oleo-gum resins is well described by Langmuir isotherm model. ? Oleo-gum resins behave as mixed type inhibitors. ? Inhibition efficiency of both oleo-gum resins in 2 M HCl decreased with rise in temperature. ? Quantum chemical calculations used to explain the difference in behavior of two resins. - Abstract: A comparative study of two oleo-gum resins exudate from Ferula assa-foetida (F. assa-foetida) and Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum), as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in 2 M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both oleo-gums behave as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency was studied. At all temperatures, the experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm for both oleo-gum resin exudates. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of two oleo-gum resin exudates.

2011-08-01

167

Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm(C) and two both erm(A) and erm(C). The presence of erm(B) was confirmed by hybridization to plasmid profiles in all 13 PCR-positive isolates. Of 52 tetracycline resistant isolates examined, two contained tet(L), 38 tet(K) and 12 both tet(K) and tet(L). (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, L. B.

2002-01-01

168

Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aval [...] iar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b*) foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE. Abstract in english The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehic [...] le microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*). Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.

Gislaine Silveira, Simões; Alexandre, Oba; Tiemi, Matsuo; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

169

Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

Gislaine Silveira Simões

2009-11-01

170

Root exudates of mycorrhizal tomato plants exhibit a different effect on microconidia germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici than root exudates from non-mycorrhizal tomato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of root exudates from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants on microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was tested. Microconidia germination was enhanced in the presence of root exudates from mycorrhizal tomato plants. The more tomato plants were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae, the more microconidia germination was increased, indicating that alterations of the exudation pattern depended on the degree of root AM colonization. Moreover, alterations of the exudation pattern of mycorrhizal plants are not only local, but also systemic. Testing the exudates from plants with a high and a low P level revealed that the alterations of the root exudates from mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a changed effect on microconidia germination, are not due to an improved P status of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:16528569

Scheffknecht, S; Mammerler, R; Steinkellner, S; Vierheilig, H

2006-07-01

171

Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

2005-12-01

172

Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with e...

Nishimura Y; Taguchi M; Nagai T; Fujihara M; Honda S; Uenishi M

2012-01-01

173

[Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM. PMID:13677026

Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

2003-01-01

174

Color decoding of chest radiograms of patients with exudative pericarditis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities of use of a color decoding of chest radiograms in patients with exudative pericarditis were discussed. The results of the determination of cardiac size and exudate in color decoding while comparing them with respective values obtained during investigation under the conditions of artificial pneumopericardium or normal cardiac size corresponding to that before pericarditis, showed sufficient accuracy of the method permitting its recommendation for a wide practical use

1986-01-01

175

An Essential Role of the Cysteine-rich Domain of FZD4 in Norrin/Wnt Signaling and Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Wnt pathway plays important yet diverse roles in health and disease. Mutations in the Wnt receptor FZD4 gene have been confirmed to cause familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). FEVR is characterized by incomplete vascularization of the peripheral retina, which can lead to vitreous bleeding, tractional retinal detachment, and blindness. We screened for mutations in the FZD4 gene in five families with FEVR and identified five mutations (C45Y, Y58C, W226X, C204R, and W496X), including ...

Zhang, Kang; Harada, Yuko; Wei, Xinran; Shukla, Dhananjay; Rajendran, Anand; Tawansy, Khaled; Bedell, Matthew; Lim, Sharon; Shaw, Peter X.; He, Xi; Yang, Zhenglin

2011-01-01

176

Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag p...

Mariano, Eduardo D.; Jorge, Renato A.; Keltjens, Willem G.; Marcelo Menossi

2005-01-01

177

Actinide interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: The reduction of plutonium with desferrioxamine siderophores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plutonium is thought to exist mostly as very low soluble and/or strongly sorbed plutonium(IV) hydroxide and oxide species in the environment, and therefore, has low risk of becoming mobile or bioavailable. However, compounds that solubilize plutonium can significantly increase its bioavailability and mobility. We are examining the fundamental inorganic chemistry of actinides with one type of biogenic chelator, microbial siderophores, in order to understand how they could affect actinide biogeochemistry

2000-07-07

178

Flaminal(®) enzyme alginogel: A novel approach to the control of wound exudate, bioburden and debridement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary panel of Woundcare experts of international repute was assembled to review the clinical evidence and advise on the classification of the Flaminal products. This is based on their exact role in wound management and is to be defined on the basis of clinical efficacy, evidence and utility. Experts of international repute from Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and UK participated in this exercise. PMID:24814362

White, Richard J

2014-05-01

179

Exudative pleurisy of coccidioidomycosis: A case report and review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common manifestation in primary coccidioides infections (Coccidioides immitis, C. posadasii). It is essential that this endemic dimorphic fungus be considered in order to proceed with the most appropriate diagnostic tools and therapy. Case presentation We present a rare case of primary pleural coccidioides and a review of the current literature for optimal diagnostic methods and therapeutic ...

Afshar Kamyar; BoydKing Ayana; Sharma Om P

2008-01-01

180

Isolation, purification and some structural features of the mucilaginous exudate from Musa paradisiaca.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the vascular gel of Musa paradisiaca, were fractionated via anion exchange chromatography into four fractions. Fractionated polymers contained arabinose, xylose and galacturonic acid as major sugars, together with traces of galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues. Methylation analysis revealed the presence of a highly branched arabinoxylan with a significant amount of terminal arabinopyranosyl units and an arabinogalactan type I pectin. Periodate oxidation studies supported the results of methylation analysis. PMID:11295302

Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Thakur, S; Ghosal, P K

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Color Retinal Image Analysis for Automated Detection and Severity of Exudates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. In this paper, a two-stage methodology for the detection and classification of DME severity from color fundus images is proposed. DME detection is carried out via a supervised learning approach using the normal fundus images. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images. Disease severity is assessed using a rotational asymmetry metric by examining the symmetry of macular region.

Sarika Madhu

2013-10-01

182

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

Marchi, Denis Fabrício; Oba, Alexandre; Ziober, Iris Lamberti; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Ida, Elza Iouko; Shimokomaki, Massami.

183

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

184

Impact of elicitors on glucosinolate production in plants and exudates of turnip (Brassica rapa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucosinolates are a group of phytochemicals found in plants of the family Brassicaceae. Due to their anti-carcinogenic, antioxidative, and antimicrobial properties glucosinolates have generated considerable interest for the food and pharmaceutical industry. For the extraction of glucosinolates the plant wastes (ex. broccoli stalks) are used, but they often have low concentrations of health-promoting glucosinolates. Moreover, the content of total as well as individual glucosinolates depends s...

Smetanska, Iryna

2006-01-01

185

Effects of micronutrients deficiency and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chelator exudation by tomato root  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can affect their host plants growth through nutrient uptake enhancement. Determination of chelators (siderophores and phytosiderophores in root leachates is of importance in order to account for the effects of AMF on nutrient uptake by plants. In this study, tomato plants were inoculated with either Glomus intraradices or Glomus etunicatum or left un-inoculated as non-mycorrhizal control, in pots containing sterile and acid washed perlite. Rorison’s nutrient solution harbouring three levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (full strength, half strength and without micronutrients was applied to the pots during three month- growth period. Root leachates were collected and total chelator concentration was quantified by titration with DTPA. Plant roots showed lower mycorrhizal colonization in this condition. The amounts of chelators produced by roots were significantly different in AMF species. In plants inoculated with G. intraradices, the highest chelator production occurred in the absence of micronutrients and in its half strength as well, but the micronutrient levels had no significant effect on chelator production in plants inoculated with G. etunicatum. In the absence of micronutrients, chelator production was higher in G.intraradices inoculated plants compared to the G. etunicatum ones.

E. Shirmohammadi

2010-12-01

186

Combined treatment of exudative age related macular degeneration with photodynamic therapy and intravitreal triamcinolone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available José Mª Ruiz-Moreno1,2, Javier A Montero21Department of Ophthalmology, Miguel Hernández University School of Medicine, Alicante, Spain; 2Vitreo-Retinal Unit, Alicante Institute of Ophthalmology, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV secondary to age related macular degeneration is among the leading causes of legal blindness in developed countries. Photodynamic therapy (PDT with verteporfin induces CNV closure causing little damage to healthy tissue, but the need to re-treat may lead to low final visual acuity at an unacceptable cost. The association of intravitreous triamcinolone or antiangiogenic drugs with PDT has been used in order to reduce these limitations of the therapy. The combination of PDT and intravitreous triamcinolone, its complications and outcome at one and two-year follow-up are discussed.Keywords: age related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, photodynamic therapy, steroid, triamcinolone

José Mª Ruiz-Moreno

2008-03-01

187

Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

1966-01-01

188

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition in macrophages. Participation of LPS-binding protein and CD14 in LPS-induced adaptation in rabbit peritoneal exudate macrophages.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure of rabbit peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) or whole blood to picomolar concentrations of LPS induces adaptation or hyporesponsiveness to LPS. Because of the importance of plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP) and the macrophage cell membrane protein CD14 in recognition of LPS, we examined the effect of LBP on LPS-induced adaptation in PEM. PEM exposed to LPS in the presence of LBP for 8 h were markedly less responsive to subsequent stimulation by LPS than monocytes/macrophages (M phi)...

1993-01-01

189

Chromium(VI) bioremoval by pseudomonas bacteria: role of microbial exudates for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

Dogan, N.M.; Dodge, C.; Kantar, C.; Gulcan, S.; Yilmaz, B.C.; Mazmanci, M.A.

2011-02-14

190

Chromium(VI) Bioremoval by Pseudomonas Bacteria: Role of Microbial Exudates for Natural Attenuation and Biotreatment of Cr(VI) Contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

N Mercan Dogan; C Kantar; S Gulcan; C Dodge; B Coskun Yilmaz; M Ali Mazmanci

2011-12-31

191

Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images Using Support Vector Machine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Support vector machine (SVM) has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification. In this paper, we present a simple and effective method of detect and classify hard exudates. Automatic detection of hard exudates from retinal images is worth-studying problem since hard exudates are associated with diabetic retinopathy and have been found to be one of the most prevalent earliest signs of retinopathy. The algorithm is based on ...

Mansour, R. F.; Md Abdelrahim, E.; Al-johani, Amna S.

2013-01-01

192

Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

2012-09-15

193

Interpopulation differences in exudate feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local variations in fruit- and leaf-eating have been reported for some primate species; however, similar variations in exudate-feeding of pygmy marmosets, one of the most specialized neotropical primate species, have not been studied. In our 3-year study of four populations of pygmy marmosets in northeastern Ecuador, we characterized their exudate-feeding behavior by describing the use of exudate sources. We tested whether the use of exudate species was related to ecological factors such as the availability of exudate species in an area. We estimated the daily activity budgets of the groups with 1-hr scan samples and found significant interpopulation differences in the time spent on exudate feeding. We recorded a total of 18 exudate species used in the four populations; however, the populations differed in the total number of species used and in the preferred species. The most commonly used plant species were Sterculia apetala at San Pablo, Cedrela odorata at Sacha, Inga marginata at Amazoonico, and Parkia balslevii at Zancudo. We recorded the presence and abundance of the 18 exudate species in 90-m transects in the home range of each group and in one additional control area that contained no marmosets, for each population. Differences in the most-used exudate species among populations did not appear to be related to the availability of these species in each population, i.e., the marmosets did not use at random the exudate species available within their range, nor did they use more often the exudate species that were more abundant in their home ranges. One implication of our results for conservation is that protecting exudate resources based on data from only one area will not be sufficient to preserve pygmy marmosets in all populations. PMID:15940711

Yépez, Pablo; de la Torre, Stella; Snowdon, Charles T

2005-06-01

194

Cells in pleural fluid and their value in differential diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Background : Both non-malignant and malignant causes of effusion can be identified by the relatively non-invasive technique of pleural fluid cytology. With this basis the present study on cytology of pleural fluids was taken up. The diagnostic significance of the cytologic study of the fluid may be attributable to the fact that the cell population present in the sediment is representative of a much larger surface area than that obtained by needle biopsy. Materials and Methods : One hundred samples of pleural fluid were examined for total cell count, cell type and cellular features. They were also subjected to biochemical study to find out the level of protein, glucose and chloride. Results : A total of 82% samples were exudative and 18% were transudative. Total leukocyte count (TLC was less than 1000 cells/cu.mm in most (88.89% of transudative effusions. Overall 52.44% of exudative effusions had TLC greater than 1000 cells/cu.mm. It was noted that 96.88% of tuberculous effusions had more than 50% lymphocytes, 81.25% had protein greater than 5 gm/dl and 90.63% had glucose greater than 60 mg/dl. Approximately 28% of pleural effusions were positive for malignant cells. Most (82% of malignant effusions were exudative. The primary site could be assessed by cytological examination in 57.14% of malignant effusions. Conclusions: The most useful test in establishing the diagnosis of pleural effusion is pleural fluid cytology and pleural fluid cell count. Cytologic study of pleural fluid is a complete diagnostic modality which aims at pointing out the etiology of effusion as well as, in certain cases, a means of prognostication of disease process.

Kushwaha Rashmi

2008-01-01

195

An investigation of exudative epidermitis (greasy pig disease) and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudative epidermitis (EE) is a common skin disease of young pigs, caused mainly by Staphylococcus hyicus. Increased prevalence of EE and poor response to treatment are reported. Common strategies used by Ontario pork producers to treat pigs with EE were determined using a survey. Injection of penicillin G was reported as the most common parenteral antibiotic choice. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. hyicus and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases (30 herds with samples from approximately 6 pigs per farm) showed that 97% of S. hyicus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin; 71% of these isolates were resistant to ceftiofur. Similar resistance was noted among S. aureus isolates. Antimicrobial resistance has become a problem in the treatment of EE in Ontario. PMID:23904636

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Poljak, Zvonimir; Weese, J Scott; Dewey, Cate E

2013-02-01

196

Differential response of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to burn wound exudates: potential role of skin-specific chemokine CCL27.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cell-based regenerative medicine strategies toward tissue-engineered constructs are currently being explored. Cell-cell interactions and interactions with different biomaterials are extensively investigated, whereas very few studies address how cultured cells will interact with soluble wound-healing mediators that are present within the wound bed after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine how adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes will react when they come in contact with the deep cutaneous burn wound bed. Burn wound exudates isolated from deep burn wounds were found to contain many cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors related to inflammation and wound healing. Seventeen mediators were identified by ELISA (concentration range 0.0006-9 ng/mg total protein), including the skin-specific chemokine CCL27. Burn wound exudates activated both ASC and dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, to increase secretion of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL20. Notably, ASC but not fibroblasts or keratinocytes showed significant increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (5-fold) and interleukin-6 (253-fold), although when the cells were incorporated in bi-layered skin substitute (SS) these differences were less pronounced. A similar discrepancy between ASC and dermal fibroblast mono-cultures was observed when recombinant human-CCL27 was used instead of burn wound exudates. Although CCL27 did not stimulate the secretion of any of the wound-healing mediators by keratinocytes, these cells, in contrast to ASC or dermal fibroblasts, showed increased proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results indicate that on transplantation, keratinocytes are primarily activated to promote wound closure. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts and, in particular, ASC respond vigorously to factors present in the wound bed, leading to increased secretion of angiogenesis/granulation tissue formation factors. Our findings have implications for the choice of cell type (ASC or dermal fibroblast) to be used in regenerative medicine strategies and indicate the importance of taking into account interactions with the wound bed when developing advanced therapies for difficult-to-close cutaneous wounds. PMID:23980822

van den Broek, Lenie J; Kroeze, Kim L; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, Shakun C; Niessen, Frank B; Middelkoop, Esther; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan

2014-01-01

197

AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

198

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of florfenicol in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Florfenicol was administered subcutaneously to 10 calves at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) integration and modelling of the data were undertaken using a tissue cage model, which allowed comparison of microbial growth inhibition profiles in three fluids, serum, exudate and transudate. Terminal half-lives were relatively long, so that florfenicol concentrations were well maintained in all three fluids. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined in vitro for six strains each of the calf pneumonia pathogens, Mannhemia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. An PK-PD integration for three serum indices provided mean values for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, of 12.6 and 10.4 for Cmax /MIC, 183 and 152 h for AUC0-24 h /MIC and 78 and 76 h for T>MIC. Average florfenicol concentrations in serum exceeded 4 × MIC and 1.5 × MIC for the periods 0-24 and 48-72 h, respectively. Ex vivo growth inhibition curves for M. haemolytica and P. multocida demonstrated a rapid (with 8 h of exposure) and marked (6 log10 reduction in bacterial count or greater) killing response, suggesting a concentration-dependent killing action. During 24-h incubation periods, inhibition of growth to a bacteriostatic level or greater was maintained in serum samples collected up to 96 h and in transudate and exudate samples harvested up to 120 h. Based on the sigmoidal Emax relationship, PK-PD modelling of the ex vivo time-kill data provided AUC0-24 h /MIC serum values for three levels of growth inhibition, bacteriostatic, bactericidal and 4 log10 decrease in bacterial count; mean values were, respectively, 8.2, 26.6 and 39.0 h for M. haemolytica and 7.6, 18.1 and 25.0 h for P. multocida. Similar values were obtained for transudate and exudate. Based on pharmacokinetic and PK-PD modelled data obtained in this study and scientific literature values for MIC distributions, Monte Carlo simulations over 100 000 trials were undertaken to predict once daily dosages of florfenicol required to provide 50% and 90% target attainment rates for three levels of growth inhibition, namely, bacteriostasis, bactericidal action and 4 log10 reduction in bacterial count. PMID:24341543

Sidhu, P; Rassouli, A; Illambas, J; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

2014-06-01

199

Effect of acupuncture on TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats  

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Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.

Scognamillo-Szabó Márcia Valéria Rizzo

2005-01-01

200

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

Fan Ben

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

Fan, Ben

2012-06-21

202

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with in [...] crease in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

Umoren, S.A.; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, E.E.; Okafor, P.C..

203

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

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Full Text Available Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE and Raphia hookeri (RH were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1 increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A. Umoren

2008-01-01

204

Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

2014-06-01

205

Broiler transportation conditions in a Brazilian commercial line and the occurrence of breast PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito das condições do transporte na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e a-DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) de frangos nas condições brasileiras em uma planta de um frigorífico comercial. Foram analisadas amostras de peito de frango (Pectoralis major [...] m.) da ave de 47 dias de linhagem comercial. Os resultados indicaram que o banho dos frangos imediatamente antes da viagem de 3,0km promoveu a ocorrência de 46,0% de PSE e 4,0% de a-DFD enquanto que frangos sem banho apresentaram 14,7 e 2,0%, respectivamente. Para uma distância de 68,0km, a ocorrência de carnes PSE e a-DFD foram 44,0 e 0,0%, respectivamente, de aves que sofreram banho e 52,0 e 0,0% sem banho, respectivamente. O banho ainda na granja foi uma atividade crítica aumentando as condições desfavoráveis no microambiente do caminhão para curtas distâncias e contrariamente para distâncias longas foi menos estressante influenciando na qualidade do peito do frango. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of road transportation conditions on the occurrence of broiler PSE-(Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry) meats in the Brazilian commercial slaughterhouse plant. Samples of Pectoralis major m from 47-day-old broilers of commerc [...] ial lineage were analyzed. The results indicated that water-bathing birds just before journey over 3.0km promoted the occurrence of 46.0% of PSE and 4.0% of DFD-like meat, while birds under non-water bathing conditions presented 14.7 and 2.0%, respectively. For a distance of 68.0km, the occurrences of PSE-and DFD-like meat were 44.0 and 0.0% under water bathing conditions, and 52.0 and 0.0% without water bathing, respectively. Water bathing at the farm was a critical manoeuvre for increasing the unfavourable truck microenvironment for short journey, whereas conversely for longer journey it was less stressful influencing the broiler breast meat quality.

Langer, Roselane Oliveira de Souza; Simões, Gislaine Silveira; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Oba, Alexandre; Rossa, Alessandro; Shimokomaki, Massami; Ida, Elza Iouko.

206

Neuroprotective cadinane sesquiterpenes from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, commiterpenes A-C, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All the isolated sesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:21856385

Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Zhao, Peng; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-qing; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

2011-12-01

207

Effects of selected root exudate components on soil bacterial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-molecular-weight organic compounds in root exudates play a key role in plant-microorganism interactions by influencing the structure and function of soil microbial communities. Model exudate solutions, based on organic acids (OAs) (quinic, lactic, maleic acids) and sugars (glucose, sucrose, fructose), previously identified in the rhizosphere of Pinus radiata, were applied to soil microcosms. Root exudate compound solutions stimulated soil dehydrogenase activity and the addition of OAs increased soil pH. The structure of active bacterial communities, based on reverse-transcribed 16S rRNA gene PCR, was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PhyloChip microarrays. Bacterial taxon richness was greater in all treatments than that in control soil, with a wide range of taxa (88-1043) responding positively to exudate solutions and fewer (<24) responding negatively. OAs caused significantly greater increases than sugars in the detectable richness of the soil bacterial community and larger shifts of dominant taxa. The greater response of bacteria to OAs may be due to the higher amounts of added carbon, solubilization of soil organic matter or shifts in soil pH. Our results indicate that OAs play a significant role in shaping soil bacterial communities and this may therefore have a significant impact on plant growth. PMID:21658090

Shi, Shengjing; Richardson, Alan E; O'Callaghan, Maureen; DeAngelis, Kristen M; Jones, Eirian E; Stewart, Alison; Firestone, Mary K; Condron, Leo M

2011-09-01

208

Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture  

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Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

M. I. Trujillo

1999-03-01

209

Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio  

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Full Text Available Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The environmental impact of the large amounts of root exudates possibly conferred by these genetically modified plants is discussed, with special emphasis on soil microbiota.Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande qua

Eduardo D. Mariano

2005-03-01

210

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING) OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating) of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatograph [...] y of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin did not follow a pattern related with hydric stress, UV radiation or high temperature during the year, a relationship between pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin was found. On average during the months of September to August, excluding March, the amount of pinocembrin decreased wile the amount of 3-O-methylgalangin increased. The results suggest that the above compounds may play different ecophysiological functions during plant development and are consistent with the biosynthetic relationship between the two compounds.

MODAK, BRENDA; TORRES, RENÉ; URZÚA, ALEJANDRO.

211

SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE FLAVONOIDS PINOCEMBRIN AND 3-O-METHYLGALANGIN, IN THE SURFACE COMPONENT MIXTURE (RESINOUS EXUDATES AND WAXY COATING OF HELIOTROPIUM STENOPHYLLUM  

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Full Text Available In this report we study the seasonal variation of the flavonoids pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin in the surface component mixture (resinous exudate and waxy coating of Heliotropium stenophyllum. The quantitative analysis of the flavonoids was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography of samples collected monthly over a whole year. The results showed an increase in the spring and summer yield of surface components and a decrease during the winter. Although the sum of pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin did not follow a pattern related with hydric stress, UV radiation or high temperature during the year, a relationship between pinocembrin and 3-O-methylgalangin was found. On average during the months of September to August, excluding March, the amount of pinocembrin decreased wile the amount of 3-O-methylgalangin increased. The results suggest that the above compounds may play different ecophysiological functions during plant development and are consistent with the biosynthetic relationship between the two compounds.

BRENDA MODAK

2011-01-01

212

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto / Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objeti [...] vou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06) foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária), em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura. Abstract in english Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and i [...] ts effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06) were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy). At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Santos, J.B.; Ferreira, F.A.; Oliveira, J.A.; Bentivenha, S.; Machado, A.F.L..

213

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

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Full Text Available Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06 foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária, em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura.Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06 were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy. At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

L.D. Tuffi Santos

2008-06-01

214

Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones / Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com [...] radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 ?Ci. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%), não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos. Abstract in english To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531), 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 ?Ci of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after he [...] rbicide application - HAA. After 8 HAA, 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

Machado, A.F.L.; Ferreira, L.R.; Santos, L.D.T.; Santos, J.B.; Ferreira, F.A.; Viana, R.G..

215

Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 ?Ci. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%, não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos.To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531, 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 ?Ci of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after herbicide application - HAA. After 8 HAA, 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

A.F.L. Machado

2009-01-01

216

Comparative analysis of expert and machine-learning methods for classification of body cavity effusions in companion animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rule-based expert system using CLIPS programming language was created to classify body cavity effusions as transudates, modified transudates, exudates, chylous, and hemorrhagic effusions. The diagnostic accuracy of the rule-based system was compared with that produced by 2 machine-learning methods: Rosetta, a rough sets algorithm and RIPPER, a rule-induction method. Results of 508 body cavity fluid analyses (canine, feline, equine) obtained from the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital computerized patient database were used to test CLIPS and to test and train RIPPER and Rosetta. The CLIPS system, using 17 rules, achieved an accuracy of 93.5% compared with pathologist consensus diagnoses. Rosetta accurately classified 91% of effusions by using 5,479 rules. RIPPER achieved the greatest accuracy (95.5%) using only 10 rules. When the original rules of the CLIPS application were replaced with those of RIPPER, the accuracy rates were identical. These results suggest that both rule-based expert systems and machine-learning methods hold promise for the preliminary classification of body fluids in the clinical laboratory. PMID:15825497

Hotz, Christine S; Templeton, Steven J; Christopher, Mary M

2005-03-01

217

An Active Factor from Tomato Root Exudates Plays an Important Role in Efficient Establishment of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis  

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Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi) mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF) that is present in the root exudates of wi...

Sun, Shubin; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Lingling; Liao, Dehua; Gu, Mian; Ren, Lixuan; Kapulnik, Yoram; Xu, Guohua

2012-01-01

218

2-O-(3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol and 2-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)glycerol and their 1-O-acetyl derivatives from the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical investigation of the glandular trichome exudate of Verbascum blattaria f. erubescens (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation of four new glycerides, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 1-O-acetyl-2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-sn-glycerol, 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]glycerol and 2-O-[(R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]glycerol. Their structures, including the configurations at the stereogenic centres, were elucidated from spectral evidence and chemical transformations. PMID:23163403

Okawa, Akiko; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

2013-08-01

219

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results ...

Fan Ben; Carvalhais Lilia C; Becker Anke; Fedoseyenko Dmitri; von Wirén Nicolaus; Borriss Rainer

2012-01-01

220

Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum  

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Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidia...

Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Localization of Hard Exudates in Retinal Fundus Image by Mathematical Morphology Operations  

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Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Detection of hard exudates is an important step for early diagnosis in eye diseases such as Macular Edema(ME. If hard exudates were segmented precisely, laser treatments can be applied more effective for patients by surgeons. The possibility of blindness is very high when the hard exudates are very close to Macula region or Optic disc. Therefore, fast and accurate segmentation is one of the most important factors in elimination of hard exudates. In this paper, a method is proposed for segmentation of hard exudates in retinal color image based on morphological operation. In the proposed method, the retinal images preprocessed and optic disc and the blood vessels identified primarily and then they eliminate from the image. Finally, the Hard Exudates (HEs are segmented by mixture of morphological operation such as Top-hat, Bottom-hat and reconstruction operations. The proposed method was tested on DIARETDB1 database and 78.28% of sensitivity was obtained. Comparing to other recent automatic method available in the literature, our proposed method can obtain acceptable exudates detection result in term of sensitivity.

Hamidreza Pourreza

2012-11-01

222

Trichoderma spp. Improve Growth of Arabidopsis Seedlings Under Salt Stress Through Enhanced Root Development, Osmolite Production, and Na(+) Elimination Through Root Exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na(+) through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress. PMID:24502519

Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

2014-06-01

223

A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton  

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Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

Mark R. Viant

2013-10-01

224

Prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha, 6-keto-F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 levels in carrageenin-induced inflammatory exudates in the rat air-pouch granuloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levels of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, PGI2 (measured as 6-keto-PGF1 alpha), and thromboxane B2 were determined in rat inflammatory excuates induced 1, 3, and 7 days after carrageenin injection into air-pouch granuloma. The PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels found in the exudate could not account for the differences in PGE2-like activity as measured by biologic and serologic methods. PMID:583576

Ohuchi, K; Levine, L; Sato, H; Tsurufuji, S

1979-04-01

225

Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001. Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001. Resistance to penicillin (54-75%) streptomycin (33-53%) and tetracycline (21-47%) remained relatively constant over the time investigated. All 48 penicillin resistant isolates examined contained the blaZ gene and 40 (85%) of the streptomycin resistant isolates the aadE gene. It was not possible to detect any streptogramin resistance gene in four streptogramin resistant isolates. Of the 55 erythromycin resistant isolates examined, five contained erm(A), 13 erm(B), 35 erm

Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

2002-01-01

226

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

227

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2004-12-01

228

DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for {gamma}-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than {gamma}-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author).

Nishi, Yoshisuke (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama (Japan). Central Research Inst.); Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Hatano, Kanagawa (Japan). Toxicology Research Lab.); Inui, Naomichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Labs.)

1990-01-01

229

DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60Co ?-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for ?-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than ?-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

1990-01-01

230

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of oxytetracycline were investigated, when administered both alone and in the presence of carprofen, in healthy calves. The study comprised a four treatment, four sequences, and four period cross-over design and used a tissue cage model, which permitted the collection of serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). There were no clinically relevant differences in the PK profile of oxytetracycline when administered alone and when administered with carprofen. PK-PD integration was undertaken for a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytic (A1 76/1), by correlating in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill data with in vivo PK data obtained in the cross-over study. Based on in vitro susceptibility in cation adjusted Mueller Hinton Broth (CAMHB) and in vivo determined PK variables, ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) to MIC and time for which concentration exceeded MIC (T>MIC) were determined. The CAMHB MIC data satisfied integrated PK/PD relationships predicted to achieve efficacy for approximately 48 h after dosing; mean values for serum were 5.13 (Cmax/MIC), 49.3 h (T>MIC) and 126.6 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). Similar findings were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen, with PK-PD indices based on MIC determined in CAMHB. However, PK-PD integration of data, based on oxytetracycline MICs determined in the biological fluids, serum, exudate and transudate, suggest that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against the M. haemolytica strain A1 76/1; mean values for serum were 0.277 (Cmax/MIC), 0 h (T>MIC) and 6.84 h (AUC(96h)/MIC). The data suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of oxytetracycline may depend, at least in part, on actions other than direct inhibition of bacterial growth. PMID:23415880

Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

2013-06-01

231

Root Exudate-Induced Promoter Activity in Pseudomonas fluorescens Mutants in the Wheat Rhizosphere  

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Tn5-B20 (lacZ as reporter gene) transcriptional fusion mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens R2f were screened for their response to wheat root exudate. Several mutants showed (beta)-galactosidase activity under the influence of wheat root exudate. In one such mutant, RIWE8, gene expression was specifically induced by proline but not by 125 other substrates. This mutant also showed reporter gene induction, albeit to a lesser extent, by exudate of maize and grass roots but not by that of clover r...

Overbeek, L. S.; Elsas, J. D.

1995-01-01

232

Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens for HIV testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children in Chimanimani district, Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of oral mucosal transudate (OMT) specimens for HIV testing in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted asThe overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV part of a community-based behavioura [...] l and HIV sero-status survey testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis of adults and children in the Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe. by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV Dried blood spot (DBS) and OMT samples were collected from testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV children aged between 2 and 14 years, inclusive. Both samples were prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and tested for HIV using the Vironostika Uniform II plus O kits. The oral hygiene could have influenced the results. main study outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of OMT samples, with DBS as the gold-standard specimen. RESULTS: Paired DBS and OMT specimens were available from 1 274 (94.4%) of the 1 350 children enrolled. Using the DBS, HIV prevalence was 3.2%. Overall sensitivity of OMT was 48.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.3 - 64.5), and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI 97.7 - 99.1). CONCLUSION: The overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and oral hygiene could have influenced the results.

Mashange, Wilson; Gwini, Stella May; Mahati, Stanford T; Buzuzi, Stephen S; Mutambanengwe, Chenjerai K; Munyati, Shungu; Chandiwana, Brian; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Gomo, Exnevia.

233

Presence of hepcidin-25 in biological fluids: Bile, ascitic and pleural fluids  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine body fluids such as ascitic fluid (AF, saliva, bile and pleural effusions for the presence of hepcidin using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA.METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 25 healthy volunteers (mean age: 36 ± 11.9 years, 11 males, 14 females. In addition bile was obtained from 12 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (mean age: 66.9 ± 16.7 years, M:F = 5:7. Saliva was collected from 17 healthy volunteers (mean age: 35 ± 9.9 years, M:F = 8:9. Pleural and AF were collected from 11 and 16 patients [(mean age: 72 ± 20.5 years, M:F = 7:4 and (mean age: 67.32 ± 15.2 years, M:F = 12:4], respectively. All biological fluid samples (serum, exudative and transudative fluids were tested for the presence of hepcidin-25 molecule using RIA.RESULTS: Hepcidin-25 was detected in all biological fluids tested. The mean ± SD hepcidin-25 in serum was 15.68 ± 15.7 ng/mL, bile 7.37 ± 7.4 ng/mL, saliva 3.4 ± 2.8 ng/mL, exudative fluid 65.64 ± 96.82 ng/mL and transudative fluid 14.1 ± 17.8 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: We provide clear evidence that hepcidin-25 is present in bile, saliva, pleural and ascitic fluids. Hepcidin is likely to play a role here in innate immunity.

Jayantha Arnold, Arvind Sangwaiya, Vijay Manglam, Frank Geoghegan, Mark Thursz, Mark Busbridge

2010-05-01

234

Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images Using Support Vector Machine  

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Full Text Available Support vector machine (SVM has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification. In this paper, we present a simple and effective method of detect and classify hard exudates. Automatic detection of hard exudates from retinal images is worth-studying problem since hard exudates are associated with diabetic retinopathy and have been found to be one of the most prevalent earliest signs of retinopathy. The algorithm is based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT analysis and SVM makes use of color information to perform the classification of retinal exudates. We prospectively assessed the algorithm performance using a database containing 1200 retinal images with variable color, brightness, and quality. Results of the proposed system can achieve a diagnostic accuracy with 97.0% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity for the identification of images containing any evidence of retinopathy.

R. F. Mansour

2013-07-01

235

The selenium deficiency disease exudative diathesis in chicks is associated with downregulation of seven common selenoprotein genes in liver and muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental ?-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing ?-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo. PMID:21795426

Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

2011-09-01

236

The Selenium Deficiency Disease Exudative Diathesis in Chicks Is Associated with Downregulation of Seven Common Selenoprotein Genes in Liver and Muscle123  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast-growing broiler chicks are susceptible to Se deficiency diseases including exudative diathesis (ED). Our objective was to determine if ED could be induced by feeding a current, practical diet and if the incidence was related to selenogenome expression in liver and muscle of chicks. Four groups of day-old broiler chicks (n = 60/group) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (BD; 14 ?g Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Sichuan, China and not supplemented with Se or vitamin E), the BD and all-rac-?-tocopheryl acetate at 50 mg/kg and Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.3 mg/kg, or both of these nutrients for 6 wk. A high incidence of ED and mortality of chicks were induced by the BD. The incidences and mortality were completely prevented by supplemental dietary Se but were only partially decreased by supplemental ?-tocopherol acetate. Dietary Se deficiency decreased (P Selo, and Selk) in muscle and liver. Whereas supplementing ?-tocopherol acetate enhanced (P < 0.05) only the muscle Sepx1 mRNA level, it actually decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic Gpx1, Seli, Txnrd1, and Txnrd2 mRNA levels. In conclusion, dietary Se protected chicks from the Se deficiency disease ED, probably by upregulating selenoprotein genes coding for oxidation- and/or lesion-protective proteins. The protection by vitamin E might be mediated via selenoproteins not assayed in this study and/or Se-independent mechanisms. The inverse relationship between hepatic expression of 4 redox-related selenoprotein genes and vitamin E status revealed a novel interaction between Se and vitamin E in vivo.

Huang, Jia-Qiang; Li, Dai-Lin; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Lv-Hui; Xia, Xin-Jie; Wang, Kang-Ning; Luo, Xugang; Lei, Xin Gen

2011-01-01

237

Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

Shraddha Tripathi

2013-06-01

238

Exudative Inflammatory Eye Response in Cataract Surgery: Current View on the Problem  

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Full Text Available There has been analyzed one of the most frequent and serious complications of cataract surgery — exudative inflammatory response (EIR of eye. There has been presented current view on etiopathogenesis of the condition, classifications and the description of clinical presentation of various EIR types have been given. Known techniques of prognosis and prevention of postoperative exudative uveites have been presented. There have been given present methods of complex treatment of eye EIR: drug treatment, laser therapy and surgery.

N.Y. Belousova

2011-06-01

239

Root exudates: the hidden part of plant defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of root exudates as belowground defense substances has long been underestimated, presumably due to being buried out of sight. Nevertheless, this chapter of root biology has been progressively addressed within the past decade through the characterization of novel constitutively secreted and inducible phytochemicals that directly repel, inhibit, or kill pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere. In addition, the complex transport machinery involved in their export has been considerably unraveled. It has become evident that the profile of defense root exudates is not only diverse in its composition, but also strikingly dynamic. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the nature and regulation of root-secreted defense compounds and the role of transport proteins in modulating their release. PMID:24332225

Baetz, Ulrike; Martinoia, Enrico

2014-02-01

240

Evaluation of allelopathic potential of Helianthus tuberosus L. root exudates  

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Allelopathy has been defined as the ability of a plant to inhibit or stimulate the growth of another plant through the release of chemicals into the environment by volatilisation, leaching, plant residues decomposition, and root exudation. Several studies have shown that Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke), a species belonging to the Asteraceae family can exhibit allelopathic activity. Experiments conducted with leaf extracts and degradation of plant residues into the soil have poin...

Ferrero, Aldo; Tesio, Franco; Vidotto, Francesco

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Transient Increased Exudation after Photodynamic Therapy of Intraocular Tumors  

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To report transient increased exudation after photodynamic therapy (PDT) of three different intraocular tumors (retinal hemangioblastoma, retinal astrocytoma, amelanotic choroidal melanoma). PDT with verteporfin (6 mg/m2 body surface area) was delivered at a dose of 50 J/cm2 and intensity of 600 mW/cm2 over 83 s. All patients experienced decreased vision within a few days following PDT. Optical coherence tomography showed development of subfoveal fluid in all cases and noncystoid intraretinal...

Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Carol L.; Shields, Jerry A.

2013-01-01

242

The second eye of Japanese patients with unilateral exudative age related macular degeneration  

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AIM—To clarify the incidence of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and predisposing findings for development of CNV in the second eye of Japanese patients with unilateral exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD).?METHODS—The second eyes of unilaterally affected patients with exudative (neovascular) AMD treated in our clinic during the past 10 years (1988-97) were carefully followed up for more than a year. Evidence of CNV was confirmed by fluorescein and indocyanine green a...

2000-01-01

243

Application of an indirect immunofluorescence test for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory exudates.  

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We prepared polyclonal antibody specific to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and examined the conditions influencing the ability of an indirect immunofluorescence test to detect the specific antigen in respiratory exudates. The antibody did not cross-react with normal human serum or with respiratory exudates from 10 healthy persons. Cross-reactivity of the antibody with species of mycoplasmas other than M. genitalium was fully diminished when absorbed with horse serum and yeast extract, components of th...

Hirai, Y.; Shiode, J.; Masayoshi, T.; Kanemasa, Y.

1991-01-01

244

A Chemo Attractant in Onion Root Exudates Recognized by Ditylenchus dipsaci in Laboratory Bioassay.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A quantitative bioassay that translates preferences of axenically cultured and field population of Ditylenchus dipsaci, observed in vitro, into relative attractiveness of sterile root exudates preparations and their components is described. Onion (Allium cepa cv. White Lisbon) root exudates (ORE) are consistently and significantly much more attractive than the buffer control in all these assays. Exudates from oat cv. Lodi, mustard cv. Albatross and tomato cv. Rehovot 13 are significantly more attractive than the buffer but less attractive than ORE; Arabidopsis sp. cv. Landsberg erecta, oil seed rape cv. Cetes and wheat cv. Bet Hashita are as attractive as the buffer, but canary grass and clover exudates are less attractive than the buffer and, therefore, are classified as repellent. No significant differences in relative attractiveness were detected among exudates from other two cultivars of onion (Texas Grano 502 and Granex Hybrid) and one cultivar of leek (Large American Flag), but exudates from one onion (cv. Evergreen Long White Bunching) and one leek (cv. Broad London) were less attractive than ORE. Relative attractiveness is linear in relation to dilution exponent and therefore log-linear in relation to ORE concentration. Host (onion) penetration study reveals that penetration preferences by D. dipsaci follow the same pattern as those predicted by relative attractiveness coefficients estimated in the bio-assays. Preliminary characterization of the chemo attractant from ORE, using the behavioral bioassay, demonstrated that it was stable to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, nonvolatile and water soluble with a molecular mass <700 kDa. PMID:18944166

Spiegel, Y; Burrows, P M; Bar-Eyal, M

2003-01-01

245

A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

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Full Text Available Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneumonia, and its intraalveolar lesions were compared between M. pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia containing fibrin (BOOP. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody and anti-pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. In pathologic findings, more fibrin deposits in intaalveolar lesions were observed in M. pneumonia than in BOOP. In intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, a larger amount of nuclear debris, more neutrophils, and more erythrocytes were noted. Myofibroblasts were observed in the organization of BOOP, while in the intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, myofibroblasts were not observed. These results suggest that M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates responds well to corticosteroid and its intraalveolar lesions apparently differed from those in BOOP.

Yoshinouchi T

2002-04-01

246

Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)  

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Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analyse...

Rodriguez-Medina Caren; Atkins Craig A; Mann Anthea J; Jordan Megan E; Mc, Smith Penelope

2011-01-01

247

Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion with pleural biopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion by histopathological examination of pleural biopsy in patients with suspected tuberculous or malignant pleural effusion. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pulmonology Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi for two years 1999-2000. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4 biopsy specimens were obtained in each patient which were examined histopathologically. Patients in whom a definite diagnosis was not possible were further investigated with repeat pleural biopsy, sputum examinations, bronchoscopy etc. Results definite histopathological diagnosis with pleural biopsy was possible in 59 (49.16% patients, including 13 diagnosed on repeat pleural biopsy. Two commonest diagnoses made were tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma, 64.40% and 13.55% respectively. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation of pleural biopsy specimens can lead to diagnosis in 49.16% patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. (author)

2002-02-01

248

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson (common name: sucuba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans, leaf methanol extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and bark methanol extracts inhibited B. subtilis. Active extracts inhibited the ATCC and clinical strains. Polar antifungal and antibacterial principles in latex and extracts are thought to be responsible for the inhibition.

Bianca Jorge Sequeira

2009-07-01

249

The predictive value of subjective symptoms and clinical signs for the presence of treatment-requiring exudative age-related macular degeneration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has increased the referral rates of AMD patients with visual symptoms to treating centres considerably. However, a large proportion of the referred patients do not qualify for treatment implying that considerable resources could be saved if these patients could be identified on the basis of the clinical data available in the referring nonspecialized setting.

Hessellund, Anders; Larsen, Dorte Ancher

2012-01-01

250

In situ measurements of root exudation in three hardwood species in southern Indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudation - the release of soluble organic compounds to soil - has long been considered a black box in ecology owing to methodological difficulties associated with measuring this flux in situ. This knowledge gap is significant given recent findings that suggest exudate inputs are appreciable in magnitude (2-5% of net primary production) and are coupled to microbial activities, nutrient release and soil organic matter decomposition. We developed a novel experimental system for collecting exudates from intact roots of field-grown trees using cuvettes filled with sterile glass beads. We measured root exudation for three tree species in ~80 year old mixed hardwood forest in south central Indiana, USA in the summer of 2012. Exudation rates varied from 0 to 1413 ug C/g root/day, and differed by sampling date and among trees species. Overall, rates were greater in early relative to late July, and greater in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and white oak (Quercus alba) relative to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Across all species, exudation rates were correlated with root mass, indicating that greater allocation to roots likely increases the amount of C available to fuel soil microbial activity. Collectively, the results of this study should enable us to develop improved model parameterizations of the C costs associated with nutrient acquisition, an important feedback for predicting the role of vegetation in mediating climate change.

O'Connor, D. A.; Brzostek, E. R.; Fisher, J. B.; Phillips, R.

2012-12-01

251

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson (common name: sucuba)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba) that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans,...

Bianca Jorge Sequeira; Marcos Jose Salgado Vital; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Isabel Costa Pararols; Glaucia Socorro Barros Caúper

2009-01-01

252

IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for identification of exudates in low-resolution retinal image. In this study a fuzzy mathematical morphology based on fuzzy logical operator and mathematical morphology method is presented. The color retinal image are segmented by using fuzzy logical operator following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. Afterward, a segmentation using mathematical morphology method was applied in this step. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the methods can achieve good performance even on low-resolution retinal images. Respect to the experimental results, the results obtained with fuzzy mathematical morphology better than the ones obtained with the fuzzy logical operator only method.

Kittipol Wisaeng

2014-01-01

253

Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants. PMID:23860230

Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

2013-09-01

254

Actinide (Pu, U) interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: Fundamental chemistry and effects on environmental behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the environmental behavior of metals we must consider a tremendous range of phenomena, from simple individual reactions, such as ligand complexation and solubility equilibria, to quite complicated and collective processes, such as metal-mineral-microbial interactions. Because of pressing contamination problems at DOE sites and the paucity of relevant actinide chemistry knowledge, research is needed in this entire range of science. The determination and evaluation of key thermodynamic data for actinide species and the development of geochemical, hydrological, and environmental transport models are progressing. In contrast, we know almost nothing about how actinides interact with microorganisms. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, reduce, oxidize, solubilize, or precipitate actinides, thereby affecting their speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration. These effects are due to both direct and indirect interactions, such as sorption to the cell wall and reaction with microbial byproducts, respectively. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions, both to develop this area of fundamental research and to determine how the interactions may be exploited to affect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts

2000-07-07

255

Antinociceptive and anti-exudative synergism between dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of inflammatory pain in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preclinical studies have demonstrated antinociceptive synergism between dexketoprofen (DEX) and tramadol (TRM) in acute animal models of nociception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the type of interaction between DEX and TRM in a chronic musculoskeletal pain model in mice, which fairly replicates the characteristics of chronic osteoarticular pain in humans. Inflammation was induced by a subplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male CF1 mice. Nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate, the nocifensive spontaneous behavior and the acetone tests, while plasma extravasation (PE) was assessed with Evan's blue. We used the following experimental groups: control (no inflammation), acute (1 day after CFA injection), and chronic inflammation (7 days after CFA). Dose-response curves for DEX and TRM, individually and combined in a 1 : 1 proportion based on their potency were obtained, and the doses that produced a 50% inhibition calculated. The isobolographic analysis revealed that in all groups of study (no inflammation, acute, and chronic inflammation), the combination of DEX : TRM was synergistic, for both the inhibition of nociception and the PE. The results suggest that the DEX : TRM (1 : 1) combination could be useful in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal pains in humans; in addition, the synergistic interaction between the drugs observed both during acute and chronic inflammation suggests that less doses would be required of each drug to obtain effective analgesia. PMID:22081874

Miranda, Hugo F; Romero, Maria Asunción; Puig, Margarita M

2012-06-01

256

Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates  

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The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional re...

Monika Janczarek; Anna Skorupska

2011-01-01

257

Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. Conditions were selected under which introduction of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with P. fluorescens WCS365 decreased the percentage of diseased plants from 96 to 7%. This is a much better disease control level than was observed in potting soil. Analysis of root exudate revealed that the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici did not alter the total amount of organic acids, but that the amount of citric acid decreased and that of succinic acid increased compared with the nontreated control. In contrast, in the presence of the P. fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, the total amount of organic acid increased, mainly due to a strong increase of the amount of citric acid, whereas the amount of succinic acid decreased dramatically. Under biocontrol conditions, when both microbes are present, the content of succinic acid decreased and the level of citric acid was similar to that in the nontreated control. The amount of sugar was approximately half that of the control sample when either one of the microbes was present alone or when both were present. Analysis of the interactions between the two microbes grown together in sterile tomato root exudate showed that WCS365 inhibited multiplication of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, whereas the fungus did not affect the number of CFU of the bacterium. PMID:17022176

Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

2006-10-01

258

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 synergistically induce the fungicidal activity of murine peritoneal exudate cells against Cryptococcus neoformans through production of gamma interferon by natural killer cells.  

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We examined the ability of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 to induce the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide (NO) by murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) and to stimulate the growth-inhibitory activity of these cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. PEC produced IFN-gamma and NO when stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 but little or no IFN-gamma or NO when either cytokine was used alone. PEC anticryptococcal activity was mediated by IFN-gamma and NO prod...

Zhang, T.; Kawakami, K.; Qureshi, M. H.; Okamura, H.; Kurimoto, M.; Saito, A.

1997-01-01

259

Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?  

Science.gov (United States)

The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally. PMID:24438182

George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

2014-07-01

260

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825960)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

 
 
 
 
261

Microbial processes and community composition in the rhizosphere of European beech – The influence of plant C exudates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant roots strongly influence C and N availability in the rhizosphere via rhizodeposition and uptake of nutrients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of resource availability on microbial processes and community structure in the rhizosphere. We analyzed C and N availability, as well as microbial processes and microbial community composition in rhizosphere soil of European beech and compared it to the bulk soil. Additionally, we performed a girdling experiment in order to disrupt ro...

Koranda, Marianne; Schnecker, Jo?rg; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Stange, Claus Florian; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

2011-01-01

262

A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants  

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Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in e...

Bongard, Cindy

2012-01-01

263

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Diz, Mariângela S. S.; Carvalho, André O.; Gomes, Valdirene M..

264

Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis. PMID:24722883

Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

2014-04-01

265

Effect of Lidocaine- and Prilocaine-Based Topical Anesthetics on the Inflammatory Exudates in Subcutaneous Tissue of Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were ad...

2012-01-01

266

[In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

2009-08-15

267

Importance of CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 in Alveolar Neutrophil and Exudate Macrophage Recruitment in Response to Pneumococcal Lung Infection?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustained neutrophilic infiltration is known to contribute to organ damage, such as acute lung injury. CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is the major receptor regulating inflammatory neutrophil recruitment in acute and chronic inflamed tissues. Whether or not the abundant neutrophil recruitment observed in severe pneumonia is essential for protective immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections is incompletely defined. Here we show that CXCR2 deficiency severely perturbs the recruitmen...

2010-01-01

268

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat in female lineage broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one or both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+, while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-. The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105 and HAL+ (n=13 birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+ e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-. Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105 e HAL+ (n=13 em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b* foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

269

The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 ?m nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

2004-02-01

270

Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias

2009-01-01

271

[Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].  

Science.gov (United States)

Allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. The results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. Allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum in continuous cropping soybean was distinctly larger than that in rotation soybean, and the difference reached significant level under their low concentration. Allelopathic promotion of high concentration of root exudates on the growth of Fusarium semitectum was smaller than that of low concentration of root exudates, and the difference reached significant level in continuous cropping soybean. Allelopathic inhibition of high concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid (L5 and B5) on the growth of Fusarium semitectum. Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum, especially Fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level compared with the control. However, allelopathic promotion of low concentration of phthalic acid and propanedioic acid on the growth of Fusarium semitectum, Gliocladium roseum and Fusarium oxysporum partly reached significant level. PMID:12216402

Ju, Huiyan; Han, Limei; Wang, Shuqi; Cong, Dengli

2002-06-01

272

[Allelopathy of root exudates from two genotypes soybeans on root pathogenic fungi].  

Science.gov (United States)

With biological simulation experiment and chemical analysis, this paper studied the allelopathy of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates from two genotypes soybeans (9536 and Jilin 30) on the pathogenic fungi of root rot. The results showed that the water soluble carbohydrates in the root exudates from test soybeans significantly promoted the growth of Fusarium oxysporium and Fusarium semitectum at low concentrations and inhibited their growth at high concentrations, but had no evident influence on Gliocladium roseum. The water soluble amino acids from the root exudates demonstrated different actions, i. e., at middle and high concentrations, those from 9536 significantly inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum, while those from Jilin 30 mostly promoted their growth. The organic acids from the root exudates of 9536 and Jilin 30 significantly inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium semitectum and Gliocladium roseum. It's suggested that there existed interactions between the root exudates of the two genotypes soybeans and the pathogenic fungi of root rot. Different genotypes of soybean may have different allelopathy on pathogenic fungi of root rot. PMID:15852974

Han, Limei; Ju, Huiyan; Yang, Zhenming

2005-01-01

273

Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter

2005-01-01

274

Automatic Detection of Exudates in Diabetic Retinopathy Images  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is globally the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. Retinal image is essential and crucial for ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Many of technique can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that the retinal images in Thailand are low-quality images. The existing algorithm cannot detect low-quality image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for detection of exudates in low quality retinal image. Approach: In this study, we presented a new method towards the development for detecting exudates pathologies of DR. The color retinal images are segmented using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering and morphological methods and following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, remove noise and color space selection. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the algorithm can achieve good performance even on low-quality retinal images. Result/Conclusion: The result shows that accuracy values increase when the FCM clustering is combined with morphological methods techniques. If any applications need to detect maximum number of exudates pixels or require execution speed, the FCM clustering technique could be used in isolation. However, if the applications require higher accuracy, the FCM clustering combined with morphological methods should be chosen. This system intends to help ophthalmologists in DR screening process to detect symptoms faster and more easily. This is not a final result application but it can be a preliminary diagnosis tool or decision support system for ophthalmologists. Human ophthalmologists are still needed for the cases where detection results are not very obvious.

Ekkarat Pothiruk

2012-01-01

275

Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth  

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Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to protect the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1. IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

H Schalchli

2012-01-01

276

De novo biosynthesis of defense root exudates in response to Fusarium attack in barley.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary *Despite recent advances in elucidation of natural products in root exudates, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the ecological significance of products in the rhizosphere. *Here, we investigated the potential of barley (Hordeum vulgare) to secrete defense root exudates when challenged by the soilborne pathogen Fusarium graminearum. *Liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (LC-DAD) was used to profile induced small-molecular-weight exudates. Thus, t-cinnamic, p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acids were assigned to plant metabolism and were induced within 2 d after Fusarium inoculation. Biological tests demonstrated the ability of those induced root exudates to inhibit the germination of F. graminearum macroconidia. In vivo labeling experiments with (13)CO(2) revealed that the secreted t-cinnamic acid was synthesized de novo within 2 d of fungal infection. Simultaneously to its root exudation, t-cinnamic acid was accumulated in the roots. Microscopic analysis showed that nonlignin cell wall phenolics were induced not only in necrosed zones but in all root tissues. *Results suggest that barley plants under attack respond by de novo biosynthesis and secretion of compounds with antimicrobial functions that may mediate natural disease resistance. PMID:19878462

Lanoue, Arnaud; Burlat, Vincent; Henkes, Gunnar J; Koch, Imke; Schurr, Ulrich; Röse, Ursula S R

2010-01-01

277

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

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Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

E Al-Sherif

2013-03-01

278

Exudative vasculopathy in a child with Leber congenital amaurosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe retinal dystrophy that causes blindness or severe visual impairment, usually before the age of 1 year. We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with Leber congenital amaurosis who developed an exudative vasculopathy. She was successfully treated with cryotherapy and argon green laser. To our knowledge, only 4 cases of this condition in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis have been reported previously. This phenotype may be related to c.2991+1655A>G (p.Cys998X) mutations in the CEP290 gene. PMID:24767827

Moloney, Thomas P; Patel, Chirag; Gole, Glen A

2014-06-01

279

Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy  

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Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

Feroui Amel

2012-05-01

280

Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: role of root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. PMID:19497650

Quartacci, Mike F; Irtelli, Barbara; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

282

Yield of abrams needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pleural effusion is the abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space resulting from excessive fluid production or decreased absorption and it is one of the most common clinical conditions that we come across in pulmonology clinics and in hospitals. The objective of prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of Abrams Needle Biopsy in Exudative Pleural Effusion The study was performed at the Department of Pulmonology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad over a period of 1 year, i.e., January 2008 to December 2008. Sixty-three patients of either sex and all ages with exudative pleural effusion, on whom Abrams Needle Biopsy was performed were included in the study. Minimum of four specimens from each patient were taken and histopathology done. Out of 63 patients, histopathology revealed the cause in 60 (95%) cases. Tuberculosis, malignancy and rheumatoid pleurisy were confirmed in 34, 24, and 2 cases respectively. Specimens of 3 patients did not reveal any result and showed non-specific inflammation and were further investigated accordingly. The diagnostic yield of Biopsy was 95%. Pleural biopsy is still a reliable and valuable investigation in diagnosing pleural effusion, provided that adequate pleural specimen is taken. (author)

2009-01-01

283

Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

2014-01-01

284

Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency abo...

Buchweishaija, J.; Mhinzi, G. S.

2008-01-01

285

Automatic Exudate Detection from Non-dilated Diabetic Retinopathy Retinal Images Using Fuzzy C-means Clustering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early detection can potentially reduce the risk of blindness. An automatic method to detect exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils using a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering is proposed. Contrast enhancement preprocessing is applied before four features, namely intensity, standard deviation on intensity, hue and a number of edge pixels, are extracted to supply as input parameters to coarse se...

2009-01-01

286

Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

Kooren Joel A

2011-09-01

287

Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration  

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Abstract Background: To investigate the ability of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Fourteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed choroidal neovasularization underwent Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter metamorphopsia test (main outcome measures), 1 hour before (baseline) and 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after one intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (0...

2010-01-01

288

Exudative pericarditis in a pregnant woman as the first sign of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report presents a 25 year-old pregnant female diagnosed with exudative pericarditis which was the first sign of cardiac lymphoma. Such a manifestation of this disease is rare and it represents a significant diagnostic and therapeutic problem in pregnant women. PMID:21850629

Ka?mierczak, Ewa; Joks, Monika; Straburzy?ska, Ewa; Grajek, Stefan; Jab?ecka, Anna; Komarnicki, Mieczys?aw; Gwizda?a, Adrian

2011-01-01

289

Exudation of allelopathic substances in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates of the common buckwheat, especially phenolic compounds, were studied. Their contents, both in the soil during the growing season and in agar medium during germination, were determined by HPLC and GC-MS. The allelopathic activity of the soil from a buckwheat stand was evaluated, as well. Palmitic acid, squalene, epicatechin, vitexin, a gallic acid derivative, and a quercetin derivative were the main compounds of the agar medium. In the soil, palmitic acid methyl ester, vanillic acid, rutin, a gallic acid derivative, and a 4-hydroxyacetophenone derivative were identified. The effects of vitexin, squalene, epicatechin, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, and vanillic and gallic acids were tested on eight plant species. Inhibitive effects were observed in the cases of 4-hydroxyacetophenone and vanillic and gallic acids. Comparisons of the identified compounds and inhibitive effects of soil extracts indicated that palmitic acid and the gallic acid derivative probably have an important function in the allelopathic root response of buckwheat. PMID:17630762

Kalinova, Jana; Vrchotova, Nadezda; Triska, Jan

2007-08-01

290

Transient Increased Exudation after Photodynamic Therapy of Intraocular Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

To report transient increased exudation after photodynamic therapy (PDT) of three different intraocular tumors (retinal hemangioblastoma, retinal astrocytoma, amelanotic choroidal melanoma). PDT with verteporfin (6 mg/m2 body surface area) was delivered at a dose of 50 J/cm2 and intensity of 600 mW/cm2 over 83 s. All patients experienced decreased vision within a few days following PDT. Optical coherence tomography showed development of subfoveal fluid in all cases and noncystoid intraretinal edema in the eye with juxtapapillary retinal hemangioblastoma. There was complete absorption of retinal/subretinal fluid with improvement of visual acuity to 20/20 in all cases between 3 weeks to 4 months after PDT.

Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Carol L.; Shields, Jerry A.

2013-01-01

291

Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy: A Variant of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) in an elderly patient. Case Report A 74-year-old Caucasian woman, with a 20-year history of a stable choroidal nevus in her right eye, was referred for evaluation of two small hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) affecting the temporal peripheral fundus of the same eye. Nine months later, the lesions became larger and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vascular changes corresponding to the location of the ophthalmoscopically visible PEDs. Despite one session of verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the lesions continued to enlarge eventually resulting in the development of a large hemorrhagic PED, which failed to respond to two subsequent injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. The final ophthalmoscopic appearance of the large hemorrhagic PED was typical of PEHCR. Conclusion This case suggests that polypoidal choroidal vascular changes similar to that seen in our patient may underlie the development of PEHCR in some cases.

Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Carol L.; Shields, Jerry A.

2013-01-01

292

Parapneumonic empyema diagnosed by chest radiograph and computed tomography  

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Pleural effusion is commonly seen associated with pneumonia. When this progresses to empyema, directed therapy is frequently required. Chest radiographic and computed tomography findings can help distinguish empyema from a transudative pleural effusion.

Ning Jin; John Paul Brady; Widlus, David M.

2013-01-01

293

Parapneumonic empyema diagnosed by chest radiograph and computed tomography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pleural effusion is commonly seen associated with pneumonia. When this progresses to empyema, directed therapy is frequently required. Chest radiographic and computed tomography findings can help distinguish empyema from a transudative pleural effusion.

David M. Widlus

2013-04-01

294

Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. PMID:22031568

Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

2011-01-01

295

Transcriptomic analysis of responses to exudates reveal genes required for rhizosphere competence of the endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endophytic colonization is a very complex process which is not yet completely understood. Molecules exuded by the plants may act as signals which influence the ability of the microbe to colonize the host or survive in the rhizosphere. Here we used the whole genome microarray approach to investigate the response of the diazotrophic model endophyte, Azoarcus sp. strain BH72, to exudates of O. sativa cv. Nipponbare in order to identify differentially regulated genes. On exposure to exudates, an overall expression of 4.4% of the 3992 protein coding genes of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 was altered, out of which 2.4% was upregulated and 2.0% was downregulated. Genes with modulated expression included a few whose involvement in plant-microbe interaction had already been established, whereas a large fraction comprised of genes encoding proteins with putative or unknown functions. Mutational analysis of several differentially regulated genes like those encoding a minor pilin PilX, signal transduction proteins containing GGDEF domains and a serine-threonine kinase as a putative component of the type IV secretion system (T6SS), revealed their role in host colonization. Our data suggest that strain BH72 may be primed for the endophytic lifestyle by exudates, as the expression of bacterial genes relevant for endophytic colonization of roots is induced by root exudates. PMID:22616609

Shidore, Teja; Dinse, Theresa; Öhrlein, Johannes; Becker, Anke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

2012-10-01

296

Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils  

Science.gov (United States)

As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from the root in this soil was significantly reduced. The experiments demonstrated that mucilage increased the hydraulic conductance of the root-soil continuum and facilitated the extraction of water from dry soils. The increase in conductivity resulted from the higher water content of the soil near the roots. Mucilage has a lower surface tension than pure water and a higher viscosity, resulting in a slower penetration of mucilage into the soil. After mucilage was placed into the soil, it did not spread into the bulk soil, but it remained near the roots, maintaining the rhizosphere wetter and more conductive than the bulk soil. However, as mucilage dried, it turned water repellent and reduced the back flow of water from the root to soil. We hypothesize that mucilage exudation is a plant strategy to locally and temporally facilitate water uptake from dry soils. After drying, mucilage becomes water repellent and may limit the local uptake of water after irrigation. On the other hand, mucilage water repellency may as well be a strategy to reduce water loss from roots to dry soils.

Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

2014-05-01

297

Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

298

Comparación del crecimiento de Malassezia furfur y Malassezia slooffiae en los medios del exudado gomoso de spondias dulcis y dixon / Comparison of the growth of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae on Spondias dulcis gum exudate and Dixon media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las levaduras del género Malassezia son hongos que producen afecciones en la piel. El desarrollo de estos microorganismos requiere condiciones especiales. El medio Dixon es generalmente usado para su cultivo. Se ensayo el exudado gomoso de Spondias dulcis como sustrato para Malassezia furfur y Malas [...] sezia slooffiae en comparación con el medio Dixon. Se determino la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado rango de tiempo (0-120h), a diferentes concentraciones (1,2 %) y pH (4,0;6,0;7,0). La relativa alta biomasa obtenida para las dos levaduras probadas demostró que el sustrato preparado con el exudado gomoso de S. dulcis es adecuado para su desarrollo. Spondias dulcis especie localizada en Venezuela produce abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podría ser útil para preparar un nuevo sustrato que pueda competir con Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia. Abstract in english Malassezia yeasts are fungi that produce skin affections. Growth of these microorganisms requires specific conditions. The Dixon medium has generally been used for their culture and has been tested. The use of Spondias gum as a substrate for Malassezia furfur and Malassezia slooffiae was tried and c [...] ompared with the Dixon medium. The growth kinetic for a given time range(0-120 h) was determined at different concentrations (1.2%) and pH levels (4,0; 6,0;7,0). The relatively high biomass obtained for the two tested yeasts demonstrated that the substrate prepared with S. dulcis gum exudate is suitable for their growth. Spondias dulcis, a species located in Venezuela, yields abundant gum. This fact and the results discussed above indicate that it could be used to prepare a substrate that could compete with Dixon for isolating and characterizing the Malassezia species.

Luz Mila, Mesa C; Marynes, Díaz; Paola, Ocampo; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Marvelys, Larrazabal; Paula, Guerra; Gladys, León de Pinto.

299

Geographical variation in the major compounds of Aloe ferox leaf exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographical variation in fresh Aloe ferox leaf exudate of which the dried product is commercially known as Cape Aloes, was investigated throughout the natural distribution range of the species. The composition of the major compounds is remarkably invariable, with aloeresin A, aloesin, and aloin (both epimers A and B) contributing between 70% and 97% of total dry weight, in a ratio of approximately 4:3:2, respectively. Minor compounds are less evenly distributed, with aloinoside A and aloinoside B more frequent in the western parts of the distribution area and aloeresin C and 5-hydroxyaloin A generally present in small quantities throughout the distribution area. The aloin content of the exudate is clearly related to provenance but there are no distinct geographical discontinuities. The selection of high-yielding provenances, with total aloin levels above 25%, is recommended for commercial cultivation. PMID:7617769

van Wyk, B E; van Rheede van Oudtshoorn, M C; Smith, G F

1995-06-01

300

Cytokinins in the root pressure exudate of Citrus jambhiri Lush. colonized by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis on the transport of cytokinins from the root to the shoot of Citrus jambhiri Lush. seedlings inoculated with cultures of Glomus etunicatum (Becker and Gerd.), G. fusciculatum (Thaxt.) Gerd. and Trappe, or G. mosseae (Nichol. and Gerd.) was investigated. Cytokinins collected from root exudates over a 90-day period were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and a bioassay. The flux of cytokinins was independent of root exudate flux. Seedlings inoculated with G. fasciculatum or G. mosseae yielded a greater flux of zeatin, dihydrozeatin and zeatin riboside than non-inoculated seedlings. The flux of zeatin riboside was significantly greater than the flux of zeatin in seedlings inoculated with VAM symbionts. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal relationships apparently contributed to, or influenced, the export of cytokinins from the root. The elevated cytokinin flux of inoculated seedlings was associated with improved tissue phosphorus nutrition and a significant increase in seedling biomass. PMID:14972831

Dixon, R K; Garrett, H E; Cox, G S

1988-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella  

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This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and co...

Cassiana Kissel; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki

2009-01-01

302

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11) was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP) and extracellular release (ER) were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and com...

Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

2012-01-01

303

Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

A.E. Smirnov

2014-03-01

304

Massive exudative retinal detachment following photodynamic therapy for retinal hemangioma in von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a common treatment on retinal capillary hemangioma. We applied PDT to a patient with von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) syndrome and she developed severe massive exudative retinal detachment the next day, which is a rare complication for PDT. After intraocular anti-VEGF agent and peribulbar dexamethasone several times to the patient, her subretinal fluid disappeared and hemangiomas atrophied. Treatment with Anti-VEGF agent and corticosteroid is effective for such complication. PMID:24632330

Chen, Yao; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Ling

2014-06-01

305

A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy  

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Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous ...

Arah Basel, Ba X.

2009-01-01

306

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. mic...

2004-01-01

307

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and [...] the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

BRENDA, MODAK; RENÉ, TORRES; MARCELA, WILKENS; ALEJANDRO, URZÚA.

308

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

BRENDA MODAK

2004-03-01

309

Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum; Carboximetilacao da goma exsudada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

2001-07-01

310

Using Genetic Algorithm for Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images  

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Blood vessels in ophthalmoscope images play an important role in diagnosis of some serious pathology on retinal images. Hence, accurate extraction of vessels is becoming a main topic of this research area. In this paper, a new hybrid approach called the (Genetic algorithm and vertex chain code) for blood vessel detection. And this method uses geometrical parameters of retinal vascular tree for diagnosing of hypertension and identified retinal exudates automatically from color retinal images. ...

Romany Fouad Mansour

2012-01-01

311

Prophylactic laser treatment in early age related maculopathy reduced the incidence of exudative complications  

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AIM—To investigate the effect of prophylactic laser treatment on drusen area and incidence of exudative lesions in patients with soft drusen maculopathy.?METHODS—In a prospective study, patients with early age related maculopathy (ARM) and good visual acuity were randomised to laser treatment or to a control group. Each group consisted of two subgroups: a fellow eye group and a bilateral drusen group. At 3 years, 36 of 38 enrolled patients remained in the study. Photocoagulation ...

1998-01-01

312

Influence of Root Exudates on the Bacterial Degradation of Chlorobenzoic Acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of chlorobenzoic acids (e.g., products of microbial degradation of PCB) by strains of microorganisms isolated from PCB contaminated soils was assessed. From seven bulk-soil isolates two strains unique in ability to degrade a wider range of chlorobenzoic acids than others were selected, individually and even in a complex mixture of 11 different chlorobenzoic acids. Such a feature is lacking in most tested degraders. To investigate the influence of vegetation on chlorobenzoic acids degraders, root exudates of two plant species known for supporting PCB degradation in soil were tested. While with individual chlorobenzoic acids the presence of plant exudates leads to a decrease of degradation yield, in case of a mixture of chlorobenzoic acids either a change in bacterial degradation specificity, associated with 3- and 4-chlorobenzoic acid, or an extension of the spectrum of degraded chlorobenzoic acids was observed.

Lovecka, Petra; Drazkova, Milena; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

2013-01-01

313

Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN? Ag in exuding chronic wounds  

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Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a mul...

Kotz, Paula; Fisher, Jane; Mccluskey, Pat; Hartwell, Samantha D.; Dharma, Hussein

2009-01-01

314

Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth  

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to protect the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect o...

Schalchli, H.; Pardo, F.; Hormaza?bal, E.; Palma, R.; Guerrero, J.; Bensch, E.

2012-01-01

315

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

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Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cult...

Ak, Gregg; Hatay, M.; Af, Haas; Nl, Robinett; Barott, K.; Mja, Vermeij; Kl, Marhaver; Meirelles, P.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

2013-01-01

316

Polycystic liver disease presenting with an exudative pleural effusion: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Polycystic liver disease is asymptomatic in 95% of patients. In the remaining 5% it causes symptoms due to the local mass effect of the polycystic liver. We describe the case of a patient who presented with symptoms of a pleural effusion and was also found to have polycystic liver disease. The effusion recurred despite repeated efforts at drainage and only resolved following surgical debridement of the cystic liver. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a two-week history of increasing dyspnoea. An examination revealed a large right pleural effusion and gross hepatomegaly. An ultrasound confirmed a large polycystic liver and diagnostic thoracocentesis revealed an exudate, which was sterile to culture. The pleural effusion proved refractory to drainage and our patient underwent surgery to deroof the main hepatic cysts in an attempt to reduce the pressure on her right diaphragm. The histology was compatible with that of polycystic liver disease. No evidence of malignancy was found. After surgery, our patient had no recurrence of her effusion and, to date, has remained asymptomatic from her polycystic liver disease. Conclusion The case in this report illustrates that an exudative pleural effusion is a rare complication of polycystic liver disease. We feel that the mechanical effects of a large polycystic liver, and subsequent disruption of sub-diaphragmatic capillaries, resulted in a persistent exudative pleural effusion. Thus, surgical debulking of the hepatic cysts is required to manage these effusions.

Woolnough Kerry

2012-04-01

317

A computational-intelligence-based approach for detection of exudates in diabetic retinopathy images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there is an increasing interest for setting up medical systems that can screen a large number of people for sight threatening diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents a method for automated identification of exudate pathologies in retinopathy images based on computational intelligence techniques. The color retinal images are segmented using fuzzy c-means clustering following some preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization and contrast enhancement. The entire segmented images establish a dataset of regions. To classify these segmented regions into exudates and nonexudates, a set of initial features such as color, size, edge strength, and texture are extracted. A genetic-based algorithm is used to rank the features and identify the subset that gives the best classification results. The selected feature vectors are then classified using a multilayer neural network classifier. The algorithm was implemented using a large image dataset consisting of 300 manually labeled retinal images, and could identify affected retinal images with 96.0% sensitivity while it recognized 94.6% of the normal images, i.e., the specificity. Moreover, the proposed scheme illustrated an accuracy including 93.5% sensitivity and 92.1% predictivity for identification of retinal exudates at the pixel level. PMID:19586814

Osareh, Alireza; Shadgar, Bita; Markham, Richard

2009-07-01

318

Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

2009-10-15

319

A Study on Significance of Serum Effusion Albumin Gradient in The Differential Diagnosisof Pleural Effusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG as method of differentiating pleural transudatesfrom exudates.Cases admitted in AMCH with diagnosed pleural effusion were divided into 2 groups basedon etiology. Group I (transudates: Comprising 14 patients of congestive heart failure (n=6 and nephroticsyndrome (n=3, Cirrhosis (n=4, pericardial effusion (n=1. Group II (exudates: comprising 26 cases oftuberculous (n=15, malignant (n=8 and parapneumonic effusion (n=2, rheumatoid arthritis (n=1. In allpatients estimation of pleural fluid to plasma protein ratio, pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio & pleural fluidLDH level, plasma-pleural effusion gradient were evaluated. All these parameters were compared indifferentiating pleural transudates from exudates. A total of 40 patients having pleural effusion weredivided into 2 groups. Group I (Transudates,Group II (Exudates. Pleural fluid to serum protein of .5misclassified 20%, pleural fluid LDH OF 200 U/L misclassified 17.5%, pleural fluid LDH to serum LDHmisclassified 12.5%, & serum effusion albumin gradient misclassified 5% while differentiating transudatesfrom exudates. Serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG is a very useful parameter to differentiatebetween exudates and transudates esp. in cases misclassified by Light’s criteria.

Arijit Kumar Das

2009-07-01

320

Plasma exudation in the skin measured by external detection of conversion electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel technique for measurement of plasma exudation in the skin is described. Transferrin labelled in vivo with indium-113m is used as a plasma tracer. The conversion electrons from 113mIn are detected with a polystyrene crystal mounted on a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the short range of the electrons in tissue, background radiation from tracer circulating in underlying tissue will be very small, allowing plasma exudation in the skin to be detected with a high signal to noise ratio. The characteristics of the detector system are described in model experiments using sheets of mylar to simulate soft tissue. The acute inflammatory response to histamine provocation was studied in guinea pig skin. A dose-related increase in count rate representing vasodilatation and plasma exudation was detected over the skin after histamine provocation. The electron radiation system appears suitable for detection of low levels of superficial radioactivity and for pathophysiological studies of the skin. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Plasma exudation in the skin measured by external detection of conversion electrons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel technique for measurement of plasma exudation in the skin is described. Transferrin labelled in vivo with indium-113m is used as a plasma tracer. The conversion electrons from {sup 113m}In are detected with a polystyrene crystal mounted on a photomultiplier tube. Owing to the short range of the electrons in tissue, background radiation from tracer circulating in underlying tissue will be very small, allowing plasma exudation in the skin to be detected with a high signal to noise ratio. The characteristics of the detector system are described in model experiments using sheets of mylar to simulate soft tissue. The acute inflammatory response to histamine provocation was studied in guinea pig skin. A dose-related increase in count rate representing vasodilatation and plasma exudation was detected over the skin after histamine provocation. The electron radiation system appears suitable for detection of low levels of superficial radioactivity and for pathophysiological studies of the skin. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

Karambatsakidou, A. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Bergh, G. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Ahlgren, L. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Strand, S.E. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, O. [Department of Radiophysics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Greiff, L. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Wollmer, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

1996-03-01

322

CST3 genotype associated with exudative age related macular degeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To determine whether allelic variants of the cystatin C gene CST3 are genetically associated with exudative age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor that regulates the activity of cathepsin S, a protease with central regulatory functions in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Zurdel, Jan; Finckh, Ulrich; Menzer, Gunnar; Nitsch, Roger M.; Richard, Gisbert

2002-01-01

323

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53) meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ) values were lower (p0.05) in ?-ryr gene expression regardle...

Sandra Helena Inoue Oda; Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno; Mônica Corrêa Ledur; Maria Cristina Neves de Oliveira; Silvana Regina Rockenbach Marin; Elza Iouko Ida; Massami Shimokomaki

2009-01-01

324

Chemistryvis-à-vis maternalism in lace bugs (Heteroptera: Tingidae): Alarm pheromones and exudate defense inCorythucha andGargaphia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hawthorn lace bug,Corythucha cydoniae, and the eggplant lace bug,Gargaphia solani, possess alarm pheromones that are produced in dorsal abdominal glands (DAGs). WhenG. solani nymphs are grasped, they emit secretion from both DAGs; the posterior DAG secretion alone elicits alarm, but the anterior DAG secretion may hasten the response. InC. cydoniae, the response is due to a synergism between the anterior and posterior DAG secretions, and nymphs are apparently unable to voluntarily release their DAG secretions; both DAGs must be ruptured for the pheromone to escape. The alarm pheromones are interspecifically active in patterns matching the intraspecific activities. Compounds identified from tingid DAG secretions that are involved in the alarm messages are: (E)2-hexenal, (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, acetaldehyde, geraniol, and linalool. A new natural product of unknown function (designated nerolidol aldehyde) was identified from the anterior DAG secretions of both species. PMID:24258608

Aldrich, J R; Neal, J W; Oliver, J E; Lusby, W R

1991-11-01

325

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m) com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8) e não-PSE (4453) de duas linhagens distintas, de cor [...] te e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ) foram inferiores (p0,05) na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1) de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina. Abstract in english Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53) meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ) [...] values were lower (p0.05) in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1) of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.

Sandra Helena Inoue, Oda; Alexandre Lima, Nepomuceno; Mônica Corrêa, Ledur; Maria Cristina Neves de, Oliveira; Silvana Regina Rockenbach, Marin; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

326

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

2009-12-01

327

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition. PMID:23084327

Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

2013-01-01

328

COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC LIGANDS IN WHOLE ROOT EXUDATES USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R825433C007)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

329

Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos, en dos cuencas lecheras de México / Phenotypic and molecular strain characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle nasal exudate from two dairy complexes in Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron 250 cepas de P. multocida aisladas de exudado nasal, 182 cepas de bovinos clínicamente sanos y 68 cepas de bovinos clínicamente enfermos de neumonía, de dos complejos lecheros, uno en la región de Tizayuca estado de Hidalgo (n = 81), y otro en la Región Lagunera de los estados de Coahu [...] ila y Durango (n = 169), México. Las cepas fueron identificadas mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el sistema comercial API 20NE. La tipificación capsular se realizó por medio de las pruebas de hiauloronidasa y acrifavina, así como por medio de una PCR múltiple para la amplificación de los genes hyaD-hyaC y dcbF. Los resultados globales mediante la prueba de hialuronidasa mostraron que 90.4% (226/250) de las cepas fueron del tipo capsular A y por medio de la prueba de acrifavina, 9.6% (24/250) fue del tipo capsular D. Por medio de la PCR múltiple, 92% (230/250) fue tipo capsular A y 8% (20/250) fue tipo capsular D. La comparación de los resultados entre las pruebas bioquímicas y la técnica de PCR concuerdan en la identificación de las cepas del tipo capsular A, pero no así con las del tipo capsular D. Se corrobora que en México el tipo capsular predominante de P. multocida es el A. Abstract in english Two hundred and fifty strains of P. multocida isolated from nasal exudate were obtained, 182 clinically healthy bovine strains and 68 clinically ill with pneumonia bovine strains, from two dairy complexes, one in the Tizayuca region of Hidalgo state (n = 81), and another in the Region Lagunera of th [...] e states of Coahuila and Durango (n = 169), Mexico. Strains were identifed by conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE commercial system. Capsular typing was performed by testing hyauloronidase and acrifavine, as well as by a multiplex PCR for amplification of genes hyaC-hyaD and dcbF. The overall results of hyaluronidase by the test showed that 90.4% (226/250) of the strains were capsular type A and through the acrifavine test 9.6% (24/250) was capsular type D. Using the multiplex PCR, 92% (230/250) was capsular type A and 8% (20/250) was capsular type D. The comparison of results between biochemical tests and PCR are consistent in identifying strains of capsular type A but not with the capsular type D. It was possible to confrm that capsular type A of P. multocida is predominat in Mexico.

Víctor Manuel, Campuzano Ocampo; Alma Delia, González Rodríguez; Rigoberto, Hernández Castro; Francisco, Suárez Güemes; Francisco José, Trigo Tavera; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo Arango.

330

A budget impact analysis comparing a Hydrofiber® ; dressing to an alginate dressing in managing exuding venous leg ulcers in France.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Excel model was developed to compare total costs (including primary and secondary dressings only) of Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing (2010 branded price) versus an alginate dressing (generic or branded price) in managing exuding venous leg ulcers considering mean wear time and mean duration of exudate management phase, from the French Social Security perspective over 5 years (2011-2015). Budget impact (based on prevalence of venous leg ulcers in France) was estimated as the difference between scenario 1 (Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate dressing usage proportion increasing slightly per year) and Scenario2 (proportion remaining at 2010 levels). Annual costs and net savings per patient for the dressings were calculated in analyses 1 and 2. Analysis 1 (28-day mean exudate management phase for both Hydrofiber(®) ; and alginate dressing groups): total costs 66·82€ Hydrofiber(®) ;, 70·08€ generic alginate, 77·0€ branded alginate; net savings 3·26€ and 10·18€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate. Analysis 2 (mean exudate management phase of 22·2 versus 28 days for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus alginate): total costs 52·92€, 70·08€ and 77·0€, and net savings 17·10€ and 24·02€, accordingly. Total cost savings (budget impact scenario 1 minus scenario 2): Analysis 1 - 223 107€ and 696 304€ for Hydrofiber(®) ; versus generic and branded alginate dressings, respectively; Analysis 2 - 1 169 845€ and 1 643 042€ accordingly. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results are reliable. This conservative analysis shows that effective exudate management using Hydrofiber(®) ; dressing can produce sizeable cost savings. PMID:23020759

Yan, Songkai; Colin, Xavier; Coudray-Omnès, Carole; Guido-Morin, Pascale; Kommala, Dheerendra R

2014-06-01

331

Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A goma do cajueiro, um polissacarídeo exsudado da árvore Anacardium ocidentale, foi oxidada com o reagente TEMPO e o produto (CGOX) foi caracterizado por técnicas espectroscópicas (FT-IR e RMN), análises cromatográficas (HPLC e GPC), viscosidade e análise térmica (TGA). O rendimento do produto da re [...] ação foi de 96%. O teor de ácido urônico da goma nativa (7,2%) aumentou para 36% após a reação. O grau de oxidação, tendo como base as unidades de galactose e glucose livres, foi de 68%. Os dados de RMN mostraram que a oxidação ocorreu preferencialmente nos carbonos primários das unidades de galactose. A grande diferença entre o valor esperado de etaCGOX/etaCG e o valor observado indica que a degradação, durante a oxidação, ocorreu em grande extensão. A presença de impurezas orgânicas e inorgânicas no novo polieletrólito foi detectada por TGA. A goma do cajueiro após a modificação com TEMPO apresentou mais baixa estabilidade térmica que a goma nativa, indicada pelos valores de temperatura inicial de decomposição e IPDT. Abstract in english Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium ocidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the 7product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the [...] reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed etaCGOX/etaCG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT.

Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Paula, Regina C. M. de; Feitosa, Judith P. A..

332

Contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates to the biostimulation of PAH degradation: an in vitro study.  

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Phytoremediation is considered as a promising and cost-effective method to enhance bioremediation of polluted soils. Exudation of plant root secondary metabolites similar to organic pollutants may induce the expression of microbial degradative enzymes and favour cometabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates in the biostimulation of PAH-degradation. This perennial grass was chosen because of its capability to grow on polluted soils and its high biomass production for non-food purposes. First, the impact of cometabolism phenomena was evaluated on the selective enrichment of pyrene-degrading bacterial consortia. The identification of each isolated strains following incubation with pyrene only, "pyrene+phenanthrene", "pyrene+salycilate" or "pyrene+diesel fuel" showed a varying bacterial diversity and pyrene-degrading ability, depending on the co-substrate used. Then, a microplate assay was designed, based on the simultaneous measurement of bacterial consortia growth and degradation activity, in the presence of PAH and total root exudates. Results showed that i) the addition of root exudates was efficient for promoting bacterial growth, ii) but a selective enrichment of PAH-degraders compared to aliphatic ones could be clearly demonstrated, thereby conducing to an enhanced PAH catabolism. The identification of plant secondary metabolites showed the presence of a broad range of flavonoid-derived compounds that could play a role in cometabolic processes. Microplate assays with the two major molecules, quercetin and rutin, suggested a partial involvement of these compounds in biostimulation processes. Further investigations with the other identified secondary metabolites (apigenin, isovitexin, catechin, gallic and caffeic acid) should provide more information on the exudate-PAH cometabolic degradation phenomenon. PMID:21782215

Técher, Didier; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Henry, Sonia; Bennasroune, Amar; Formanek, Pavel; Martinez-Chois, Claudia; D'Innocenzo, Marielle; Muanda, François; Dicko, Amadou; Rejšek, Klement; Falla, Jairo

2011-09-15

333

Down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato altered stem xylem development and production of volatile compounds in leaf exudates  

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The Aux/IAA family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that function as transcriptional regulators in auxin signal transduction. Aux/IAA genes have been reported to control many processes of plant development. Our recent study showed that down-regulation of SlIAA15 in tomato reduced apical dominance, altered pattern of axillary shoot development, increased lateral root formation and leaves thickness. The SlIAA15 suppressed lines display strong reduction of trichome density, suggesting t...

2012-01-01

334

Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle  

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Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 ?g/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

2014-06-01

335

Eosinophilic pleural or peritoneal effusions in dogs and cats: 14 cases (1986-1992).  

Science.gov (United States)

Case records of 9 dogs and 5 cats with eosinophilic effusions were reviewed. The animals ranged from 11 months to 13 years old. Seven animals had pleural effusions, 5 had peritoneal effusions, and 2 had pleural and peritoneal effusions. Neoplasia was confirmed in 6 animals and suspected in 1. Eosinophilic pleural effusion was diagnosed 2 days after pneumothorax developed as a consequence of thoracic tube placement in a cat, and pneumothorax was diagnosed in another cat with eosinophilic peritoneal effusion. Other abnormalities seen in 1 or 2 animals associated with eosinophilic effusion were radiographic signs of interstitial or peribronchial pulmonary infiltrates, a history of allergic respiratory tract and skin disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia and lung lobe torsion, chylothorax, bite wounds causing intestinal perforation, and feline leukemia virus infection. Based only on the protein concentration of the effusion, 7 effusions were classified as transudates and 7 were classified as exudates. Five of the 14 animals had eosinophilia (> 1,200 eosinophils/microliters); 3 of these animals had neoplastic disease. Mean eosinophil count in blood samples was not significantly different between animals with neoplasia and those without. Eosinophil counts in blood samples were not linearly related to counts in effusions; however, in some animals the number of eosinophils in the effusion was much higher than the eosinophil count in blood, suggesting concentration of eosinophils in the effusion. PMID:8320159

Fossum, T W; Wellman, M; Relford, R L; Slater, M R

1993-06-01

336

Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases  

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Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and ?-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

?aki? Saša

2009-01-01

337

Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R2=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

1997-12-01

338

Evaluation and outcomes of pediatric pleural effusions in over 10 years in Northwest, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Pleural effusion is the accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity. Most information available about pleural effusion is obtained from studies on adults and little evidence is available in children. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the existing status and explain the disease process, signs, treatment, and prognosis. Children with pleural effusion who were admitted to children’s university hospital during the last ten years were studied in this research. Methodology: In this descriptive research, children with pleural effusion who were admitted and undergone thoracocentesis in the children’s university hospital during the last ten years were studied. The data obtained from in vitro experiments and the information questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS-18 through descriptive statistics of frequency, percent, and mean. Findings: Ninety-four children with pleural effusion were admitted during 10 years. Pleural effusion was exudate in 56.38% and transudate in 43.61% of children. The most common symptoms were tachypnea, fever, and cough. Antibiotic administration was the most performed therapeutic action. Conclusion: The mode of addressing pleural effusion in this research was similar to other studies. Considering the results, better planning can be performed regarding preventing this disease or improving its prognosis.

Mohammad Hassan Kargar maher

2014-08-01

339

A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy  

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Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

Ba?arah Basel

2009-01-01

340

Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P acidic, neutral and basic fractions, a pronounced stimulatory effect was also observed for the neutral fractions from HZ1 and WX3 under both conditions, whereas the acidic fractions from WX3 displayed an inhibitory effect. Analysis of the active fractions using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere. PMID:24271005

Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds, with MIC(90)s of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, 41.4% of the 99 strains tested were positive for beta-lactamase production. The MIC(90)s of erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin were >32.0 mu g/ml. Initial testing with sulfadiazine-trimethoprim yielded an MIC(90) of >64.0 mu g/ml, but subsequent testing with thymidine phosphorylase-supplemented medium yielded an MIC(90) of 0.06 mu g/ml. Both lincomycin and spectinomycin were relatively inactive against the S. hyicus strains tested, with MIC(90)s of > 64.0 and > 128.0 mu g/ml, respectively. However, the combination of the two compounds at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Furthermore, the combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin was more active than the individual compounds against the strains tested.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.

1994-01-01

342

Determination by ultrafiltration of the fraction of unbound estradiol and its variation in peritoneal fluid during the menstrual cycle.  

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Full Text Available An ultrafiltration method employing a Centrifree filter for determining the unbound fraction of estradiol was studied. Centrifugation was performed under conditions similar to those in vivo. Good correlation was recognized between this method and the equilibrium dialysis. This method was employed to determine the unbound fraction of estradiol in the serum and the peritoneal fluid of 26 infertility patients classified according to their menstrual dates. The total estradiol and progesterone contents in the peritoneal fluid were high after ovulation. There was no significant difference in the percentage of unbound estradiol in the serum among various groups. In the peritoneal fluid, however, the percentage of unbound estradiol for the day 12-14 patients was 4.5 +/- 0.2% in contrast with 3.8 +/- 0.4% for the day 15-18 group (p less than 0.05 and 3.5 +/- 0.1% (p less than 0.05 for the day 19-28 group. Moreover, the fraction (4.5% of unbound estradiol in the peritoneal fluid of a patient with luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF syndrome was comparable with that of patients in the follicular phase. The difference between the percentage of unbound estradiol in the peritoneal fluid before and after ovulation is considered to be due to the transudation of follicular estradiol in the follicular phase and the exudation of estradiol from the corpus luteum into the peritoneal cavity in the luteal phase.

Lin,Yaw-tyng

1987-02-01

343

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11) was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP) and extracellular release (ER) were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa) dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO), particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C). Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D) from D = 0.3 d-1 to D = 0.1 d-1 (D = ?) induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d-1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP) × 100) averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d-1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d-1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d-1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d-1, the contribution (mol % C) of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

2012-08-01

344

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D from D = 0.3 d?1 to D = 0.1 d?1 (D = ? induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP × 100 averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d?1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d?1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d?1, the contribution (mol % C of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

A. Engel

2012-08-01

345

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from ? =0.3 d?1 to ? =0.1 d?1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? =0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP × 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? =0.1 d?1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? =0.1 d?1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at ? =0.1 d?1 compared to ? =0.3 d?1. At ? =0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC by coagulation of exudates. Our results imply that greenhouse condition will enhance exudation processes in E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

A. Engel

2012-01-01

346

Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption  

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The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

2007-03-01

347

Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy  

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Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

Shukla Dhananjay

2007-01-01

348

Anterior chamber exudative mass due to Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual  

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Full Text Available Endogenous intraocular infection of fungal etiology is extremely rare in an immunocompetent individual. Usually, an antecedent history of trauma, surgery, intravenous drug abuse or an immunocompromized state can be elicited. Scedosporium apiospermum is a known cause of keratomycosis after traumatic implantation and can cause fatal disseminated infection in immunocompromized patients. However, cases of S. apiospermum intraocular infection in immunocompetent individuals have been very rarely reported in literature. We report here a case of an anterior chamber exudative mass due to S. apiospermum in an immunocompetent individual which was managed successfully with anterior chamber wash and intravitreal injection of voriconazole.

Shankar Sandeep

2007-01-01

349

Coat's-like exudation in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa: successful treatment with an intravitreal dexamethasone implant.  

Science.gov (United States)

PurposeRole of intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) for refractory macular thickening.MethodsA case report of a 13-year-old boy with Rhodopsin-positive, CRB1-negative retinitis pigmentosa presenting with Coat's-like exudative vitreoretinopathy and treatment-resistant cystoid macular oedema.ResultsA reduction in the macular thickening following a single injection of Ozurdex.ConclusionWe present our experience in successful treatment of refractory macular oedema with intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant resulting in clinically significant resolution of macular thickening. PMID:24458202

Patil, L; Lotery, A J

2014-04-01

350

Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution experiment were conducted to test if this occurs in six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes varying in tolerance to low Zn supply. In both experiments, low Zn supply resulted in a marked decrease in b...

Gao, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

2009-01-01

351

Contribution of methylated exudate flavonoids to the anti-inflammatory activity of Grindelia robusta.  

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The flavonoid pattern of an acetonic extract of Grindelia robusta Nutt. was investigated in detail. The flavonoids were enriched by CC. In addition to twelve known methylated exudate flavonols four compounds were identified for the first time in G. robusta. Several substances of the flavonoid complex, among them the main compounds quercetin-3-methylether and 6-OH-kaempferol-3,6-dimethylether, were tested for their activity to inhibit neutrophil elastase. Quercetin-3-methylether was shown to be most active with an IC(50) of 19 microM, thus obviously contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. PMID:19278665

Krenn, Liselotte; Wollenweber, Eckhard; Steyrleuthner, Katja; Görick, Cornelia; Melzig, Matthias F

2009-07-01