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Sample records for exudates and transudates

  1. The diagnostic value of cholesterol in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gahremani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Pleural effusion is a common finding in many pulmonary or extrapulmonary diseases and its analysis is essential for differentiating transudates from exudates. Light's criteria is questioned by some researchers and measuring of cholesterol in pleural effusion is proposed due to its simplicity and low cost. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol for differentiating transudates from exudates.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 70 cases of pleural effusion with definite diagnosis according to clinical gold standards were included and cholestrol, LDH and protein in pleural effusion and simultaneous in blood serum were measured. Pleural cholesterol alone, and its ratio with serum cholesterol, pleural-LDH and its ratio with, serum-LDH, pleural protein and its ratio with serum protein, combination of pleural Cholestrol + LDH were compared with Light,s criteria.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of pleural cholesterol was 85% and 100% , respectively with 90% efficiency, pleural/serum cholesterol showed a sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 95% , with 90% efficiency. Lights,s criteria gave a sensitivity of 87%, specificity 79%, with 91% efficiency. Combination of Pleural + pleural/serum cholesterol showed sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 100% , with 90% efficiency and for Pleural-LDH + pleural-cholesterol sensitivity, specificity and efficiency were 97% , 83% and 92% respectively.Conclusion: The use of pleural fluid cholesterol is useful as Light,s criteria for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates but not superior. Combination of pleural fluid cholesterol and LDH slightly improves the specifity and efficiency of differentiation. The advantage of cholesterol measuring is its simplicity, low price and that it can be used along with routine diagnostic pleural effusion tests.

  2. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 ?g/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 ?g/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  3. Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.

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    Malde H

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

  4. Comparative analysis of pleural fluid biochemical parameters with cholesterol to differentiate transudates from exudates

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    Rohit Rungta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Light?s criteria is the gold standard to differentiate transudative pleural effusion (PE from exudative PE, but it requires four biochemical estimations which, in developing countries such as India, may not be feasible in every patient due to economic constraints. Aims: To evaluate the comparative usefulness of pleural fluid biochemical parameters with relative usefulness of pleural cholesterol to the traditional Light? criteria. Setting and Design: Prospective institutional based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 cases of PE were studied consecutively, of which 34 cases were of tuberculous effusion and 22 cases of nontubercular effusion. The data obtained from the patients were collected, analyzed, and observations noted down. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of different biochemical parameters single or in combination were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Results: According to their etiology, 7 of the effusions were transudates and 49 were exudates. Using a cutoff point of 45 mg for pleural cholesterol and values for protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH of Light et al., the best diagnostic power corresponded to the combination of pleural cholesterol and LDH; cholesterol level over 45 mg/dL and/or LDH over 200 IU/L differentiate exudates from transudates with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 98%. Conclusions: The measurement of pleural cholesterol and LDH permits the separation of pleural exudates from transudates with accuracy similar to the original report of Light et al., with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, especially in a country like India where financial and technical constraints are immense.

  5. Pleural Effusion in Meigs' Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenke, Rafal; Maskey-Warzechowska, Marta; Korczynski, Piotr; Zielinska-Krawczyk, Monika; Klimiuk, Joanna; Chazan, Ryszarda; Light, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Although Meigs' syndrome is regarded as a well-defined entity, contradictory data on pleural fluid characteristics have been presented, with some papers classifying it as a transudate, whereas others stating that it is an exudate.The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate pleural fluid characteristics in patients with Meigs' syndrome and (2) to analyze the prevalence of transudative and exudative pleural effusion in relation to the applied definition of the syndrome.We performed a search through medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR) to identify papers on Meigs' syndrome published between 1940 and 2013. Two authors independently reviewed each paper searching for prespecified data: (1) signs and symptoms, (2) tumor characteristics, (3) clinical and laboratory data on ascites, (4) clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on pleural fluid, (5) clinical course after tumor removal. All case reports were reclassified according to a new unequivocal classification of Meigs' syndrome-related entities.A total of 653 papers were initially identified, and 454 articles reporting 541 patients were included in the final analysis. After reclassification according to our case definitions, there were 196, 113, and 108 patients defined as classic Meigs' syndrome, nonclassic Meigs' syndrome, and pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, respectively. Significantly more patients presented with right-sided than left-sided and bilateral pleural effusions (P? 3.0?g/dL was applied as a criterion of pleural exudate, 88.8% (80/90) of effusions were classified as exudates. Increasing the cut-off level to 3.5?g/dL resulted in only a modest decrease in the percentage of exudative effusions (81%, 73/90).Surprisingly few reports on Meigs' syndrome present data reliably defining the character of pleural effusion. The available data indicate, however, that the majority of pleural effusions in patients with this entity are exudates. This finding may be a prerequisite for the verification of some earlier presented concepts. PMID:26656338

  6. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz, Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da, Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva, Chibante; Gilberto Perez, Cardoso.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre es [...] se novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  7. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  8. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke; Agren, Magnus; Ladelund, Steen; Karlsmark, Tonny; Gottrup, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was...... excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and...... smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months...

  9. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p< or =0.05 was considered significant. One week after wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14.47-19.92) g/cm(2) hour (mean, 95% CI) in smokers and 13.89 (9.46-18.33) in never smokers (p<0.01). In abstinent smokers TEWL was 18.95 (15.20-22.70)(p<0.01, when compared with smokers). In smokers, MMP-8 was 36.4 (24.3-48.5) ng/mL (mean, 95% CI) and 15.2 (1.4-30.2) ng/mL in never smokers (p<0.01). Abstinent smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation.

  10. A Survey on Hard Exudates Detection and Segmentation

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    Dr. K. Sathiyasekar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-diabetic macular edema (dme is an advanced symptom diabetic retinopathy. it causes damage to retina and may lead to complete or partial vision loss. exudates are the primary indication of diabetic retinopathy. in this paper, different techniques were presented which is used for detecting the hard exudates. the segmentation of hard exudates is also achieved.

  11. Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate

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    Edgardo Moretti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como muestra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%. Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas.Oral mucosal transudate (OMT is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Chagas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

  12. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Vivanco, Jorge M; Edison, Arthur S

    2009-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to interact chemically with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed by using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites that include organic acids, amino acids, and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and Escherichia coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Pseudomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, thus demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems. PMID:19649780

  13. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, 60Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient

  14. COMPARISION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE [ADA] LEVELS WITH CYTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLEURAL FLUIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE TUBERCULAR AND NON â TUBERCULAR EFFUSIONS

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    Choukimath M Sharanabasav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to utilize biochemical parameters like ADA and protein levels in comparison with cell count and cell type in pleural fluid to differentiate tubercular and non-tubercular effusions. We have analyzed a total of 208 cases and among them 59.61% cases were ADA positive and 40.39% cases were ADA negative, and 156 cases were exudates and 52 cases were transudates. Categorized these effusions into 4 groups taking consideration of ADA, cell count, lymphocyte and protein levels as exudate with ADA positive, exudate with ADA negative, transudate with ADA positive and transudate with ADA negative. This study has shown promising results to diagnose tuberculosis with immediate and cost effectiveness that can be undertaken by any basic laboratory, in a endemic areas and developing countries like India

  15. Effectively managing wound exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings. PMID:26322408

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

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    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found with serum HDL (p=.0001. CONCLUSION: Dyslipidemia was significantly associated with retinal hard exudates formation in type 2 diabetic patients. This study suggests treating ophthalmologist should get a fasting lipid profile done if patient has significant hard exudates on fundus examination. Study also recommends need of lipid lowering drugs due to high incidence of dyslipidemia in these patients.

  17. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management

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    Shukla Dhananjay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

  18. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court; Poder, A; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Catteau, G; Thomas, F; Lehtinen, M; Descamps, D

    2011-01-01

    transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...

  19. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, C; Andersen, Anne Poder; Strauss, G; Catteau, G; Thomas, F; Lehtinen, Tuija Marita; Descamps, D

    2010-01-01

    transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...

  20. [Identification of chemicals in root exudates of potato and their effects on Rhizoctonia solani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-ming; Qiu, Hui-zhen; Zhang, Chun-hong; Hai, Long

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify chemicals in root exudates and their effect on Rhizoctonia solani in potato cropping systems. Root exudates were collected from the fields with 5 years of continuous potato cropping in comparison with rotational cropping of potato and other crops, using in-house made root boxes at the seedling and squaring stages. Chemicals in the root exudates were identified using the GC-MS method. The results showed that glucide concentration was the highest in the root exudates, followed by organic acids. Compared with the rotational cropping, the continuous cropping significantly decreased the glucide content and increased the content of organic acids in the root exudates. The contents of almitic acid in root exudates under continuous cropping was 0.94% at seedling stage and 1.4% at squaring stage, the dibutyl phthalate was 0.15%, whereas under rotational cropping, those values were decreased to 0.15%, 0.2%, and being negligible, respectively. The root exudates promoted the growth of R. solani, especially under continuous potato cropping. The simulation test showed that the palmitic acid and dibutyl phthalate in root exudates could promote the growth of R. solani. PMID:26211070

  1. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. PMID:26614053

  2. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  3. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

  4. The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

  5. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  6. Solid phase extraction and metabolic profiling of exudates from living copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Nylund, Göran M; Pohnert, Georg; Pavia, Henrik; Bjærke, Oda; Pender-Healy, Larisa A; Tiselius, Peter; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. They exude bioactive compounds that mediate mate finding or induce defensive traits in prey organisms. However, little is known about the chemical nature of the copepod exometabolome that contributes to the chemical landscape in pelagic habitats. Here we describe the development of a closed loop solid phase extraction setup that allows for extraction of exuded metabolites from live copepods. We captured exudates from male and female Temora longicornis and analyzed the content with high resolution LC-MS. Chemometric methods revealed 87 compounds that constitute a specific chemical pattern either qualitatively or quantitatively indicating copepod presence. The majority of the compounds were present in both female and male exudates, but nine compounds were mainly or exclusively present in female exudates and hence potential pheromone candidates. Copepodamide G, known to induce defensive responses in phytoplankton, was among the ten compounds of highest relative abundance in both male and female extracts. The presence of copepodamide G shows that the method can be used to capture and analyze chemical signals from living source organisms. We conclude that solid phase extraction in combination with metabolic profiling of exudates is a useful tool to develop our understanding of the chemical interplay between pelagic organisms. PMID:26788422

  7. Studies on photosynthate distribution and root exudates of cinesische by 14C tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinesische (Cunninghamia sinesis R. Br.) plants grown in nutrient solution were exposed to 14CO2 for 24 hours to study the photosynthate distribution and root exudates. One day after feeding 14CO2, the majority of 14C assimilate was remained in leaves, only 27.38% of 14C assimilate was translocated into new shoots, main branches, lateral branches and roots. 3 days after feeding 14CO2, the distribution rate of 14C photosynthate in leaves was still the highest, but the percentage decreased and it correspondingly increased in other plant parts. 22 days after feeding 14CO2, the distribution rate in new shoots became the highest, roots ranked the second, main branches were the third, leaves and lateral branches were the lowest. The photosynthate in the root could rapidly convert into root exudates. The amount of root exudates reached a peak after 4 days of feeding 14CO2, afterward the amount of 14C root exudates decreased rapidly. The amount of sugar was the highest among all kinds of root exudates, the amount of organic acid was the second, the content of amino acid was much lower than that of the other two root exudates

  8. Changes in Azospirillum brasilense motility and the effect of wheat seedling exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Igor V; Schelud'ko, Andrei V; Petrova, Lilia P; Katsy, Elena I

    2009-01-01

    The rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 swims, swarms (Swa(+) phenotype) or, very rarely, migrates with the formation of granular macrocolonies (Gri(+) phenotype). Our aims were (i) to identify Sp245 mutants that swarm faster than the parent strain or differ from it in the mode of spreading and (ii) to compare the mutants' responses to wheat seedling exudates. In isotropic liquid media, the swimming speeds of all motile A. brasilense strains were not influenced by the exudates. However, the exudates significantly stimulated the swarming of Sp245. In several Sp245 mutants, the superswarming phenotype was insensitive to local colonial density and to the presence of wheat seedling exudates. An A. brasilense polar-flagellum-defective Gri(+) mutant BK759.G gave rise to stable Swa(++) derivatives with restored flagellum production. This transition was concurrent with plasmid rearrangements and was stimulated in the presence of wheat seedling exudates. The swarming rate of the Swa(++) derivatives of BK759.G was affected by the local density of their colonies but not by the presence of the exudates. PMID:17707621

  9. A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2012-03-01

    The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

  10. Isoflavonoid exudation from white lupin roots is influenced by phosphate supply, root type and cluster-root stage

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Laure; Tomasi, Nicola; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Langlade, Nicolas Bernard; Tabacchi, Raphael; Abou-Mansour, Eliane

    2010-01-01

    • The internal concentration of isoflavonoids in white lupin (Lupinus albus) cluster roots and the exudation of isoflavonoids by these roots were investigated with respect to the effects of phosphorus (P) supply, root type and cluster-root developmental stage. • To identify and quantify the major isoflavonoids exuded by white lupin roots, we used high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) in mass spectrometry (MS). • The major exuded isoflavonoids we...

  11. Association Between Components of Exudates and Periwound Moisture-Associated Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients With Malignant Fungating Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Nao; Akase, Tomoko; Minematsu, Takeo; Higashi, Kyohei; Toida, Toshihiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-03-01

    Excessive wound exudates are troublesome symptoms of malignant fungating wounds. In particular, such exudates may cause periwound moisture-associated dermatitis (MAD). In this study, we focused on factors that contribute to skin irritation by exudates in breast cancer patients with malignant fungating wounds. Our aim was to identify the relationship between MAD surrounding malignant fungating wounds and levels of various candidate irritating factors in their exudates. We recruited 20 breast cancer patients with exudates from malignant fungating wounds and collected three types of exudate samples: pooled exudate, swab, and fresh exudate samples. We measured the pH, concentrations of polyamines (putrescine [PUT], cadaverine [CAD], spermidine, and spermine), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9) in the exudates and cultured them for bacteria. Differences between participants with and without MAD were assessed using Fisher's exact test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Of the 20 participants, 14 had MAD. There were no significant differences in median pH and MMP activity between patients with and without MAD. The level of PUT was significantly higher in the MAD than in the non-MAD group (p = .008), and CAD was detected only in the MAD group (p = .016). Prospective studies are needed to clarify correlations and causal relationships between polyamines and erythema and identify therapeutic targets for preventing the development of MAD. PMID:26180182

  12. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  13. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  14. CAD scheme for detection of hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Mizukusa, Yutaka; Fujita, Akihiro; Kakogawa, Masakatsu; Kawase, Kazuhide; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes a method for detecting hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images. The detection of hemorrhages and exudates is important in order to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most significant factors contributing to blindness, and early detection and treatment are important. In this study, hemorrhages and exudates were automatically detected in fundus images without using fluorescein angiograms. Subsequently, the blood vessel regions incorrectly detected as hemorrhages were eliminated by first examining the structure of the blood vessels and then evaluating the length-to-width ratio. Finally, the false positives were eliminated by checking the following features extracted from candidate images: the number of pixels, contrast, 13 features calculated from the co-occurrence matrix, two features based on gray-level difference statistics, and two features calculated from the extrema method. The sensitivity of detecting hemorrhages in the fundus images was 85% and that of detecting exudates was 77%. Our fully automated scheme could accurately detect hemorrhages and exudates.

  15. Isoflavonoid exudation from white lupin roots is influenced by phosphate supply, root type and cluster-root stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Laure; Tomasi, Nicola; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Langlade, Nicolas Bernard; Tabacchi, Raffaele; Abou-Mansour, Eliane

    2006-01-01

    The internal concentration of isoflavonoids in white lupin (Lupinus albus) cluster roots and the exudation of isoflavonoids by these roots were investigated with respect to the effects of phosphorus (P) supply, root type and cluster-root developmental stage. To identify and quantify the major isoflavonoids exuded by white lupin roots, we used high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) in mass spectrometry (MS). The major exuded isoflavonoids were identified as genistein and hydroxygenistein and their corresponding mono- and diglucoside conjugates. Exudation of isoflavonoids during the incubation period used was higher in P-deficient than in P-sufficient plants and higher in cluster roots than in noncluster roots. The peak of exudation occurred in juvenile and immature cluster roots, while exudation decreased in mature cluster roots.Cluster-root exudation activity was characterized by a burst of isoflavonoids at the stage preceding the peak of organic acid exudation. The potential involvement of ATP-citrate lyase in controlling citrate and isoflavonoid exudation is discussed, as well as the possible impact of phenolics in repelling rhizosphere microbial citrate consumers. PMID:16866966

  16. The Effect of Root Exudate 7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone and Naringenin on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlay, Márton; White-Monsant, Alison; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate how root exudate flavonoids influence the soil bacterial community structure and to identify members of the community that change their relative abundance in response to flavonoid exudation. Using a model system that approximates flavonoid exudation of Medicago sativa roots, we treated a soil with 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and naringenin in two separate experiments using three different rates: medium (equivalent to the exudation rate of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone from M. sativa seedlings), high (10× the medium rate), and low (0.1× the medium rate). Controls received no flavonoid. Soil samples were subjected to ATP assays and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The flavonoid treatments caused no significant change in the soil ATP content. With the high 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone treatment rate, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Acidobacteria subdivision 4 increased in relative abundance compared with the control samples, whereas OTUs classified as Gaiellales, Nocardioidaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae were more prevalent in the control. The naringenin treatments did not cause significant changes in the soil bacterial community structure. Our results suggest that the root exudate flavonoid 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone can interact with a diverse range of soil bacteria and may have other functions in the rhizosphere in addition to nod gene induction in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26752410

  17. The Effect of Root Exudate 7,4?-Dihydroxyflavone and Naringenin on Soil Bacterial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlay, Márton; White-Monsant, Alison; Moe, Luke A.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate how root exudate flavonoids influence the soil bacterial community structure and to identify members of the community that change their relative abundance in response to flavonoid exudation. Using a model system that approximates flavonoid exudation of Medicago sativa roots, we treated a soil with 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone and naringenin in two separate experiments using three different rates: medium (equivalent to the exudation rate of 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone from M. sativa seedlings), high (10× the medium rate), and low (0.1× the medium rate). Controls received no flavonoid. Soil samples were subjected to ATP assays and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The flavonoid treatments caused no significant change in the soil ATP content. With the high 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone treatment rate, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Acidobacteria subdivision 4 increased in relative abundance compared with the control samples, whereas OTUs classified as Gaiellales, Nocardioidaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae were more prevalent in the control. The naringenin treatments did not cause significant changes in the soil bacterial community structure. Our results suggest that the root exudate flavonoid 7,4?-dihydroxyflavone can interact with a diverse range of soil bacteria and may have other functions in the rhizosphere in addition to nod gene induction in legume—rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:26752410

  18. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N from SOM (i.e., mineralization. The quantity of N released from SOM in the model simulations was, under most circumstances, in excess of the N in the exudate pulse, suggesting that the exudation of N-containing compounds can be a viable strategy for plant-N acquisition via a priming effect. The experimental and modeling results were consistent with our hypothesis that N-containing compounds in root exudates affect rhizosphere processes by providing substrates for the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exoenzymes. This study suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

  19. Endothelin-1 and Nitric Oxide Levels in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totan, Y?ksel; Koca, Cemile; Erdurmu?, Mesut; Keskin, U?urcan; Yi?ito?lu, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: In this study, ET-1 levels, as well as nitrite plus nitrate concentrations as an indicator of plasma NO level, were measured in the plasma of 20 subjects with exudative AMD and compared with 20 healthy age and sex matched controls. Results: Mean plasma ET-1 level was significantly higher in exudative AMD patients as compared to control subjects (0.35 ± 0.06 fmol/ml versus 0.17 ± 0.03 fmol/ml, P = 0.015). Patients with exudative AMD also showed significantly lower mean plasma levels of nitrite plus nitrate as compared to the controls (58.9 ± 2.7 µmol/l versus 82.6 ± 5.9 µmol/l, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Increased concentrations of ET-1 and reduced levels of NO in the plasma may suggest an imbalance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents, respectively, as a reflection of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AMD. These findings may also imply the role of vasoconstriction in exudative AMD. PMID:26425317

  20. Automatic exudate detection by fusing multiple active contours and regionwise classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harangi, Balazs; Hajdu, Andras

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for the automatic detection of exudates in digital fundus images. Our approach can be divided into three stages: candidate extraction, precise contour segmentation and the labeling of candidates as true or false exudates. For candidate detection, we borrow a grayscale morphology-based method to identify possible regions containing these bright lesions. Then, to extract the precise boundary of the candidates, we introduce a complex active contour-based method. Namely, to increase the accuracy of segmentation, we extract additional possible contours by taking advantage of the diverse behavior of different pre-processing methods. After selecting an appropriate combination of the extracted contours, a region-wise classifier is applied to remove the false exudate candidates. For this task, we consider several region-based features, and extract an appropriate feature subset to train a Naïve-Bayes classifier optimized further by an adaptive boosting technique. Regarding experimental studies, the method was tested on publicly available databases both to measure the accuracy of the segmentation of exudate regions and to recognize their presence at image-level. In a proper quantitative evaluation on publicly available datasets the proposed approach outperformed several state-of-the-art exudate detector algorithms. PMID:25255154

  1. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

  2. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andreas F; Nelson, Craig E; Rohwer, Forest; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Quistad, Steven D; Carlson, Craig A; Leichter, James J; Hatay, Mark; Smith, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo'orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon) into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients) caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs. PMID:23882445

  3. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D; Venge, P; Dahl, R; Søndergaard, J

    1988-01-01

    contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers. The...... increased protein fluxes were not accompanied by an increased flux of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in the exudate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  4. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and...

  5. How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

  6. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  7. Compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Adnan; Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Soja, Gerhard; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    Soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. Complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. In the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and changes in root exudates of tomato plants grown in different soil substrate compositions, such as compost (Comp) alone at application rate of 20% (v/v), and in combination with wood biochar (WB; made from beech wood chips) or green waste biochar (GWB; made from garden waste residues) at application rate of 3% (v/v), and/or with additional arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The association of GWB and AMF had a positive effect on tomato plants growth unlike to the plants grown in WB containing a soil substrate. The AMF root colonization was not enhanced by the addition of WB or GWB in the soil substrate, though a bio-protective effect of mycorrhization was evident in both biochar amended treatments against Fol. Compost and biochars altered root exudates differently, which is evident from variable response of in vitro growth and development of Fol. The microconidia germination was highest in root exudates from plants grown in the soil containing compost and GWB, whereas root exudates of plants from a substrate containing WB suppressed the mycelial growth and development of Fol. In conclusion, the plant growth response and disease suppression in biochar containing substrates with additional AMF was affected by the feedstock type. Moreover, application of compost and biochars in the soil influence the quality and composition of root exudates with respect to their effects on soil-dwelling fungi. PMID:26217373

  8. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    OpenAIRE

    RENÉ TORRES; FRANCISCO URBINA; CLAUDIA MORALES; BRENDA MODAK; FRANCO DELLE MONACHE

    2003-01-01

    From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

  9. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENÉ TORRES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

  10. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RENÉ, TORRES; FRANCISCO, URBINA; CLAUDIA, MORALES; BRENDA, MODAK; FRANCO DELLE, MONACHE.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation [...

  11. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  12. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...

  14. CHEMISTRY OF APPLE AND PEAR STIGMA EXUDATES RELATED TO BACTERIAL ANTAGONISM TOWARD ERWINIA AMYLOVORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight of apple and pear is most commonly initiated by epiphytic populations of Erwinia amylovora that first become established on flower stigmas. Since microbial activity on the stigma is largely supported by the presence of fluidal exudate, knowing the chemistry of this substance could lead ...

  15. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

  16. [TRALI and TACO: diagnostic and clinical management of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M

    2009-05-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the inflammatory, exudative form and Transfusion-associated cardiac overload (TACO) is the hydrostatic, transudative form of transfusion-induced acute pulmonary edema. The distinction between these two entities may be difficult, but important because of different clinical management strategies and different implications. There is no unique diagnostic tool. The diagnostic search should gather several clinical information and may be helped by various techniques listed in this article. PMID:19442558

  17. Plant growth inhibiting flavonoids in exudate of Cistus ladanifer and in associated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Escudero, J C

    2001-03-01

    Of the aglycone flavonoids identified in the exudate of cistus ladanifer, two, the flavone apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl and the flavonol kaempferol-3,7-di(O)-methyl inhibit development of the seedlings of Rumex crispus at 0.5 and 1 mM. Additive effects were observed between the major flavonols of the exudate kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl and kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl in inhibiting the size of the cotyledons and delaying the germination and cotyledon emergence. The presence of apigenin-4'-(O)-methyl, kaempferol-3,7-di-(O)-methyl, and kaempferol-3-(O)-methyl was detected in the soils associated with C. ladanifer during the summer and autumn months. That these compounds are present in the soil and are not restricted to the leaves provides support for the hypothesis that C. ladanifer has allelopathic potential. PMID:11441450

  18. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas F. Haas; Nelson, Craig E.; Forest Rohwer; Linda Wegley-Kelly; Steven D. Quistad; Carlson, Craig A; James J. Leichter; Mark Hatay; Smith, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community re...

  19. [A clinical study on the penetration of aspoxicillin into tissue and wound exudates in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuburaya, H; Watanabe, I; Takahashi, M; Endo, S

    1985-06-01

    Penetration of aspoxicillin (ASPC), a new semisynthetic penicillin of broad spectrum, into normal and cancer tissue and wound exudate were examined in breast cancer. ASPC was administered by single injection of 1 or 2 g. The concentration of ASPC in the resected skin, normal mammary gland and cancer were similar to their serum levels, when ASPC was administered before radical mastectomy. ASPC concentration in the wound exudate which was collected from the inserted drains into the resected area reached the maximum at 3 approximately 4 hours after the injection at the levels of 19.4 micrograms/ml (1 g) and 35.1 micrograms/ml (2 g). The level decreased gradually by maintained still high at 3.7 micrograms/ml (1 g) and 11.4 micrograms/ml (2 g) even 8 hours after the injection. From these results it may be expected that ASPC is a useful penicillin in the breast surgery. PMID:4046174

  20. Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substances in the root exudates and biological nitrogen fixation capacity. Through this study we have identified, the bioinoculants consortium improves the colonization potential, sustainability within the inoculants and enhances crop growth. We hypothesize that microbial consortium enhances plant growth positively by a multitude of synergistic mechanisms when compared to single inoculants application.

  1. Sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha and their neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Li, Yushan; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Cuizhou; Ma, Yonggang; Gao, Jie; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Ten new furanosesquiterpenoids, myrrhterpenoids A-J (1- 10), together with eight known analogues (11- 18), were isolated from the resinous exudates of COMMIPHORA MYRRHA. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by the ChemDraw 3D modeling using MM2. All isolated furanosesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP (+)-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:21830185

  2. Systems Approach with Inflammatory Exudates Uncovers Novel Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Charles N. Serhan

    2008-01-01

    Using a systems approach to mine spontaneously resolving inflammatory exudates, novel families of lipid- derived mediators were identified in animal systems that control both the duration and magnitude of acute inflammation. These new families were coined the resolvins and protectins because they posses potent bioactions and novel chemical structures. The mapping of these new resolution circuits has already provided new avenues for appreciating the molecular basis of many inflammatory disease...

  3. The Past, Present, and Future of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Yoreh; Heroman, Wesley J.; Tezel, Tongalp H.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular “destructive treatments,” such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitreal i...

  4. Purification of exuding water in reclaimed land by combination of irradiation and biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dirty water exuding from garbage-filled reclaimed land contains a large quantity of organic contaminating substances. The main component of the contaminating substances is humus called humic acid and fulvic acid. It is difficult to apply biological treatment such as activated sludge process to exuding water because the biological decomposition property of the humus is generally poor. Sufficient effect cannot be expected by physicochemical process such as active carbon treatment and flocculation-precipitation treatment because the molecular weight distribution of the humus is very wide. If irradiation and biological treatment can be combined, the irradiation dose required can be largely reduced. Therefore, exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated to see the change of its BOD. The irradiating condition in irradiation-biological treatment was clarified, and the possible method of the combined treatment was decided for trial. The peak value of BOD and the dose required to reach the peak were almost proportional to the initial concentration, and pH did not much affect the change of BOD. The low dose rate did not bring about much merit. (Kako, I.)

  5. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nanthakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.

  6. Radiotracer studies on the role of root exudates in uptake of Cr(III) and Cd by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Column chromatographic and electrophoretic experiment to investigate the modification of chromium-III and cadmium metal species in root environment of the plant maize (Z. Mays), particularly, by organic acid present in root exudates have been conducted. It was found that a significant part of Cr(III) and Cd gets organically bound. Attempts have also been made to study the nature of (root exudate-metal) complexes in each case. (author). 10 refs

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to seed and root exudates collected under different nutrient regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalhais Costa, Lilia

    2010-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) live in close association with plants and improve their growth. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42 is a prominent plant root-colonizing bacterium that is able to stimulate the growth of maize. To decipher the molecular cross-talk between B. amyloliquefaciens and crop plants, an exploratory analysis of the effect of seed and root exudates on the transcriptome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 was performed. Root exudates were collected from ma...

  8. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the biogeochemical processes acting in the rhizosphere which can play an important role in the availability of trace elements (either nutrient or toxic) for plant uptake. Research is supported by MIUR - FIRB "Futuro in ricerca", internal grant of Unibz (TN5031 & TN5046) and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Rhizotyr TN5218).

  9. Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houston SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

  10. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A M; Caulfield, J C; Hao, B; Pickett, J A; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R

    2015-09-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. PMID:26164239

  11. Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

    2012-12-15

    The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

  12. BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; Ajredini, Ramadan; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H.; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T.; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T.; BRÜSCHWEILER, RAFAEL

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans ex...

  13. Detection of specific antibodies in gingival crevicular transudate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Ramírez, L E; Hernández-Gómez, L; Sifuentes-Osornio, J; Barriga-Angulo, G; Duarte de Lima, D; López-Portillo, M; Ruiz-Palacios, G M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this open and multicenter trial was to determine the usefulness of antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in gingival crevicular transudate (GCT), which was collected with an investigational device (Orasure; Epitope, Beaverton, Oreg.), for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and to compare it with antibody detection in serum. A total of 1,880 individuals were tested, as follows: 354 HIV-1-infected individuals (111 asym...

  14. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous soil nematode, lives in a complex environment that requires chemical communication for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied...

  15. Senescent leaf exudate increases mosquito survival and microbial activity

    OpenAIRE

    PELZ-STELINSKI, K. S.; Walker, E.D.; KAUFMAN, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of soluble components in senescent leaf material on the growth and development of the eastern tree hole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus (Say). Oak leaves that were either leached for three days to remove the labile nutrient fraction, or were not leached, served as basal nutrient inputs in each experiment.Mosquito performance in microcosms containing leachate only was significantly worse compared with microcosms containing leaf material in combinati...

  16. Unusual bacterial infections and the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeldt, Carlos E; Huggins, John T; Sahn, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsiosis, Q fever, tularemia, and anthrax are all bacterial diseases that can affect the pleura. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) are caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, respectively. Pleural fluid from a patient with MSF had a neutrophil-predominant exudate. Coxiellaburnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. Of the two cases described in the literature, one was an exudate with a marked eosinophilia while the other case was a transudate due to a constrictive pericarditis. Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Pleural fluid from three tularemia patients showed a lymphocyte predominant exudate. Bacillusanthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Cases of inhalational anthrax from a recent bioterrorist attack evidenced the presence of a serosanguineous exudative pleural effusion. These four bacterial microorganisms should be suspected in patients presenting with a clinical history, exposure to known risk factors and an unexplained pleural effusion. PMID:22977649

  17. Proteomics of wound exudate in snake venom-induced pathology: search for biomarkers to assess tissue damage and therapeutic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2011-04-01

    Tissue damage analysis by traditional laboratory techniques is problematic. Proteomic analysis of exudates collected from affected tissue constitutes a powerful approach to assess tissue alterations, since biomarkers associated with pathologies can be identified in very low concentrations. In this study we proteomically explore the pathological effects induced by the venom of the viperid snake Bothrops asper in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Predominant proteins identified in the exudates included intracellular proteins, plasma proteins, extracellular matrix proteins and cell membrane-associated proteins. The presence of such proteins indicates cytotoxicity, plasma exudation, extracellular matrix degradation and shedding of membrane proteins. Some of these proteins may represent useful biomarkers for myonecrosis and microvascular damage. The effect of fucoidan, an inhibitor of myotoxic phospholipases A(2), and batimastat, an inhibitor of metalloproteinases, on the pathological effects induced by B. asper venom were also investigated. Fucoidan reduced the presence of intracellular proteins in exudates, whereas batimastat reduced the amount of relevant extracellular matrix proteins. The combination of these inhibitors resulted in the abrogation of the most relevant pathological effects of this venom. Thus, proteomic analysis of exudates represents a valuable approach to assess the characteristics of tissue damage in pathological models and the success of therapeutic interventions. PMID:21306181

  18. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance. PMID:24974726

  19. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates and distilled water. This indicates that fungal fatty acid metabolism is enhanced when contacting insect, but when in the absence of insect hosts NRP synthesis is increased. Ornithine, arginine and GABA are decreased in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates but remain unchanged in distilled water, which suggests that they may be associated with fungal cross-talk with insects and plants. Trehalose and mannitol are decreased while adenine is increased in three conditions, signifying carbon shortage in cells. Together, these results unveil that B. bassiana has differential metabolic responses in pupae extracts and root exudates, and metabolic similarity in root exudates and distilled water is possibly due to the lack of insect components. PMID:25584432

  20. Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root exudates. We found that mucilage and 14C concentrations were higher around the young root segments. Mucilage concentration was particularly high in the most apical 3-5 cm of the roots. Drought stress increased 14C exudation relative to C fixation and led to higher mucilage concentrations around roots. However, it remains unclear, whether the lower mucilage concentration around roots grown at higher soil moisture was caused by the faster diffusion of mucilage in wet soils. Therefore, a second experiment was focused on diffusion of mucilage in soil at varying water contents. The diffusion of mucilage in soil was not very sensitive to soil water content. We conclude that mucilage release was higher for plants exposed to drought stress. In summary, the combination of neutron radiography and 14C imaging can successfully be used to visualize and to quantify the distribution of mucilage and root exudates in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil. References Kroener, E., Zarebanadkouki, M., Kaestner, A., & Carmintati, A. (2014). Nonequilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere: How mucilage affects water flow in soils. Water Resources Research, 37. Pausch, J., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2011). Photoassimilate allocation and dynamics of hotspots in roots visualized by 14C phosphor imaging. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174(1), 12-19.

  2. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nausch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

  3. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  4. Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giacomini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated with the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90. Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM.

  5. Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Giacomini; A., Bisio; E., Giacomelli; S., Pivetti; S., Bertolini; D., Fraternale; D., Ricci; G., Romussi; N., De Tommasi.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated wi [...] th the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity) and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90). Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM).

  6. Enrichment of specific bacterial and eukaryotic microbes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum?L.) through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Li, Xiangzhen; Smyth, Eoghan M; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-06-01

    Identification of microbes that actively utilize root exudates is essential to understand plant-microbe interactions. To identify active root exudate-utilizing microorganisms associated with switchgrass - a potential bioenergy crop - plants were labelled in situ with (13) CO2 , and 16S and 18S rRNA genes in the (13) C-labelled rhizosphere DNA were pyrosequenced. Multi-pulse labelling for 5 days produced detectable (13) C-DNA, which was well separated from unlabelled DNA. Methylibium from the order Burkholderiales were the most heavily labelled bacteria. Pythium, Auricularia and Galerina were the most heavily labelled eukaryotic microbes. We also identified a Glomus intraradices-like species; Glomus members are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that are able to colonize the switchgrass root. All of these heavily labelled microorganisms were also among the most abundant species in the rhizosphere. Species belonging to Methylibium and Pythium were the most heavily labelled and the most abundant bacteria and eukaryotes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass. Our results revealed that nearly all of the dominant rhizosphere bacterial and eukaryotic microbes were able to utilize root exudates. The enrichment of microbial species in the rhizosphere is selective and mostly due to root exudation, which functions as a nutrition source, promoting the growth of these microbes. PMID:24983534

  7. Root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants of pakistan exhibit allelopathic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root exudates and leaf leachates of 19 medicinal plants commonly used in Pakistan by plant box and sandwich methods, respectively. In sandwich method, lettuce seedlings were grown with the dry leaf leachates of the selected plant species in a growing media at the rate of 5, 10 and 50 mg dish-1 in a completely randomized design with three replications. Their effects on hypocotyl and radicle growth of the lettuce were recorded as a percentage of untreated control. Data was subjected for analysis of variance and treatment means were compared by Tukey's HSD test at p<0.05. Results indicated that allelopathic effects of the leaf leachates of all selected plant species on the hypocotyl and radicle elongations of the lettuce varied significantly in all concentrations used in experiments. The hypocotyl growth of the lettuce seedlings was affected from promotion (6.71% inhibition) caused by Phlaris minor to inhibition (78.40%) by Withania somnifera. Both species suppressed the radicle length from 33.69-93.30%. Leachates of W. somnifera and Sarcococca saligna exhibited strong inhibitory results in a concentration dependant manner. After the growth period of 50 days, root exudates of S. saligna appeared most detrimental (78.00% inhibition) to radicle growth of the lettuce seedling followed by W. somnifera (75.00%) when tested by plant box method. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further joint research on the elucidation of chemicals involved in the allelopathy in nature and in the development of new and potent bioherbicides to combat environmental risk. (author)

  8. Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

  9. The phytochemical profile and identification of main phenolic compounds from the leaf exudate of Aloe secundiflora by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca, Waihenya; Kayser, Oliver; Hagels, Hansjörg; Zessin, Karl H; Madundo, Mtambo; Gamba, Nkwengulila

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical profile of Aloe secundiflora (Aloeaceae) and the identity of eight major compounds, including the two main constituents, have been determined from the leaf exudate of this ethnoveterinary used species from Kenya and Tanzania. Analytical HPLC-MS studies of the exudate have revealed that it comprises a mixture of phenolic compounds, mainly anthrones (aloenin, aloenin B, isobarbaloin, barbaloin and other aloin derivatives), chromones and phenylpyrones with a low content of polysaccharides and aliphatic compounds. The high percentage of anthrones in the exudate could provide a first line of evidence for the use of the plant in ethnoveterinary practices. PMID:12693631

  10. Phosphorus and iron deficiencies induce a metabolic reprogramming and affect the exudation traits of the woody plant Fragaria×ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, Fabio; Pii, Youry; Vigani, Gianpiero; Lehmann, Martin; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Strawberries are a very popular fruit among berries, for both their commercial and economic importance, but especially for their beneficial effects for human health. However, their bioactive compound content is strictly related to the nutritional status of the plant and might be affected if nutritional disorders (e.g. Fe or P shortage) occur. To overcome nutrient shortages, plants evolved different mechanisms, which often involve the release of root exudates. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying root exudation and its regulation are as yet still poorly known, in particular in woody crop species. The aim of this work was therefore to characterize the pattern of root exudation of strawberry plants grown in either P or Fe deficiency, by investigating metabolomic changes of root tissues and the expression of genes putatively involved in exudate extrusion. Although P and Fe deficiencies differentially affected the total metabolism, some metabolites (e.g. raffinose and galactose) accumulated in roots similarly under both conditions. Moreover, P deficiency specifically affected the content of galactaric acid, malic acid, lysine, proline, and sorbitol-6-phosphate, whereas Fe deficiency specifically affected the content of sucrose, dehydroascorbic acid, galactonate, and ferulic acid. At the same time, the citrate content did not change in roots under both nutrient deficiencies with respect to the control. However, a strong release of citrate was observed, and it increased significantly with time, being +250% and +300% higher in Fe- and P-deficient plants, respectively, compared with the control. Moreover, concomitantly, a significant acidification of the growth medium was observed in both treatments. Gene expression analyses highlighted for the first time that at least two members of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter family and one member of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase family are involved in the response to both P and Fe starvation in strawberry plants. PMID:26188206

  11. Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease.Materials and methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed.Results: There were 43 female (48.9% and 45 males (51.1%. The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19 months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009. The mean central retinal thickness (CRT decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 µm at baseline to 250.85±45.48 µm at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 µm at baseline to 268.61±53.51 µm at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ranibizumab, visual acuity

  12. Organic acids, sugars, and L-tryptophane in exudates of vegetables growing on stonewool and their effects on activities of rhizosphere bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Azarova, Tatiyana; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-03-01

    The influence of stonewool substrate on the exudation of the major soluble carbon nutrients and of the auxin precursor tryptophane for Pseudomonas biocontrol agents was studied. To this end, the composition of the organic acids and sugars, as well that of tryptophane, of axenically collected exudates of seed, seedlings, and roots of tomato, cucumber, and sweet pepper was determined. The major results were as follows. i) The total amount of organic acid is much higher than that of total sugar. ii) Exudation of both organic acids and sugars increases during plant growth. iii) Citric, succinic, and malic acids represent the major organic acids, whereas fructose and glucose are the major sugars. iv) Compared with glass beads as a neutral substrate, stonewool substantially stimulates exudation of organic acids and sugars. v) It appeared that enhanced root-tip-colonizing bacteria isolated previously from the rhizosphere of tomato and cucumber grow much better in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source than other, randomly selected rhizobacteria do. This indicates that the procedure which selects for excellent root-tip colonizers enriches for strains which utilize the major exudate carbon source citrate. vi) The content of L-tryptophane, the direct precursor of auxin, is approximately 60-fold higher in seedling exudates of tomato and sweet pepper than in cucumber seedling exudates, indicating a higher possibility of plant growth stimulation after inoculation with auxin-producing rhizobacteria for tomato and sweet pepper crops than for cucumber. However, the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, which is able to convert tryptophane into auxin, did not stimulate growth of these three crops. In contrast, this strain did stimulate growth of roots of radish, a plant which exudes nine times more tryptophane than tomato does. PMID:16570655

  13. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum...... peat, peat pore water and natural microbial communities, were exposed outdoors to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15% ozone depletion in southern Scandinavia for 8 wk. •  Enhanced UV-B increased rhizome biomass and tended to decrease the biomass of the largest root fraction of N. ossifragum and...... furthermore decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and monocarboxylic acid concentration, which serves as an estimate of net root exudation, in the pore water of the N. ossifragum mesocosms. Monocarboxylic acid concentration was negatively related to the total carbon concentration of N. ossifragum leaves...

  14. Identification and effects of interaction phytotoxic compounds from exudate of Cistus ladanifer leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Sosa, T; Alías, J C; Escudero, J C

    2001-03-01

    Eleven allelochemicals (ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, methyl propionate, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, butyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene) were identified in the exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. We studied the effect of each on germination, cotyledon emergence, root length, and cotyledon length of Rumex crispus. Three groups were distinguished with respect to phytotoxic activity: compounds with low activity (ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, oxalic acid, methylmalonic acid, p-anisic acid, hydroxybutyric acid, and azulene), with intermediate activity (cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid), and with high activity (methyl propionate and butyric acid). The effect of the interaction of the compounds was studied. When acting conjointly, all combinations tested produced a more negative effect on both germination and seedling growth than when acting alone. The interaction affected cotyledon emergence and root length more negatively than germination and cotyledon length. When hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid were added to these mixtures there was an enhancement in the phytotoxic activity, accentuating the effect of the other allelochemicals. PMID:11441449

  15. Rheological Modeling, Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Characterization of Raphia hookeri (RH Gum Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk Okon EDDY

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Raphia hookeri (RH gum exudate has been analysed for physical (colour, odour, taste, pH, salinity, turbidity, chemical (solubility in some solvents, proximate/elemental composition, vitamin composition, phytochemicals and anti-nutrients and spectroscopic (wavelength of maximum absorption, GCMS, FTIR and SEM properties. The results obtained from the study revealed that RH gum has the potential for utilization as an emulsifier, a food additive and as a pharmaceutical excipient. Rheological modeling on the gum revealed that the average intrinsic value of the gum, (deduced from Huggins, Kraemer, Tanglerpaibul and Rao models is approximately 3.0 dl/g. The calculated values of Huggins and Kraemer constants revealed the existence of molecular association in the gum. The gum is found to possess unique rheological properties including absence of degradation/conformational changes, existent of intra and inter molecular interactions, adoption of random coil model and absent of coil overlap transition. RH gum is a shear thinning, non- Newtonian gum with pseudo-plastic behavior. The calculated thermodynamic parameters were comparable to those reported for some food gums.

  16. The past, present, and future of exudative age-related macular degeneration treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoreh Barak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular "destructive treatments," such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitreal injections that also carry the inherit risks of infection, retinal tears, and detachment. Several new and more potent VEGF inhibitors are at different stages of development. The goal of evolving pharmacotherapy is to preserve the therapeutic effect while reducing or eliminating the discomfort of intravitreal drug delivery, as well as identify new therapeutic targets. Complement inhibitors, immunomodulators, integrin inhibitors are a few of the new class of drugs that are expected to be in our armamentarium soon. Current medications act to decrease leakage through abnormal subretinal choroidal vasculature and promote involution. However, these medications are only effective in treating the active stage of the choroidal neovascular membrane. Restoration of vision of a large number of patients with involuted choroidal neovascular membranes is warranted. For this purpose, tissue engineering techniques have been employed to reconstruct the subretinal anatomy. Discovery of biomarkers, pharmacogenetics, and very specific targeting holds the promise of increased potency and safety in the future.

  17. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF HARD EXUDATES IN FUNDUS IMAGES USING IMPROVED OTSU THRESHOLDING AND SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One common cause of visual impairment among people of working age in the industrialized countries is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR. Automatic recognition of hard exudates (EXs which is one of DR lesions in fundus images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of DR.The aim of this paper was to automatically detect those lesions from fundus images. At first,green channel of each original fundus image was segmented by improved Otsu thresholding based on minimum inner-cluster variance, and candidate regions of EXs were obtained. Then, we extracted features of candidate regions and selected a subset which best discriminates EXs from the retinal background by means of logistic regression (LR. The selected features were subsequently used as inputs to a SVM to get a final segmentation result of EXs in the image. Our database was composed of 120 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. 70 of them were used to train the SVM and the remaining 50 to assess the performance of the method. Using a lesion based criterion, we achieved a mean sensitivity of 95.05% and a mean positive predictive value of 95.37%. With an image-based criterion, our approach reached a 100% mean sensitivity, 90.9% mean specificity and 96.0% mean accuracy. Furthermore, the average time cost in processing an image is 8.31 seconds. These results suggest that the proposed method could be a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the screening for DR.

  18. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100 were taken from refrigerated carcasses (RS immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2. pH and temperature (T values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS. The ultimate pH (pHu value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  19. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Marco; Mari, Alfredo; Novero, Mara; Bonfante, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) germinated spore exudates (GSEs), responsible for activating nuclear Ca(2+) spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (COs; acknowledged AM fungal signals) and long COs (as activators of pathogenic responses). This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 h and a subsequent down-regulation after 48 h. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be up-regulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long COs activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs. PMID:26175746

  20. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

  1. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayka Reghiany, Pedrão; Talita, Kato; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia, Coró; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paião; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  2. Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayka Reghiany, Pedrão; Talita, Kato; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia, Coró; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paião; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

  3. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagnum peat, peat pore water and natural microbial communities, were exposed outdoors to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15% ozone depletion in southern Scandinavia for 8 wk. •  Enhanced UV-B increased rh...

  4. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  5. Glutamine improves impaired cellular exudation and polymorphonuclear neutrophil phagocytosis induced by total parenteral nutrition after glycogen-induced murine peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shigeo; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Le, Tho; Zarzaur, Ben L; Johnson, Cheryl D

    2003-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory evidence shows that enteral feeding significantly reduces pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess formation after celiotomy for severe trauma. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with glutamine (GLN) supports impaired immunity induced by TPN in several animal and human studies. This work investigates the peritoneal cellular response and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) bactericidal function after mouse chemical peritonitis after TPN with and without GLN. Thirty-three mice received chow, TPN, or 2% GLN-supplemented TPN (GLN-TPN) for 5 days. All mice then received 2 mL of a 1% glycogen solution intraperitoneally to induce cell exudation, and peritoneal exudative cells (PECs) were recovered 4 h later. Total and differential PEC numbers, as well as PMN phagocytosis, reactive oxygen intermediate production (ROI), CD11b (integrin aM chain) expression, and CD16/32 (Fcgamma II/III receptor) expression were measured. PMN, macrophage, and lymphocyte cell numbers were significantly lower with TPN than with chow or GLN-TPN groups, with no differences between chow and GLN-TPN. TPN significantly lowered peritoneal PMN phagocytosis compared with chow (P TPN (P = 0.06). There were no significant differences in ROI production or CD11b and CD16/32 expression on peritoneal PMN. GLN supplementation improved the reduction in cell exudation and PMN phagocytosis induced by TPN after chemical peritonitis. PMID:12558144

  6. VARIATION IN RHIZOBIUM GROWTH DUE TO SEED AND ROOT EXUDATES RELEASED FROM GAMMA IRRADIATED GLYCINE MAX SEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, seeds of Glycine max Giza 122 were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co source at various doses (10 to 200 Gy), sterilized and soaked into an aerated solution of CaSO4 (1 mmol and pH 6.5). The capacities of the released seed exudates (SEs) and root exudates (REs) to promote Rhizobium leguminosarum growth were investigated as well as biochemical analysis of the exudates was carried out. SE of both control and gamma irradiated seeds resulted in a higher Rhizobium population and polysaccharide production than RE. Relative to control, the highly effective doses in Rhizobium growth and polysaccharide production were 25 and 200 Gy; the former was a promoter while the later was an inhibitor. HPLC analysis of soluble carbohydrates revealed the presence of glucose (Glu), rhamnose (Rha) and fructose (Fru) in the SE and RE. Protein content in SE was lower than that in RE; the highest values were due to 10 Gy and 25 Gy in SE and RE, respectively. Free amino acids content in SE was increased up to 25 Gy then decreased while RE was increased by increasing gamma doses from 10 to 200 Gy

  7. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8?:?10.9?:?35.5?:?6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200?MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55?°C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity. PMID:22701057

  8. Association of autosomal dominant familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammo, Danny; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Thomas, Benjamin J; Shah, Ankoor R; Abbey, Ashkan M; Trese, Michael T; Drenser, Kimberly A; Capone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-month-old boy with severe retinal detachment from familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FZD4 exon 1 deletion). He was subsequently diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy with SMN1 deletion. ?-catenin signaling is dysregulated in both disorders, so we hypothesize that the co-occurrence may have exacerbated the vitreoretinal phenotype. PMID:26109022

  9. Eligibility for treatment and angiographic features at the early stage of exudative age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, W M; Coscas, G.; Soubrane, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the eligibility for laser photocoagulation treatment or for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin in eyes at the earliest stage (first month of symptoms) of exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD) based on fluorescein angiographic (FA) features; to evaluate the potential contribution of indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) for occult choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) at this stage.

  10. Differing antimicrobial potency and specificity of peripheral blood and autologous exudative polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C; Schütze, E; Gmoser, U

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the antimicrobial potency and specificity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes which actually appear at the sites of bacterial invasion in tissues. In the present work we have compared inflammatory leucocytes induced by intraperitoneal injection of casein in rabbits with autologous peripheral blood cells in killing Escherichia coli serotype 01 and Staphylococcus aureus 502A. The results indicate that inflammatory leucocytes differ significantly from their virgin blood ancestors. While the blood leucocytes were only able to suppress the growth of the gram-negative bacteria, autologous exudative cells killed more than 95% of the test organisms within 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. The enhanced microbicidal activity of the inflammatory cells however, was only specific for the gram-negative bacteria, as evidenced by the failure of leucocytes to kill Staph. aureus to the same extent as the peripheral blood cells. In association with the enhanced gram-negative microbicidal activity the inflammatory cells produced chemiluminescence and released two to three times more O2-anions than the peripheral cells. We interpret these observations to mean that chemotactic factors such as casein activate inflammatory cells to increase their oxidative metabolism. Since microbicidal action of leucocytes is thought to proceed in part through oxygen-dependent reactions, the inflammatory leucocytes would be expected to effectively kill bacteria that are highly susceptible to these lethal oxygen metabolites. It cannot therefore be assumed that assessment of the functional capacity of the virgin peripheral blood PMNs would provide information on the functional characteristics of activated leucocytes which actually migrate to and accumulate at inflammatory sites. PMID:6094092

  11. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of Gum Exudates from Khaya senegalensis and Albizia ferruginea on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Paul Ocheje

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the inhibitory potentials of gum exudates from Albizia ferruginea (AF) and Khaya senegalensis (KS) on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl medium was investigated using weight loss and gasometric method. The active chemical constituents of the gum were elucidated using GC-MS while FTIR was used to identify the bonds/functional groups in the gums. The two gum exudates were found to be good corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium. On comparison, maximum inhibit...

  12. Looking beyond sugars: phytochemical profiling and standardization of manna exudates from Sicilian Fraxinus excelsior L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Tonelli, Letizia; Palla, Gerardo; Marseglia, Angela; Rossi, Damiano; Bruni, Renato

    2013-10-01

    Different grades of genuine and counterfeit Fraxinus excelsior exudates, marketed as natural sweeteners or mild laxatives, were evaluated for their proximate composition and for saccharidic, organic acids, lipidic and phenolic profile by means of GC-MS and (1)H NMR. Genuine samples contained mannitol (39-48 g/100 g, according to the grade), fructose (9-16 g/100 g), glucose (2-3.7 g/100 g), sorbitol (0,5-0,6 g/100 g), galactose (0.02-0.74 g/100 g), oligosaccharides as mannotriose (13-22 g/100 g) and stachyose (1-11 g/100 g), and traces of myo-inositol, mannose, sucrose. On the contrary, counterfeit samples contained mostly mannitol and sorbitol, with traces of fructose, glucose and mannose. Differences in ash, total polyphenolic content and fatty acid composition allowed a quick identification of counterfeit products, confirmed by a distinct mono-, oligosaccharidic and phenolic pattern. Elenolic acid (63-1628 mg/kg), tyrosol (15-774 mg/kg), homovanillic acid (2,39-52.8 mg/Kg), dopaol (0.8-63 mg/kg), pinoresinol (4.2-18.5 mg/kg) and fraxetin (0.25-11.64 mg/kg), albeit showing a wide concentration range, were the most abundant substances detected in the phenolic fraction of Fraxinus manna, while esculetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenacetic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxy-pinoresinol, medioresinol and siringaresinol were present in low amounts. The polyphenolic profile may be used as a marker for authentication and should be considered in the evaluation of nutritional and health properties ascribed to Fraxinus manna. PMID:23850543

  13. Modeling the Interaction of H2 on Root Exudate Degradation and Methanogenesis in Wetland Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are many potential sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2 while the H2 and CO2 is synthesized to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. Since H2 is used in methane production and produced in propionate fermentation, increased subsurface H2 concentrations can simultaneously inhibit propionate fermentation and acetate production and enhance hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. For this study, we incubated soil samples from vegetated wetland sediments with propionate or acetate and four different hydrogen concentrations. The headspaces from these incubations were simultaneously analyzed for H2 and CH4 at multiple time points over two months. The comparison of methane production between different hydrogen concentrations and different carbon sources can indicate which process is most affected by increased hydrogen concentrations. The results from this study were combined with a newly formulated steady-state model of propionate degradation and formation of methane, that also accounts for the venting off both gases via plants. The resulting model indicates how methane production and emissions would be affected by plant volatilization.

  14. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and homocysteine in exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Javadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oxidative stress has been proposed as an important case of exudative age-related macular degeneration (E-ARMD. The aim of the present study was to investigate homocysteine (Hcy, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDL-C levels, the factors involved in oxidative stress, in the patients with E-ARMD. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 45 patients with E-ARMD were compared with 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The levels of biochemical factors, Hcy, ADMA, and of Ox-LDL were estimated by standard methods in both study groups. Results: The levels of Hcy (15.4 ± 7.2 vs. 10.7 ± 3.7 ?M, P = 0.001, Ox-LDL (52.2 ± 13.8 vs. 37.8 ± 10.8 U/l, P = 0.001, and ADMA (0.84 ± 0.23 vs. 0.71 ± 0.26 ?M, P = 0.012 were significantly higher in the patients with E-ARMD than those in the controls. In the patient group, there was a positive and significant correlation between serum Ox-LDL and Hcy concentrations (r = 0.719, P = 0.001, but no correlation was found between serum ADMA and Ox-LDL (r = 0.010, P = 0.900 and also between serum Hcy and ADMA levels (r = -0.070, P = 0.600. Conclusion: The high levels of Hcy as an oxidant agent and ADMA as an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor can lead to increase Ox-LDL levels, and they may have important roles in oxidative stress, which can be a trigger in E-ARMD.

  15. Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maloso Ramos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

  16. Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Maloso, Ramos; Eduardo Francisquine, Delgado.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of [...] pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i) investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii) the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

  17. Leachability of volatile fuel compounds from contaminated soils and the effect of plant exudates: A comparison of column and batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fuel compounds such as fuel oxygenates (FO) (MTBE and ETBE) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) are some of the most soluble components of fuel. Characterizing the leaching potential of these compounds is essential for predicting their mobility through the soil profile and assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. Plant root exudates can play an important role in the modification of contaminant mobility in soil-plant systems, and such effects should also be considered in leaching studies. Artificially spiked samples of A and B horizons from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were leached in packed-columns and batch experiments using Milli-Q water and plant root exudates as leaching agents. The leaching potential and rate were strongly influenced by soil-contaminant interactions and by the presence of root exudates. Organic matter in A horizon preferably sorbed the most non-polar contaminants, lowering their leaching potential, and this effect was enhanced by the presence of root exudates. On the other hand, the inorganic components of the B horizon, showed a greater affinity for polar molecules, and the presence of root exudates enhanced the desorption of the contaminants. Column experiments resulted in a more realistic protocol than batch tests for predicting the leaching potential of volatile organic compounds in dissimilar soils. PMID:26619047

  18. Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems

  19. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  20. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine) as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    S.C. Nwigbo; V.N. Okafor; A.O. Okewale

    2012-01-01

    This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine), which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M) H2...

  1. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 ?M P) and sufficient P (50 ?M P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato-three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  2. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 ?mol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 ?mol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 ?mol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 ?mol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations. PMID:26220483

  3. Histamine-induced airway mucosal exudation of bulk plasma and plasma-derived mediators is not inhibited by intravenous bronchodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C; Alkner, U; Pipkorn, U; Persson, C G

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the possibility that common bronchodilators, such as the xanthines and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, may produce microvascular anti-permeability effects in the subepithelial microcirculation of the airways. In this study, we have examined the effect of bronchodilators given intravenously on exudation of different-sized plasma proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) and the generation of plasma-derived peptides (bradykinins) in human nasal airways challenged with histamine. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled and randomised trial, 12 normal volunteers were given i.v.infusions of terbutaline sulphate, theophylline and enprofylline to produce therapeutic drug levels. The effect of topical nasal provocation with histamine was closely followed by frequently nasal lavage with saline. The lavage fluid levels of albumin, fibrinogen and bradykinins increased significantly after each histamine provocation. The ratio of albumin-to-fibrinogen in plasma and the lavage fluid was 24 and 56, respectively, indicating that topical histamine provocation induced a largely non-sieved flux of macromolecules across the endothelial-epithelial barriers. The systemically administered drugs did not affect the nasal symptoms (sneezing, secretion and blockage), nor did they significantly reduce the levels of plasma proteins and plasma-derived mediators in the nasal lavage fluids. The present data suggest that systemic xanthines and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, at clinically employed plasma levels, may not affect the microvascular (and epithelial) exudative permeability and the bradykinin forming capacity of human airways. PMID:8005188

  4. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  5. Detection of QTL for exudation rate at ripening stage in rice and its contribution to hydraulic conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshio; Suzuki, Tadafumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Adachi, Shunsuke; Sun, Jian; Yano, Masahiro; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Dry matter production of crops is determined by how much light they intercept and how efficiently they use it for carbon fixation; i.e., photosynthesis. The high-yielding rice cultivar, Akenohoshi, maintains a high photosynthetic rate in the middle of the day owing to its high hydraulic conductance in comparison with the elite commercial rice cultivar, Koshihikari. We developed 94 recombinant inbred lines derived from Akenohoshi and Koshihikari and measured their exudation rate to calculate hydraulic conductance to osmotic water transport in a paddy field. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for exudation rate was detected on the long arm of chromosome 2 at the heading and ripening stages. We developed chromosome segment substitution lines which carried Akenohoshi segments in the Koshihikari genetic background, and measured hydraulic conductance to both osmotic and passive water transport. The QTL was confirmed to be located within a region of about 4.2Mbp on the distal end of long arm of chromosome 2. The Akenohoshi allele increased root surface area and hydraulic conductance, but didn't increase hydraulic conductivity of a plant. PMID:26566844

  6. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates

  8. The 11C Project:Measurement of Root Exudation at Elevated CO2 Levels in Low and High Nutrient Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandre, Verida; Howell, Calvin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the plant kingdom's mechanisms of resource management in variable environments is integral to predicting how plants will respond to an increase in atmospheric CO2 . The goal of this study is to determine the effects of changing nutrient conditions on the root exudation of barley plants at elevated CO2 levels. The 11 C group at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) tags various species of plants with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes in order to analyze metabolite transport in response to changes in the environment. 11 C is produced at TUNL using a tandem Van de Graaff particle accelerator, then transported from TUNL to the Duke Univ. Phytotron (100m) where plants are labeled with 11 C in a growth chamber. The chamber allows researchers to control the light intensity, air temperature, humidity and concentration of CO2 in the air. The plant absorbs 11 CO2 in a leaf that is placed inside a cuvette through which radioactive 11 CO2 gas flows. The sugars in the labeling leaf are tagged with 11 C and translocated throughout the plant similar to 12 C. Scintillation detectors are used to track the tagged sugars as they are translocated through the plant and exudated from the root into the nutrient solution or 11 CO2 gas is respired by the root. The labeling system, detector arrangement, electronics and data analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  9. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  10. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  11. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  13. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in th...

  14. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...

  15. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59 resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with the presence of a 4.4 kb plasmid in 17 strains studied. Resistance to penicillin, observed in 44 strains, and resistance to kanamycin, observed in 15 strains, could not be related to plasmids in any of these strains. The 11.5 kb plasmid was observed in 39% of the strains isolated from piglets with EE, and in 7% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets.

  16. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  17. Influence of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate on the in vitro phagocytosis of hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal exudate cells: an electron microscopic and chemiluminescence study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvönen, P M; Kowolik, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and standard chemiluminescence assays were used to investigate the in vivo effect of dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (clodronate) on the phagocytosis of pure hydroxyapatite particles by rat peritoneal macrophages and the production of chemiluminescence by the peritoneal exudate cells. Hydroxyapatite (control) and a hydroxyapatite/clodronate suspension (28 mumol clodronate per gram of hydroxyapatite, experimental) were injected into the peritoneum of rats, the...

  18. 14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  19. Clinical value of detection of malignant ascites and thoracic exudate by means of six tumor-markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical value of six potential tumor markers including serums CA125, CYFRA21-1, CA-50, CA15-3, HCG, β-HCG. These were determined in effusions of malignant ascites and hydrothorax of 170 patients, with cellular examination as control. Methods: Using IRMA. Results: The data of our experiments revealed that of all six tumor-markers, CA125 was the highest in positive rate as well as concordance rate with cytology examination. In or- der CA125, CA-50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1, β-HCG. It was valuable to point out that the specificity of HCG and β-HCG was very strong and there was no false positivity had yet been found with them. Though their positivity was not so high as that of CA125. Have to higher specificity of detection of malignant ascites by CYFRA21-1. Conclusions: It suggested that + CYFRA21-1 should be the preferred choice in diagnosing malignant hydrothorax next + CA-50,CYFRA21-1 +CA-50; for malignant ascites as well, CA125 + β-HCG determination is just as good, next CA125 + CYFRA21-1. We believe that when a clear diagnosis of a primary focus of cancer is made clinically, or a malignant ascites or thoracic exudate come highly under suspicion, the diagnosis of malignancy of the ascites or thoracic exudate can be established even though the exfoliative cells, provided the detection by tumor-markers, it has got one of the following results: the roles of tumor-markers determination in malignant serous effusions, two of CA125, CYFRA21-1. CA15-3 and CA-50 markers are positive; anyone of the above markers plus HCG or β-HCG positivity; both HCG and β-HCG or CA15-3 are positive. (author)

  20. Detección y diferenciación de exudados en retinografías a color / Detection and differentiation of retinal exudates in color retinal images

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán, Sánchez Torres; Jorge Rudas, Castaño; Ricardo, Toscano Cuello.

    2011-07-15

    Full Text Available La retinopatía diabética en etapas tempranas suele ser imperceptible para los pacientes diabéticos. Sus primeras manifestaciones, tal como los microaneurismas, suelen pasar desapercibidas en exámenes especializados por su difícil detección; además, su presencia única no implica necesariamente relaci [...] ón directa con la retinopatía diabética, puesto que existen otras patologías que también pueden producirlas. Solo hasta la detección de la presencia de exudados un especialista puede deducir la presencia de la retinopatía diabética. Este artículo presenta un método que permite asistir la identificación y diferenciación de exudados sobre retinografías mediante la utilización de una variedad de clasificadores de tipo k-nn. El método propuesto demostró ser un método sensible y específico en la detección de lesiones brillantes, capaz de determinar con certeza suficiente una posible lesión en una retinografía a color, con una especificidad de 99%. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy early is not usually perceivable in patients with diabetic. Their first signs, like micro-aneurysms, often are unnoticed in preliminary test due to its difficult detection by means specialists. In addition, its presence is necessarily not directly related to diabetic retinopathy [...] , since there are others pathologies that may also cause those. Until the detection of the presence of exudates, a specialist can deduce the presence of diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents a method to assist the identification and differentiation of exudates on color retinal images based on a variety of k-nn filters. The proposed method proved to be a sensitive and specific detection of bright lesions, able to determine with sufficient certainty, a possible injury, with a specificity of 99%.

  1. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhizodeposition affects the microbial community in the rhizosphere, and microbial composition and activity may therefore differ in soil depending on plant species. We hypothesised that these differences increase over the plant growth period because roots occupy larger soil volumes and release more rhizodeposits. We tested how such medium-term responses of the microbial community can be explained by the short-term utilisation of root exudates. To test this we analysed 15N incorporation into micro...

  2. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  3. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

  4. Superabsorbent dressings for copiously exuding wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Nathalie; Safar, Helene; Baret, Mylène; Philippe, Anne; Farid, Rachida

    Exudate control is important in the management of both acute and chronic wounds. A new category of absorbent dressings that contain superabsorbent particles promises high absorbency. The aim of this multicentre, prospective, non-comparative observational study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and absorbent capacity of a superabsorbent dressing. Fifteen inpatients and outpatients with highly exuding wounds were included. Most patients (n=8) (53%) had chronic wounds; 20% (n=3) had ulcerating tumours. The superabsorbent dressing was used as a primary or a secondary dressing. Assessment was on day 0 (start), day 3 and day 7 (end of study). The study looked at wound bed and periwound skin condition, exudate production, pain upon dressing removal, reason for dressing removal, and frequency of dressing changes. A clinical visual scoring tool was used, together with digital photographs, which were assessed by the same experienced clinician. All 15 patients completed the study, during which no adverse events were noted. At day 7, maceration had reduced from 46.7% (n=7) at day 0 to 6.7% (n=1). After only 3 days, dressing change frequency was reduced from once daily to twice weekly in 80% (n=12) of patients. The superabsorbent dressing seems to reduce complications associated with exudate production, stimulate wound healing and increase patient comfort; it may also save time and costs for caregivers. PMID:22875373

  5. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  6. Release of the recombinant proteins, human serum albumin, beta-glucuronidase, glycoprotein B from human cytomegalovirus, and green fluorescent protein, in root exudates from transgenic tobacco and their effects on microbes and enzymatic activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, N; Icoz, I; Saxena, D; Stotzky, G

    2007-01-01

    We determined the release in root exudates of human serum albumin (HSA), beta-glucuronidase (GUS), glycoprotein B (gB) from human cytomegalovirus, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) from genetically modified transgenic tobacco expressing the genes for these proteins in hydroponic culture and non-sterile soil. GUS, gB, and GFP were expressed in the plant but were not released in root exudates, whereas HSA was both expressed in the plant and released in root exudates, as shown by a 66.5-kDa band on SDS-PAGE and Western blot and confirmed by ELISA. Root exudates from GUS and gB plants showed no bands that could be attributed to these proteins on SDS-PAGE, and root exudates from GFP plants showed no fluorescence. The concentration of HSA in root exudates was estimated to be 0.021 ng ml(-1), whereas that in the plant biomass was estimated to be 0.087 ng ml(-1). The concentration of HSA in soil was estimated to be 0.049 ng g(-1). No significant differences in the number of microorganisms and the activity of selected enzymes were observed between rhizosphere soil of non-modified and HSA tobacco. PMID:17467280

  7. Salivary gland structure of Ctenarytaina eucalypti (MASKELL, 1890 (Hemiptera and phloem exudate in Eucalyptus globulus LABILLARDIÈRE, 1799 (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anamika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the salivary glands of the free-living aphalarid Ctenarytaina eucalypti, which infests multiple species of Eucalyptus in Australasia and has been introduced into many other regions of the world, is described and illustrated. The principal salivary gland is multilobed whereas the accessory gland is tubular. 1-D electrophoresis revealed proteins of approximately 58 and 64 kDa in the salivary gland extracts and proteins of similar molecular weights in the extracted plant exudates, including phloem, from infested leaves and tender shoots of E. globulus. Proteins that could fall within this range include, but are not limited to, glucosemethanol- choline-oxidoreductase (53-66 kDa, Zn-binding dehydrogenase (67 kDa and esterase (65-96 kDa, in addition to cytochrome P-450 (50-55 kDa, trehalase (56 kDa, amylase (50-75 kDa and lipase (48-52 kDa. Previous studies indicate that glucose-methanol-cholineoxidoreductase, Zn-binding dehydrogenase, cytochrome P-450 and trehalase suppress plantdefence mechanisms, whereas the cell-degrading enzymes such as amylase, lipase and esterase have a possible role in enabling C. eucalypti to insert its stylet into leaf and shoot tissues of E. globulus.

  8. Allelopathic Potential of Oxalis pes-caprae Tissues and Root Exudates as a Tool for Integrated Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    I.S. Travlos; E. Paspatis; E. Psomadeli

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential usefulness of Oxalis pes-caprae L. as allelopathic ground-cover species for integrated weed management. The effects of the extracts of several tissues and the exudates from living roots of O. pes-caprae plants were tested for their allelopathic activity on several plants. Duckweed fresh weight was significantly inhibited from phytotoxic activity of petiole tissues (and secondly leaves and stems) of O. pe...

  9. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  10. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Pi?tka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

  11. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggregates having a fractal dimension D = 2.55. When this value was applied to historical TEP size spectra from a......The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a......-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent...

  12. An association between subclinical familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and rod-cone dystrophy / Associação entre vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar subclínica e distrofia de cones e bastonetes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdullah, Ilhan; Umit, Yolcu; Fatih Cakir, Gundogan; Fahrettin, Akay.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Um homem caucasiano de 21 anos foi avaliado com queixa de nictalopia. A acuidade visual era 20/20 em ambos os olhos. Biomicroscopia do segmento anterior era normal. A fundoscopia revelava zonas avasculares periféricas, exsudação mínima dos vasos retinianos periféricos da retina, telangiectasias da r [...] etina periférica com anastomoses em ambos os olhos e deslocamento vascular da retina em direção a periferia temporal em ambos os olhos. O eletrorretinograma (ERG) de campo total apresentava respostas de bastonetes praticamente indetectáveis e redução das respostas de cones. A tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) macular mostrava estrutura normal em AO. As alterações vasculares foram atribuídas à forma subclínica da vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar. Este é um caso interessante com a associação de vitreoretinopatia exsudativa familiar e distrofia de cones e bastonetes (RCD). Abstract in english A 21-year-old Caucasian man presented with a complaint of nyctalopia. Visual acuity in both eyes was 20/20 and anterior segment biomicroscopy results were unremarkable. Fundoscopy revealed peripheral avascular zones, minimal peripheral retinal exudation from the retinal vessels, peripheral retinal t [...] elangiectasias and anastomosis in both eyes, and retinal vascular dragging toward the temporal periphery in both eyes. Full field electroretinography showed that rod responses were almost absent and that cone responses were reduced. Macular optical coherence tomography showed normal structure in both eyes. Vascular changes were attributed to a subclinical form of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. This was an interesting case due to the association of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy with rod-cone dystrophy.

  13. ANSWER: Rare complications of pulmonary infection (Supplement)

    OpenAIRE

    Ian BICKLE; Eddy NGATEMO

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of pleural aspiratesPleural effusion is categorised into transudate (< 30 gm/dL) or exudate (? 30 gm/dL) based on the protein content. Exudative effusions are caused by a variety of inflammatory disorders and often require more extensive evaluations than transudate.

  14. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)?, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. RESULTS: We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFN? were low and not associated with AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNF? can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells.

  15. Modeling Root Exudation, Priming and Protection in Soil Carbon Responses to Elevated CO2 from Ecosystem to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, B. N.; Phillips, R.; Shevliakova, E.; Oishi, A. C.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which plants induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or "priming") or promote SOC gains (via stabilization through physico-chemical protection). We developed a new SOC model, "Carbon, Organisms, Rhizosphere and Protection in the Soil Environment" (CORPSE), to examine the net effect of priming and protection in response to rising atmospheric CO2, and conducted simulations of rhizosphere priming effects at both ecosystem and global scales. At the ecosystem scale, the model successfully captured and explained disparate SOC responses at the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of "new" carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of "old" SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter (e.g. Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses owing to priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters (e.g. Duke). For global simulations, the model was fully integrated into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3. Globally, priming effects driven by enhanced root exudation and expansion of the rhizosphere reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from the enhanced ecosystem productivity driven by CO2 fertilization. Collectively, our results suggest that SOC stocks globally depend not only on temperature and moisture, but also on vegetation responses to environmental changes, and that protected C may provide an important constraint on priming effects.

  16. Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

  17. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gislaine Silveira, Simões; Alexandre, Oba; Tiemi, Matsuo; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aval [...] iar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b*) foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE. Abstract in english The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehic [...] le microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*). Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.

  18. Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-12-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

  19. Comparative nasal effects of bradykinin and histamine: influence on nasal airways resistance and plasma protein exudation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakulasingam, K.; R. Polosa; Lau, L C; Church, M K; Holgate, S.T.; Howarth, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bradykinin may contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Like histamine, nasal challenge with bradykinin induces rhinorrhoea, nasal blockage, and plasma protein leakage. Their comparative nasal potencies have not, however, been fully elucidated. METHODS--Three double blind, randomised, placebo controlled and cross-over studies were undertaken to compare objectively the nasal effects of bradykinin, histamine, and vehicle. RESULTS--Both bradykinin and histamine produced d...

  20. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    OpenAIRE

    Fujihara M; Nagai T; Taguchi M; Nishimura Y; Honda S; Uenishi M

    2012-01-01

    Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with e...

  1. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce th...

  2. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal...... crusting reaction in all piglets. Acanthosis was observed in the histopathological examination of the crustaceous skin. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine avirulent strains produced no macroscopic or microscopic skin changes. Protein profiles from all virulent strains and seven out of nine...

  3. Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

  4. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; WENZEL, WALTER W.; PUSCHENREITER, MARKUS

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture.Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil sol...

  5. Exudative pleural effusions secondary to gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, R W

    1985-03-01

    Several different diseases of the gastrointestinal tract may have an associated exudative pleural effusion. In the acutely ill patient with a pleural effusion, the possibility of esophageal perforation should always be considered. It is important to establish this diagnosis as soon as possible since the mortality rate increases markedly if drainage of the mediastinum is delayed for even 12 or 24 hours. The best screening test for esophageal rupture is the level of amylase in the pleural fluid. All patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions should have the amylase level in their pleural fluid measured to rule out a pancreatic etiology for their pleural effusion. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the clinical presentation may be dominated by chest symptoms. Such patients have small to moderately sized pleural effusions that resolve rapidly once appropriate therapy is instituted. If symptoms persist, the possibility of a pancreatic abscess or a pancreatic pseudocyst should be considered. Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts may develop a sinus tract between the pseudocyst and the pleural space. In this situation a large pleural effusion develops. Frequently there are no abdominal symptoms and the diagnosis will not be made unless a pleural fluid amylase is obtained. Patients with exudative pleural effusions that contain predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes should be suspected of having an intra-abdominal abscess, particularly when there is no associated parenchymal infiltrate. Subphrenic, intrahepatic, and splenic abscesses all have a high incidence of accompanying pleural effusion. Abdominal CT scanning is the method of choice to establish each of these diagnoses. PMID:3847297

  6. Detection of Exudates for the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Somasundaram

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is caused by the abnormalities in the retina due to insufficient insulin in the body. Diabetic Retinopathy affects 80% of all patients who had diabetes for 10 years or more, which can also lead to vision loss. The most primitive sign of Diabetic Retinopathy is Exudates. Exudates in the retina are opacities that result from the escape of plasma and white blood cells from defective blood vessels. Detecting the exudates in an earlier stage can prevent the vision loss. In this paper, an automated algorithm has demonstrated to detect and localize the presence of exudates from low-contrast digital images of retinopathy patients with non-dilated pupils. In this method, first the retinal fundus image is pre-processed. Then, Mask Technique and Score Computation technique is used for segmenting the exudates in the retinal fundus images. This method does not require supervised learning which requires labeled set, may cause human error and it is time consuming process. It can effectively identify the lesions because exudates were clearly distinguished from optic disc and blood vessels. It helps the ophthalmologists apply proper treatments that might eliminate the disease or decrease the severity of it.

  7. Identification of Scirpus triqueter root exudates and the effects of organic acids on desorption and bioavailability of pyrene and lead in co-contaminated wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yunyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xiao; Tao, Kaiyun; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; He, Chiquan

    2015-11-01

    Root exudates (REs) of Scirpus triqueter were extracted from the rhizosphere soil in this study. The components in the REs were identified by GC-MS. Many organic acids, such as hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, vanillic acid, octadecanoic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and so on, were found. Batch simulated experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of different organic acids, such as citric acid, artificial root exudates (ARE), succinic acid, and glutaric acid in REs of S. triqueter on desorption of pyrene (PYR) and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated wetland soils. The desorption amount of PYR and Pb increased with the rise in concentrations of organic acids in the range of 0-50 g·L(-1), within shaking time of 2-24 h. The desorption effects of PYR and Pb in soils with various organic acids treatments decreased in the following order: citric acid?>?ARE?>?succinic acid?>?glutaric acid. The desorption rate of PYR and Pb was higher in co-contaminated soil than in single pollution soil. The impacts of organic acids in REs of S. triqueter on bioavailability of PYR and Pb suggested that organic acids enhanced the bioavailability of PYR and Pb in wetland soil, and the bioavailability effects of organic acids generally followed the same order as that of desorption effects. PMID:26154043

  8. Prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in exudate in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Kassis, V; Christensen, J D; Søndergaard, J

    1989-01-01

    Ten nickel-allergic patients and 5 healthy control subjects participated in a study of the kinetics of the flux and concentration of migrated leukocytes and extracellular PGE1 and PGF2 alpha during a 48 h period, using a skin chamber technique. The patients were provided with two skin chambers, o...

  9. Actinide interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: The reduction of plutonium with desferrioxamine siderophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium is thought to exist mostly as very low soluble and/or strongly sorbed plutonium(IV) hydroxide and oxide species in the environment, and therefore, has low risk of becoming mobile or bioavailable. However, compounds that solubilize plutonium can significantly increase its bioavailability and mobility. We are examining the fundamental inorganic chemistry of actinides with one type of biogenic chelator, microbial siderophores, in order to understand how they could affect actinide biogeochemistry

  10. MicroRNA Profiling in Human Neutrophils during Bone Marrow Granulopoiesis and In Vivo Exudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maria T.; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna C.; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Borregaard, Niels; Cowland, Jack B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and myelocyte/metamyelocyte (MC/MM) stages of development. These 135 miRNAs were divided into six clusters according to the pattern of their expression. Several miRNAs demonstrate a pronounced increase or reduction at the transition between MB/PM and MC/MM, which is associated with cell cycle arrest and the initiation of terminal differentiation. Seven miRNAs are differentially up-regulated between peripheral blood PMNs and extravasated PMNs and only one of these (miR-132) is also differentially regulated during granulopoiesis. The study indicates that several different miRNAs participate in the regulation of normal granulopoiesis and that miRNAs might also regulate activities of extravasated neutrophils. The data present the miRNA profiles during the development and activation of the neutrophil granulocyte in healthy humans and thus serves as a reference for further research of normal and malignant granulocytic development. PMID:23554893

  11. 14CO2 labeling. A reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root release of organic compounds and rate of the vascular sap flow are important for understanding the nutrient and the source-sink dynamics in plants, however, their determination is procedurally cumbersome and time consuming. We report here a simple method involving 14C labeling for rapid and reliable measurement of root exudates and vascular sap flow rate in a variable groundnut population developed through seed gamma irradiation using a cobalt source (60Co). An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

  12. MicroRNA Profiling in Human Neutrophils during Bone Marrow Granulopoiesis and In Vivo Exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Maria T.; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias; Pedersen, Corinna C.; Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Borregaard, Niels; Cowland, Jack B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone mar...

  13. Clinical and multimodal imaging characteristics of acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease unassociated with clinically evident exudative retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Sonia; Khochtali, Sana; Kahloun, Rim; Ammous, Dhiaeddine; Jelliti, Bechir; Ben Yahia, Salim; Zaouali, Sonia; Khairallah, Moncef

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings in acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease without clinically evident exudative retinal detachment (ERD). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 18 patients (36 eyes), diagnosed with acute VKH disease without clinically evident ERD. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Of 18 patients, twelve (66.7 %) were female and 6 (33.3 %) were male. Mean age was 39 years (range, 23-60). Ten patients had been referred with an erroneous diagnosis of primary optic nerve disorder (8; 44.4 %) or isolated anterior uveitis (2; 11.1 %). Anterior chamber or vitreous inflammatory reaction was noted in 22 eyes (61.1 %), each. Fundus findings included optic disc swelling in 30 eyes (83.3 %), retinal striae in 20 eyes (55.5 %), and yellowish deep lesions in 3 eyes (8.3 %). OCT showed a shallow, localized subclinical ERD in 18 eyes (50 %), and retinal pigment epithelial folds in 23 eyes (63.9 %). B-scan ultrasonography showed diffuse, low- to medium-reflective choroidal thickening in all eyes. FA disclosed delayed choroidal perfusion in at least one eye of all patients (100 %), mild pinpoint leakage in 21 eyes (58.3 %), optic disc hyperfluorescence in 35 eyes (97.2 %) and choroidal folds in 13 eyes (36.1 %). ICGA findings included delayed choroidal perfusion in 24 eyes (66.7 %), decrease in the number of large choroidal vessels in 36 eyes (100 %), fuzzy choroidal vessels in 35 eyes (97.2 %), and hypofluorescent dark dots in 28 eyes (77.8 %). The association of bilateral optic disc edema with retinal striae and intraocular inflammatory reaction highly suggests acute VKH disease. A multimodal imaging approach including fundus photography, OCT, B-scan ultrasonography, FA, and ICGA provides important clues for the definite diagnosis and help differentiate VKH disease from primary optic nerve disorders. PMID:25939987

  14. Plant root-driven hydraulic redistribution, root nutrient uptake and carbon exudation interact with soil properties to generate rhizosphere resource hotspots that vary in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by plants occurs in seasonally dry ecosystems worldwide. During drought, water flows from deep moist soil, through plant roots, into dry (often litter-rich) upper soil layers. Using modeling, we explored how physical transport processes driven by transpiration and hydraulic redistribution interact with root physiology (nutrient uptake and carbon exudation) and soil properties (soil texture and cation exchange) to influence nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. At the single root scale, we modeled a 10-cm radial soil domain, and simulated solute transport, soil cation exchange, and root exudation and nutrient uptake under two water flow patterns: daytime transpiration without nighttime HR, and daytime transpiration with nighttime HR. During HR, water efflux flushed solutes away from the root, diluting the concentrations of key nutrients like nitrate. The transport of cations by transpiration in the day and their accumulation near the root led to competitive desorption of ammonium from soil further from the root and generation of hotspots of ammonium availability at night. HR influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of these hotspots and their intensity. They were also influenced by soil properties of texture and cation exchange capacity. This dynamic resource landscape caused by diel cycling between transpiration and hydraulic redistribution presents a stage for greater complexity of microbial interactions. We are currently embedding a microbial community and small food web into this rhizosphere model in order to explore how organisms responsible for nutrient and soil carbon cycling respond to these fluctuating resource regimes.

  15. Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrass carbon budgets provide valuable insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolv...

  16. Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Canan H; S?zmaz S; Altan-Yayc?o?lu R; Sar?türk C; Y?lmaz G

    2014-01-01

    Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPu...

  17. Effects of micronutrients deficiency and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chelator exudation by tomato root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shirmohammadi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can affect their host plants growth through nutrient uptake enhancement. Determination of chelators (siderophores and phytosiderophores in root leachates is of importance in order to account for the effects of AMF on nutrient uptake by plants. In this study, tomato plants were inoculated with either Glomus intraradices or Glomus etunicatum or left un-inoculated as non-mycorrhizal control, in pots containing sterile and acid washed perlite. Rorison’s nutrient solution harbouring three levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (full strength, half strength and without micronutrients was applied to the pots during three month- growth period. Root leachates were collected and total chelator concentration was quantified by titration with DTPA. Plant roots showed lower mycorrhizal colonization in this condition. The amounts of chelators produced by roots were significantly different in AMF species. In plants inoculated with G. intraradices, the highest chelator production occurred in the absence of micronutrients and in its half strength as well, but the micronutrient levels had no significant effect on chelator production in plants inoculated with G. etunicatum. In the absence of micronutrients, chelator production was higher in G.intraradices inoculated plants compared to the G. etunicatum ones.

  18. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    -performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...

  19. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  20. Peramine and other fungal alkaloids are exuded in the guttation fluid of endophyte-infected grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulman, Albert; Lane, Geoffrey A; Christensen, Mike J; Fraser, Karl; Tapper, Brian A

    2007-02-01

    Many grasses live in association with asymptomatic fungi (Neotyphodium spp. endophytes), which grow in the intercellular spaces of the grass. These endophytes produce a range of alkaloids that protect the grass against grazing by mammals and insects. One of these alkaloids is an unusual pyrrolopyrazine, peramine. Peramine appears to be continuously produced by the endophyte, but does not progressively accumulate. No mechanism for the removal of peramine by its further metabolism or any other process has been reported. Our aim was to detect peramine or peramine metabolites in plant fluids to determine if peramine is mobilized, metabolized or excreted by the plant. We also wanted to determine if other fungal metabolites are mobilized by the plant, as has been proposed for the loline alkaloids. We developed a highly sensitive method for the analysis of peramine, using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. We studied the fragmentation pathway of peramine using ESI MSn and ESI FTICRMS. Based on these results we developed a single reaction monitoring method using the fragmentation of the guanidinium moiety. Cut leaf fluid and guttation fluid of different grass endophyte associations (Lolium perenne with Neotyphodium lolii, Festuca arundinacea with Neotyphodium coenophialum, and Elymus sp. with Epichloë sp.) were analysed. Peramine was detected in the cut leaf fluid of all grass-endophyte associations, but not in the guttation fluid of all associations. In some associations we also detected lolines and ergot peptide alkaloids. This is the first report showing the mobilization of fungal alkaloids into plant fluids by the host plant in grass-endophyte associations. PMID:17126863

  1. Clinicopathological correlation in exudative age related macular degeneration: histological differentiation between classic and occult choroidal neovascularisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lafaut, B.; Bartz-Schmidt, K; Vanden, B; Aisenbrey, S; De Laey, J J; Heimann, K

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To analyse the histopathology of classic and occult choroidal neovascular membrane surgical specimens in age related macular degeneration.?METHODS—35 membranes, from a consecutive series of surgically removed choroidal neovascular membranes in age related macular degeneration, were classified as classic or occult following the guidelines of the Macular Photocoagulation Study. Membranes with classic as well as occult components were considered as mixed membranes. The membranes were serial...

  2. Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Silveira Simões

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehicle microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*. Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b* foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE.

  3. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fabrício Marchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

  4. Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

  5. The need for validation of large administrative databases: Veterans Health Administration ICD-9CM coding of exudative age-related macular degeneration and ranibizumab usage

    OpenAIRE

    LATKANY, PAUL; Duggal, Mona; Goulet, Joseph; Paek, Hyung; Rambo, Michael; Palmisano, Philip; Levin, Woody; Erdos, Joseph; Justice, Amy; Brandt, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    We performed a validation study by chart review of data for exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD) and, because of the Veterans Administration (VA) therapy policy, ranibizumab usage in the largest electronic medical record system in the USA. We reviewed 5,854 distinct patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic within VA Connecticut from January 2006–December 2008. We randomly selected 98 of 138 distinct eAMD patients and 265 of 5,588 non-eAMD patients who did not receive ranibizu...

  6. The Hydrobia ulvae-Maritrema subdolum association: influence of temperature, salinity, light, water-pressure and secondary host exudates on cercarial emergence and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, K N

    2002-12-01

    The effects of environmental factors and exudates from the amphipod Corophium volutator on the emergence of Maritrema subdolum cercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the snail Hydrobia ulvae were investigated in the laboratory. Increasing the temperature (15 to 25 degrees C) caused an overall 11-fold increase in emergence rate under varying salinities (24 to 36 per thousand). The effect of salinity depended on the experimental temperature. Emergence increased with increasing salinity at higher temperatures, but decreased with increasing salinity at 15 degrees C. Whereas the different levels of salinity had no effect, increasing the temperature significantly reduced the life span of cercariae. In comparison with complete darkness, light caused a two-fold increase in emergence, whereas an increment of the water pressure from 1.0 to 1.3 ATM (corresponding to 0 and 3 m of depth) left the shedding rate unaffected. Unidentified exudates from the second intermediate host, C. volutator, significantly depressed the cercarial emergence rate. The main transmission window of M. subdolum seems to occur during low water in tidal pools where light levels are high and solar radiation rapidly elevates the water temperature, as well as salinity through evaporation. The consequence of such a transmission strategy is discussed in relation to the impact of M. subdolum on the population dynamics of the second intermediate host. PMID:12498640

  7. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  8. Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, G. Louise; Dow, J Maxwell; Kiely, Patrick D.; Higgins, Hazel; Haynes, Jill; Baysse, Christine; Abbas, Abdelhamid; Foley, Tara; Franks, Ashley; Morrissey, John; O'Gara, Fergal

    2005-01-01

    Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacter...

  9. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53 of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36 for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

  10. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1?cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400?mg, ibuprofen tablets (400?mg, NAC (400?mg/ibuprofen (200?mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- ?, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p?=?0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p?=?0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p?=?0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  11. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  12. Optimisation of stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), targeting medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked ham exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Iu; Ibañez, Carles; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Solà, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Roura, Eugeni

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of our research was to optimise the extraction conditions of the stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) targeting the identification of lipid compounds particularly medium and long-chain free fatty acids in cooked cured pork ham exudates. The analytical conditions of extraction (including sample volume, extraction time, stirring speed, pH and dilution of the sample) were checked using the Simplex method approach. As a result of the SBSE optimisation, improved detection limits and linear ranges for hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic and tetradecanoic fatty acids were obtained. When comparing results with those obtained by the commonly used SPME methodology, optimisation of SBSE achieved better results for volatile compounds of low volatility, such as medium and long-chain free fatty acids, whereas compounds with high volatility and polarity were only detected by SPME. SBSE also confirmed its potential as a tool to help identify undesirable contaminants/residues in meat products. PMID:25952843

  13. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  14. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  15. Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Umoren

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE and Raphia hookeri (RH were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1 increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

  16. Root carboxylate exudation capacity under phosphorus stress does not improve grain yield in green gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Meena, Surendra Kumar; Krishnapriya, Vengavasi; Ahmad, Altaf; Kishora, Naval

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variability in carboxylate exudation capacity along with improved root traits was a key mechanism for P-efficient green gram genotype to cope with P-stress but it did not increase grain yield. This study evaluates genotypic variability in green gram for total root carbon exudation under low phosphorus (P) using (14)C and its relationship with root exuded carboxylates, growth and yield potential in contrasting genotypes. Forty-four genotypes grown hydroponically with low (2 ?M) and sufficient (100 ?M) P concentrations were exposed to (14)CO2 to screen for total root carbon exudation. Contrasting genotypes were employed to study carboxylate exudation and their performance in soil at two P levels. Based on relative (14)C exudation and biomass, genotypes were categorized. Carboxylic acids were measured in exudates and root apices of contrasting genotypes belonging to efficient and inefficient categories. Oxalic and citric acids were released into the medium under low-P. PDM-139 (efficient) was highly efficient in carboxylate exudation as compared to ML-818 (inefficient). In low soil P, the reduction in biomass was higher in ML-818 as compared to PDM-139. Total leaf area and photosynthetic rate averaged for genotypes increased by 71 and 41 %, respectively, with P fertilization. Significantly, higher root surface area and volume were observed in PDM-139 under low soil P. Though the grain yield was higher in ML-818, the total plant biomass was significantly higher in PDM-139 indicating improved P uptake and its efficient translation into biomass. The higher carboxylate exudation capacity and improved root traits in the later genotype might be the possible adaptive mechanisms to cope with P-stress. However, it is not necessary that higher root exudation would result in higher grain yield. PMID:24493254

  17. Broiler transportation conditions in a Brazilian commercial line and the occurrence of breast PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselane Oliveira de Souza Langer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of road transportation conditions on the occurrence of broiler PSE-(Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD-like (Dark, Firm, Dry meats in the Brazilian commercial slaughterhouse plant. Samples of Pectoralis major m from 47-day-old broilers of commercial lineage were analyzed. The results indicated that water-bathing birds just before journey over 3.0km promoted the occurrence of 46.0% of PSE and 4.0% of DFD-like meat, while birds under non-water bathing conditions presented 14.7 and 2.0%, respectively. For a distance of 68.0km, the occurrences of PSE-and DFD-like meat were 44.0 and 0.0% under water bathing conditions, and 52.0 and 0.0% without water bathing, respectively. Water bathing at the farm was a critical manoeuvre for increasing the unfavourable truck microenvironment for short journey, whereas conversely for longer journey it was less stressful influencing the broiler breast meat quality.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito das condições do transporte na ocorrência das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e a-DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry de frangos nas condições brasileiras em uma planta de um frigorífico comercial. Foram analisadas amostras de peito de frango (Pectoralis major m. da ave de 47 dias de linhagem comercial. Os resultados indicaram que o banho dos frangos imediatamente antes da viagem de 3,0km promoveu a ocorrência de 46,0% de PSE e 4,0% de a-DFD enquanto que frangos sem banho apresentaram 14,7 e 2,0%, respectivamente. Para uma distância de 68,0km, a ocorrência de carnes PSE e a-DFD foram 44,0 e 0,0%, respectivamente, de aves que sofreram banho e 52,0 e 0,0% sem banho, respectivamente. O banho ainda na granja foi uma atividade crítica aumentando as condições desfavoráveis no microambiente do caminhão para curtas distâncias e contrariamente para distâncias longas foi menos estressante influenciando na qualidade do peito do frango.

  18. Neuroprotective cadinane sesquiterpenes from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Zhao, Peng; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-qing; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, commiterpenes A-C, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All the isolated sesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:21856385

  19. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  20. Hydropolymer dressings in the management of wound exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kate

    2003-01-01

    In the UK the so-called 'foam' dressings are currently the most widely used absorbent dressings. They can, in certain cases, be particularly useful for the management of exuding wounds. One type of foam dressing--the Tielle hydropolymer adhesive dressing family (by Johnson & Johnson Wound Management)--is a range of five types of hydropolymer dressings: Tielle Original dressing, Tielle Lite dressing. Tielle Plus dressing, Tielle Borderless dressing and Tielle Packing dressing. The Tielle range shares a common basic composition that gives each dressing bacterial barrier properties and the capability of managing exudate by the combined process of absorption and moisture vapour transmission. Each type except Packing can be used as either a primary or as a secondary dressing. The choice should be based on the characteristics of the primary dressing, if any, on the degree of exudate that the wound is producing and on the condition of the surrounding skin. This article aims to give an overview of the Tielle range and a review of research-based clinical and scientific evidence to support the management of differing levels of exuding wounds in everyday clinical practice. PMID:14685964

  1. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Trujillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  2. Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto / Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.D., Tuffi Santos; J.B., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; J.A., Oliveira; S., Bentivenha; A.F.L., Machado.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objeti [...] vou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06) foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária), em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura. Abstract in english Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and i [...] ts effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06) were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy). At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

  3. Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones / Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F.L., Machado; L.R., Ferreira; L.D.T., Santos; J.B., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; R.G., Viana.

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com [...] radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 ?Ci. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%), não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos. Abstract in english To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531), 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 ?Ci of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after herbici [...] de application - HAA. After 8 HAA, 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

  4. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively. PMID:22818584

  5. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  6. Epidemiologic evidence for Lancefield group C beta-hemolytic streptococci as a cause of exudative pharyngitis in college students.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, J. C.; Hayden, F G; Lobo, M.C.; C. E. RAMIREZ; Murren, D

    1997-01-01

    The isolation rates of strains of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci from throat swab cultures of patients with exudative pharyngitis, the common cold, and healthy controls were compared. By using a cohort study design in a college health service, patients with exudative pharyngitis were retrospectively identified by description of tonsillar exudate on chart review. Patients with rhinoviral infection were prospectively identified during a common cold study. Healthy controls were prospectivel...

  7. Combining the genetic algorithm and successive projection algorithm for the selection of feature wavelengths to evaluate exudative characteristics in frozen-thawed fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    The potential use of feature wavelengths for predicting drip loss in grass carp fish, as affected by being frozen at -20°C for 24h and thawed at 4°C for 1, 2, 4, and 6days, was investigated. Hyperspectral images of frozen-thawed fish were obtained and their corresponding spectra were extracted. Least-squares support vector machine and multiple linear regression (MLR) models were established using five key wavelengths, selected by combining a genetic algorithm and successive projections algorithm, and this showed satisfactory performance in drip loss prediction. The MLR model with a determination coefficient of prediction (R(2)P) of 0.9258, and lower root mean square error estimated by a prediction (RMSEP) of 1.12%, was applied to transfer each pixel of the image and generate the distribution maps of exudation changes. The results confirmed that it is feasible to identify the feature wavelengths using variable selection methods and chemometric analysis for developing on-line multispectral imaging. PMID:26617027

  8. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ak; Hatay, M; Haas, Af; Robinett, Nl; Barott, K; Vermeij, Mja; Marhaver, Kl; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  9. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  10. Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paul O., Ameh; Anduang O., Odiongenyi; Nnabuk O., Eddy.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 [...] M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the respective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

  11. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus using oral mucosal transudate by rapid test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvan Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Diagnostic test was evaluated in sera and oral fluids from 83 subjects. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 HIV seropositive subjects and the control group comprised of 33 seronegative subjects. Serum samples were collected using the standard phlebotomy technique and oral samples were collected using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody test OMT collecting device. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11 th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were used. Results: All the subjects who tested either positive/reactive or negative/non-reactive with Western blot/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA produced similar results with Rapid test using OMT in study, our study also revealed that the subjects whether on anti-retroviral therapy or not had 100% sensitivity and specificity with the Rapid test using OMT. Conclusions: The Rapid test using OMT is highly accurate as the diagnostic efficacy in our study was 100% for HIV antibody detection and produced similar results to that of conventional Western blot/ELISA tests.

  12. Urinothorax: a rapidly accumulating transudative pleural effusion in a 64-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deel, Samuel; Robinette, Emory

    2007-05-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old man who developed a rapid, right-sided pleural effusion. On initial presentation to the emergency room, the patient had fever and flank pain consistent with a ureteral obstruction (due to a bladder tumor) and associated hydronephrosis that had required previous placement of a pericutaneous nephrostomy tube. After a 10-day stay in the hospital, the patient's urine output ceased. Symptomatic dyspnea with radiographic evidence of a new pleural effusion soon followed. Urinothorax was the etiology of the effusion. PMID:17534092

  13. [Endophthalmitis as a complication of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhicka-Trz?ska, Agnieszka; J?drychowska-Jamhorska, Justyna J; Kulig-Stochmal, Agnieszka; Morawski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Dixon, Boena

    2015-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, injected intravitreally, became a standard therapy for choroidal neovascularization in a course of wet age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia. Endophthalmitis is a very rare but the most serious complication associated with this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to present three patients with endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. In the analysed material, the authors confirmed endophthalmitis in 2 of 4176 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization associated with degenerative myopia (0.048%). The third reported case is a patient with endophthalmitis following the injection of bevacizumab performed in another center. The time interval between the injection and the onset of endophthalmitis was 2-5 days. In two patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy--one patient regained best corrected visual acuity, while another showed no improvement and developed eye atrophy. In one case the microbiological examination showed a growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, while in another a negative culture result was present. Endopthalmitis is a rare complication following the intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. The proper selection of therapy depends on presenting best corrected visual acuity and severity of intraocular inflammation. The time of commencing treatment is a crucial prognostic factor, however, our observations showed that prompt and repeated surgical procedures cannot prevent irreversible vision loss in all cases. PMID:26349157

  14. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  15. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60Co ?-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for ?-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than ?-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

  16. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  17. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, Alan W.; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments. PMID:26824236

  18. Efficacy of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms to neutralize snake venom-induced local tissue damage as assessed by the proteomic analysis of wound exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Escalante, Teresa; Shannon, John D; Ayala-Castro, Carla N; Villalta, Mauren; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of wound exudates represents a valuable tool to investigate tissue pathology and to assess the therapeutic success of various interventions. In this study, the ability of horse-derived IgG and F(ab')(2) antivenoms to neutralize local pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in mouse muscle was investigated by the proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of affected tissue. In experiments involving the incubation of venom and antivenom prior to injection in mice, hemorrhagic activity was completely abolished and local muscle-damaging activity was significantly reduced by the antivenoms. In these conditions, the relative amounts of several intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins were reduced by the action of antivenoms, whereas the relative amounts of various plasma proteins were not modified. Because not all intracellular proteins were reduced, it is likely that there is a residual cytotoxicity not neutralized by antivenoms. In experiments designed to more closely reproduce the actual circumstances of envenoming, that is, when antivenom is administered after envenomation, the number of proteins whose amounts in exudates were reduced by antivenoms decreased, underscoring the difficulty in neutralizing local pathology due to the very rapid onset of venom-induced pathology. In these experiments, IgG antivenom was more efficient than F(ab')(2) antivenom when administered after envenomation, probably as a consequence of differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:22004524

  19. A coarse-to-fine strategy for automatically detecting exudates in color eye fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welfer, Daniel; Scharcanski, Jacob; Marinho, Diane Ruschel

    2010-04-01

    The detection of exudates is a prerequisite for detecting and grading severe retinal lesions, like the diabetic macular edema. In this work, we present a new method based on mathematical morphology for detecting exudates in color eye fundus images. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed method performance on a known public database, namely DIARETDB1, indicates that it can achieve an average sensitivity of 70.48%, and an average specificity of 98.84%. Comparing to other recent automatic methods available in the literature, our proposed approach potentially can obtain better exudate detection results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19954928

  20. Diets high in fruits and low in gum exudates promote the occurrence and development of dental disease in pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Francis; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-11-01

    Asian slow lorises are found in zoos and rescue centres worldwide with Nycticebus pygmaeus, the pygmy slow loris, boasting the largest population in captivity. Diet are reportedly high in fruit and concentrates and low in insects and exudates. Wild feeding studies place insects, nectar, and gums as the most important diet components. Captive populations also show high incidences of health afflictions, many of which may be caused by nutrition. Our study, aims at identifying a causative agent within the diets of N. pygmaeus in regards to diseases prominent within captive populations. We sent out 55 diet and health questionnaires to institutions worldwide. Returned diets were nutritionally analyzed. Nutrient values and proportions of each ingredient were used in a principle components analysis. Resulting factors were used as variables in a binary logistic regression (BLR), with dental disease as the dependent variable. 39 questionnaires were returned with a total of 47 diets. 20 (51.7%) institutions reported the presence of diseases with dental issues being prominent. Factors that were significant in the principle components analysis included gum, nectar, protein, acid detergent fibre, calcium, ash, phosphorus, potassium, Ca:P, magnesium, vitamin D, and energy. Gum was the only significant predictor in the BLR. Lastly, a chi square test for association was performed with the presence of dental disease as the dependent variable and the amount of fruit in the diet. The combination of high fruits and little to no gum promotes the occurrence of dental diseases. Current captive diets do not reflect the evolutionary adaptations of Nycticebus primates. Zoo Biol. 34:547-553, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26339992

  1. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress / Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo D., Mariano; Renato A., Jorge; Willem G., Keltjens; Marcelo, Menossi.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO) de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al) presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes [...] celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande quantidade de exsudatos radiculares de plantas geneticamente modificadas pode causar, especialmente na microbiota do solo, é discutido. Abstract in english Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the [...] root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering plants with superior resistance to Al-toxic acid soils. The

  2. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain. PMID:8123711

  3. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Tripathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

  4. Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Atefeh Arabzadeh; Mehdi Ajdari Tafti; Gholamreza Kordafshari; Arman Zargaran; Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Traditional Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts authored by medieval Persian scholars offer not only accumulation of traditional medical systems knowledge, but also contain collection of ingenious studies that provide vast information in the field of medicinal herbs application. One of the most cited derivative compositions of medicinal herbs are exudates. A large group of these compounds along with their different clinical and pharmacological applications can be foun...

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson (common name: sucuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Jorge Sequeira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans, leaf methanol extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and bark methanol extracts inhibited B. subtilis. Active extracts inhibited the ATCC and clinical strains. Polar antifungal and antibacterial principles in latex and extracts are thought to be responsible for the inhibition.

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts and exudates of the Amazonian medicinal tree Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson (common name: sucuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Jorge Sequeira; Marcos Jose Salgado Vital; Adrian Martin Pohlit; Isabel Costa Pararols; Glaucia Socorro Barros Caúper

    2009-01-01

    Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson is a tree found in the northern Amazon savannahs (common name: sucuba) that is used in local Amerindian medicine. Leaf, bark and branch wood methanol extracts, sequentially obtained hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and latex were evaluated for antifungal and antibacterial activities against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and local clinical strains using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extracts and latex inhibited Candida albicans,...

  7. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  8. Referral system for hard exudates in eye fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Gohar; Zafar, Muhammad Faisal; Haq, Ihsan ul

    2015-09-01

    Hard exudates are one of the most common anomalies/artifacts found in the eye fundus of patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy. These exudates are the major cause of loss of sight or blindness in people having diabetic retinopathy. Diagnosis of hard exudates requires considerable time and effort of an ophthalmologist. The ophthalmologists have become overloaded, so that there is a need for an automated diagnostic/referral system. In this paper a referral system for the hard exudates in the eye-fundus images has been presented. The proposed referral system works by combining different techniques like Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), K-means Clustering, Visual Dictionaries and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The system was also tested with Back Propagation Neural Network as a classifier. To test the performance of the system four fundus image databases were used. One publicly available image database was used to compare the performance of the system to the existing systems. To test the general performance of the system when the images are taken under different conditions and come from different sources, three other fundus image databases were mixed. The evaluation of the system was also performed on different sizes of the visual dictionaries. When using only one fundus image database the area under the curve (AUC) of maximum 0.9702 (97.02%) was achieved with accuracy of 95.02%. In case of mixed image databases an AUC of 0.9349 (93.49%) was recorded having accuracy of 87.23%. The results were compared to the existing systems and were found better/comparable. PMID:26231313

  9. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Hailin ZHANG; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using de...

  10. Application of Herbal Exudates in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Zarshenas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts authored by medieval Persian scholars offer not only accumulation of traditional medical systems knowledge, but also contain collection of ingenious studies that provide vast information in the field of medicinal herbs application. One of the most cited derivative compositions of medicinal herbs are exudates. A large group of these compounds along with their different clinical and pharmacological applications can be found in the manuscripts of Persian medicine. Methods and Materials: This work is a literature research on some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of Alhavi, Canon of Medicine, the book of Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan ol advieh. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered by searching in Medline/PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: According to the investigated manuscripts, thirty-one substances, incorporating plant exudates relating to sixteen plant families, were used to combat simple to sophisticated ailments. Mostly exudates were derived from herbs of family, Asteraceae, Apiaceae with six and five citations, respectively. Other than the reported clinical applications for herbs, which were defined as a source for gummy compositions, numerous pharmacological approaches were also remarked for the secreted gums. Conclusion: Application of ethnobotanical findings on simple remedies offers rational criteria to evaluate the potential therapeutic properties of medicinal plants.

  11. Actinide (Pu, U) interactions with aerobic soil microbes and their exudates: Fundamental chemistry and effects on environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the environmental behavior of metals we must consider a tremendous range of phenomena, from simple individual reactions, such as ligand complexation and solubility equilibria, to quite complicated and collective processes, such as metal-mineral-microbial interactions. Because of pressing contamination problems at DOE sites and the paucity of relevant actinide chemistry knowledge, research is needed in this entire range of science. The determination and evaluation of key thermodynamic data for actinide species and the development of geochemical, hydrological, and environmental transport models are progressing. In contrast, we know almost nothing about how actinides interact with microorganisms. Ubiquitous microorganisms can absorb, reduce, oxidize, solubilize, or precipitate actinides, thereby affecting their speciation, solubility, bioavailability, and migration. These effects are due to both direct and indirect interactions, such as sorption to the cell wall and reaction with microbial byproducts, respectively. Our goal is to fully characterize specific microbial-actinide interactions, both to develop this area of fundamental research and to determine how the interactions may be exploited to affect environmental actinide mobility/immobility and remediation efforts

  12. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing...... experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with...

  13. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Anthea J; Atkins Craig A; Rodriguez-Medina Caren; Jordan Megan E; Smith Penelope MC

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant), in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA). Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS...

  14. Ranibizumab Combined With Low-Dose Sorafenib for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Diago, Teresa; Jose S Pulido; Molina, Julian R.; Collet, Lucienne C.; Link, Thomas P.; Ryan, Edwin H.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a common factor in the pathogenesis of cancer and in exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Therefore, angiogenesis inhibition has been developed as a therapeutic strategy. We report 2 cases of recurrent exudative AMD in which oral sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for cancer, was added to intravitreal ranibizumab, an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor. These 2 patients were followed up by determination of visual acuity, fluorescein angiogr...

  15. Broiler chicken PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and water release during chicken carcass thawing and brazilian legislation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita, Kato; Claudia Freitas, Barbosa; Elza Iouko, Ida; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Massami, Shimokomaki; Mayka Reghiany, Pedrao.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59) (pH [...] H >5.8). Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30) and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.

  16. A Novel Way to Detect Hard Exudates Using Dynamic Thresholding Technique in Digital Retinal Fundus Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeparna Banerjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is considered to be one of the major causes of blindness among diabetes mellitus patients. Due to diabetic retinopathy blood vessels of retina gets damaged and fat, lipoprotein substances gets leaked out of the damaged blood vessels and are deposited in the intra retinal space. These substances are viewed as yellowish or whitish in color and are termed as exudates. They are the most important visible sign of the presence of diabetic retinopathy. Exudates are of two types, (a hard exudates and (b soft exudates. If the disease is not detected in early stages then it may lead to complete loss of vision to the diabetes patients. Detection of exudates is extremely difficult to detect by visual inspection due to small inner diameter of retina and inadequate lighting conditions. An efficient image analysis program can detect the presence effectively. In this paper we have proposed an automatic method for detection of hard exudates. The proposed method exhibits a sensitivity of 97.60% and specificity of 93% and accuracy of 95.70%.

  17. An ABC Transporter Mutation Alters Root Exudation of Phytochemicals that Provoke an Overhaul of Natural Soil Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Arabidopsis root exudates can support the fungal community in native soils but not in non-native soils and recent evidence demonstrates the involvement of ABC transporters in the root secretion of phytochemicals. In this paper we examined differences in the root exudate profil...

  18. Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, Faina; Kravchenko, Lev V; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Makarova, Nataliya; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2006-10-01

    The effects of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. Conditions were selected under which introduction of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with P. fluorescens WCS365 decreased the percentage of diseased plants from 96 to 7%. This is a much better disease control level than was observed in potting soil. Analysis of root exudate revealed that the presence of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici did not alter the total amount of organic acids, but that the amount of citric acid decreased and that of succinic acid increased compared with the nontreated control. In contrast, in the presence of the P. fluorescens biocontrol strain WCS365, the total amount of organic acid increased, mainly due to a strong increase of the amount of citric acid, whereas the amount of succinic acid decreased dramatically. Under biocontrol conditions, when both microbes are present, the content of succinic acid decreased and the level of citric acid was similar to that in the nontreated control. The amount of sugar was approximately half that of the control sample when either one of the microbes was present alone or when both were present. Analysis of the interactions between the two microbes grown together in sterile tomato root exudate showed that WCS365 inhibited multiplication of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, whereas the fungus did not affect the number of CFU of the bacterium. PMID:17022176

  19. Onicólisis exudativa y paroniquia bacteriana aguda en relación con BIBF-1120 y paclitaxel: respuesta a la terapia tópica / Exudative onycholysis and acute bacterial paronychia related to BIBF-1120 and paclitaxel: response to topical therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Azael, Freites-Martínez; Diego, Martinez-Sánchez; Nieves, Puente de Pablo; Angélica, Calderón-Komaromy; Susana, Córdoba; Jesús, Burbujo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad con cáncer de mama tratada con paclitaxel y BIBF 1120 semanal. La paciente desarrolló al final del duodécimo ciclo de quimioterapia una onicólisis distal, con exudado seroso intenso en el hiponiquio, dolor y mal olor en todas las uñas de las man [...] os. Se trató con ácido fusídico tópico y aceponato de metilprednisolona al 1% dos veces al día, con una excelente respuesta desde los tres primeros días de tratamiento. A la semana de iniciar la terapia tópica, se observó una paroniquia bacteriana con la pérdida de la uña del quinto dedo de la mano izquierda, con cultivos positivos para Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina. Hay pocos casos publicados de onicólisis exudativa asociada a quimioterapia. Sin embargo, están especialmente relacionados con paclitaxel. No se observaron recurrencias de las alteraciones ungueales semanas después de culminar la quimioterapia. Los corticoides tópicos y el ácido fusídico podrían ser considerados como una opción terapéutica cuando la onicólisis exudativa relacionada con paclitaxel esté establecida. Abstract in english A case of a 50 years-old breast cancer patient treated with weekly paclitaxel and BIBF 1120 is reported herein. At the end of the twelfth cycle of chemotherapy, the patient developed distal onycholysis with intense hyponychium serous exudates, pain and malodor in all her fingernails. It was treated [...] with topical fusidic acid and 1% methylprednisolone aceponate two times daily, with an excellent clinical response from the first three days of treatment. Bacterial paronychia with nail plate loss of the fifth left fingernail was observed a week after the topical therapy was started, with positive cultures for Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. There are few reported cases of exudative onycholysis associated with chemotherapy. However, these are especially related to paclitaxel. No recurrences of nail disturbances were observed weeks after the end of chemotherapy. Topical corticosteroids and fusidic acid could be considered as a therapeutic option when exudative onycholysis related to paclitaxel is established.

  20. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Umoren

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

  1. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in e...

  2. DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA) EN CANALES DE CERDO / DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE) MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson E, CASTRILLÓN H; Jorge A, FERNÁNDEZ S; Luís F, RESTREPO B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa) altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 [...] ) y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24), en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca). El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23%) y DFD (0.77%) disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P Abstract in english The PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluat [...] ed by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry). The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P

  3. Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

    2014-07-01

    The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally. PMID:24438182

  4. Association of polymorphisms in C2, CFB and C3 with exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk Jin; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Na Rae; Chin, Hee Seung

    2012-03-01

    This study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in complement component 2 (C2), complement factor B (CFB) and complement component 3 (C3) with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Korean population and the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the development of AMD. A total of six SNPs that are located in the C2 (rs547154, rs9332739), CFB (rs4151667, rs641153) and C3 (rs1047286, rs2230199) genes were genotyped in 350 samples comprised of 153 cases, 197 controls. The risk allele frequencies for rs547154 in C2 were 6.54% and 8.12% in AMD patients and controls. Those for rs641153 in CFB were 6.54% and 8.63% in AMD patients and controls. The risk allele frequency for rs9332739 in C2 (AMD, 0.65%, control, 2.03%) and rs4151667 in CFB (AMD, 0.65%, control, 1.78%) was very low. The protective allele of four SNPs was not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.427, P = 0.199, P = 0.312, P = 0.303, respectively). The homozygotes for the protective allele of four SNPs were not significantly associated with decreased risk for AMD (P = 0.324, P = 0.474, P = 0.309, P = 0.411, respectively). The genetic effect of two SNPs in C3 could not be investigated because the variants were not observed. There was no evidence to support an interaction of these SNPs with LOC387715/HTRA1 variants or with environmental exposure like smoking. In conclusion, the genetic effect of C2, CFB and C3 polymorphisms, which are known to be important for AMD in Caucasian, were not significant in the Korean population. The low minor allele frequency of these SNPs in Koreans might have affected the results of this study. Ethnic differences in the roles of C2, CFB and C3 in conferring a risk of AMD should be further investigated. PMID:22273503

  5. Interferon-Gamma and Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 Mediate the Aggregation of Resident Adherent Peritoneal Exudate Cells: Implications for the Host Response to Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Bhagawat S.; Yadav, Shikha; Victor, Emmanuel S.; Majumdar, Shamik; Deobagkar-Lele, Mukta; Wadhwa, Nitin; Podder, Santosh; Das, Mrinmoy; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (Ifn?), a key macrophage activating cytokine, plays pleiotropic roles in host immunity. In this study, the ability of Ifn? to induce the aggregation of resident mouse adherent peritoneal exudate cells (APECs), consisting primarily of macrophages, was investigated. Cell-cell interactions involve adhesion molecules and, upon addition of Ifn?, CD11b re-localizes preferentially to the sites of interaction on APECs. A functional role of CD11b in enhancing aggregation is demonstrated using Reopro, a blocking reagent, and siRNA to Cd11b. Studies with NG-methyl-L-arginine (LNMA), an inhibitor of Nitric oxide synthase (Nos), NO donors, e.g., S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or Diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA/NO), and Nos2-/- mice identified Nitric oxide (NO) induced by Ifn? as a key regulator of aggregation of APECs. Further studies with Nos2-/- APECs revealed that some Ifn? responses are independent of NO: induction of MHC class II and CD80. On the other hand, Nos2 derived NO is important for other functions: motility, phagocytosis, morphology and aggregation. Studies with cytoskeleton depolymerizing agents revealed that Ifn? and NO mediate the cortical stabilization of Actin and Tubulin which contribute to aggregation of APECs. The biological relevance of aggregation of APECs was delineated using infection experiments with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). APECs from orally infected, but not uninfected, mice produce high amounts of NO and aggregate upon ex vivo culture in a Nos2-dependent manner. Importantly, aggregated APECs induced by Ifn? contain fewer intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to their single counterparts post infection. Further experiments with LNMA or Reopro revealed that both NO and CD11b are important for aggregation; in addition, NO is bactericidal. Overall, this study elucidates novel roles for Ifn? and Nos2 in regulating Actin, Tubulin, CD11b, motility and morphology during the aggregation response of APECs. The implications of aggregation or “group behavior” of APECs are discussed in the context of host resistance to infectious organisms. PMID:26029930

  6. Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis. PMID:24722883

  7. Neutrophil activity in abscess-bearing mice: comparative studies with neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood, elicited peritoneal exudates, and abscesses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, P. H.; Spencer, L. K.; Nulsen, M F; McDonald, P. J.; Finlay-Jones, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Intraabdominal abscesses were induced in mice by intraperitoneal inoculation of Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli plus bran as the abscess-potentiating agent. Six- or seven-day-old abscesses were mechanically disaggregated in buffer, and the cells obtained were fractionated on discontinuous Percoll density gradients. Neutrophil populations of different density, each approximately 90% pure, were isolated. When the abscess-derived neutrophils were subsequently incubated with normal seru...

  8. Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Panos GD; Gatzioufas Z; Petropoulos IK; Dardabounis D; Thumann G; Hafezi F

    2013-01-01

    Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED) associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) sec...

  9. Effect of ranibizumab on serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos GD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Georgios D Panos,1 Zisis Gatzioufas,1 Ioannis K Petropoulos,1 Doukas Dardabounis,2 Gabriele Thumann,1 Farhad Hafezi11Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To report the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for serous and vascular pigment epithelial detachments (PED associated with choroidal neovascularisation (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: In a prospective study, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT data were collected for 62 eyes of 62 patients, with serous or vascular PED associated with CNV secondary to AMD. Intravitreal ranibizumab 0.5 mg was administered with a loading phase of three consecutive monthly injections, followed by monthly review with further treatment, as indicated according to the retreatment criteria of the PrONTO study. The change in visual acuity and PED height from baseline to month 12 after the first injection was determined.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients (one of the patients developed retinal pigment epithelial tear and was excluded from the study were assessed at the 12-month follow-up examination. There were two types of PED, including vascular PED in 32 patients (Group A and serous PED (Group B in 29 patients. The mean improvement of mean BCVA from baseline to 12 months was 0.09 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution in Group A and 0.13 logMAR in Group B. Both groups showed significant improvement of the mean BCVA 12 months after the first injection compared with the baseline value (P < 0.05. In relation to the PED height, the mean decrease of mean PED height from baseline to 12 months was 135 µm in Group A and 180 µm in Group B. Both groups showed significant reduction of the PED height during the follow-up period (P < 0.01. The PED anatomical response to ranibizumab was not correlated with the BCVA improvement in any of the groups. Apart from one patient who developed pigment epithelial tear no other complications were documented.Conclusion: Ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment for improving vision in patients with serous and vascular PED, although the anatomical response of the PED to ranibizumab may not correlate directly with the visual outcome.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularisation, intravitreal injection, pigment epithelial detachment, ranibizumab

  10. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  11. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and...... other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging...

  12. Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds / Purificação e determinação da massa molecular de uma proteína transportadora de lipídeos exsudada de sementes de Vigna unguiculata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela S. S., Diz; André O., Carvalho; Valdirene M., Gomes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas exsudam uma variedade de substâncias através de sua superfície, especialmente de raízes e sementes germinantes. Algumas dessas substâncias parecem apresentar atividades inibitórias contra determinados patógenos vegetais. Proteínas transportadoras de lipídeos (LTPs) são peptídeos catiônicos b [...] ásicos de 9 kDa, ricos em cisteína e que possuem a função de proteção de plantas contra infecções microbianas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o isolamento e a determinação da massa molecular de uma LTP presente em exsudatos de sementes embebidas de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata). Para indução da exsudação, 50 sementes foram submersas em 50 mL de tampão acetato de sódio, 100 mmol.L-1, pH 4,5 e mantidas a 30 ºC sob agitação por 24 h. O exsudato foi submetido à precipitação por sulfato de amônio e o precipitado formado entre 0 e 70 % de saturação foi dialisado, recuperado por liofilização e submetido a cromatografias para a purificação e determinação da massa molecular da LTP. Todas as etapas foram monitoradas por eletroforese em gel de tricina e por Western blotting, usando-se anticorpo produzido contra LTP isolada de sementes de feijão-de-corda. A proteína transportadora de lipídeo purificada apresentou massa molecular de 9 kDa. Abstract in english Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role [...] in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

  13. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA EN CANALES DE CERDO DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson E CASTRILLÓN H

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24, en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca. El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23% y DFD (0.77% disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P The PSE (pale, soft and exudative meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluated by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45 and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry. The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 is found for the three meat conditions evaluated at pH45 and pH24.

  15. Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Schalchli; F, Pardo; E, Hormazábal; R, Palma; J, Guerrero; E, Bensch.

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to prote [...] ct the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1). IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

  16. Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Schalchli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to protect the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1. IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

  17. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

  18. Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Al-Sherif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

  19. Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Umoren; I. B. Obot; E.E. Ebenso; N. Obi-Egbedi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. T...

  20. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  1. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  2. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  3. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  4. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Guenter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the...... rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation...... in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H...

  5. Transcriptome profiling of bacterial responses to root exudates identifies genes involved in microbe-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, G Louise; Dow, J Maxwell; Kiely, Patrick D; Higgins, Hazel; Haynes, Jill; Baysse, Christine; Abbas, Abdelhamid; Foley, Tara; Franks, Ashley; Morrissey, John; O'Gara, Fergal

    2005-11-29

    Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacterial genes involved in establishing microbe-plant interactions. We have examined the influence on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 transcriptome of exudates from two varieties of sugarbeet that select for genetically distinct pseudomonad populations in the rhizosphere. The response to the two exudates showed only a partial overlap; the majority of those genes with altered expression was regulated in response to only one of the two exudates. Genes with altered expression included those with functions previously implicated in microbe-plant interactions, such as aspects of metabolism, chemotaxis and type III secretion, and a subset with putative or unknown function. Use of a panel of mutants with targeted disruptions allowed us to identify previously uncharacterized genes with roles in the competitive ability of P. aeruginosa in the rhizosphere within this subset. No genes with host-specific effects were identified. Homologues of the genes identified occur in the genomes of both beneficial and pathogenic root-associated bacteria, suggesting that this strategy may help to elucidate molecular interactions that are important for biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and plant pathogenesis. PMID:16301542

  6. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K; Harding, K G; Ivins, N; Serra, N; Torres de Castro, O G; Galindo, A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Roed-Petersen, J; Gottrup, F; Blanco, J L; de Mena, M A; Hauschild, A; Moll, I; Svensson, A; Carter, K

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of Alione Hydrocapillary dressing (Coloplast A/S) in the management of highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers and compare it with two hydropolymer dressings,Tielle and Tielle Plus (Johnson & Johnson). METHOD: A comparative clinical trial was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 mont...

  7. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ?15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ?15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ?3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  8. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study): 12-month analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rishi P; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P; Silva, Fabiana Q; Bedi, Rumneek; Schachat, Andrew P; Kaiser, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Summary statement In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline. Purpose Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab. Methods Subjects (n=26) were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST) measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ?15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated. Results There was a mean decrease in CST of ?50.3 ?m (P<0.001) and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001). Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a ?15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ?3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12. Conclusion Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. PMID:26445522

  9. One-Year Results of Photodynamic Therapy Combined with Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Hayashi; Shuichiro Yanagisawa; Chiharu Fuchizawa; Keiichi Mitarai; Tatsuya Yunoki; Kazuya Fujita; Akio Miyakoshi; Tomoko Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods. Retrospective case series. Thirty eight eyes of 38 patients with exudative AMD underwent combined therapy consisting first of IVR, followed by PDT within a week and the second IVR at 1 month. All patients were followed up for more than 12 months. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickn...

  10. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  11. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buchweishaija; G.S. Mhinzi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency abov...

  12. Organic acids from root exudates of banana help root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Qiwei; Raza, Waseem; Li, Rong; Vivanco, Jorge M; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    The successful colonization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere is an initial and compulsory step in the protection of plants from soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the role of root exudates in the colonization of PGPR. Banana root exudates were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed exudates contained several organic acids (OAs) including oxalic, malic and fumaric acid. The chemotactic response and biofilm formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 were investigated in response to OA's found in banana root exudates. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation, yqxM and epsD, were evaluated in response to OAs via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results suggested that root exudates containing the OAs both induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation in NJN-6. In fact, the strongest chemotactic and biofilm response was found when 50??M of OAs were applied. More specifically, malic acid showed the greatest chemotactic response whereas fumaric acid significantly induced biofilm formation by a 20.7-27.3% increase and therefore biofilm formation genes expression. The results showed banana root exudates, in particular the OAs released, play a crucial role in attracting and initiating PGPR colonization on the host roots. PMID:26299781

  13. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  14. Sugar exudation by roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] is strongly affected by the nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tariq; Woitke, Markus; Gimmler, Hartmut; Kaiser, Werner M

    2002-04-01

    Exudation of sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and that of cations and anions from intact roots of kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth] grown hydroponically with ammonium or nitrate (3 mM) as N source was investigated. In different experiments, plants grown on ammonium had slightly higher sugar contents than nitrate-grown plants, but their total sugar exudation during a 2-h period was up to 79-fold higher than under nitrate nutrition. Relative root exudation of inorganic anions and cations and that of amino acids (as a percentage of the internal contents exuded per time) was either similar or slightly higher from ammonium-grown than from nitrate-grown plants. Analysis of root architectural parameters revealed that ammonium-grown plants had a higher number of root tips/side roots per gram root fresh weight than nitrate-grown plants, whereas other root parameters, viz. length, diameter, volume and surface area were similar under the two N sources. A majority of the fine roots having diameter up to 0.4 mm represented up to 86% of the total root length, 64% of the total root surface area, and 35% of the total root volume; the root length and surface area per root system of that major root population were similar in ammonium- and nitrate-grown plants. Apparently, root architecture was not responsible for the different exudation rates. Within 12-24 h after shifting ammonium-grown plants to nitrate nutrition, root sugar levels and visible root architecture remained unchanged, yet the sugar exudation rate was reduced 30-fold. Short-term uptake of [14C]glucose (10 microM) from the rooting medium was similar for ammonium- and nitrate-grown plants. Thus, the very different sugar exudation rates were neither related to internal root sugar concentration, nor to the different root architecture, nor to differential resorption of sugars by ammonium- versus nitrate-grown plants. Increased external Ca2+ did not alter sugar exudation, and decreased external pH (4.5) only slightly increased sugar exudation from roots of nitrate-grown plants kept at pH 6.5. It is suggested that the much higher sugar exudation in response to ammonium may facilitate the ecologically and economically important association of diazotrophs with kallar grass roots. PMID:11941465

  15. Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Querques, Giuseppe; Berboucha, Elya; Leveziel, Nicolas; Pece, Alfredo; Souied, Eric H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: To investigate the ability of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter in assessing responsiveness to ranibizumab therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Fourteen consecutive patients with newly diagnosed choroidal neovasularization underwent Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter metamorphopsia test (main outcome measures), 1 hour before (baseline) and 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month after one intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (0...

  16. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24972380

  17. Clinical outcomes of the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration with Pegaptanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate the results of intravitreal use of Pegaptanib in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Material end methods. Our study includes 77 patients with exudative AMD, who received 9 injections of Pegaptanib 0.3mg with 6-weeks intervals between them. So the primary treatment lasted one year. During and after the treatment these patients underwent fluorescent angiography (FAG, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fundus photography and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA examination. According to the results of these examinations a decision about a further treatment, whether it was necessary, was taken. Results. By the end of our 2-year study 38 patients after therapy with Pegaptanib had complete obliteration of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV, 19 patients were switched to Ranibizumab, one patient underwent photodynamic therapy with Visudyne, 14 patients had severe progression of AMD, when there was no sense in further treatment, 2 patients dropped out the study because of cerebral insult, 3 patients refused of any further treatment, in spite of persisting exudative activity of the CNV after the primary treatment. Conclusion. Intravitreal ?pplication of Pegaptanib is a relatively effective treatment option of exudative AMD as BCVA was stabilized or improved in 55.8% of patients, macular edema decreased in 67.5% of patients and neovascular membrane was obliterated in 49.35% of patients.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC ROLE OF PLEURAL BIOPSY IN EXUDATIVE PLEURAL EFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamala Baskara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Malignancy and Tuberculosis constitute the major diseases in differential diagnosis of idiopathic pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy has an important role in the diagnosis of pleural effusion, as it can diagnose 60 - 80% of tuberculous pleural effusions. Although the diagnosis of a malignant effusion may be made more frequently by pleural fluid cytology bu t in a significant number of malignant pleural effusions, biopsy is only positive even when cytology is negative. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : Prospective study on thirty four patients admitted in Government Fever Hospital/Guntur Medical College, Guntur with exudative pleural effusion with uncertain diagnosis, were subjected to pleural biopsy. RESULTS : Adequate tissue was obtained in 33 out of 34 patients (97.05%. Definitive histo - pathological diagnosis was obtained in 23 out of 33 patients (69.69%. Thus of the sixteen tuberculous pleural effusion patients, ten occurred in patients of 40 years of age or younger and only six in patients above that age. However definite evidence of caseous necrosis was seen in three of sixteen patients diagnosed at histo - pathology as tuberculosis. Six out of the seven malignant pleural effusions were found to occur in patients of age group of 40 years, three of these patients were males and four were females. The squamous cell variety is the mo st common in the study group followed by adenocarcinoma and others confirming the regular pattern of occurrence . CONCLUSION : Pleural biopsy should be a routine complementary diagnostic procedure to be taken up in patients with exudative pleural effusions. Routine use of blind biopsy reduces the need for image guided or surgical biopsy as the cost of medical thoracoscopy or image guided biopsy. Because of its low complication rate, high diagnostic yield, simplicity of operation and minimal discomfort to the patient, pleural biopsy may be included as one of the initial diagnostic procedures for the evaluation of pleural effusions.

  19. Peripheral Exudative Hemorrhagic Chorioretinopathy: A Variant of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Mashayekhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR in an elderly patient. Case Report: A 74-year-old Caucasian woman, with a 20-year history of a stable choroidal nevus in her right eye, was referred for evaluation of two small hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs affecting the temporal peripheral fundus of the same eye. Nine months later, the lesions became larger and indocyanine green angiography revealed polypoidal choroidal vascular changes corresponding to the location of the ophthalmoscopically visible PEDs. Despite one session of verteporfin photodynamic therapy, the lesions continued to enlarge eventually resulting in the development of a large hemorrhagic PED, which failed to respond to two subsequent injections of intravitreal bevacizumab. The final ophthalmoscopic appearance of the large hemorrhagic PED was typical of PEHCR. Conclusion: This case suggests that polypoidal choroidal vascular changes similar to that seen in our patient may underlie the development of PEHCR in some cases.

  20. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  1. Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2003-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

  2. Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso / Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Korn, Malerbi; Ramon Coral, Ghanem; Jeane, Chiang; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exam [...] e oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL). A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg). Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity [...] of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg). After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

  3. Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korn Malerbi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exame oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL. A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg. Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas.PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

  4. Interleukin 3 (IL 3) regulates the in vitro proliferation of both blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages: synergism between a macrophage lineage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and IL 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of interleukin 3 (IL 3) on regulation of macrophage proliferation was examined. Although IL 3 alone stimulates the colony formation in bone marrow cells, it fails to stimulate the colony formation by both peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and blood monocytes. However, IL 3 greatly enhances the proliferative capacity of both PEM and monocytes in responding to suboptimal concentrations of CSF-1. At supraoptimal concentrations of CSF-1, IL 3 did not increase the number of colonies, but greatly increased colony size. Kinetic studies showed that IL 3 enhances CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation by shortening the cell doubling time. Monocytes were more sensitive to the action of IL 3 and possessed higher proliferative potential than PEM. Binding studies with radioactive labeled CSF-1 (125I-CSF-1) showed that IL 3 treatment induced an increased expression of CSF-1 receptor activity by PEM which appears to be a result of increased number of available receptor sites. The effect of IL 3 on the expression of receptor activity is both dose- and time-dependent. IL 3 also augments the rate of receptor-mediated CSF-1 endocytosis by PEM which appears to be a direct result of increased expression of CSF-1 binding sites. These results demonstrate that, in addition to stimulating the growth and differentiation of several blood cell lineages by hemopoietic stem cells, IL 3 also possesses the ability to modulate CSF-1 receptors, thereby affecting proliferation of more mature blood monocytes and tissue-derived macrophages

  5. Use of an exchange method to estimate the association and dissociation rate constants of cadmium complexes formed with low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids released from plant roots can form complexes with cadmium (Cd) in the soil solution and influence metal bioavailability not only due to the nature and concentration of the complexes but also due to their lability. The lability of a complex influences its ability to buffer changes in the concentration of free ions (Cd); it depends on the association (, m mol s) and dissociation (, s) rate constants. A resin exchange method was used to estimate and (m mol s), which is the conditional estimate of depending on the calcium (Ca) concentration in solution. The constants were estimated for oxalate, citrate, and malate, three low-molecular-weight organic acids commonly exuded by plant roots and expected to strongly influence Cd uptake by plants. For all three organic acids, the and estimates were around 2.5 10 m mol s and 1.3 × 10 s, respectively. Based on the literature, these values indicate that the Cd- low-molecular-weight organic acids complexes formed between Cd and low-molecular-weight organic acids may be less labile than complexes formed with soil soluble organic matter but more labile than those formed with aminopolycarboxylic chelates. PMID:22031568

  6. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

  7. Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buchweishaija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

  8. Disorder of endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel components is associated with the increased apoptotic potential in pale, soft, exudative pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Wangang; Tume, Ron K; Hudson, Nicholas J; Huang, Feng; Yin, Yan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-05-01

    Eight pale, soft and exudative (PSE) and eight reddish-pink, firm and non-exudative (RFN) porcine longissimus muscle samples were selected based on pH and L* at 1h postmortem (PM), and drip loss at 24h PM, and used to evaluate the cellular calcium and apoptosis status. We found that SERCA1 was decreased, while IP3R was decreased in PSE meat (Pmitochondria during apoptosis appearance in PSE meat. Taken together, our data inferred that the calcium channel disorder present in PSE meat was associated with the increased apoptotic potential. PMID:26802614

  9. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, A.; C. Borchard

    2012-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11) was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP) and for extracellular release (ER) were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined ...

  10. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  11. Plant roots can actively regulate hydraulic redistribution by modifying the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere using exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Bogie, Nathaniel; Albalasmeh, Ammar

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of hydraulic lift by roots of plants has been observed in many arid and semi-arid regions. The process involves water transfer from moist deep soil zone to shallow and dry layers, typically at night when transpiration is shut off. The widely held explanation is that hydraulic lift receives the strong water potential gradient created during the day when the plants are actively transpiring. However, it is not fully understood whether hydraulic lift is actively controlled by plants or it is a spontaneous response to the occurrence of pressure gradient. Here, we will present modeling study that demonstrates that plant roots can exert significant control on hydraulic redistribution via exudation and formation of rhizospheath. The model is based on results of potted experiments conducted by Nambiar in 1976 (Plant and Soil, 44:267-271), which have shown that plants are able to acquire essential micronutrients from very dry soil so long as water is available to the root system in sufficient quantity elsewhere. He also observed that the roots in the water-depleted zones exhibited evidence of substantial root exudation, which suggests that exudates are needed in order to provide moisture for mobilization and diffusion of nutrients in the dry regions. In addition, our own recent model-based research demonstrated that exudates play important role in facilitating water flow in otherwise dry rhizosphere region. Our models show that exudates facilitate the release of hydraulically lifted water to the rhizosphere by ensuring hydraulic continuity between the root walls and the surrounding dry soil. In addition, the high water retention capacity of root exudates permits the hydraulic conductivity to remain elevated even at low potential conditions. The results of this modeling study suggest that hydraulic lift is an actively controlled adaptation mechanism that allows plants to remain active during long dry spells by acquiring nutrients from the dry near surface soils while relying on deep soil moisture reserves for transpiration.

  12. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Ted C. J. Turlings

    2014-01-01

    Plant defences against root antagonists invigorate root protagonists. The same root-cap exudate impairs the mobility of plant-parasitic nematodes and increases the performances of insect-killing nematodes.

  13. Root-exuded malic acid versus chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in four plant species under different phosphorus levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y. Y, Wu; K, Zhao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of root-exuded malic acid and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence; the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) in four plant species (Broussonetia papyrifera, Morus alba, Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus) at different phosphorus levels was [...] studied. A linear equation presents the minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) or the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the amount of root-exuded malic acid. Broussonetia papyrifera and Orychophragmus violaceus easily adapted to a low-phosphorus environment. A low-cost method was used for assessing plant adaptability to a low-phosphorus environment when no chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was available.

  14. Collection of Wound Exudate From Human Digit Tip Amputations Does Not Impair Regenerative Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Tobias; Klemens, Julia Maria; Hofmann, Katharina; Liodaki, Eirini; Gierloff, Matthias; Moellmeier, Dirk; Stang, Felix; Mailaender, Peter; Habermann, Jens; Brandenburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The regrowth of amputated digit tips represents a unique regenerative healing in mammals with subcutaneous volume regrowth, restoration of dactylogram, and suppression of scar formation. Although factor analysis in amphibians and even in mice is easy to obtain, safety of harvesting biomaterial from human digit tip amputations for analysis has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate if recovering wound exudate does hamper clinical outcome or influence microbiologic or inflammation status. A predefined cohort of 18 patients with fresh digit tip amputations was randomly assigned to receive standard therapy (debridement, occlusive dressing) with (n?=?9) or without (n?=?9) collection of the whole wound exudate in every dressing change. Primary endpoint (lengthening) and secondary endpoints (regeneration of dactylogram, nail bed and bone healing, time to complete wound closure, scar formation, 2-point discrimination, microbiologic analysis, inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-4, and IL-6) were determined by an independent, blinded observer. Patients’ characteristics showed no significant differences between the groups. All patients completed the study to the end of 3 months follow-up. Exudate collection did not influence primary and secondary endpoints. Furthermore, positive microbiologic findings as well as pus- and necrosis-like appearance neither impaired tissue restoration nor influenced inflammatory factor release. Here, the authors developed an easy and safe protocol for harvesting wound exudate from human digit tip amputations. For the first time, it was shown that harvesting does not impair regenerative healing. Using this method, further studies can be conducted to analyze regeneration associated factors in the human digit tip. DRKS.de Identifier: DRKS00006882 (UTN: U1111-1166-5723). PMID:26469916

  15. Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama K; Enoki T; Kojima T; Ishikawa S; Takeuchi M

    2012-01-01

    Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal ...

  16. Clinical experience with interferon alfa-2a for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, J N; Dick, A. D.; Forrester, J V

    1993-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the use of systemic interferon alfa-2a treatment for choroidal neovascular membranes (CNV). Here a pilot study is reported in which 10 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) have been treated with a course of interferon injections. Of nine eyes with CNV there has been clinical and angiographic improvement in one eye and maintenance of visual acuity at pretreatment levels in three eyes (mean follow up period 7.6 months). Clinical appea...

  17. Exudative lesions of Reinke's space: a terminology proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantzakos, A; Remacle, M; Dikkers, F G; Degols, J-C; Delos, M; Friedrich, G; Giovanni, A; Rasmussen, N

    2009-06-01

    There has been an ongoing confusion among pathologists in their attempt to accurately identify lesions of Reinke's space. Nodules, polyps and Reinke's edema fall in the same basket and differentiation between them relies largely on the clinical description of the pathologic specimen by the operating surgeon than on their distinct pathologic features. By revising the pertinent literature, the need for an establishment of the aforementioned term still remains and is further stressed out, as confusion among the various pathologic descriptions of these lesions still exists. This is further verified by a study conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of the University Hospital of Louvain at Mont-Godinne, Belgium, involving 323 operative specimens obtained from 200 patients with macroscopic picture. Statistical analysis showed lack of agreement between surgical and histopathologic diagnosis in almost a third of the cases (Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.683 +/- 0.037, P < 0.001). We, therefore, propose the term "exudative lesions of Reinke's space" to include Reinke's edema, polyps and nodules. These lesions share common histologic features, which are located in the Reinke's space and whose macroscopic appearance is largely dependent upon the presence and duration of certain causative factors. PMID:19023584

  18. Stimulation of nitrogen removal in the rhizosphere of aquatic duckweed by root exudate components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yufang; Zhou, Yingru; Nakai, Satoshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Zhang, Hailin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2014-03-01

    Plants can stimulate bacterial nitrogen (N) removal by secretion of root exudates that may serve as carbon sources as well as non-nutrient signals for denitrification. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the specific non-nutrient compounds involved in this stimulation. Here, we use a continuous root exudate-trapping system in two common aquatic duckweed species, Spirodela polyrrhiza (HZ1) and Lemna minor (WX3), under natural and aseptic conditions. An activity-guided bioassay using denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens showed that crude root exudates of the two species strongly enhanced the nitrogen-removal efficiency (NRE) of P. fluorescens (P duckweed released fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides, specifically: methyl hexadecanoate, methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl dodecanoate, methyl-12-hydroxystearate, oleamide, and erucamide. Methyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and erucamide emerged as the effective N-removal stimulants (maximum stimulation of 25.9 and 33.4%, respectively), while none of the other tested compounds showed stimulatory effects. These findings provide the first evidence for a function of fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid amides in stimulating N removal of denitrifying bacteria, affording insight into the "crosstalk" between aquatic plants and bacteria in the rhizosphere. PMID:24271005

  19. The Variation of Root Exudates from the Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under Cadmium Stress: Metabonomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  20. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  1. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    OpenAIRE

    AK Gregg; Hatay, M; AF Haas; NL Robinett; Barott, K.; MJA Vermeij; KL Marhaver; Meirelles, P.; Thompson, F.; F Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cult...

  2. Predictive factors in OCT analysis for visual outcome in exudative AMD

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Andreea Gamulescu; Georgios Panagakis; Carmen Theek; Horst Helbig

    2012-01-01

    Background. Reliable predictive factors for therapy outcome may enable treating physicians to counsel their patients more efficiently concerning probability of improvement or time point of discontinuation of a certain therapy. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 87 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration who received three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Visual acuity before initiation of intravitreal therapy and 4–6 weeks after last intravitreal injecti...

  3. Classification of Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Based on Segmented Exudates using K-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handayani Tjandrasa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe complication retinal disease caused by advanced diabetes mellitus. Long suffering of this disease without threatment may cause blindness. Therefore, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is very important to prevent to become proliferative. One indication that a patient has diabetic retinopathy is the existence of hard exudates besides other indications such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages. In this study, the existence of hard exudates is applied to classify the moderate and severe grading of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in retinal fundus images. The hard exudates are segmented using K-means clustering. The segmented regions are extracted to obtain a feature vector which consists of the areas, the perimeters, the number of centroids and its standard deviation. Using three different classifiers, i.e. soft margin Support Vector Machine, Multilayer Perceptron, and Radial Basis Function Network, we achieve the accuracy of 89.29%, 91.07%, and 85.71% respectively, for 56 training data and 56 testing data of retinal images.

  4. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  5. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  7. Changos in phenolic contents of sheshum leaf exudates in response to infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Bakshi; Chauhan, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    An increase in phenolic contents of leaf exudates was found after infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae, but phenolic content decreased as the disease progressed. Healthy leaf exudates show a gradually decline in phenolic contents as the leaves mature.

  8. Changos in phenolic contents of sheshum leaf exudates in response to infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Bakshi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An increase in phenolic contents of leaf exudates was found after infection with Phyllactinia dalbergiae, but phenolic content decreased as the disease progressed. Healthy leaf exudates show a gradually decline in phenolic contents as the leaves mature.

  9. Current Smoking Is Associated with a Poor Visual Acuity Improvement after Intravitreal Ranibizumab Therapy in Patients with Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangmoon; Song, Su Jeong; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and ...

  10. Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

  11. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Exudation of Allelopathic Substances in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Nad?žda; T?íska, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 16 (2007), s. 6453-6459. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * Epicatechin * Fagopyrum esculentum * palmitic acid * root exudates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2007

  13. An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; O' Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

    2006-06-01

    The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

  14. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin and anthocyanin metabolites. We describe here the metabolites present in the root exudates using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) metabolomics approach. Using this approach, biased rhizosphere for another class of PGPR strains can now be created. In this case, lignin- and anthocyanin- utilizing strains will be selectively preferred. We have set up a platform to perform metabolomics of exudates at the root surface. This has allowed us to use the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) system using a Thermo Velos Pro Orbitrap-MS to identify differences in exudate profiles along the root system of Arabidopsis. This platform enables direct sampling and measurement from plant roots grown aeroponically. As the metabolites are extracted from root surface and directly injected into the mass spectrometer, there is minimal loss of sample in this process. This method will now allow us to further dissect rhizosphere properties from places such as young root apex, as well as from the more mature base of roots. Taken together, these resources of altered rhizosphere, nutrient utilization pathways in microbes and surface analysis technology will help in extending our understanding of the processes in the plant rhizosphere.

  15. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC LIGANDS IN WHOLE ROOT EXUDATES USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. SOIL RESPIRED D13C SIGNATURES REFLECT ROOT EXUDATE OR ROOT TURNOVER SIGNATURES IN AN ELEVATED CO2 AND OZONE MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulk tissue and root and soil respired d13C signatures were measured throughout the soil profile in a Ponderosa Pine mesocosm experiment exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. For the ambient treatment, root (0-1mm, 1-2mm, and >2mm) and soil d13C signatures were ?24...

  17. PHOSPHORUS AND ALUMINUM INTERACTIONS IN SOYBEAN IN RELATION TO AL TOLERANCE: EXUDATION OF SPECIFIC ORGANIC ACIDS FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE INTACT ROOT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency often coexist in acid soils to severely limit crop growth and production. Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant Al and P interactions is necessary to facilitate the development of acid tolerant crops. Here we studied the effects of Al and...

  18. Detection of Hard Exudates in Colour Fundus Images Using Fuzzy Support Vector Machine-Based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T; Dheeba, J; Singh, N Albert

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Currently, there is a need for making decisions using intelligent computer algorithms when screening a large volume of data. This paper presents an expert decision-making system designed using a fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) classifier to detect hard exudates in fundus images. The optic discs in the colour fundus images are segmented to avoid false alarms using morphological operations and based on circular Hough transform. To discriminate between the exudates and the non-exudates pixels, colour and texture features are extracted from the images. These features are given as input to the FSVM classifier. The classifier analysed 200 retinal images collected from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The tests made on the retinal images show that the proposed detection system has better discriminating power than the conventional support vector machine. With the best combination of FSVM and features sets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.9606, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 94.1% with a specificity of 90.0%. The results suggest that detecting hard exudates using FSVM contribute to computer-assisted detection of diabetic retinopathy and as a decision support system for ophthalmologists. PMID:25822397

  19. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?aki? Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and ?-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  20. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R2=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  1. Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Retinitis Pigmentosa with Coats-like Exudative Vasculopathy Are Associated with Mutations in the Crumbs Homologue 1 (CRB1) Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Anneke I. den; Heckenlively, John R.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; de Kok, Yvette J. M.; van der Velde-Visser, Saskia D.; Kellner, Ulrich; Jurklies, Bernhard; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Blankenagel, Anita; Rohrschneider, Klaus; Wissinger, Bernd; Cruysberg, Johan R. M.; Deutman, August F.; Brunner, Han G.; Apfelstedt-Sylla, Eckart

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene cause a specific form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) that is designated “RP12” and is characterized by a preserved para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium (PPRPE) and by severe loss of vision at age

  2. CO2 evolution and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of bacterial communities in soil following addition of low molecular weight substrates to simulate root exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Falchini, L.; Naumova, N.; Kuikman, P. J.; Bloem, J.; Nannipieri, P.

    2003-01-01

    Simulating the evolution of both 14C and 12C-CO2 in the rhizoplane was monitored during the diffusion of 14C-labelled glucose, oxalic acid, or glutamic acid into soil from a filter placed on the surface of a sandy loam. After 3 and 7 d, soil was sampled from four layers (0¿2, 2¿4, 4¿6, and 6¿14 mm) to determine residual 14C in each layer. The mineralisation pattern of oxalic acid was characterised by a lag phase probably due to the presence, in the early stages of exposure, of a few microorga...

  3. Inhibition of copepod feeding by exudates and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) derived from a Phaeocystis globosa dominated phytoplankton community

    OpenAIRE

    Dutz, J.; Breteler, W.C.M.K.; Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if (1) dissolved compounds excreted by Phaeocystis globosa and (2) transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formed from carbohydrates excreted into the water affect the feeding of nauplii and females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis during a P. globosa bloom. Copepod grazing on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence of these possible grazing deterrents was measured during three successive weeks of a mesocosm study, simulating the development of a P. globo...

  4. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth) / Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André G. da, Silva; Judith F., Rodrigues; Regina Célia M. de, Paula.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma [...] nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+) foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5) g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4) g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4) g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro. Abstract in english A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysac [...] charide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+) were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5) g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4) g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4) g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  5. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  6. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 ?g/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  7. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel T Ba?arah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  8. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the retinal hard exudates showed a significant positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (P=0.019, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL (P=0.002 and TG (P=0.014 levels. The incidence of dyslipidemia varied from as high as nearly 70% among patients of Group 3 compared to as low as 18% among Group 1 patients. Conclusion: Serum cholesterol and LDL are independent risk factors for retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients who suffer from a remarkably high incidence of dyslipidemia.

  9. The effect of organic ligands exuded by intertidal seaweeds on copper complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Santiago; Pulido, Maria Jesus; Correa, Juan A

    2010-01-01

    Copper complexation in marine systems is mainly controlled by organic matter, partially produced by micro- and macroalgae that release exudates with the capacity to bind metals. This feature is important as it influences bioavailability, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and transport of copper through biological membranes. The release of Cu-complexing ligands by seaweeds cultured under copper excess was studied in the laboratory. Five macroalgae belonging to different functional groups were used, including the filamentous Chaetomorphafirma (Chlorophyta), the foliose Ulvalactuca (Chlorophyta) and Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta), the corticated Gelidium lingulatum (Rhodophyta), and the leathery Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyceae). The concentration of ligands and their copper-binding strength (logK') of exudates released by each species was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The selected algae released exudates in a wide range of concentration (42-117 nM) after 48h of culture, and addition of 157nM copper increased the production of ligands up to 8 times. A relationship between structural complexity or thallus thickness and the amount of ligands released was not observed. The binding strength (logK') varied among species from 7.6 to 8.9, a response that was not modified by exposure to sub-lethal copper excess. The kelp L. nigrescens showed a fast response to copper excess, releasing ligands that reduced toxicity of the metal in hours. Results suggest that intertidal and shallow subtidal macroalgae might have been overlooked regarding their role as producers of organic ligands and, therefore, as modulators of metal complexing capacity in coastal waters. PMID:19962173

  10. Panuveitis With Exudative Retinal Detachments After Vaccination Against Human Papilloma Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansingani, Kunal K; Suzuki, Mihoko; Naysan, Jonathan; Samson, C Michael; Spaide, Richard F; Fisher, Yale L

    2015-10-01

    A 20-year-old white woman presented with bilateral acute visual loss (visual acuity: 20/60), panuveitis, and exudative retinal detachments 3 weeks after a second dose of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. She was treated with oral prednisolone for 6 weeks and responded rapidly. By week 4, vision had normalized and clinical signs resolved. Uveitis after HPV4 vaccination has been reported in two cases. Although the differential diagnosis includes Harada disease, temporal correlation with HPV4 and definitive response to a short course of treatment implicate the vaccine in this case. Vaccine-induced uveitis is rare and difficult to distinguish from coincidental autoimmune disease. PMID:26469238

  11. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2012-08-01

    Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11) was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP) and extracellular release (ER) were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa) dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO), particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C). Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D) from D = 0.3 d-1 to D = 0.1 d-1 (D = ?) induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d-1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP) × 100) averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d-1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d-1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d-1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d-1, the contribution (mol % C) of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  12. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D from D = 0.3 d?1 to D = 0.1 d?1 (D = ? induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP × 100 averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d?1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d?1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d?1, the contribution (mol % C of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  13. Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and sulfur functional groups will dissolve Cd-containing mineral phases to a greater extent than exudates containing only oxygen functional groups, resulting in higher Cd concentrations in solution. Two different iron oxide mineral phases were utilized in a laboratory-scale model study system investigating the effects of low molecular weight, oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compounds on mineral dissolution. Goethite (?-FeOOH) was synthesized in the laboratory with 0, 2.4, 5, and 100 theoretical mol% Cd, and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) was prepared with 0, 10, and 25 theoretical mol% Cd. Phase identity of all minerals was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All minerals were reacted with 0.01 mM solutions containing one of four different organic ligands (oxalic acid, citric acid, histidine or cysteine) and aliquots of these solutions were sampled periodically over 40 days. Results from solution samples suggest that oxalic acid, citric acid, and histidine consistently increase mineral dissolution relative to the control (no organic compound present) while cysteine consistently inhibits dissolution relative to the control in all minerals. Increasing Cd substitution in the franklinite resulted in increased release of Fe and Zn to solution in the presence of these organic compounds, while increasing Cd substitution in the goethite generally limited Fe release to solution. In the case of cysteine, sulfur concentrations in solution decrease over time in the presence of Cd-containing minerals, indicating strong binding of the cysteine compound to the mineral surface, inhibiting Cd dissolution from the minerals. Our work indicates that amino acids present in biological soil exudates, in addition to organic acids, may have substantial impacts on iron oxide dissolution in soils, altering the availability of both bioessential (e.g., Fe and Zn) and non-essential, or potentially toxic, (e.g., Cd) elements.

  14. Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Engel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different growth, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorous controlled chemostats, to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation, and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and for extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included amount and composition of high molecular weight dissolved combined carbohydrates (>1 kDa, HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. A reduction in growth rate from ? =0.3 d?1 to ? =0.1 d?1 induced the most profound effect on the performance of E. huxleyi, relative to the effect of elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? =0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature. DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all cultures, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (DO14C/PP × 100; PER of averaged 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? =0.1 d?1, PO14C decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased, thus leading to a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? =0.1 d?1 at greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of HMW-dCCHO and pCCHO were generally higher at ? =0.1 d?1 compared to ? =0.3 d?1. At ? =0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly along with elevated CO2 and temperature. Despite of high PER, the percentage of HMW-dCCHO was smallest at greenhouse conditions. However, highest TEP-formation was observed under greenhouse conditions, together with a pronounced increase in pCCHO concentration, suggesting a stronger partitioning of PP from DOC to POC by coagulation of exudates. Our results imply that greenhouse condition will enhance exudation processes in E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

  15. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed

  16. Microbial impacts on the migration of actinides. Effects of exudates on adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. We have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log Kd of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate with insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed. (author)

  17. MICROBIAL IMPACTS ON THE MIGRATION OF ACTINIDES -EFFECTS OF EXUDATES ON ADSORPTION-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHNUKI,T.; OZAKI, T.; YOSHIDA, T.; NANKAWA, T.; KOZAI, N.; SAKAMOTO, F.; SUZUKI, Y.; FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-10-18

    The interaction of actinides with microorganisms has been extensively studied to elucidate migration behavior of actinides in the environments. However, the mechanisms of interaction of microorganisms and actinides are poorly understood. They have been conducting basic science on microbial accumulation of actinides in order to elucidate the environmental behavior of actinides under relevant conditions. The effect of exudates from bacteria cells on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Chlorella vulgaris was studied by a batch method. The pH dependence of log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose, major component of C. vulgaris cell, differed from that for C. vulgaris. On the contrary, log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) for cellulose in the solution containing exudates from C. vulgaris cells in a 0.5% NaCl solution showed a similar pH dependence to that by C. vulgaris. These results strongly suggested that exudates affect on the sorption of Eu(III) and Cm(III) on C. vulgaris. Effect of desferrioxamine B (DFO), one of exudates to chelate the insoluble Fe(III), on the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) by Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied. In the presence of DFO the sorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on the cells increased with a decrease in pH from 7 to 4. In contrast, without DFO most of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) were precipitated from solution. Adsorption of DFO on the cells was negligible in the solution with and without metals. Adsorption of Pu(IV), Th(IV) and Eu(III) on P. fluorescens cells decreased in the order Eu(III) > Th(IV) > Pu(IV), which corresponds to increasing stability constant of the DFO complexes. These results indicate that Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Eu(III) dissociate when in contact with cells, after which the metals are adsorbed.

  18. Effects of an orally active non-peptide bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, FR173657, on plasma exudation in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Masataka; Kawashima, Noriko; Hiroshi, Ito; Katori, Makoto

    1997-01-01

    Effects of an orally active non-peptide (BK) B2 receptor antagonist, FR173657 ((E)-3-(6-acetamido-3-pyridyl)- N-[N-[2,4-dichloro-3-[(2-methyl-8-quinolinyl)oxymethyl]phenyl]-N-methylaminocarbonylmethyl] acrylamide) on the plasma exudation in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy were investigated. Plasma exudation induced by intrapleural injection of bradykinin (BK, 3?nmol per rat) into male SD strain rats (SPF, 8 weeks old) were significantly inhibited by oral administration of novel B2 receptor antagonist FR173657 (3–30?mg?kg?1, 1?h before BK injection) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas that induced by histamine was not. The inhibitory effect of 30?mg?kg?1 FR173657 persisted for more than 4?h. Intrapleural injection of ?-carrageenin (2% (w/v), 0.1?ml per rat) caused marked plasma exudation and accumulation of exudates from 1?h after carrageenin injection. The maximum plasma exudation response was observed 5?h after carrageenin. The oral administration of FR173657 to rats (30?mg?kg?1, 1?h before carrageenin) significantly (by 50–77%) blunted the plasma exudation 1, 3, 5, and 7?h after carrageenin, causing a significant parallel reduction (by 42–57%) in the volume of exudates. The anti-inflammatory effect of FR173657 on rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy was almost equipotent with that of the peptide B2 antagonist Hoe140 (1?mg?kg?1, i.v.), a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, soy bean trypsin inhibitor (0.3?mg per rat, intrapleural injection) and bromelain (10?mg?kg?1, i.v.). In pleurisy induced by intrapleural injection of a histamine releaser, compound 48/80, the plasma exudation was observed only within 20?min after the injection. This plasma exudation was not affected by FR173657, although it was completely inhibited by a mixture of pyrilamine (5?mg?kg?1, i.v.) and methysergide (3?mg?kg?1, i.v.). These results indicate that FR173657 is an orally active, promising anti-inflammatory agent for kinin-dependent inflammation. PMID:9208140

  19. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P?0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  20. Acacia senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Adel S. El-Azab; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Daba, Mohammad H; Gado, Ali M; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Adel R. A. Abd-Allah

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6...

  1. Frequency of causative factors for pleural effusions: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of various causative factors of pleural effusion in adults. Combined Military Hospital, Attock and PAF hospital Faisal Karachi. One hundred and fifty patients of clinical signs of pleural effusion, were selected and then, further classified in to transudative and exudative variety by carrying out pleural fluid routine testing and using Light's criteria . Later the final etiological diagnosis was made with the help of appropriate laboratory tests. Out of total 150 patients who were studied, 123 patients were found to have exudative effusions whereas 27 cases had transudative effusion. A total of five 5 patients (3.33%) were lost to follow up. Three patients were out of exudative variety and 02 were from transudative variety. Out of 120 patient of exudative pleural effusion, 70(58.2%) had tuberculosis, 28(23.2%) had malignancy, 12(10%) had pneumonia, 5(6%) were uraemic, 2(1.6%) had pulmonary embolism, and rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosis and liver abscess were causative factors in 1(0.8%) each patient. Out of transudative effusions, 14(56%) had congestive cardiac failure, 5(20%) had cirrhosis liver, 4(16%) had nephrotic syndrome and 1(4%) each had cardiac tamponade and myxoedema. The most common cause of pleural effusion remains tuberculosis. (author)

  2. Tuberculosis meningitis presenting as isolated interhemispheric exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The total number of tuberculosis cases in the world is increasing, and less common forms of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with varying imaging manifestations are being encountered more often. We describe anterior interhemispheric variety of TBM, which has not been previously described to the best of our knowledge in the literature. Common imaging findings in these five patients include predominant involvement of the meninges in the anterior interhemispheric fissure with relatively little enhancement of the basal cisterns. Knowledge of uncommon radiological findings is vital in early diagnosis and treatment of this common disease.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kittipol Wisaeng; Nualsawat Hiransakolwong; Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new metho...

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  6. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  7. Partial characterisation of exopolysaccharides exudated by planktonic diatoms maintained in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Gil, Maria Cândida; Delgadillo, Ivonne

    2003-05-01

    Axenic cultures of the marine planktonic diatoms Navicula directa (W. Smith) Ralfs, Amphora holsatica Hustedt and Melosira nummuloides (Dillwyn) Agardh, isolated from samples from the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal, were successfully established. For each culture, the extracellular carbohydrate production was related to the growth curve and nutrient concentration (NO 3- and PO 43-) in the culture medium. Analysis by gas-liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was performed on the exopolysaccharides isolated from the culture medium. It was concluded that the three marine diatoms produced and exudated different amounts of carbohydrates, and that the exudation process was more important when the media were almost nutrient depleted, and also when the species reached the stationary growth phase. The exopolysaccharides produced by the three species, mainly polymers of uronic acids, were very similar. However, the results obtained from gas-liquid chromatography suggest that differences in the composition of neutral sugars may occur. The FT-IR spectra support the results of chemical analysis.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell free callus exudates of medicago sativa l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is designed to investigate the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using cell free callus exudates of Medicago sativa L. Explants are surface sterilized and then sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 percentage sucrose, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 1 mg/L BA. Cultured tissues are derived from hypocotyls, and then soaked in sterilized deionized water (8 h) on dark. The cell free exudates incubated with aqueous silver nitrate, at room temperature, showed change in the color of the mixture from colorless to yellow indicating the silver nanoparticles synthesis. Silver nanoparticles are formed with different shape and variable size. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles is influenced by the pH variation of silver nitrate solution, at pH 5, the results showed significant and insignificant differences on shape and on size respectively. FT-IR absorption spectra conclude that the stabilizing agent could be a polyphenol with amide group. The reducing agent was supposed to be a member of antioxidants. (author)

  9. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  10. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassiana, Kissel; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de [...] soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA), perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE), e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphat [...] e, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.

  11. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  12. Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal bevacizumab injection have been reported. However, the therapeutic effect of intravitreal injection with ranibizumab for PEHCR is unclear. A 70-year-old woman visited our department because of sudden loss of superior visual field in her left eye. She had a history of surgical removal of hematoma due to subretinal hemorrhage associated with age-related macular degeneration 5 years ago. Peripheral subretinal hemorrhage was observed in the left eye, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revealed choroidal neovascularization in the subretinal hemorrhagic region. PEHCR was diagnosed. Considering her past history, intravitreal ranibizumab injection was used for treatment. After three injections in the left eye, subretinal hemorrhage and choroidal neovascularization resolved completely. No recurrence was observed during 1 year of follow-up. This case demonstrates that intravitreal injection of ranibizumab is an effective treatment for PEHCR with subretinal hemorrhage.Keywords: peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy, ranibizumab, intravitreal injection, choroidal neovascularization

  13. Biophysical investigation of plant exudate of Acacia senegal (L) Willd. from Sudan-savannah ecological zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Yusuf; Uduak S. Ukekpe; Ibrahim B. Gashua,

    2013-01-01

    Plant gum exudate harvested from Acacia senegal (Acacia gum/gum Arabic) is the most widely used plant gum especially in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its non toxicity and excellent properties as emulsifiers and stabilizers in emulsions. It consists of complex polysaccharides and glycoprotein, and its qualities are defined by the biophysical properties of the gum. Analyses of some biophysical properties using range of techniques were carried out for harvested, untreated gum Arabic ...

  14. Reduced Germination of Orobanche cumana Seeds in the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi or Their Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  15. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exu...

  16. Efeito de exsudatos de colônias e de filtrados de culturas de actinomicetos na eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica Effect of colony exudates and culture filtrates of actinomycetes on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Coimbra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dez filtrados de culturas de actinomicetos causaram redução na motilidade e 100% de mortalidade de J2 de Meloidogyne javanica. A diluição de alguns causou redução de 75 a 85% de mortalidade. Contudo, o filtrado do isolado PIC 1 causou, mesmo em diluição, 100% de mortalidade. Alguns filtrados reduziram a motilidade sem causar mortalidade. Dos isolados que causaram mortalidade também reduziram eclosão de J2. Entretanto, a porcentagem de redução variou ao longo do período de crescimento do actinomiceto em meio líquido. Exsudatos obtidos de colônias de alguns isolados de actinomicetos crescidos em meio sólido causaram 100% de mortalidade e redução na motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. Os isolados de actinomicetos ALF 4 e QUI 4 produziram substâncias tóxicas a J2 tanto em filtrado quanto em exsudato de colônia.Ten filtrates of actinomycetes cultivated in liquid medium, induced reduction of motility and 100% mortality of Meloidogyne javanica J2. Some of them, when diluted in water, reduced mortality to 75 a 85%. However, the isolate PIC 1, maintened J2 mortality of 100%, even after dilution in water. Some filtrates reduced motility, without causing mortality. Among the isolates that caused mortality, some also reduced J2 hatching. Nevertheless, the level of hatching inhibition varied with the growing status of the actinomycete in liquid medium. Exudates obtained from some actinomycete cultures in solid medium induced 100% mortality and reduction on motility of J2 of M. javanica. The isolates of actinomycetes ALF 4 and QUI 4 produced substances toxic to J2 in filtrates and in colony exudates as well.

  17. Correlação da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentração de lactato com a classificação de efusões em cães Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nunes Rosato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As efusões são problemas clínicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequência de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuição da pressão coloidosmótica intravascular, elevação da pressão hidrostática local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfáticos. Dessa maneira, a avaliação laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clínicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possível diagnóstico e instituída ação terapêutica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificação de uma efusão em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos críticos para a elucidação do diagnóstico e condução do caso clínico. Em Medicina Veterinária, o método tradicional de classificação de uma efusão é baseado na contagem celular e na concentração de proteínas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parâmetros não são suficientes para a correta classificação de todas as efusões. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlação de outros parâmetros bioquímicos com a diferenciação das efusões transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH das efusões, a relação de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentração de lactato das efusões, o gradiente de concentração de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentração de proteínas das efusões. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relação LDH efusão/soro, a concentração de lactato e o gradiente de concentração de lactato soro/efusão apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa (PThe effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic vases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P<0.05, as well as a high correlation with the classification of an exudative effusion.

  18. Unilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment as the Sole Presentation of Relapsing Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Az?k

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocular findings are rarely the initial symptom of leukemia, although up to 90% of all leukemia patients have fundus changes during the course of the disease. Herein we report a relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient with the sole presentation of sudden visual loss and exudative retinal detachment. An 8-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed sudden visual loss during his first remission period. Bullous retinal detachment with total afferent pupillary defect was observed. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraocular mass lesion; simultaneously obtained bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid samples showed no evidence of leukemic cells. Following local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy the mass disappeared. Local irradiation, and systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy effectively controlled the isolated ocular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and eliminated the need for enucleation.

  19. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P???0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P?experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672

  20. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H; Larsen, J R; Roed-Petersen, J; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and performance of a new sustained silver-releasing dressing, Contreet Foam (Coloplast A/S), in the treatment of moderately to highly exuding chronic venous leg ulcers in which healing is delayed due to the presence of bacteria. METHOD: The......'s effect on the peri-ulcer area. Blood samples were analysed for silver content. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 25 patients completed the study. One ulcer healed and no wound infections occurred during the study period. A mean 56% reduction in ulcer area (from 15.6 to 6.9 cm2) was recorded during the four...... weeks, and there was a mean 25% reduction in granulation tissue from dull to healthy after one week. Wound odour reduced significantly after one week. Mean dressing wear time was 3.1 days, and there were only minimal incidences of leakage. Serum silver levels did not exceed reference values. CONCLUSION...

  1. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Nattusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. Patients and Methods: The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. Results: A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17-78 years. Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%], tuberculosis (TB [10 (20.83% patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5% patients and TB in 2 (4.17% patients. Fourteen (29.17% patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17% patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7% patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Conclusion: Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions.

  2. Enlightening the past: analytical proof for the use of Pistacia exudates in ancient Egyptian embalming resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tim M; Gradl, Manuela; Welte, Beatrix; Metzger, Michael; Pusch, Carsten M; Albert, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Mastic, the resinous exudate of the evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus, is frequently discussed as one of the ingredients used for embalming in ancient Egypt. We show the identification of mastic in ancient Egyptian embalming resins by an unambiguous assignment of the mastic triterpenoid fingerprint consisting of moronic acid, oleanonic acid, isomasticadienonic and masticadienonic acid through the consolidation of NMR and GC/MS analysis. Differences in the observed triterpenoid fingerprints between mummy specimens suggest that more than one plant species served as the triterpenoid resin source. Analysis of the triterpenoid acids of ancient embalming resin samples in the form of their methyl- and trimethylsilyl esters is compared. In addition we show a simple way to differentiate between residues of mastic from its use as incense during embalming or from direct mastic application in the embalming resin. PMID:22083980

  3. A calcium-insoluble 6.4 S protein derived from sea urchin cortical granule exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, R W; Gottschling, C F; Carroll, E J; Nagel, G M

    1988-08-15

    A major protein component of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, cortical granule exudate has been purified and characterized. In the absence of divalent cations, the native, soluble protein has a sedimentation coefficient at infinite dilution of 6.4 S and a molecular weight from sedimentation equilibrium measurements of 2.8 +/- 0.3 X 10(5). These and other data indicate that the protein assumes an elongated, rod-like structure in solution. The protein is greater than 95% homogeneous as judged by agarose- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. In the latter experiments, the protein shows a relative molecular weight of 1.8 X 10(5) and is clearly distinct from the 11.6 S protein described earlier which shows two bands corresponding to 3.2 X 10(5) and 2.1 X 10(5). The 6.4 S protein is the major protein of the calcium-insoluble fraction of cortical granule exudate and contributes to the formation of the extracellular investments of the sea urchin embryo. Using a light-scattering assay, we show that the purified protein retains the ability to aggregate in the presence of divalent cations mirroring its assembly in vivo. Calcium ion alone is able to initiate this reaction and the rate of precipitation increases with calcium concentration. Magnesium alone is ineffective in this regard but, in combination, the two ions act synergistically. Strontium and barium can substitute for calcium, but higher concentrations of the former cations are required to produce an equivalent effect. PMID:2458068

  4. Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). Exudate production. Optimization of root exudation with a split-root system; Plant-Microbiele Brandstofcel (MFC). Exudate productie. Het optimaliseren van wortelexudatie met een split-root systeem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabaks, M.; Blok, C.; Van den Berg, C.C.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2009-11-15

    The Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFC) is a technology which, based on a new principle, is able to extract electricity or biofuels directly from a plant, without having to harvest it first. Living plants convert solar energy into energy-containing biomass by means of photosynthesis. Of the amount of carbon transported to the root system, the plant secretes a fraction of 50 to 70% to the soil in soluble form (exudates and secretions). The secreted organic substance can be partly converted into electricity by naturally existing micro-organisms. If this electricity is captured and used in some kind of way this is called MFC. [Dutch] De plant microbiele brandstofcel of Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (Plant-MFC) is een technologie die het op basis van een nieuw principe mogelijk maakt direct elektriciteit of biobrandstoffen aan een plant te ontrekken, zonder dat deze geoogst hoeft te worden. Levende planten zetten door fotosynthese zonne-energie om in energiehoudende biomassa. Van de hoeveelheid koolstof getransporteerd naar het wortelstelsel wordt door planten een fractie van 50 tot 70 % uitgescheiden naar de bodem in oplosbare vorm (exudaten en secreties). De uitgescheiden organische stof kan deels door natuurlijk voorkomende micro-organismen worden omgezet in elektriciteit. Als deze elektriciteit in de een of ander vorm wordt opgevangen en benut is er sprake van een MFC.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.; Yancey, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less...

  6. Comportamiento de Malassezia furfur en medios de cultivo con base en los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin: Producción de lipasa extracelular / Growth of Malassezia furfur in Media With Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin Gum Exudates: Production of Extracellular Lipase

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Mila, Mesa C; Octoban, Urdaneta; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Viluzca, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto; Rafael, Villalobos.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de las levaduras del género Malassezia requiere condiciones especiales, estos hongos que producen afecciones en la piel, son generalmente cultivados en el medio Dixon. Se ensayaron los exudados gomosos de Spondias dulcis y Spondias mombin como sustratos para Malassezia furfur. Se evalu [...] ó también la producción de lipasa. Se determinó la cinética de crecimiento a un determinado intervalo de tiempo (0-168h), y a diferente concentración (0,5; 1%) y pH (4,5; 6,0). La biomasa obtenida para la levadura probada demostró que los sustratos preparados con los exudados gomosos son adecuados para su desarrollo. La mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular se observó al tiempo inicial de estudio (18h) en ambos sustratos, en las condiciones usadas: concentración (0,5 y 1%) y pH (4,5 y 6,0). Estas especies botánicas, ampliamente localizadas en Venezuela, especialmente en los Estados Zulia y Falcón, producen abundante goma. Este hecho, y los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la obtención de un nuevo sustrato, que pueda competir con el medio Dixon para el aislamiento y la caracterización de especies de Malassezia, y para la producción de lipasa. Abstract in english The development of genus Malassezia yeasts requires special conditions. This fungus, which produces skin diseases, is generally cultivated in the Dixon medium. Gum exudates from Spondias dulcis and Spondias mombin were tested as substrates for Malassezia furfur. Lipase production was also evaluated. [...] The growth kinetic was determined for a given time range (0-168h) at different concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH levels (4.5; 6.0). The biomass obtained for the tested yeast showed that substrates prepared with S. dulcis and S.mombin gum exudates are suitable for its development. The highest extracellular lipase activity was observed at 18h on both substrates at given concentrations (0.5; 1%) and pH (4.5; 6.0). These botanical species, widely located in Venezuela, especially in the States of Zulia and Falcon, yield abundant gum. Findings may be useful for obtaining new substrates that could compete with the Dixon medium for isolation and characterization of Malassezia species and for lipase production.

  7. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  8. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  9. Correlação da atividade de lactato desidrogenase e concentração de lactato com a classificação de efusões em cães / Correlation of lactate dehydrogenase and lactate concentration with dog's effusion classification

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Nunes, Rosato; Letícia Abrahão, Anai; Aureo Evangelista, Santana.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As efusões são problemas clínicos frequentes e que ocorrem em consequência de uma enfermidade que culmine com diminuição da pressão coloidosmótica intravascular, elevação da pressão hidrostática local, aumento da permeabilidade vascular e/ou comprometimento da drenagem realizada pelos vasos linfátic [...] os. Dessa maneira, a avaliação laboratorial desse fluido torna-se relevante para que, em conjunto com os sinais clínicos apresentados pelo paciente, possa ser firmado um possível diagnóstico e instituída ação terapêutica adequada. Assim sendo, a classificação de uma efusão em transudato ou exsudato torna-se um dos pontos críticos para a elucidação do diagnóstico e condução do caso clínico. Em Medicina Veterinária, o método tradicional de classificação de uma efusão é baseado na contagem celular e na concentração de proteínas do fluido. Contudo, diversos estudos evidenciam que tais parâmetros não são suficientes para a correta classificação de todas as efusões. Assim, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a correlação de outros parâmetros bioquímicos com a diferenciação das efusões transudativas e exsudativas e, para tal, foram avaliadas as atividades de lacatato desidrogenase (LDH) das efusões, a relação de sua atividade fluido/soro, concentração de lactato das efusões, o gradiente de concentração de lactato do soro para o fluido e a concentração de proteínas das efusões. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que a atividade de LDH, a relação LDH efusão/soro, a concentração de lactato e o gradiente de concentração de lactato soro/efusão apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa (P Abstract in english The effusions are frequent clinical problems and can occur in consequence to an illness that culminates with decrease of the intravascular coloidosmotic pressure, increase of local hydrostatic pressure, increase of vascular permeability and/or compromising of the drainage accomplished by lymphatic v [...] ases. Therefore, the laboratorial evaluation of this fluid becomes relevant, jointly with clinical signs presented by patient; to become possible the diagnosis definition and institution of appropriate therapeutic. Thus, classification of effusion in exudate and transudate is one of major points to elucidation of diagnosis and conduction of clinical case. In veterinary medicine the traditional method of an effusion classification is based on cellular counting and protein concentration of the fluid, however, several studies evidence that such parameters are not enough for the correct classification of all kinds of effusions. Considering this, the present study aimed to verify the correlation of some biochemical parameters with the differentiation of transudatives and exudatives effusions. To perform this, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were appraised, as well as the relationship of their activities with fluid/serum; lactate and proteins concentration and fluid/serum gradients of concentration of these same substances. The results allowed to observe that the activity of LDH, relationship LDH and fluid/serum, lactate concentration and lactate fluid/serum gradient of concentration present statistically significant difference (P

  10. Comparing the results of VATS pleurectomy and talc pleurodesis with small sized catheter in randomised patients with malign pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tunçözgür

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural effusion occurs as a result of detoriationin equilibrium between absorption and secretion.We aimed to investigate the clinical responses of talkpleurodesis and pleurectomy with video assisted thoracoscopicsurgery (VATS in patients with malignant pleuraleffusion.Materials and methods: Forty-five patients with malignantpleural effusion between June 2007 and June 2008were included in this study. Thoracentesis was performedin order to study the biochemical, microbiologic, cytologicalanalysis. Glucose, total protein, albumin, lactic dehydrogenasesand cytological examination were studied ineffusion and blood sample simultaneously. Cases wereclassified into two groups; in group I (n=25, small calibratedcatheter and talk pleurodesis were performed. Ingroup II (n=20, VATS pleurectomy was performed.Results: There were 32 females and 13 males with meanage 51.58 (27-75 years. Diagnosis was made with cytologicexamination of pleural fluid that was aspirated withthoracentesis. Transudate- exudate discrimination wasdone according to Light’s criteria. Success rates of thegroups were as complete response; 84% (n=21 in groupI, 85% (n=17 in group II. Unsuccessful response was16% (n=4 in group I and 15% (n=3 in group II. Therewas no statistically significant difference between hospitalstay and tube duration of groups when compared to eachother.Conclusion: The treatment of malignant pleural effusionis palliative due to poor prognosis. The purpose isto eliminate dyspnea in patients with short survival time.There was no significant difference between the VATSpleurectomy and talc pleurodesis that has been known aseffective sclerosant agent. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(2:223-228

  11. Concomitant bilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Prince Davis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available R Prince Davis, Amy C Schefler, Timothy G MurrayBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To report the outcomes of same-day, bilateral intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF therapy for a consecutive series of patients treated for exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD.Methods: A consecutive series of 254 eyes of 127 patients received bilateral, same-day anti-VEGF injections of either bevacizumab or ranibizumab between January 1, 2007 and July 1, 2008 and the outcomes were assessed. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.Results: Bilateral, same-day anti-VEGF injections were well tolerated in all patients receiving the therapy. Indication for injection was exudative macular degeneration in all patients. The incidence of adverse effects was low, with only four events reported, none of which were serious. Conclusions: In this study, bilateral anti-VEGF injections performed on the same day were preferred over staggered injections and were well tolerated by patients. No major systemic or ocular adverse events were noted, despite the presence of risk factors in a subset of patients. Given that there are serious, albeit rare, complications following anti-VEGF injection, further study with a larger number of patients will be necessary to definitively prove the safety of this treatment modality.Keywords: visual acuity, same-day treatment, bevacizumab, ranibizumab

  12. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C0 (capacity factor, mg kg-1), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr-1), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  13. A root exudates based approach to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon-Jun [Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Chen Weiping, E-mail: wpchen@rcees.ac.c [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Page, Albert L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Granato, Thomas C. [Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Dowdy, Robert H. [Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Organic acids present in the rhizosphere of growing plants are widely recognized to be responsible for dissolving the solid phase metals in the soil and making them available for plant absorption. We proposed a root exudates-based model to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils. The phytoavailability of biosolids-borne metals was defined in terms of a capacity factor and an intensity factor. The plant available metal pool, C{sub 0} (capacity factor, mg kg{sup -1}), can be estimated by fitting the successive organic acids extraction data to an exponential decay kinetic equation. The field metal removal rate, k (intensity factor, yr{sup -1}), can be estimated from the successive extraction-based metal release rate through an effective annual organic acid production in the rhizosphere which was found to be characteristic of plant species. The protocol was successfully used to assess the long-term phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soil from two biosolids land application sites. - A new approach based on root exudates extraction was developed to assess the phytoavailability of metals in biosolids-amended soils.

  14. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  15. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  16. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  17. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. PMID:26213081

  18. Antioxidant Activity of a New Aromatic Geranyl Derivative of the Resinous Exudates from Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Luebert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. (Heliotropiceae is a resinous bush that grows at a height of 2000 m in Chañaral, Chile. From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. a new aromatic geranyl derivative: 4-methoxy-3-[(2-7’-methyl-3’-hydroxymethyl-2’,6’-octadienyl] phenol (1 and three flavonoids: 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (2, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (3 and 4'-acetyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4 were isolated and their structures were determined. Their antioxidant activity were evaluated using the bleaching of ABTS and DPPH derived cation radical methods and expressed in terms of FRE (fast reacting equivalents and TRE (total reacting equivalents, where FRE is a good measure of the quick protection of a given compound against oxidants and TRE measures the degree of long-term protection of the antioxidant, or how effective it is against a strong oxidative stress.

  19. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kooren Joel A; Rhodus Nelson L; Tang Chuanning; Jagtap Pratik D; Horrigan Bryan J; Griffin Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs) would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-bas...

  20. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by some trees in sierra leone: I. hydraulic conductivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    P.O. Egbenda; T.B.R. Yormah

    1995-01-01

    Gums exuded by two trees viz., Anacardium occidentale and Parkia bicolor growing widely in Sierra Leone have each been applied in various concentrations to two local soils with poor structure. Changes in the value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of each soil sample, brought about by the application of the gums, have been used as the index for determining soil conditioning effect; the K of a carefully selected loamy soil (untreated with conditioner) is used as reference. Poly(vinyl...

  1. Lucentis® using Visudyne® study: determining the threshold-dose fluence of verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Chen; David M Brown; Wong, Tien P; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Eric Chen, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Matthew S Benz, Eric Kegley, Joel Cox, Richard H Fish, Rosa Y KimRetina Consultants of Houston, Texas, USAPurpose: Combination verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy may decrease the need for injections while maintaining visual acuity in exudative age-related macular degeneration. This pilot study was designed to determine the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (the dose required to demonstrate ...

  2. Reduced capacity of peritoneal exudate cells for oxidative killing of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James M., Smith; Gerald M., Mkoji; Roger K., Prichard.

    Full Text Available Peritoneal exudate cells from mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S-PEC) can kill schistosomula in vitro in the presence of immune serum. S-PEC produce a low level of respiratory burst, and schistosomula mortality in their presence is not reduced when exogenous antioxidants are added, suggesting [...] that with S-PEC, oxidative killing is not important. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide production by S-PEC, and cells from BCG and thioglycollate (THGL) injected non-infected mice, non-specifically stimulated with opsonized zymosan, were measured. Levels of H2O2 produced by S-PEC were significantly lower than BCG or THGL PEC, and were below the H2O2 threshold for schistosomula killing. This resulted in lower levels of cell-mediated killing of schistosomula in vitro by S-PEC than by BCG or THGL PEC. Superoxide levels, however, were similar between the three cell populations. The efficiency of PEC to kill schistosomules in vitro correlated with H2O2 rather than superoxide levels. The lower tolerance of schistosomula, compared to adult S. mansoni to GSH depleting agents increases their sensitivity to oxidative attack and resulted in higher levels of cell-mediated killing in vitro.

  3. Enzyme Partitioning Using PEG-Anacardium occidentale L. Exudate Gum Polysaccharide Aqueous Two-Phase Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Tambourgi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of PEG molecular weight, system polymer concentrations (tie-line lengths, pH and sodium chloride concentration, on the partition coefficient of trypsin in PEG-purified Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree exudate gum polysaccharide aqueous two-phase systems have been investigated. Changes in PEG molecular weight, tie-line length and pH, had relatively little effect on trypsin partitioning, with partition coefficients (? < 0.3, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the A. occidentale L. gum (lower phase. However, addition of sodium chloride (0.1 M resulted in dramatic increases in ? values with increasing pH using the PEG 4000 (9% w/w-purified A. occidentale L. gum (18% w/w system, increasing to 3.70 at pH 7.0 and 9.77 at pH 8.0, i.e., trypsin partitioned preferentially into the PEG 4000 (upper phase. Relative trypsin activities in the phases were investigated for these systems (with different sodium chloride levels and high activities were obtained at pH 7.0 (70.9% and pH 8.0 (90.9% in 0.1 M sodium chloride, which in conjunction with their ? values, clearly demonstrates their suitability as lower cost enzyme purification procedures (compared with PEG-dextran.

  4. Two-year outcomes of pro re nata ranibizumab monotherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Yamamoto,1 Annabelle A Okada,1 Atsuhiko Sugitani,1,2 Daisuke Kunita,1 Tosho Rii,1 Reiji Yokota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kugayama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To describe outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for treatment-naive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD, in Japanese patients over the first 2 years. Methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 48 eyes of 48 patients with treatment-naive exudative AMD who underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. After three monthly injections (induction, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed (pro re nata for any residual activity, by fundus biomicroscopy and imaging studies, regardless of severity. Results: Twenty-nine (60% of the patients were men, and 19 (40% were women; the mean age was 76.1 years. Of the 48 eyes evaluated, 17 (35% had findings consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and five (10% with retinal angiomatous proliferation. A mean of 6.0 ranibizumab injections were given in the first year, 3.5 in the second year, and 9.5 over the 2-year period. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution improved significantly, from 0.35 at baseline to 0.21 at 12 months (P < 0.01, and remained stable at 0.21 at 24 months (P < 0.01. The mean central macular thickness decreased significantly, from 355.4 µm at baseline to 237.9 µm at 12 months (P < 0.01 and 247.7 µm at 24 months (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Improved visual acuity and decreased central macular thickness were observed and maintained over a 2-year period, in a Japanese population receiving 3 monthly induction injections followed by a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab for exudative AMD. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal angiomatous proliferation

  5. Results of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, we included forty-eight eyes of 43 age-related macular degeneration patients followed for at least twelve months. Mean age was 73.65±8.93 years and mean follow-up time was 14.2 months. All patients received three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections and then were followed up with clinical examination and optic coherence tomography monthly. Re-injection was executed as needed. Re sults: Twenty patients were male (46.5% and twenty-three patients were female (53.5%. The average number of ranibizumab injection was 3.7 (3-7 per eye. Twenty-six lesions (54.2% were classic (predominantly and minimally and twenty-two (45.8% were occult. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 46.8 letters with ETDRS chart at the initial examination and 55.5 letters at twelfth month. Mean central foveal thickness decreased from 320 microns to 269 microns. There was a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and central foveal thickness. On the other hand, this improvement was not significant between lesion types. During follow-up, there were no systemic or serious ocular complications determined. Dis cus si on: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is safe and effective, both anatomically and functionally, for age-related macular degeneration. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 25-9

  6. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14CO2, about 15% of the total 14C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  7. Strontium-90 brachytherapy for exudative, age related macular degeneration: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARMD is the leading cause of visual loss in the 55 and older population. Recent data suggests that low dose external beam irradiation seems to have a beneficial effect in stabilizing the central visual acuity, by arresting or delaying the progression of the central scotoma. The authors decided to use a newly designed Strontium-90 Macular Applicator in a pilot study to ascertain its effectiveness in controlling exudative, age related macular degeneration. Two groups of 10 patients each were treated. The first group received a total dose of 10 Gy at 1.5 mm depth in a total time of 4 minutes and 20 seconds, fractionated in 4 applications of 1 minute and 5 seconds with 1 minute rest in between to allow blood perfusion. The second group was treated with 15 Gy at the same depth of 1.5 mm in a total time of 6 minutes, in 5 fractions of 1 minute and 20 seconds and 1 minute rest. The first group of patients had a mean follow-up time of 6.7 months, the visual acuity improved at least two Snellen gradations in one eye (10%), stabilized in six eyes (60%) and worsened in three eyes (30%). Among the nine eyes with fluorescein angiographic documentation at four and six months post treatment, the choroidal neovascular membrane remained stable in eight eyes (85%). Strontium-90 brachytherapy appears to be an effective treatment for stabilizing the extent of choroidal neovascular membrane growth on a short term basis. Whether this therapy stabilizes or improves visual acuity, as compared to the natural history of the untreated disease, remains uncertain. The second group will complete six months follow-up soon and the results will be discussed at the time of this presentation

  8. Use of exudated gum produced by Samanea saman in the potabilization of the water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Griselda, González; Magaly, Chávez; Donaldo, Mejías; Marielba, Mas y Rubí; Nola, Fernández; Gladys, León de Pinto.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la clarificación del agua potable se utiliza sulfato de aluminio para remover materia coloidal y sustancias orgánicas, mejorando la calidad del agua. Elevadas concentraciones de aluminio residual en el agua potable tienen implicaciones en la salud humana, siendo necesario el desarrollo de coagula [...] ntes alternativos, ambientalmente aceptables para reemplazar los productos químicos. En esta investigación se estudió el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman como coagulante natural, estableciendo su dosis óptima mediante la prueba de jarro y determinando los parámetros: turbidez, color, pH, alcalinidad total, número más probable y conteo de heterótrofos, usando agua turbia sintética inoculada con un cultivo puro de Escherichia coli y solución de coagulante en dosis de 10-500 mg/L, con valores de turbidez inicial entre 10-100 NTU. La dosis óptima del coagulante resultó entre 10-25 mg/L, obteniendo disminuciones significativas en los valores de turbidez (1NTU) y color (5 UC), los valores de pH y alcalinidad total no presentaron variaciones significativas, los coliformes fecales y totales tuvieron remociones significativas (99,7% y 99,8% respectivamente) y el conteo de heterótrofos de observó con 0 UFC. Los parámetros evaluados cumplen con los estándares establecidos para garantizar la calidad del agua para consumo humano, usando el exudado gomoso de Samanea saman, demostrando la eficiencia de este coagulante natural. Abstract in english For the clarification of drinking water aluminium sulphate is used to remove colloids and organic substances to improve the water quality. High concentrations of residual aluminium in the drinkable water can have implications on human health, thus, it is necessary to develop alternative environmenta [...] lly acceptable coagulants. The exudates gums from Samanea saman were studied as natural coagulants, establishing optimum dose according to the jar test and determining parameters such as: turbidity, colour, pH, total, alkalinity, MPN and heterotrophic count; using synthetic turbid water inoculated with pure culture of E. Coli and coagulant solution on the volume range of 50 to 500 mg/L. The initial turbidity used was between 10 to 100 NTU. The optimum coagulant dose was found to be between 10 to 25 mg/L, with significant reduction of turbidity and colour, i, e,: 1 NTU for turbidity and 5 U for colour. The pH and total alkalinity did not present significant variations. On the other hand, for fecal coliforms a significant removal of 99.7%, and for total coliforms (99.8%) was found. And finally, the heterotrophic count was observed with 0 UFC. The parameters evaluated using the exudates gum from Samanea saman, comply with the standard established to guarantee the quality of water for human consumption, showing the efficiency of this natural coagulant.

  9. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  10. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A.; Evershed, Richard P.; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Goulding, Keith W.T.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or ‘extracellular polymeric substance’ (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15N labelled KNO3. We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (?g EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification. PMID:26635420

  11. Effect of volatiles versus exudates released by germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita on lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Guang; Bonfante, Paola; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi influence the root system architecture of their hosts; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Ectomycorrhizal fungi influence root architecture via volatiles. To determine whether volatiles also play a role in root system changes in response to AM fungi, spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita were inoculated on the same plate as either wild type (WT) Lotus japonicus, the L. japonicus mutant Ljcastor (which lacks the symbiotic cation channel CASTOR, which is required for inducing nuclear calcium spiking, which is necessary for symbiotic partner recognition), or Arabidopsis thaliana, separated by cellophane membranes (fungal exudates experiment), or on different media but with a shared head space (fungal volatiles experiment). Root development was monitored over time. Both germinating spore exudates (GSEs) and geminated-spore-emitted volatile organic compounds (GVCs) significantly promoted lateral root formation (LRF) in WT L. japonicus. LRF in Ljcastor was significantly enhanced in the presence of GVCs. GVCs stimulated LRF in A. thaliana, whereas GSEs showed an inhibitory effect. The expression profile of the genes involved in mycorrhizal establishment and root development were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Only the expression of the LjCCD7 gene, an important component of the strigolactone synthesis pathway, was differentially expressed following exposure to GVCs. We conclude that volatile organic compounds released by the germinating AM fungal spores may stimulate LRF in a symbiosis signaling pathway (SYM)- and host-independent way, whereas GSEs stimulate LRF in a SYM- and host-dependent way. PMID:26397199

  12. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des substances et particulierement dans le transport de l'or colloidal radioactif. Les fractions sanguines qui peuvent participer au transport de l'or colloidal sont les hematies, les leucocytes et elements histiocytaires, et le plasma. La repartition de la radioactivite dans ces elements est precisee en pratiquant des autoradiographies de coupes de culots de sang centrifuge et congele apres incubation avec de l'or colloidal. Cette etude montre l'importance du plasma dans le transport des particules radioactives. Nous avons alors recherche une fixation eventuelle de l'or colloidal 198 sur les diverses proteines seriques en appliquant certaines methodes de separation a savoir une filtration-exclusion sur colonne de gel de Sephadex G-200 et un fractionnement electrophoretique sur papier et sur acetate de cellulose gelatineux (cellogel). Nous avons etudie la liaison ''in vitro'' et ''in vivo'' des particules colloidales d'or 198 d'abord avec les proteines seriques de sujets sains puis avec les proteines des liquides d'epanchement d'origine pathologique, chez l'homme, ou du a une inflammation experimentale a la carragenine chez le rat. Les particules d'or colloidal 198 de 30 m{mu} (S-2) sont liees dans une certaine mesure aux {alpha}2 globulines sanguines ou ascitiques, celles de 5 m{mu} (S-6) sont liees aux {alpha}1 globulines de meme que les grains contenus dans l'or polydisperse. Cette liaison semble intervenir grace a la couche protectrice de macromolecules constituees par la gelatine. Seules les caracteristiques physicochimiques de grains colloidaux peuvent expliquer leur difference de localisation sur l'electrophoregramme. L'or sous forme ionique, par contre, est combine, aux seules albumines si la quantite de metal presente ne depasse pas une certaine limite. (auteur)

  13. Intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum is linked to the metabolic profile of root exudates.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Kate?ina; Dostál, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Kameník, Zden?k

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 115, ?. 5 (2015), s. 821-831. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ?R GAP504/10/0132 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : giant hogweed * root exudates * UHPLC–TOF-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  14. In situ silicone tube microextraction: a new method for undisturbed sampling of root-exuded thiophenes from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohney, Brian K; Matz, Tricia; Lamoreaux, Jessica; Wilcox, David S; Gimsing, Anne Louise; Mayer, Philipp; Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D

    2009-11-01

    The difficulties of monitoring allelochemical concentrations in soil and their dynamics over time have been a major barrier to testing hypotheses of allelopathic effects. Here, we evaluate three diffusive sampling strategies that employ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sorbents to map the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of root-exuded thiophenes from the African marigold, Tagetes erecta. Solid phase root zone extraction (SPRE) probes constructed by inserting stainless steel wire into PDMS tubing were used to monitor thiophene concentrations at various depths beneath marigolds growing in PVC pipes. PDMS sheets were used to map the distribution of thiophenes beneath marigolds grown in thin glass boxes. Concentrations of the two major marigold thiophenes measured by these two methods were extremely variable in both space and time. Dissection and analysis of roots indicated that distribution of thiophenes in marigold roots also was quite variable. A third approach used 1 m lengths of PDMS microtubing placed in marigold soil for repeated sampling of soil without disturbance of the roots. The two ends of the tubing remained out of the soil so that solvent could be washed through the tubing to collect samples for HPLC analysis. Unlike the other two methods, initial experiments with this approach show more uniformity of response, and suggest that soil concentrations of marigold thiophenes are affected greatly even by minimal disturbance of the soil. Silicone tube microextraction gave a linear response for alpha-terthienyl when maintained in soils spiked with 0-10 ppm of this thiophene. This method, which is experimentally simple and uses inexpensive materials, should be broadly applicable to the measurement of non-polar root exudates, and thus provides a means to test hypotheses about the role of root exudates in plant-plant and other interactions. PMID:19902302

  15. Efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum Sisymbriifolium na enclosão de Meloidogyne SPP / Hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum Sisymbriifolium on Meloidogyne SPP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Luci, Conceição; Ana Margarida Caetano, Dias; Isabel, Abrantes; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nemátodes-das-galhas-radiculares (NGR), Meloidogyne spp., são fitoparasitas com uma grande distribuição e economicamente importantes, causando reduções significativas na quantidade e qualidade da produção agrícola. O seu controlo é difícil e muitos dos métodos utilizados são ineficazes. Algumas p [...] lantas libertam fitoquímicos naturais com propriedades nematodicidas e os exsudatos radiculares podem actuar como estimuladores ou inibidores da eclosão de jovens do segundo estádio (J2). O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) na eclosão de J2 de cinco isolados de Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica e M. javanica), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de protecção alternativas à utilização de nematodicidas. Os exsudatos radiculares obtidos através da lixiviação sucessiva do solo foram testados, com contagens diárias, durante o período de 15 dias. O exsudato de tomateiro (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) e a água destilada foram utilizados como testemunhas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are widespread and economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, causing significant reduction on quantity and quality of agricultural production. Its control is difficult and many methods are inefficient. Some plants release natural phytochemicals th [...] at have been identified and proved to have nematicides properties. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. The goal of this research was to evaluate the hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) on five Meloidogyne isolates (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica and M. javanica) and to contribute for the development of an alternative strategy to the use of the nematicides. The root exudates, obtained by successive soil leaching, were tested, with daily counts, for a period of 15 days. The exsudate from tomato (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) and distilled water were used as controls.

  16. Amino acids in root exudates of Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Moravcová, Dana; Figala, J.; Lvon?ík, S.; Lojková, Lea; Formánek, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 47, - (2015), s. 1691-1691. ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins /14./. 03.08.2015-07.08.2015, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * GC-MS * SDS-PAGE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. Exudation of mesotrione from potato roots injures neighboring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesotrione is an effective herbicide for volunteer potato control but is not selective in several crops, including onion and carrot. Studies were conducted in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of wiper applied mesotrione for control of volunteer potato in a potato crop. Surprisingly, nontreated pot...

  18. New structural features of Acacia tortuosa gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Maritza; Beltrán, Olga; Rincón, Fernando; León de Pinto, Gladys; Igartuburu, José Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Acacia tortuosa produces a clear gum, very soluble in water. Previous reports showed that it was constituted by four fractions, one of them an arabinogalactan-protein complex. The elucidation of the A. tortuosa gum structure by the combination of classical chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, was the objective of this investigation. The data obtained show that the heteropolysaccharide is an arabinogalactan type II, highly ramified, with lateral chains at C-2 as well as at C-6 of the galactose 3-O residues; mono-O-substituted galactoses were not detected. There are residues of mannose, the arabinose, pyranose predominantly, is terminal and 2-O-linked. The abundance of the 4-O-methyl-?-d-glucuronic acid was not previously reported. The proteic fraction is probably represented by an arabinogalactan-protein complex that binds poorly with ?-glucosyl Yariv reagent, and two glycoproteins. The NMR spectra suggest that the carbohydrate links to hydroxyproline through the galactose (galactosylation). PMID:25842315

  19. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures......, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to...

  20. Vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar simulando doença de Coats: relato de caso / Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy simulating Coats disease: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Mendes, Lavezzo; Alan Kardec, Barreira Jr; Leandro Cabral, Zacharias; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente de sete anos, nascido a termo, sem intercorrências perinatais, encaminhado ao Setor de Retina/Vítreo para elucidação diagnóstica. Apresentava história de redução da acuidade visual à esquerda, de caráter insidioso/progressivo, há quatro anos. Ao exame, apre [...] sentava diminuição do diâmetro corneano e corectopia do olho direito (OD), sem alterações à biomicroscopia do olho esquerdo (OE). A fundoscopia do OD revelava descolamento de retina (DR) total e, do OE, inicialmente, mostrava alterações vasculares retinianas periféricas e exsudação retiniana, associado à tração vitreorretiniana no setor temporal. As tomografias e ressonâncias de crânio/órbitas não apresentavam anormalidades, com exceção de achados sugestivos de DR antigo no OD, confirmado pela ultrassonografia do globo ocular, que também demonstrou microftalmia. Diante disso, aventou-se a hipótese diagnóstica de vitreorretinopatia exsudativa familiar, doença rara de caráter autossômico dominante e relacionada com casamentos consanguíneos, inicialmente simulando doença de Coats. O paciente foi tratado com fotocoagulação a laser diodo na periferia temporal do OE, com melhora das áreas de tração vitreorretiniana. Abstract in english We report the case of a seven year-old male patient, born at term without any perinatal complications, referred to the Retina/Vitreous Service for diagnostic elucidation. He had a history of progressive visual acuity loss on his left eye that started four years ago. On examination, he had decreased [...] corneal diameter and corectopia of the right eye (OD), without any noteworthy findings on the biomicroscopy of the left eye (OS). The fundus of the OD revealed total retinal detachment, and the OS initially showed peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities and retinal exudation, associated with retinal vitreous traction on the temporal sector. The CT and MRI of the brain/orbits showed no abnormalities, except for findings suggestive of an old retinal detachment on the OD, confirmed by ultrasonography, which also showed microphthalmia of the OD. The diagnosis of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease of autosomal dominant inheritance and related to consanguineous marriages, that can initially simulate Coats disease, was proposed. The patient was treated with diode laser photocoagulation in the temporal periphery of the OS, with improvement in the areas of vitreoretinal traction.

  1. Effective Treatment with Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab for Exudative Retinal Detachment Secondary to Choroidal Metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Hirotoshi; Sato, Kazuhide; Takeyama, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Hiroaki; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Gonda, Hideo; Suzuki, Ryujiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Visual disturbance caused by cancer metastasis from other organs is one of the largest challenges to cancer patients' quality of life (QOL). Lung cancer is the most frequent primary site of choroidal metastasis in men, but improvement of visual disturbance has not always been emphasized in lung cancers. Recently intravitreal bevacizumab is a newer modality being tried for local control of choroidal metastases. CASE REPORT A 68-year-old man was admitted the hospital with complaint of visual disturbance in his left eye. He was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma cT2N0M1b (OSS, OTH) stage IV. The ophthalmologic evaluation showed exudative fluid, which caused retinal detachment under the retina. Fluorescence angiography showed granular hyperfluorescence with leakage consistent with a tumor. He received radiotherapy for bone metastasis and systematic chemotherapy with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab, as well as intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1.25 mg to improve the visual disturbance. His visual symptom and retinal detachment improved until he died. An autopsy revealed that the metastatic lesion in his left eye was totally cured macroscopically and microscopically. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of exudative retinal detachment secondary to a metastatic choroidal tumor from lung adenocarcinoma, which was treated with chemotherapy and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Although he finally died of lung cancer, he maintained his visual QOL and autopsy revealed complete cure of the choroidal metastasis. PMID:26460101

  2. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, H P; Mack, T; Singh, G B; Safayhi, H

    1991-06-01

    Suspensions of rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) elicited with glycogen were stimulated by calcium and ionophore to produce leukotrienes and 5-HETE from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA). We investigated the effect of ethanolic extracts of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LTB4 and 5-HETE production by different charges of exudate extracts were found. All products of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOx) from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in PMNL were reduced to the same extent by the extracts tested. The ethanolic extract of the gum resin also decreased 5-LOx mediated metabolisation of exogenously added AA to LTB4 and 5-HETE. Since steroidal-type anti-inflammatory drugs do not exert an immediate effect in the test system used, we conclude that the activity of the 5-LOx itself represents the side of inhibition by the gum resin extract. Therefore, an inhibition of 5-LOx catalysed mediator synthesis might be involved in the previously reported anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. PMID:1654575

  3. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

  4. The rhizosphere-competent entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae expresses a specific subset of genes in plant root exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Angelini, Claudia; Fang, Weiguo; Wang, Sibao; Posada, Francisco J; St Leger, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are ubiquitous insect pathogens and possible plant symbionts, as some strains are endophytic or colonize the rhizosphere. We evaluated 11 strains of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana, and two soil saprophytes (the non-rhizospheric Aspergillus niger and the rhizosphere-competent Trichoderma harzianum) for their ability to germinate in bean root exudates (REs). Our results showed that some generalist strains of M. anisopliae were as good at germinating in RE as T. harzianum, although germination rates of the specialized acridid pathogen Metarhizium acridum and the B. bassiana strains were significantly lower. At RE concentrations of anisopliae strain ARSEF 2575 showed higher germination rates than T. harzianum. Microarrays showed that strain 2575 upregulated 29 genes over a 12 h period in RE. A similar number of genes (21) were downregulated. Upregulated genes were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, cofactors and vitamins, energy metabolism, proteolysis, extracellular matrix/cell wall proteins, transport proteins, DNA synthesis, the sexual cycle and stress response. However, 41.3% of the upregulated genes were hypothetical or orphan sequences, indicating that many previously uncharacterized genes have functions related to saprophytic survival. Genes upregulated in response to RE included the subtilisin Pr1A, which is also involved in pathogenicity to insects. However, the upregulated Mad2 adhesin specifically mediates adhesion to plant surfaces, demonstrating that M. anisopliae has genes for rhizosphere competence that are induced by RE. PMID:20947574

  5. Effect of dental adhesives on the exudative phase of the inflammatory process in subcutaneous tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagem-Filho Halim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular changes in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats induced by dentin bonding systems (one step was studied and compared to those induced by saline solution (negative control and Furacin (positive control, during the exudative phase of the inflammatory process. Twenty mg/kg of Evan's blue were injected intravenously in the vein of the rats' penises; 0.1 ml of each substance tested was inoculated in the subcutaneous tissue. After a 3 hour period the animals were sacrificed and their skins were excised and punched out with a standard steel 2.5 cm in diameter. The specimens were immediately immersed in 8 ml of formamide and taken to a double boiler for 72 hours at 37ºC, to remove the dye. The liquid containing the overflowed dye was filtered, analyzed in the spectrophotometer (620 nm and classified according to the criteria established by Nagem-Filho, Pereira (1976. After statistical analysis, the irritative potential of the substances was ranked as follows: Furacin (severe > Single Bond and Bond 1 (moderate - no significant differences between the dentin bonding systems tested > saline solution (not significant as regards the irritation degree.

  6. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4??g/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site. PMID:26847810

  7. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  8. Echocardiography of isolated subacute left heart tamponade in a patient with cor pulmonale and circumferential pericardial effusion

    OpenAIRE

    Salobir Barbara; Mikolavčič Helena; Marš Tomaž; Podbregar Matej

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension have often a chronic pericardial effusion. It is the result of increased transudation and impaired re-absorption due to elevated venous pressure. These patients have pre-existent symptoms and signs of chronic right heart failure. High degree of suspicion is required to detect of development of an atypical form of tamponade with isolated compression of left heart chambers as shown in present case report. Transthoracic ech...

  9. Use of nepafenac (Nevanac® in combination with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration requiring monthly injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, Matthew S Benz, Richard H Fish, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Rosa Y Kim, James C MajorRetina Consultants of Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of combining topical nepafenac with monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series of patients with exudative macular degeneration requiring maintenance therapy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF injections at least every 6 weeks, who were started on topical nepafenac. Despite frequent anti-VEGF dosing, all patients included in the study had persistence of any combination of the following: intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Patients underwent pinhole visual acuity, clinical exam, and optical coherence tomography (OCT at baseline and every follow-up visit. Response to therapy was graded by reviewing quantitative and qualitative OCT data, and statistical analysis was done with paired Student’s t-test.Results: Twenty-five patients (average age 77; 14 male and 11 female were reviewed; the mean number of previous injections was 17.4 (range 3–31. Baseline mean visual acuity was 20/55, and final mean visual acuity after 3 months of treatment was 20/51 (P = 0.13. Monthly mean central foveal thickness measurements were 248, 250, 257, and 247 µm (P = 0.53 at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. By the end of the 3-month time point, qualitative OCT findings on 13 patients treated with nepafenac were classified as stable, 10 as better, and 2 as worse.Conclusions: There was no significant change in visual acuity or quantitative OCT measurements, but there appeared to be a mild trend toward improved anatomy and qualitative OCT findings when topical nepafenac was added to monthly anti-VEGF injections in patients with persistent intraretinal cysts, subretinal fluid, and/or pigment epithelial detachment. Further prospective studies with longer follow-up may be warranted.Keywords: anti-VEGF, combination therapy, exudative macular degeneration, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, optical coherence tomography 

  10. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. (Zábila Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L. Burm. f. Exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Saavedra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L. Burm.f. (zábila mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolectadas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz.The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was used 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  11. Obtención de Antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. (Zábila) / Anthraquinone obtention from Aloe Vera (L.) Burm. f. Exudate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Saavedra; Carlos, Rondón; Máximo, Gallignani; Carlos, Ayala; Margarelli, Nicola.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito obtener la antraquinona contenida en el exudado de Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (zábila) mediante el método de cristalización y su identificación mediante la técnica de espectrofotometría de radiación infrarroja. La muestra la conformaron 18 plantas de zábila, recolect [...] adas al oeste de la ciudad Santa Ana de Coro, estado Falcón. Se utilizaron tres métodos para la obtención de antraquinona a partir del exudado de zábila. En el método A, la antraquinona se obtuvo por descenso de la temperatura; en el método B, las muestras fueron liofilizadas y luego se disminuyó la temperatura; y en el método C, la antraquinona se obtuvo mediante un modificador de matriz. Con el método A se obtuvo un rendimiento de antraquinona de 7,65 ± 4,62% p/p; con el método B 5,74 ± 3,25 % p/p y con el método C 25,93 ± 1,49% p/p. El mayor rendimiento de antraquinona se obtuvo con el método de precipitación mediante modificador de matriz. Abstract in english The purpose of this wok was obtain the anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate applying method by crystallization and identifies it through spectrophotometric infrared and ultraviolet- visible techniques. The sample were 18 plants of Aloe vera, recollected at west of Coro city, Falcón state. It was use [...] d 3 methods to obtain anthraquinone from Aloe vera exudate. In the method A, anthraquinone was obtained by temperature descend; in the method B, the samples were lyophilized and temperature descends; and in the method C, anthraquinone was obtained by matrix modifier. With the method A it was obtained 7,65 ± 4,62% w/w of anthraquinone; with method B 5,74 ± 3,25 % w/w and with the method C 25,93 ± 1,49% w/w. The method with the best efficiency to obtain anthraquinone was the method C.

  12. Concomitant bilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    R Prince Davis; Schefler, Amy C; Timothy G Murray

    2010-01-01

    R Prince Davis, Amy C Schefler, Timothy G MurrayBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To report the outcomes of same-day, bilateral intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for a consecutive series of patients treated for exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).Methods: A consecutive series of 254 eyes of 127 patients received bilateral, same-day anti-VEGF injections ...

  13. Two-year outcomes of pro re nata ranibizumab monotherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto A; Okada AA; Sugitani A; Kunita D; Rii T; Yokota R.

    2013-01-01

    Akiko Yamamoto,1 Annabelle A Okada,1 Atsuhiko Sugitani,1,2 Daisuke Kunita,1 Tosho Rii,1 Reiji Yokota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kugayama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To describe outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for treatment-naive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in Japanese patients over the first 2 years. Methods: Clinical records were retrospectively rev...

  14. Use of nepafenac (Nevanac®) in combination with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration requiring monthly injections

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Chen; Benz, Matthew S; Richard H Fish; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Eric Chen, Matthew S Benz, Richard H Fish, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Rosa Y Kim, James C MajorRetina Consultants of Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of combining topical nepafenac with monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab in the treatment of recalcitrant exudative macular degeneration.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series of patients with exudative macular degenerati...

  15. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS); asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS). [...] Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza) encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias. Abstract in english In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The plants were cult [...] ivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  16. Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of root exudate phenylamine compounds in hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyan; Wang, Yan

    2013-06-12

    Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) with derivatization was developed for the determination of three root exudate phenylamine compounds in hot pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance and applicability of the proposed procedure were evaluated through the extraction of 1-naphthylamine (1-NA), diphenylamine (DPA), and N-phenyl-2- naphthaleneamine (N-P-2-NA) in a recirculating hydroponic solution of hot pepper. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. The calibration curves showed a good linearity in the range of 0.1-10 ?g mL(-1). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the three compounds were 0.096, 0.074, and 0.057 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The enrichment factors reached 174, 196, and 230 at the concentration of 5 ?g mL(-1), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of 9.5, 8.6, and 7.8% and 8.4, 7.6, and 6.2% were obtained at concentrations of 2 and 5 ?g mL(-1) for 1-NA, DPA, and N-P-2-NA, respectively. Recoveries ranging from 90.2 to 96.1% and RSDs below 9.1% were obtained when HF-LPME with in situ derivatization was applied to determine root exudate 1-NA, DPA, and N-P-2-NA after 15 and 30 days of culture solution, respectively. PMID:23706116

  17. Evaluation of the coffee seeds viability by exudates/ Avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café por exsudatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick evaluation of the germination quality of the seeds is very important for coffee growers. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coefficient between the germination and the liberation of brown exudates of coffee seeds with different times after preparation. Petri dishes and humid filter were used to place the seeds. The seeds were obtained from lots of seeds with several aging degrees. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with seven replications and plots constituted by 10 seeds. High negative correlations (P=0.01 were obtained between the germination and germinative vigour with the liberation of brown exudates at different times. The variance analyses indicated significant differences to germination among seeds of different aging degrees at different evaluation times. The advantage of this technique is to evaluate the germinative quality in six or twelve hours, without the use of specialized labour and expensive equipments.Existe uma grande necessidade de testes que possibilitem uma avaliação rápida e segura da qualidade das sementes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o coeficiente de correlação existente entre a germinação de sementes de café e a liberação de exsudato marrom. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri e papel-toalha umedecido onde foram colocadas as sementes. Os materiais foram obtidos de lotes de sementes com vários níveis de envelhecimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 7 repetições e parcelas constituídas de 10 sementes. Obtiveram-se correlações negativas altas e significativas a 1% entre a germinação e vigor germinativo com a liberação de exsudato marrom. As análises de variância indicaram diferenças significativas na germinação entre sementes de diferentes graus de envelhecimento em relação aos exsudatos marrons. A vantagem desta técnica é avaliar o poder germinativo em poucas horas, sem o uso de mão-de-obra especializada e equipamentos caros.

  18. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p  0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest. PMID:23733822

  19. Efecto de los exudados orgánicos de Phaeodactylum tricornutum en la constante de velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) / Effect of organic exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AG, González; JM, Santana-Casiano; M, González-Dávila; N, Pérez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de oxidación del Fe(II) en agua de mar y en agua de mar enriquecida con exudados excretados por Phaeodactylum tricornutum como modelo de ligando orgánico. Se seleccionaron los exudados producidos después de 2, 4 y 8 días de cultivo, correspondientes a 6.21 x 10(7), 2.29 x 10(8 [...] ) y 4.98 x 10(8) células L-1. Se estudió el efecto del pH (7.2-8.2), la temperatura (5-35 °C) y la salinidad (10-36.72) en la velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II). Todos los datos se compararon con los resultados obtenidos en agua de mar sin exudados (control). La constante de velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) disminuyó en función del tiempo de cultivo y la concentración de células a diferentes valores de pH, temperatura y salinidad. Todos los datos experimentales obtenidos en este estudio se ajustaron a una función polinómica con el objetivo de cuantificar la contribución parcial de los exudados orgánicos de diatomeas a la velocidad de oxidación del Fe(II) en agua de mar. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que los exudados orgánicos excretados por P. tricornutum afectan a la oxidación del Fe(II) incrementando su tiempo de vida media en agua de mar. Se aplicó un modelo cinético para calcular la especiación de Fe(II) y la contribución de cada especie a la velocidad total del proceso de oxidación. Abstract in english Fe(II) oxidation kinetics were studied in seawater and in seawater enriched with exudates excreted by Phaeodactylum tricornutum as an organic ligand model. The exudates produced after 2, 4, and 8 days of culture at 6.21 x 10(7), 2.29 x 10(8), and 4.98 x 10(8) cell L-1 were selected. The effects of p [...] H (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), and salinity (10-36.72) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate were studied. All the data were compared with the results for seawater without exudates (control). The Fe(II) rate constant decreased as a function of culture time and cell concentration in the culture at different pH, temperature, and salinity. All the experimental data obtained in this study were fitted to a polynomial function in order to quantify the fractional contribution of the organic exudates from the diatoms to the Fe(II) oxidation rate in natural seawater. Experimental results showed that the organic exudates excreted by P. tricornutum affect Fe(II) oxidation, increasing the lifetime of Fe(II) in seawater. A kinetic model approach was carried out to account for the speciation of each Fe(II) type together with its contribution to the overall rate.

  20. Cytology of 100 samples of abdominal fluid from 100 horses with abdominal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garma-Aviña, A

    1998-09-01

    A total of 100 samples of abdominal fluid (AF) from 100 horses with abdominal disease were evaluated by cytology. Cytology results were subsequently correlated with the final outcome of the disease. The horses were classified into 4 groups: Group I, horses that were treated with conventional (nonsurgical) therapy and recovered; Group II, horses that had surgery and survived; Group III, horses that had surgery but died; and Group IV, horses that were subjected to euthanasia prior to surgery. Statistical analysis showed that both nucleated cell count and total neutrophils were significantly higher in Group III than in Group I; and that the total mesothelial cells were significantly higher in Group III than in Groups I and II. No significant differences were found for erythrocyte counts and fluid total protein levels among the 4 groups. The findings suggest that classifying AF as transudate, modified transudate and exudate, as well as grading of inflammation as mild, moderate and severe on the basis of nucleated cell count (NCC) and fluid total protein (AFTP) can be greatly misleading. Differential identification of the nucleated cells was found to be far more reliable than the NCC alone, with or without the AFTP, and rendered valuable information, which overruled many times a diagnosis of transudate or modified transudate. Bands, metamyelocytes, toxic changes, plasma cells, and neutrophils penetrating rafts or fronds of mesothelial cells, supported a diagnosis of inflammation, even when the NCC, and the AFTP (interpreted according to currently accepted values) suggested otherwise. Several morphological features were found, including some cell types for which little or no mention was found at all in 22 major studies of this fluid in horses. Among these were 'reddish neutrophils', large granular lymphocytes (LGL), plasma cells, Mott cells, blasts, and a unique hitherto undescribed granular mesothelial cell. PMID:9758103

  1. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by some trees in sierra leone: I. hydraulic conductivity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Egbenda

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Gums exuded by two trees viz., Anacardium occidentale and Parkia bicolor growing widely in Sierra Leone have each been applied in various concentrations to two local soils with poor structure. Changes in the value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of each soil sample, brought about by the application of the gums, have been used as the index for determining soil conditioning effect; the K of a carefully selected loamy soil (untreated with conditioner is used as reference. Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA was also applied in identical concentrations to the same soil samples; this permitted a comparison to be made between the effectiveness of this established synthetic soil conditioner and the plant gums. The results show that the plant gums as well as the PVA exhibited positive soil-conditioning effect by altering the K of the soils with poor structure to the value obtained for the loamy soil. It was further observed that prior treatment of the soil samples with CaCl2 enhanced soil-conditioning capacity. In almost all cases the relative effectiveness of the conditioners was in the order: gum from P. bicolor > gum from A. occidentale > PVA. The results are explained in terms of factors known to influence soil-polymer interactions.

  2. The effects of low salt concentrations on the mechanism of adhesion between two pieces of pork semimembranosus muscle following tumbling and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Carlier, Martine; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain deeper insight into the effect of salt content on the adhesion between pieces of semimembranosus pork muscle bound by a tumbling exudate gel. Hydrophobic site number, free thiol and carbonyl content were measured in tumbling exudate and meat protein to evaluate the protein-protein interactions involved in the adhesion process. Proteins were far more oxidized in exudate than in meat, and under our experimental conditions, salt content increased protein bonding in the exudate but not in the meat. Breaking stress increased between non-salted meat and 0.8%-salted meat but did not depend on the protein physicochemical properties of the tumbling exudate. Modifying the meat surface by tumbling alone, tumbling and salting, or scarification had no effect on breaking stress. It is suggested that the break between the meat pieces occurred between the tumbling exudate and the meat surface due to weaker chemical bonds at this location. PMID:23896131

  3. Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Guggul (Commiphora wightii) Collected from Madhya Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, M.Z.; Thomas, M.; Prasad, N

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (gree...

  4. Test of exudates color hues for evaluating the physiological potential of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seeds / Teste de coloração de exsudatos para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de café (Coffea arabica L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Cesar, Hilst; Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos, Dias; Eveline Mantovani, Alvarenga; Bruna Luiza de, Souza.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de café têm germinação lenta e desuniforme, perdendo rapidamente a viabilidade durante o armazenamento e a condução do teste de germinação exige, pelo menos, 30 dias. Além disso, os resultados obtidos poderão não mais refletir a real condição fisiológica das sementes. Objetivou-se desenvolv [...] er um teste rápido e prático para a avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café, baseado na interpretação das diferentes intensidades dos tons da coloração dos exsudatos das sementes. Foram utilizadas sementes de seis lotes da cultivar Catuai 44, que foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado e condutividade elétrica. No teste de coloração dos exsudatos, sementes sem o pergaminho e a película prateada (quatro repetições de 10 sementes cada) foram distribuídas sobre papel toalha umedecido e mantidas em germinador a 25 ºC por 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 h. Foram estabelecidas três classes de intensidade de tons da coloração: ausência de coloração; intensidade de coloração leve; e coloração forte, atribuindo valores de 0, 1 e 3, para cada classe, respectivamente. O teste de coloração do exsudato proposto pode ser recomendado para avaliação rápida da viabilidade das sementes de café. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos em sementes com 12% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72, 96 e 120 h; e com 30% de umidade, após períodos de embebição de 72 e 120 h. Abstract in english Coffee seeds have slow and irregular germination, losing fast their viability during storage, and the standard germination test of these seeds requires at least 30 days. Besides, the results may not reflect the actual physiological quality of these seeds. The objective of this work was to develop a [...] fast and practical test for evaluating the viability of coffee seeds, which is based on the interpretation of different color hues of exudates from seeds. Coffee seeds of the cultivar Catuai 44 from six lots were submitted to germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity tests. In the exudates color hue test, coffee seeds without the parchment and the silvery pellicle (four replications of 10 seeds each) were distributed on top of paper towels moistened and then maintained into a germinator, at 25 ºC for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Three classes of color hues were established: colorless, light color hue, and dark color hue, assigning the values of 0, 1, and 3, for each class, respectively. The proposed exudates color hue test can be recommended for the fast assessment of viability for coffee seeds. The most promising results were obtained for seeds with 12% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72, 96, and 120 h; and with 30% moisture content, after imbibition periods of 72 and 120 h.

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99mTc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  6. Imazapyr root exudation from eucalypt seedlings cultivated in nutritive solution Exsudação radicular de imazapyr por mudas de eucalipto cultivadas em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Magno Magalhães da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Imazapyr has been used in Brazilian eucalypt cultivation for the maintenance of clearings and coppicing control in areas undergoing stand reform. However, inquiries have been made as to the final fate of the molecule. Imazapyr root exudation in eucalypt plants was evaluated through a bioassay under greenhouse conditions, by applying different herbicide doses (0.000, 0.375, 0.750, 1.125, and 1.500 kg ha-1 a.i. on Eucalyptus grandis seedlings derived from vegetative propagation, hydroponically cultivated in 2.500 ml vases. Forty-day-old seedlings of the same clone were used as bioindicators, transplanted to the vases two days after herbicide application. After a period of 13 days of coexistence, the sprayed plants were removed and discarded; ten days later, the visual symptoms of toxicity were evaluated and the total dry biomass (aerial part and roots of the bioindicators were determined. The lowest herbicide dose (0.375 kg ha-1 a.i. affected the total biomass and growth, being most evident in the aerial part, with larger I50 for root dry biomass. The E. grandis seedlings exuded imazapyr, and/or its metabolites, in concentrations capable of affecting the growth of plants of the same species.Na eucaliptocultura brasileira, vem-se utilizando o imazapyr para manutenção de aceiros e erradicação de cepas e brotações em áreas de reforma dos povoamentos. Entretanto, têm sido levantadas indagações quanto ao destino final da molécula. A exsudação radicular de imazapyr em plantas de eucalipto foi avaliada por meio de bioensaios em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se diferentes doses do herbicida (0,000; 0,375; 0,750; 1,125; e 1,500 kg ha-1 i.a. sobre mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, provenientes de propagação vegetativa e cultivadas em sistema hidropônico, em vasos de 2.500 mL. Como bioindicador, empregaram-se mudas do mesmo clone com 40 dias de idade, as quais foram transplantadas para os vasos dois dias após a aplicação do herbicida. Depois de um período de 13 dias de convivência, retiraram-se as plantas que receberam a aplicação, descartando-as; 10 dias após, foram avaliados os sintomas visuais de toxicidade e determinadas as biomassas secas de parte aérea e raízes das mudas do bioindicador. A menor dose do herbicida (0,375 kg ha-1 i.a. afetou o crescimento e a produção de biomassa total, sendo mais pronunciado na parte aérea, com maior valor de I50 na biomassa seca de raiz. As mudas de E. grandis exsudam o imazapyr e, ou, seus metabólitos, em concentrações capazes de afetar o crescimento de plantas da mesma espécie.

  7. Coupling of pelagic bacteria abundances and production with phytoplankton primary production and exudation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškrábová, Viera; Nedoma, Ji?í; Šimek, Karel; Vrba, Jaroslav

    Messina : Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L32 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : primary production * bacterial production Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychrová, E.; Št?pánkdová, T.; Nováková, K.; Bláha, Lud?k; Giesy, J.P.; Hilscherová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 39, ?. 1 (2012), s. 134-140. ISSN 0160-4120 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA524/08/0496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * endocrine disruption * estrogenicity * algae * phytoplankton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.248, year: 2012

  9. Resolution of exudative retinal detachment and regression of retinal macrocyst post-laser in Coats disease

    OpenAIRE

    Munira Y; Zunaina E; Azhany Y

    2013-01-01

    Yusoff Munira,1 Embong Zunaina,1,2 Yaakub Azhany1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Abstract: A 15-year-old boy presented with painless progressive blurring of vision in the right eye for 1 year in duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was hand movement. The right fundus showed prese...

  10. Methods of collection of plant root exudates in relation to plant metabolism and purpose: A review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vránová, V.; Rejšek, K.; Skene, K. R.; Janouš, Dalibor; Formanek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 176, ?. 2 (2013), s. 175-199. ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : allelochemical / CAM / C3 * C4 metabolism * retrieval * rhizodeposition * rhizosphere Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013

  11. Variables asociadas con la presentación de carne PSE (Pálida, Suave, Exudativa) en canales de cerdo / Variables associated PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) to meat in porcine carcasses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson E, Castrillón; Jorge A, Fernández; Luis F, Restrepo.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de la condición PSE (pálida, suave, exudativa) en canales porcinas causa altas pérdidas económicas a la industria cárnica y según estudios presenta asociación con muchas variables. Para analizarlas se muestrearon 474 canales de cerdos comerciales y se les midió el pH (pHmetro IQ 200 Sci [...] entific Instruments®, con sonda de silicio tipo ISFET®) a 45 minutos (pH45) y a 24 horas post-sacrificio en el músculo semimembranoso. Las variables analizadas fueron genética, sexo, alimento, tiempo de ayuno, peso vivo; duración del transporte, densidad, temperatura y humedad relativa durante el transporte; tipo de camión, tiempo de reposo, grasa dorsal, rendimiento en canal y mermas. En el análisis estadístico se aplicó la técnica de componentes principales, GLM con prueba de contraste de Tukey con un 95% de significancia, y distribución de frecuencias univariada y bivariada. Los resultados demuestran que hubo asociación altamente significativa (p Abstract in english The presence of the PSE (pale, soft and exudative) condition in porcine carcass causes high economic losses to the meat industry. The PSE appearance depends on many variables, some of which are intrinsic of the animal, and others are related to transportation conditions to the slaughterhouse. The ai [...] m of the present study was to determine if there is or not an association between some of the above mentioned variables and the PSE condition. The studied variables were: genetic, sex, food, weight, time of fasting, time of transportation, density, temperature and humidity during transportation, type of truck, resting time, dorsal fat, carcass efficiency and carcass weight losses. Carcasses of commercial genetic pigs (n = 474) were tested and semimembranous muscle pH was done at 45 minutes (pH45 ) and then at 24 h post-sacrifice, using IQ 200 Scientific Instruments®, with an ISFET® type probe. Test of principal components of GLM with contrast test of Tukey with 95% of significance, and univariate and divariate frequencies distribution was applied. The results demonstrate that there was highly significant association (p

  12. TRANSGENIC PLANTS - INSECTICIDAL TOXIN IN ROOT EXUDATES FROM BT CORN. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Lucentis® using Visudyne® study: determining the threshold-dose fluence of verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, David M Brown, Tien P Wong, Matthew S Benz, Eric Kegley, Joel Cox, Richard H Fish, Rosa Y KimRetina Consultants of Houston, Texas, USAPurpose: Combination verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapy may decrease the need for injections while maintaining visual acuity in exudative age-related macular degeneration. This pilot study was designed to determine the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (the dose required to demonstrate an effect on choroidal perfusion combined with ranibizumab.Methods: Seven patients were randomized to sham vPDT (two patients, 20% fluence vPDT (two patients, or 40% fluence vPDT (three patients in combination with three-monthly intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injections. Intravitreal ranibizumab was reinjected if disease activity was seen on fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, or clinical examination. Indocyanine green-determined choroidal hypoperfusion was graded in a masked fashion.Results: Patients with 20% vPDT had mild hypoperfusion defects at seven days that resolved by week 4 (threshold dose; patients with 40% fluence vPDT had marked hypoperfusion at seven days that persisted as long as 12 months. Recruitment was stopped after limited efficacy was observed. One patient with 20% fluence vPDT lost 19 letters at one year; no other patient lost or gained >10 letters. Central retinal thickness decreased in six of seven patients, but ranibizumab injections did not decrease.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that the threshold fluence dose of vPDT (when combined with ranibizumab is approximately 20% standard fluence, and that mild and transient choroidal hypoperfusion can occur. Forty percent fluence vPDT causes a more prolonged and striking hypoperfusion. Despite hypoperfusion, no decrease in visual acuity or injections required was noted, suggesting that even higher fluence levels of vPDT may be necessary to decrease the number of anti-VEGF injections.Keywords: neovascular age-related macular degeneration, choroidal hypoperfusion, threshold dose, verteporfin photodynamic therapy

  14. Determinación de macro elementos en exudado de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) / Macroelements determination in zabila leaves exudate (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo R, Saavedra A; Carlos E, Rondón.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zábila) es una planta utilizada por sus propiedades medicinales, la parte utilizada de esta planta es su hoja, de ésta se extraen dos componentes: los cristales y el exudado. En esta investigación se estudió la concentración de macro elementos presentes en el exuda-do de [...] hojas de zábila, a saber: sodio (Na), calcio (Ca), magnesio (Mg) y potasio (k) por espectrometría de absorción atómica en llama (FAAS). Las plantas estudiadas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcón. Las muestras compuestas de exudado se recolectaron en hojas ubi-cadas en las posiciones bajas, medias y superiores de las plantas. Luego se secaron por liofilización, y se mineralizaron: 0.25 g de muestra de exudado se sometieron a digestión ácida, con 1:2 HNO3 concentrado y H2O2 en plancha de calentamiento. Se utilizó material certificado NIST 1572, USA: Hojas de plantas cítricas, para evaluar la exactitud del método, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the metals in Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (zabila). Theses metals are necessary in the human organism; namely: Na, k, Ca y Mg. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 ºC 0.25 g of lyo-philized exudate with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxi-de. It w [...] as no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 99.77 ± 2%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values (NBS: Citrics leaves 1572) of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology. The concentrations of these elements in the real composed samples were: Na: 0.24 ± 0,03% w/w; k: 0.69 ± 0,13% w/w; Ca: 0.07 ± 0,01% w/w; Mg: 0.01 ± 0,00% w/w. The method used to determine the determined elements was exact, pre-cise and free from interferences.

  15. Characterization of biofilm-forming microorganisms isolated from vaginal exudate in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, P.; Castro, J.de; Cereija, Tatiana Barros Reis; Henriques, Ana Filipa Frutuoso Mendes; Cerca, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynaecological conditions affecting women in the reproductive age, and can lead to increase risk gynaecological infections and pre-term labour. The aetiology of this pathology is still poorly understood, but recent reports referring to the presence of anaerobic biofilms both in the healthy and BV vagina (with different microbial compositions) have led to the theory that the microorganisms that form biofilms may be relevant for the aetiology o...

  16. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  17. Stimulation of Bacterial DNA Synthesis by Algal Exudates in Attached Algal-Bacterial Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Robert E.; Cooksey, Keith E; Priscu, John C

    1986-01-01

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus [W. E. C. Moore, E. P. Cato, and L. V. H. Moore, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35:382-407, 1985]). The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 × 104 cells cm-2 (diatoms) and 5 × 106 cells cm-2 (bacteria). The algal-bact...

  18. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 104 cells cm-2 (diatoms) and 5 x 106 cells cm-2 (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of [3H]thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10-21 mol to 17.9 x 10-21 mol of [3H]thymidine incorporated cell -1 h-1) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon

  19. Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the chemiluminescence (CL) of murine peritoneal exudate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caren, L.D. (California State Univ., Northridge (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Stimulated PEC generate microbicidal free oxygen radicals which are potentially mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. The effects of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on oxygen radical production were measured in this study. A Helmholtz coil and parallel plate electrodes were utilized to provide uniform field characteristics. Effects were studied at combined field frequencies of 60, 600, and 6,000 Hz. Thioglycollate-elicited PEC were exposed to EMF or placed in a far corner of the lab (controls). Following the addition of zymosan, luminol-enhanced CL was measured. No differences in CL were found for exposures to 60 Hz for 18 hr; 600 Hz for 10 hr; or 6,000 Hz for 0.75 hr. PEC exposed to 6,000 Hz for 11 hr showed a 25% increase in CL over control PEC. At 600 and 6,000 Hz, the temperature of the air and a dish of saline in the EMF apparatus was 26C, vs. 25C where the controls were kept. At 60 Hz, there was no temperature difference. These preliminary experiments indicate that under these conditions, EMF fields do not have a significant effect on this immune function.

  20. MEASURING THE DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENTS OR RHIZOSPHERE EXUDATES IN SOIL .2. THE DIFFUSION OF SORBING COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    DARRAH, P

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed which was capable of simulating the diffusion of compunds with a concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, by virtue of their sorption on the solid phase of the soil. Methods were developed which allowed the sorption characteristics and the effective diffusion coefficient of several organic compounds to be inferred from their measured diffusion profiles. -Author

  1. Determinación de microelementos en acíbar de hojas de zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. Determination of microelements in exudate from leaves of zábila (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo R Saavedra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigacion se estudio la concentracion de microelementos tales como cobre, zinc, manganeso y hierro en el acibar de hojas de zabila, por espectrometria de absorcion atomica en llama (FAAS; asimismo, la concentracion de cromo por espectrometria de absorcion atomica electrotermica (ETAAS. Las plantas fueron cultivadas en la ciudad de Coro, estado Falcon, Venezuela. Las muestras de aci bar se recolectaron en hojas internas, medias y externas de la planta. Luego, se secaron por liofilizacion y se mineralizaron: 0,25 g de muestra de acibar se sometio a digestion humeda por 1 hora a 70 oC en una plancha de calentamiento, con 1:2 HNO3 y H2O2. No se encontro efecto de matriz, ya que no hubo diferencia estadisticamente significativa entre la pendiente de la curva de calibracion acuosa y la obtenida por adicion de estandar. El estudio de recuperacion fue satisfactorio, siendo el valor promedio 97,02 ± 4,65%. La exactitud del metodo se evaluo utilizando material certificado de la National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los valores de los metales contenidos en el material de referencia con los valores obtenidos con el metodo aplicado en esta investigacion. Con relacion a la precision, el promedio de la desviacion estandar relativa fue de 1,26%, lo que certifica la precision del metodo empleado. Las concentraciones de metales (media poblacional ± intervalos de confianza encontradas fueron las siguientes: Cu: 1.604 ± 0.296 mg/g, zn: 6.381 ± 0.974 mg/g, Fe: 14.609 ±3.161 mg/g, Mn: 5.058 ± 0.307 mg/g y Cr: 13.174 ± 3.046 mg/g. El metodo empleado fue exacto, preciso y libre de interferencias.In this investigation was studied the concentration of microelements such as: Cu, zn, Fe and Mn in Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. leaves exudates by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, also the Cr concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. The plants were cultivated in Coro city, Falcon state, Venezuela. The exudates samples were recollected from internal external and intermediate leaves of the plant. It was digested for 1 hour in a hot plate at 70 oC 0.25g of lyophilized exudates with 1:2 nitric acidic and hydrogen peroxide. It was no found significatives statistics difference at 95% of confidence between the standard calibration curve and the aqueous calibration curve, so no matrix effect was observed. The recovery studies was satisfactory, the mean value was 97.02 ± 4.65%. It was no found significatives statistics differences at 95% of confidence between the certificated values from The National Bureau of Standards (NBS 1572 of studied metals and the values found with the applied methodology, so the method applied was accurate. The precision of the method was 1.26%. The concentrations of these elements in the real samples were: Cu: 1,604 ± 0,296 mg/g; zn: 6,381 ± 0,974 mg/g; Fe: 14,609 ± 3,161 mg/g; Mn: 5,058 ± 0,307 mg/g and Cr: 13,174 ± 3,046 mg/g. The method used to determine these elements was exact, precise and free from interferences.

  2. The Role of Pleural Fluid Procalcitonin Level in the Diagnosis of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Cirit Koçer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Procalcitonin (PCT may lead a more rapid and specific result than other infectious markers in the differentation of infectious diseases from those of noninfectious conditions. In several studies, higher pleural fluid PCT levels in parapneumonic effusion (PPE than other causes of pleural effusion has been found and it has been reported that it is a useful marker in the diagnosis of PPE. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of pleural fluid PCT levels in the diagnosis of PPE.Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven patients with pleural effusion consisting of 26 transudative pelural effusion, 26 malignant pleural effusion (MPE, 24 PPE and 11 tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE were enrolled in the study. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for the pleural fluid PCT, serum PCT and pleural fluid PCT/serum PCT ratio. The patients were divided into transudative and exudative groups and there was no difference in the pleural fluid PCT and serum PCT between these two groups. In the PPE group, the correlation between pleural fluid PCT level and pleural fluid albumin, protein, LDH, glucose and ADA was studied and no correlation was found.Conclusion: In our study, in PPE, a diagnostic efficiacy of pleural fluid and serum PCT could not be found.

  3. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurth, C.; Duane, B.; Whitfield, D.; Smith, S.; Nordquist, A.; Zenhausern, F. [Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose.

  4. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose

  5. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated

  6. Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelín Frontela Noda

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se procesaron 59 muestras de exudado endocervical, de mujeres que asistieron a 2 clínicas de infertilidad y a consulta de regulación menstrual de Ciudad de La Habana, para evaluar el desempeño de un método de detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, basado en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con cebadores KL1 y KL2, específicos para el plásmido. Las muestras se ensayaron por PCR-plásmido, por cultivo de células y por otro método de PCR basado en la amplificación de una región de la proteína principal de la membrana externa (MOMP de la Chlamydia, este se utilizó como ensayo confirmatorio. Se comprobó que en 43 muestras los resultados coincidían entre el cultivo y el PCR-plásmido: 4 positivas y 39 negativas. Las 16 restantes brindaron resultados discordantes. Se les realizó un estudio de inhibición a las 8 muestras cultivo positivas/PCR-plásmido negativas y se comprobó que 2 de ellas presentaban inhibidores, cuya acción fue revertida al adicionar BSA a la mezcla de reacción. De las 8 discordantes, cultivo negativo/PCR-plásmido positivas, 5 se confirmaron como positivas después del procesamiento por PCR-MOMP. Tomando como criterio de verdadero positivo la coincidencia de al menos 2 de los 3 métodos ensayados, se obtuvo sensibilidad del 100 % y especificidad del 94% para el PCR-plásmido en comparación con el 54 y 87 %, respectivamente para el cultivo. El PCR-plásmido presentó un valor predictivo positivo de 79 % y negativo de 100 %, mientras que para el cultivo fue de 50 y 89%, respectivamente. Se demostró que el PCR- plásmido, en nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, brinda resultados confiables en el diagnóstico de la Chlamydia en muestras de exudado endocervical.59 samples of endocervical exudate from women that were seen at infertility clinics and at the consultation room of menstrual regulation, in Havana City, were processed to evaluate the performance of a method to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers KL1 and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.

  7. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  8. Effects of anaerobic root growth and nutrient limitation to the photosynthetic response and exudation of tomato and reed mannagrass plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kalarchakis, I.; Blok, C.; Warmenhoven, M.G.; Khodabaks, R.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Gerritsen, I.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2009-01-01

    De Plant-MFC (microbiele brandstofcel) is gebaseerd op twee principes: 1. De energie geleverd door de zon kan worden opgeslagen in het wortelstelsel van planten via fotosynthese en 2. Bacteriën kunnen de in de wortel opgeslagen stoffen omzetten in bruikbare elektrische energie. Om de Plant-MFC tot een bruikbare techniek te maken moet de efficiëntie van de processen geoptimaliseerd. In andere studies is gevonden dat de opslag in het wortelstelsel gestimuleerd wordt door het limiteren van nutri...

  9. Evaluación in vitro de las propiedades de seis apósitos para la cura en ambiente húmedo de heridas exudativas Evaluation in vitro of the properties of six dressings for the healing wet environments of exudative wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Rius Tarruella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Dentro de los apósitos destinados a la cura en ambiente húmedo, las espumas constituyen un tipo de apósito especialmente indicado para el tratamiento de heridas altamente exudativas debido a su gran capacidad de absorción. Son apósitos atraumáticos que protegen la zona perilesional y mantienen el lecho húmedo favoreciendo la epitelización y aliviando el dolor, por lo que ocupan un espacio muy específico en el cuidado de las úlceras vasculares y por presión. Material y método: Estudio experimental in vitro para evaluar las características de 6 tipos de apósitos de espuma polimérica: SKINFOAM no adhesivo (SF1 y adhesivo (SF2, ALLEVYN no adhesivo (A1 y adhesivo (A2 y BIATAIN no adhesivo (B1 y adhesivo (B2. Las características valoradas fueron: capacidad de absorción y control de exudados, caracterización de la superficie en contacto, capacidad de transpiración, conformabilidad y protección antimicrobiana. Resultados: Las pruebas de absorción y control de exudado