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Differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion : MR appearances  

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether MR images after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA can differentiate exudative and transudative pleural effusion. We studied 18 patients with ten exudative and eight transudative pleural effusions diagnosed clinically and by thoracentesis. We analysed the relationship between T1 value(normalized to fat) and the ratio of effusion/serum protein of pleural effusion. We also assessed the contrast enhancement of exudative and transudative pleural effusion on T1 weighted SE images taken at 15 and 30minutes after administration of Gd-DTPA. The relationship between the effusion/serum protein ratio and T1 value(normalized to fat) was statistically not significant(r=0.27, P=0.381). On precontrast spin-echo T1WI, mean signal intensity of the transudate was 0.18(±0.04) and that of the exudate was 0.24(±0.07), values which were not significant differences(P>0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensities of transudates at 15 and 30 were 0.20±0.06 and 0.26±0.08, respectively, values which were not significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast mean signal intensity values of exudative pleural effusions at 15 and 30 minutes(0.32±0.06 and 0.39±0.06, respectively) were, on the other hand, significantly higher than that of precontrast mean signal intensity(P<0.05). Postcontrast T1-weighted SE images at 15 and 30 minutes can be helpful in the differentiation of transudative and exudative pleural effusion

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A New Approach in Distinguishing Exudative and Transudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective: Light’s criteria, which were accepted in 1972 for the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions as transudates or exudates, are widely used worldwide. It has been reported in various studies that Light’s criteria have lower specificity, and new recommendations have emerged. The discriminative ability of Light’s criteria and adapted formulas, which are our new proposal, were studied by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs analysis and Area Under the Curves (AUCs.Material and Method: These criteria were evaluated in 451 patients in our study. Of these cases, 151 had transudates, while 300 patients presented with exudates. Results: AUCs of Light’s criteria (P/Sprot, P/SLDH, PLDH were measured as 0.931 (95%CI: 0.899-0.963, 0.936(95%CI: 0.904-0967 and 0.957(95%CI: 0.934-0.981, respectively, and the differences between the measured values were found to be statistically significant (p<.001. AUCs of our new adapted formulas (F-1, F-2, F-3 were found to be slightly higher than those of Light’s criteria, with the values of 0.987(95%CI: 0.976-0.998, 0.935(95%CI 0:.908-0.963 and 0.980(95%CI: 0.966-0.993, respectively, and the differences were also significant (p<.001. Conclusion: In our opinion, further studies are needed with a wider study population to determine the value of the new formulas in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Proving our proposal would be useful in clinical practices.

Güngör Ate?

2010-03-01

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Enhanced CT in the patients with pleural effusion : differential findings between exudates and transudates  

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To evaluate the differential findings of CT in the differention of pleural exudates and transudates. One hundred and thirteen consecutive patients (113 effusions) underwent enhanced thoracic CT ; the scans were evaluated for the presence or absence and apearance of enhancing parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening. Thoracentesis was performed to measure pleural and serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) values. Effusions were classified as exudates by using Light's criteria. Eighty-eight effusions were exudates and 25 were transudates. Eighty-three of the 88 exudates (93 %) were associated with enhanced parietal pleural thickening;seventy of the 88 (80%) were associated with extrapleural fat thickening. Four of the 25 transudates were associated with parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening, both of which were the most important factors in differentiating between pleural exudates and transudates(p<0.05). Parietal pleural thickening and extrapleural fat thickening on contrast-enhanced CT almost always indicate the presence of pleural exudates

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A Comparison between Contrast Enhanced Chest CT scan and Biochemical Tests for Differentiation of Transudative from Exudative Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: Differentiation between transudative and exudative types of pleural effusions is critical in the evaluation and management of pleural effusions .Light's criteria is accepted as a reliable biochemical method for this differentiation. If contrast enhanced chest CT scan has a significant agreement with biochemical tests, it can be considered as a non invasive reliable method for evaluation of pleural effusion. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 32 patients who had pleural effusion from June 2005 to June 2006 in 22nd Bahman hospital in Mashhad Both contrast enhanced chest CT scan (with spiral CT scanner, PHILIPS, Mx 8000 and biochemical tests of pleural fluids were done for all patients. Two radiologists separately interpreted the CT images as exudate or transudate based on pleural thickening, nodules or enhancement, and the agreement between two radiologists was evaluated. Biochemical tests of pleural fluids were analyzed based on Light's criteria. Results of CT scans and biochemical tests were compared with Kappa test. "nResults: Both radiologists interpreted CT images as transudate or exudate the same. Sixteen patients were diagnosed as transudate based on CT scan that biochemical tests were consistent with transudate only in eight patients. CT scan diagnosed 16 patients as exudates that biochemical tests were consistent with exudates in all of them. Kappa coefficient was 35% (P value = 0.030 that was interpreted as fair agreement."nConclusion: Chest CT scan is accepted as a good imaging modality in diagnosis of pulmonary and mediastinal Involvement and also presence of pleural effusion. Some studies concluded that chest CT scan can accurately differentiate between exudate and transudate but our study showed that it has a fair agreement with biochemical tests, so we recommend that chest CT scan can't replace biochemical tests to Differentiate exudative from transudative effusions.

A. H. Hashemi

2008-01-01

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The diagnostic value of cholesterol in the differentiation of exudative and transudative pleural effusion  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Pleural effusion is a common finding in many pulmonary or extrapulmonary diseases and its analysis is essential for differentiating transudates from exudates. Light's criteria is questioned by some researchers and measuring of cholesterol in pleural effusion is proposed due to its simplicity and low cost. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of pleural fluid cholesterol for differentiating transudates from exudates.Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 70 cases of pleural effusion with definite diagnosis according to clinical gold standards were included and cholestrol, LDH and protein in pleural effusion and simultaneous in blood serum were measured. Pleural cholesterol alone, and its ratio with serum cholesterol, pleural-LDH and its ratio with, serum-LDH, pleural protein and its ratio with serum protein, combination of pleural Cholestrol + LDH were compared with Light,s criteria.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of pleural cholesterol was 85% and 100% , respectively with 90% efficiency, pleural/serum cholesterol showed a sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 95% , with 90% efficiency. Lights,s criteria gave a sensitivity of 87%, specificity 79%, with 91% efficiency. Combination of Pleural + pleural/serum cholesterol showed sensitivity of 87% , specificity of 100% , with 90% efficiency and for Pleural-LDH + pleural-cholesterol sensitivity, specificity and efficiency were 97% , 83% and 92% respectively.Conclusion: The use of pleural fluid cholesterol is useful as Light,s criteria for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates but not superior. Combination of pleural fluid cholesterol and LDH slightly improves the specifity and efficiency of differentiation. The advantage of cholesterol measuring is its simplicity, low price and that it can be used along with routine diagnostic pleural effusion tests.

M. Gahremani

2007-01-01

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The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates  

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To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 ?g/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 ?g/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

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Efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels in distinguishing exudates from transudates  

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Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase and its ratio to serum levels to classify pleural fluids. A total of 80 patients were divided in transudates and exudates on the basis of extensive clinical, radiological and biochemical evaluation. The efficacy of pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid / serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP assessment along with that of Light?s criteria to accurately classify transudates and exudates were analyzed. Up to 89% transudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP evaluation. Similarly 92% exudates misclassified by Light?s criteria were correctly classified by pleural fluid alkaline phosphatase (P ALP and pleural fluid/serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (P/S ALP evaluation. By applying a cut off value of 40.0 IU for P ALP, a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75% was found. For P/S ALP, applying a cut off value of 0.25 a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80% was found. Both P ALP and P/S ALP had a PPV of 92%. However, their respective NPV were 63% and 70%.

Gupta K

2004-01-01

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A Study of Uric Acid - A New Biochemical Marker For the Differentiation Between Exudates and Transudates in a Pleural Effusion Cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the space lies between the lung and chest wall i.e. pleural space. In normal condition, pleural space contains 0.1–0.3 ml/kg body weight of fluid (near about of 10 ml of fluid on each side between the parietal and visceral pleura. Objectives: To investigate whether uric acid measurement in fluid is more sensitive and specific marker for differentiating between exudates and transudates, as confirmed clinically. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 consecutive patients with diverse etiologies having pleural effusion were selected for the study. Results: Increase Uric acid level was observed in pleural fluid of transudative pleural effusion than exudative pleural effusion. It was also observed that the level of uric acid was more in pleural fluid than serum and ratio (pleural fluid / serum of uric acid was ? 1 in transudative conditions but in case of exudative condition the this ratio was < 1. The optimum cut-off level for P uric acid was 5.5 mg/dl with sensitivity of 94.00% and specificity of 83.00%. The optimum cut-off levels for P/S uric acid ratio was 1.0 with sensitivity of 96.00% and specificity of 92.16%. Conclusion: Routine measurement of pleural fluid uric acid value and the calculation of fluid to serum total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH ratios will aid in differentiating exudates from transudates.

Ashish Jain, Raina Jain, Sudhakar B Petkar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Neeraj Khare, Jusmita Dutta

2014-01-01

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Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions: differentiation using Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. An MRI examination was performed on 22 patients with different types of pleural effusion (10 transudative and 12 exudative effusions). T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and 20 min after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The degree of enhancement of pleural effusions was evaluated both by visual assessement and by quantitative analysis of images. None of 10 transudative effusions showed significative enhancement, whereas 10 of 12 exudative effusions showed enhancement (sensitivity 83 %, specificity 100 %, positive predictive value 100 %). The postcontrast signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of exudates were significantly higher than corresponding precontrast ratios (P = 0.0109) and the postcontrast SIRs of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates (P = 0.0300). Exudative pleural effusions show a significant enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA. We presume that this may be caused by increased pleural permeability and more rapid passage of a large amount of Gd-DTPA from the blood into the pleural fluid in case of exudative effusions. In our limited group of patients, signal enhancement proved the presence of an exudative effusion. Absence of signal enhancement suggests a transudate, but does not exclude an exudate. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

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Exudative v/s transudative ascites: differentiation based on fluid echogenicity on high resolution sonography.  

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Full Text Available Real time sonography was performed in 52 patients with ascites to evaluate the accuracy of sonography in differentiating an exudative from a transudative collection. The echogenicity of ascites was graded I, II and III using the echogenicity of normal abdominal viscera as comparative standard reference points. Grade I collections (31 patients were either absolutely anechoic, or showed few internal echoes secondary to particulate matter. Grade II collections (7 patients were hypoechoic as compared to the liver and spleen. Grade III collections (14 patients had an echogenicity similar to or greater than that of the liver and spleen. The results of diagnostic aspiration in all patients were then compared to the sonographic grade of the ascitic fluid. All transudates (28 patients had a Grade I echogenicity. Only 3 patients with an exudative ascites had a Grade I echogenicity. The remaining 21 patients with an exudative collection had an echogenicity equal to or greater than Grade II. Using these results, an ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade I had a 92.32% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.875 in diagnosing transudates. An ascitic fluid echogenicity of Grade II or more had a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 1 and a negative predictive value of 0.903 in diagnosing transudates.

Malde H

1993-07-01

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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of pleural fluid: differentiation of transudative vs exudative pleural effusions  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiating transudative from exudative pleural effusions. Fifty-seven patients with pleural effusion were studied. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with an echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence (b values 0, 1000 s/mm2) in 52 patients. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were reconstructed from three different regions. Subsequently, thoracentesis was performed and the pleural fluid was analyzed. Laboratory results revealed 20 transudative and 32 exudative effusions. Transudates had a mean ADC value of 3.42±0.76 x 10-3 mm2/s. Exudates had a mean ADC value of 3.18±1.82 x 10-3 mm2/s. The optimum cutoff point for ADC values was 3.38 x 10-3 mm2/s with a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 85%. A significant negative correlation was seen between ADC values and pleural fluid protein, albumin concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements (r=-0.69, -0.66, and -0.46, respectively; p<0.01). The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of ADC values were determined to be 90.6, 85, and 88.5%, respectively. The application of diffusion gradients to analyze pleural fluid may be an alternative to the thoracentesis. Non-invasive characterization of a pleural effusion by means of DWI with single-shot EPI technique may obviate the need for thoracentesis with its associated patient morbidity. (orig.)

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Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística / Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre es [...] se novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério), a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022). CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criter [...] ion in terms of diagnostic yield. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

Bernardo Henrique Ferraz, Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da, Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva, Chibante; Gilberto Perez, Cardoso.

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Can cholesterol be used to distinguish pleural exudates from transudates? evidence from a bivariate meta-analysis  

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Background Many studies have investigated whether pleural cholesterol levels can aid in diagnosis of pleural exudates, and the results have varied considerably. To gain a more reliable answer to this question, we meta-analyzed the literature on using pleural cholesterol or the ratio of cholesterol in pleural fluid to cholesterol in serum (P/S cholesterol ratio) as diagnostic tests to help identify pleural exudates. Methods Literature databases were systematically searched for studies examining accuracy of pleural cholesterol or P/S cholesterol ratios for diagnosing pleural exudates. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (PLR/NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled using bivariate-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Results Our meta-analysis included up to 20 studies involving 3,496 subjects. Summary estimates for pleural cholesterol in the diagnosis of pleural exudates were as follows: sensitivity, 0.88 (95%CI 0.84 to 0.92); specificity, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98); PLR, 20.31 (95% CI 11.21 to 36.78); NLR, 0.12 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.17); DOR, 167.06 (95% CI 76.79 to 363.95); and AUC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.98). The corresponding summary performance estimates for using the P/S cholesterol ratio were as follows: sensitivity, 0.94 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.96); specificity, 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.91); PLR 7.46 (95% CI, 5.47 to 10.19); NLR, 0.07 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.10); DOR, 107.74 (95% CI 60.91 to 190.60); and AUC 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.98). Conclusions Both pleural cholesterol level and the P/S cholesterol ratio are helpful for the diagnosis of pleural exudates. Nevertheless, the results of pleural cholesterol assays should be interpreted in parallel with the results of traditional tests and clinical information. PMID:24731290

2014-01-01

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CORRELATIONS AMONG INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN PLASMA, SALIVA AND ORAL MUCOSAL TRANSUDATE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH PAST INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE  

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The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among...

Fernandez-botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki E.; Newton, Tamara L.

2011-01-01

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An Unusual Transudative Pleural Effusion Succeeded by Pulmonary and Brain Edema and Death  

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Here we report a 22-year old woman with massive and bilateral transudative effusion succeeded by pulmonary edema and brain edema and death. Investigations for systemic disorders were negative. Exacerbation of dyspnea after intravenous fluid infusion was a main problem. As effusion was refractory to medical treatment, the patient was referred for surgical pleurodesis and bilateral surgical pleurodesis were done separately. Postsurgically, dyspnea exacerbation occurred after each common cold infection. Vertigo and high intracranial pressure were also a problem postsurgically. CSF pressure was 225?mm/H2O. Therapeutic lumbar puncture was done in two sequential weeks, and the patient was on acetazolamide 250?mg/trivise a day. Despite the medical treatment, progressive dyspnea, headache, and high intracranial pressure followed by death nine months after pleurodesis. As there is a gradient of pressure between pleura and CSF, after pleurodesis brain edema must be a consequence of inversing this gradient. In conclusion, when there are any abnormalities about fluid volume or pressure in any of these cavities, we have to study other cavities. PMID:22934227

Mortazavimoghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Riasi, H. R.

2012-01-01

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Orphan flavonoids and dihydrochalcones from Primula exudates.  

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Two orphan flavonoids containing an oxepin structure in ring A and named as Primcortusin (1) and 3'-OH-Primcortusin (2) were isolated from leaf exudates of Primula cortusoides, while P. glutinosa exudates yielded two dihydrochalcone derivatives (3,4). These novel structures have not been detected in other species of Primula so far. Chemical structures were elucidated by 2D NMR and mas spectrometry. The nature of compounds 1 and 2 is discussed, and ideas about their possible origin and that of unsubstituted flavone and other irregular substituted Primula flavones are presented. PMID:24079172

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Brecker, Lothar

2013-08-01

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Sodium valproate as a cause of recurrent transudative pleural effusion: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are few reported cases of neutrophilic pleural effusions associated with valproic acid therapy. Most of them are of eosinophilic exudates with or without blood eosinophilia. Case presentation This case study describes a 70-year-old man with recurrent episodes of eosinophilic transudative pleural effusions associated with sodium valproate treatment. The recurrence of effusion after re-administration of the drug is strongly suggestive of an association between them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case with a pleural effusion with these characteristics caused by sodium valproate. Conclusion This is the first report in the literature, with a full understanding of the etiology but with an unknown drug mechanism. This case report is of interest to different medical specialists (such as pulmonologists, neurologists, cardiologists and pharmacologists.

Tryfon Stavros

2009-02-01

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Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate.  

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Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and pTransdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation. PMID:19660042

Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke; Agren, Magnus; Ladelund, Steen; Karlsmark, Tonny; Gottrup, Finn

2009-01-01

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Citrate Root Exudation under Zn and P Deficiency  

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Full Text Available Zinc and phosphorus are essential nutrients with low bioavailability in calcareous soils. Some plants exude organic acids to increase the solubility of these two nutrients. The objective of this study was to examine citrate exudation rates of different lupin (Feodora and Energy and rapeseed (Dunkeld, Yickadee and Rainbow cultivars underdeficiencies of Zn and P. The plants were cultivated into three different nutrient solutions (complete, -Zn, and -Pwith pH around 7. Under Zn deficiency, rapeseed cultivars lost about 80% of its shoot fresh weight, but the roots did not exude any organic acids such as citrate, malate or oxalate. Both lupin and rapeseed cultivars exuded citrate only under phosphorus deficiency. The exudation rates of Feodora and Energy were 3.89 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1 and 3.45 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1, respectively, while that of Dunkeld was 15.1 ?mol g-1 RDW h-1. The results indicated that lupin and rapeseed lost their production under Zn deficiency but they did not exude organic acid, while under P deficiency both plants exuded citrate.

Bless Aplena Elen Siane

2012-09-01

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Agammaglobulinemia and lack of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis.  

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Atopic dermatitis is very frequent in the first 6 months of life, and the severe exudative form of this skin disorder is by no means rare. Failure to achieve immunization protection is a potentially life-threatening complication of exudative atopic dermatitis that may go unrecognized. We report the case of a 6-month-old infant with severe exudative atopic dermatitis in whom hypoproteinemia and agammaglobulinemia were attributed to the massive exudation after exclusion of other possible causes. The patient failed to respond to standard immunization, and adequate protection with a good antibody response could be achieved only after exudation from the skin lesions had been treated by intensive topical skin therapy and multiple intravenous immunoglobulin substitution. Two otherwise similar earlier case reports did not investigate the immune status. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to draw attention to absence of immunization protection in exudative atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: We hope that our case report will motivate pediatricians to check the immunization status of patients with exudative atopic dermatitis and take the necessary steps to improve their care. PMID:23625178

Lankisch, Petra; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Weiss, Michael; Borkhardt, Arndt

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be included in the assessment of the potential adverse effects caused by the release of toxic and bioactive compounds during cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25103898

Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

2014-10-01

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Wound exudate--the good, the bad, and the ugly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudate consists of fluid and leukocytes that move to the site of injury from the circulatory system in response to local inflammation. This inflammatory response leads to blood vessel dilatation and increased permeability, resulting in increased production of exudate. The nature and quantity of exudate depend on the nature and severity of the tissue damage. The exact amount of wound exudate and moisture to promote moist wound healing is unknown. This moisture balance is essential to promote healing and is oftentimes a major challenge to the wound care provider. This article will explore the benefits of wound fluid as well as the detrimental impact on wound healing. Assessment and management will also be briefly discussed. PMID:22647956

Spear, Marcia

2012-01-01

23

Evolution of hydrophobic polypeptides during the ageing of exudative and non-exudative pork meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-six carcasses from 6-month-old pigs were classified in different exudative groups based on measurements of pH(2h), pH(24h), the colour parameter L(?) and drip loss. A fraction containing polypeptides between 66 and 21 kDa was analysed by reverse phase chromatography at 2-h post-mortem and the evolution of 8 polypeptide fractions followed during ageing and related to meat quality. Three polypeptide (fractions P2, P3 and P4) at 2-h post-mortem showed significant lowest area values in the dark firm and dry class. During ageing, the higher content of P4 in exudative meats at 8-h post-mortem could be due to activation of the cathepsin system. On the other hand, P3 and P4 increased in DFD meats during the first 96-h post-mortem probably due to higher calpain activity. Few differences in polypeptides were related to meat qualities although they are important as precursors of small peptides and free amino acids. PMID:22061712

Moya, V J; Flores, M; Aristoy, M C; Toldrá, F

2001-04-01

24

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil microorganisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic methods ...

25

Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were coll...

Alemnji, George A.; Ngulefac, Gisele A.; Ndumbe, Peter M.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

2009-01-01

26

Exudate flavonoids of Primula spp: structural and biogenetic chemodiversity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several new accessions of the genus Primula and of the closely related Cortusa matthioli have been studied for their exudate flavonoid profiles. Unsubstituted flavone, 5-hydroxy-, 2'-hydroxyflavone and 5,2'-dihydroxyflavone were found as main components. Several other rather unusual substitution patterns were also found. 8-O-Substituted flavones appear to be accumulated more often than 6-O-substituted products. Chalcones with corresponding substitution patterns were of scattered occurrence, while flavanones could so far not be detected in exudates of Primula species. The distribution of externally accumulated flavonoids, including literature data, is related to current taxonomic views on the infrageneric grouping of Primula and related taxa. Organ-specific accumulation, biosynthetic and chemosystematic aspects are briefly addressed. PMID:19413114

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Wollenweber, Eckhard

2009-03-01

27

Exudate flavonoids in some Gnaphalieae and Inuleae (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Three members of the tribe Gnaphalieae and six members of the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae) were analyzed for their exudate flavonoids. Whereas some species exhibit rather trivial flavonoids, others produce rare compounds. Spectral data of rare flavonoids are reported and their structural identification is discussed. 6-Oxygenation of flavonols is a common feature of two Inula species and Pulicaria sicula. By contrast, flavonoids with 8-oxygenation, but lacking 6-oxygenation, are common in two out of three Gnaphalieae species examined. In addition, B-ring deoxyflavonoids are abundantly present in the leaf exudates of Helichrysum italicum (Gnaphalieae). These distinctive features of the two Asteraceae tribes are in agreement with previous flavonoid surveys of these and related taxa. PMID:16323316

Wollenweber, Eckhard; Christ, Matthias; Dunstan, R Hugh; Roitman, James N; Stevens, Jan F

2005-01-01

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[Effect of wheat and faba bean intercropping on root exudation of low molecular weight organic acids].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pot experiment of wheat and faba bean intercropping was conducted and exudates from wheat and faba bean roots were collected at different growth stages. Low molecular weight organic acids (OA) in root exudates were examined by HPLC. The results showed that wheat and faba bean intercropping significantly increased the total amounts of OA exuded by roots. At tillering (57 d), booting (120 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in wheat root exudates by 155%, 35.6% and 92.6% respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture wheat (MW). At branching (57 d) and filling stages (142 d), intercropping increased the total amounts of OA in faba bean root exudates by 87.4% and 38.7%, respectively, in comparison with that of monoculture faba bean (MF). Wheat and faba bean intercropping changed the types of OA exuded by roots. At tillering stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping wheat (IW), but not in that of MW. At jointing stage (98 d), citric acid was identified in root exudates of IW, but not in that of MW, and acetic acid was vice versa. At branching stage, acetic acid was identified in root exudates of intercropping faba bean (IF), but not in that of MF, and lactic acid was vice versa. At filling stage, lactic acid was identified in root exudates of IF, but not in that of MF. Wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the OA exudation rate of wheat. At booting stage, the exudation rates of citric and fumaric acid from IW were 179 and 184-times as that of from MW, respectively. At filling stage, the exudation rate of lactic acid from IW was 2.53-times as that from MW. In conclusion, wheat and faba bean intercropping increased the rate and total amount, and changed the types of OA exuded by roots. PMID:25223032

Xiao, Jing-Xiu; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

2014-06-01

29

Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions. PMID:18925589

Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

2008-01-01

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Excessive Myopia and Anisometropia Associated with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy  

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Full Text Available Background: To describe associations between familial exudative vitreoretinopathy(FEVR and refractive status.Methods: We conducted retrospective studies of patients with clinical diagnoses offamilial exudative vitreoretinopathy from June 1986 through September2000. All patients had cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity with correction,and underwent fundus examination. Ocular history since early childhood wasdescribed.Results: Nine patients were recruited. All had excessive myopia, which was notedsince early childhood. Amblyopia was noted in seven of the nine patients.Asymmetric FEVR was found in four of the nine patients. In all fourpatients with asymmetric FEVR, anisometropia equal to or greater than 2.5Dwas noted. Myopia was higher and amblyopia was more severe in the eyemore severely affected with FEVR.Conclusion: Excessive myopia, anisometropia and amblyopia were more likely to occurin eyes with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Patients with asymmetricdisease tended to have higher myopia in the eye with more severe degree ofFEVR as compared with the paired eye and thus correlated with anisometropia.

Meng-Ling Yang

2002-06-01

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Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral / Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO) es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como mues [...] tra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S), especificidad (E), valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y valor predictivo negativo (VPN). En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%). Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas. Abstract in english Oral mucosal transudate (OMT) is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Ch [...] agas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

Edgardo, Moretti; Beatriz, Basso; Patricia, Gil; Beatriz, Vaca; Josefina, Jacqueline; Paola, Yasenzaniro.

2004-06-01

32

Detección de anticuerpos para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis en trasudado mucoso oral Detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi andToxoplasma gondii in oral mucosal transudate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Trasudado Mucoso Oral (TMO es un fluido biológico que puede obtenerse mediante una almohadilla absorbente colocada entre la encía y la mejilla inferior y que contiene 20% de IgG, 40% de IgA y 10% de IgM en relación al suero. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la confiabilidad del TMO como muestra biológica para la detección de anticuerpos en Chagas y Toxoplasmosis. Sueros de pacientes ambulatorios, embarazadas y voluntarios sanos fueron estudiados para Chagas y Toxoplasmosis empleando Inmunofluorescencia, ELISA y Hemaglutinación. Las muestras de TMO fueron estudiadas por ELISA y los resultados comparados con los métodos de referencia para determinar sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. En Chagas, la sensibilidad osciló entre 91% y 100% con tres diferentes equipos ensayados, mientras la especificidad varió entre 90 y 100%, el VPP entre 95% y 96% y el VPN entre 97% y 99%. En Toxoplasmosis no se detectaron resultados falsos positivos (S 95%, E 100%, VPP 100% y VPN 98%. Estos resultados sugieren que el TMO puede ser un fluido biológico alternativo adecuado para estudios inmunoepidemiológicos y también servir como screening en el diagnóstico y prevención de la transmisión vertical de enfermedades infecciosas.Oral mucosal transudate (OMT is a biological fluid that can be obtained by an absorbent pad placed between lower cheek and gum, and contains20% IgG, 40% IgA and 10% IgM comparing with serum. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of OMT as biological material to detect antibodies in Chagas' disease and Toxoplasmosis. Sera of ambulatory patients, pregnant women and healthyvolunteers were tested for Chagas and Toxoplasmosis employingImmunofluorescence, ELISA andHemagglutination.OMT of the same patients were assayed by ELISA, and the results compared to determinate sensibility, specificity and predictive value. In Chagas serology, three different commercial kits were assayed. The sensibility ranged from 91 to 100%,specificitybetween 90 and 100%. The predictive values oscillate between 95% and 99%. The studies in Toxoplasmosis did not shown false positive results. The sensibility was 95%, specificity 100% and the predictive values between 98% and100%. Sera from neonates born from Toxoplasmosis infected mothers were also studied, and the results were in agreement with reference tests. These results suggest that OMT could be a suitable alternative biological fluid in immunoepidemio-logical surveys, and also as screening test in the diagnosis and prevention of materno-fetal transmission of infectious diseases.

Edgardo Moretti

2004-06-01

33

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (fevr. Clinical profile and management  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To report our experience with the diagnosis and management of Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy (FEVR in a predominantly older Indian population.. Methods: This prospective interventional non-comparative case series included 38 patients of FEVR and their 23 family members. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography and family screening. Prophylactic photocoagulation/cryotherapy or surgical treatment was done depending on the severity of the disease. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.6 years. The fundus/fluorescein angiographic findings in 116 eyes of our 61 patients (6 eyes phthisical were as follows: forty eight (41.4% eyes had only peripheral avascular zone, 8 (6.9% eyes had peripheral new vessels, and 35 (30.1% eyes had retinal detachments (RD - 10 (8.6% exudative, 5 (4.3% tractional and 20 (17.2% rhegmatogenous. Prophylactic photocoagulation or cryotherapy was done in 34 eyes for retinal holes, local exudative detachments and bleeding new vessels. All the eyes retained stable vision over a mean follow-up of 16 months. Only 14 RDs were suitable for surgery: scleral buckling, vitrectomy or both. The reattachment rate was 85.7% (12 of 14 and the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved to 5/60 or better in 50% of these eyes over a 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: FEVR appears to be more common than reported. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential in view of the lifelong progression of the disease, late exacerbations, frequent involvement of family members, and poor surgical results. A high index of suspicion, family screening and early prophylaxis are recommended to prevent avoidable blindness from this under- diagnosed disease.

Shukla Dhananjay

2003-01-01

34

Fungal exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exudates or liquid droplets on various structures of a number of fungi were examined. The droplets were enveloped in membranous material and were associated with actively growing mycelia, including fruiting structures. Osmium tetroxide vapour-fixed droplets of Claviceps purpurea, Myrothecium roridum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Thanathephorus cucumeris did not dry to a powder but remained intact as spheres when freeze-dried. Fractured spheres, examined with the scanning electron microscope, showed the presence of a membranous structure similar to that of rapidly frozen colloidal solutions with the ice crystals removed by sublimation. Locules or cavities within the freeze-dried droplets are thought to be due to the entrapment of air when droplets coalesce. Biochemical analyses of the exudates showed that acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, acid and alkaline protease. RNase polygalacturonase and cellulase enzymes as well as oxalic acid and ammonia were present. PMID:728849

Colotelo, N

1978-10-01

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Unusual compounds from exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia and D. gaubae var. megalantha (Primulaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudates of Dionysia diapensifolia yielded (R)-(+)-3-acetoxy-3-phenyl-propiophenone as a new natural product with a basic dihydrochalcone structure, which was elucidated unequivocally by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The sesquiterpenoidcarissone was found as the major compound in the exudate of D. gaubae var. megalantha. Sesquiterpenoids have so far not been described as exudate constituents of Primula and Dionysia. Structural identifications are discussed in detail, and the significance of the occurrence of these unusual compounds in exudates of Primulaceae is shortly addressed. PMID:21615020

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Lorbeer, Eberhard; Brecker, Lothar

2011-05-01

36

ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45 and exudative (n = 80 effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, pneumonia (n = 32, and adenocarcinoma (n = 28.Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.

Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Tang-Ching Kuan, Kun-Shan Cheng, Yan-Chiou Liao, Mu-Yuan Chen, Pei-Heng Lin, Yuan-Chang Hsu, Chen-Yi Huang, Wei-Hua Hsu, Sheng-Yao Yu, Chih-Sheng Lin

2012-01-01

37

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

38

Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may vary among different Phragmites haplotypes and consequently affect their invasion potential. The studies presented in this dissertation aimed at investigating the quantity and composition of the organic carbon released in root exudates from three common wetland species as affected by temperature and light-regime and how the root exudates potentially affect the nitrogen removal by denitrification in constructed wetlands. Also, the studies aimed at further elucidating the potential allelopathic interaction between the plants. The findings of the research suggest that the root exudates from wetland plants contribute to nitrogen removal in high nitrate and low BOD wastewater. Also, the compositions and quantity of root exudates differed among the species of the Phragmites genus and the Phragmites haplotypes. The research could not confirm that gallic acid in root exudates is responsible for the invasive success of P. australis in North America.

Zhai, Xu

2013-01-01

39

[Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil. PMID:23898672

Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

2013-04-01

40

The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

 
 
 
 
41

Pharmacokinetics (PK), Pharmacodynamics (PD), and PK-PD Integration of Danofloxacin in Sheep Biological Fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug danofloxacin was administered to sheep intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of danofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate) were established by using a tissue cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of danofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytica were established. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 60.5, 85.6, and 45.7 h, respectively, after i.v. dosing and 55.9, 77.9, and 49.1 h, respectively, after i.m. dosing. After i.m. dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 10.8, 3.0, and 1.6, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after i.m. dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.8, 20.2, and 28.7 h, and slightly higher values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that use of these data might provide a novel approach to the rational design of dosage schedules. PMID:12543670

Aliabadi, F. Shojaee; Landoni, M. F.; Lees, P.

2003-01-01

42

Dyskeratosis congenita caused by a novel TERT point mutation in siblings with pancytopenia and exudative retinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two siblings presenting with exudative retinopathy, thrombocytopenia, and macrocytosis were found to have markedly shortened telomeres and a previously unreported inherited mutation in TERT, c.2603A>G. Revesz syndrome, a subtype of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) caused by TINF2 mutation, combines marrow failure with exudative retinopathy, intracranial calcifications, and neurocognitive impairment. As our patients manifested neither intracranial calcification nor significant neurocognitive impairment, we conclude that the c.2603A>G TERT mutation may define a subtype of DC manifesting first as exudative retinopathy without other signs of DC. Children with exudative retinopathy should be periodically screened for macrocytosis and cytopenias to evaluate for underlying DC. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2302-2304. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25067791

Sharma, Akshay; Myers, Kasiani; Ye, Zhan; D'Orazio, John

2014-12-01

43

Comparative Analysis of Automatic Exudate Detection between Machine Learning and Traditional Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.

Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas

44

ASPECTS ON VIABILITY, CELL EXUDATE AND MITOSIS ACTIVITY IN WHEAT SEEDS  

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Full Text Available The role of the cell exudate and of the mitosis in studying of cell membrane modifications was the purpose of this work. There were analysed the seed exudate and mitosis activity values, as well as the correlations between these indices and seed viability în six different wheat seed samples. The results have indicated negative correlations significant for viability-sugars efflux and for viability-aberrant cells. Between viability and dividing cells were found positive correlations.

Liviu Fartaies

2007-12-01

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Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

Karlovsky Petr

2011-08-01

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Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

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Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

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Hygroscopic Growth and Activation of Particles containing Algea-Exudate  

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A large amount of the Earth is covered by oceans, which provide a constant source of marine aerosol particles, produced due to bubble bursting processes that depend on wind speed (O'Dowd and de Leeuw, 2007). In general, marine particles can be assumed to play an important role for the Earth atmosphere on a global scale, due to their abundance and due to their effect on clouds. E.g. marine stratus and stratocumulus clouds contribute about 30% to 40% to the Earth's albedo (Randall et al., 1984). The activation of aerosol particles to cloud droplets depends on the hygroscopic properties of the particles, which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition. For marine particles, is has been and still is discussed what the effects of organic substances being present in the particles might be. These substances originate from marine biota where they enrich at the ocean surface. To mimic marine aerosol particles, algae-exudates of different algae species were mixed with artificial sea-water. These samples were used in the laboratory to produce particles via a bubble bursting process (Fuentes et al., 2009). The hygroscopic growth and activation of the (size selected) particles was measured, using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Stratmann et al., 2004) and the DMT-CCNc (Cloud Condensation Nucleus counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies, Roberts and Nenes, 2005). The hygroscopic growth was measured twice, 3 and 10 seconds after humidification, and no difference in the grown size was detected, i.e. no kinetic effect was observed for the examined time range. From LACIS and CCNc measurements, the hygroscopicity was deduced through determination of the amount of ions being effective in the particle / droplet solution (Rho(ion), Wex et al., 2007). A concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was found for particles produced from an artificial sea-water sample that contained only inorganic salts, as can be expected (see e.g. Niedermeier et al., 2008). For particles containing also algae-exudate, however, the concentration dependent non-ideal behaviour was quenched, resulting in a quasi ideal solution behavior. Such solutions could be described by a single-parameter representation for all water-vapour saturations at which measurements had been done (from 0.8 up to supersaturation). References: Fuentes, E., H. Coe, D. Green, G. De Leeuw, and G. McFiggans (2009), Laboratory-generated primary marine aerosol via bubble-bursting and atomization, Aerosol Meas. Tech. Discuss., 2, 2281-2320. O'Dowd, C. D., and G. de Leeuw (2007), Marine aerosol production: A review of the current knowledge, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 365(1856), 1753-1774, doi:1710.1098/rsta.2007.2043. Niedermeier, D., H. Wex, J. Voigtländer, F. Stratmann, E. Brüggemann, A. Kiselev, H. Henk, and J. Heintzenberg (2008), LACIS-measurements and parameterization of sea-salt particle hygroscopic growth and activation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 579-590. Randall, D. A., Coakley, J. A., Fairall, C. W., Kropfli, R. A., and Lenschow, D. H. (1984) Outlook for research on subtropical marine stratiform clouds, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 65, 1290-1301, 1984. Roberts, G., and A. Nenes (2005), A continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber for atmospheric measurements, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 206-221. Stratmann, F., A. Kiselev, S. Wurzler, M. Wendisch, J. Heintzenberg, R. J. Charlson, K. Diehl, H. Wex, and S. Schmidt (2004), Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of cloud droplet formation under realistic super-saturation conditions, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 876-887. Wex, H., T. Hennig, I. Salma, R. Ocskay, A. Kiselev, S. Henning, A. Massling, A. Wiedensohler, and F. Stratmann (2007), Hygroscopic growth and measured and modeled critical super-saturations of an atmospheric HULIS sample, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(L02818), doi:10.1029/2006GL028260.

Wex, Heike; Fuentes, Elena; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Voigtländer, Jens; Clauss, Tina; Kiselev, Alexei; Green, David; Coe, Hugh; McFiggans, Gordon; Stratmann, Frank

2010-05-01

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A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images  

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The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

2012-03-01

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Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.  

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The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

2012-07-01

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Exudation of alcohol and aldehyde sugars from roots of defoliated Lolium perenne L. grown under sterile conditions.  

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Root exudates were collected over a 27 day period from defoliated and non-defoliated Lolium perenne L. plants grown under sterile conditions in microlysimeters. Eleven individual sugars, including both aldehyde and alcohol sugars, were identified and quantified with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There was no change in the number of sugars present between 7 and 27 days, but the exudation of alcohol sugars decreased rapidly at about day 12. Xylose and glucose were present in the largest amounts. Defoliation initially increased the total amount of sugars in the exudates, but continuous defoliation reduced total sugar exudation by 16% and induced changes in the exudation patterns of individual sugars. Defoliation enhanced exudation of erythritol, threitol, and xylitol, reduced exudation of glucose and arabitol, but had little effect on the amounts of other sugars exuded. The more complex 6 C, 5 OH aldehyde sugars, especially glucose, showed changes earlier and to a greater extent (17 days), than the 5 C, 4 OH (xylose and ribose) and 6 C 4 OH (fucose) aldehyde groups. These findings confirm the general finding that repeated defoliation reduces the quantity of total sugars exuded, but the pattern of release of individual sugars is complex and variable. PMID:18815840

Clayton, Stephen J; Read, Derek B; Murray, Philip J; Gregory, Peter J

2008-11-01

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Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules  

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Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

Dourado, Manuella Nobrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M.; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Araujo, Welington Luiz

2013-01-01

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CAD scheme for detection of hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images  

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This paper describes a method for detecting hemorrhages and exudates in ocular fundus images. The detection of hemorrhages and exudates is important in order to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most significant factors contributing to blindness, and early detection and treatment are important. In this study, hemorrhages and exudates were automatically detected in fundus images without using fluorescein angiograms. Subsequently, the blood vessel regions incorrectly detected as hemorrhages were eliminated by first examining the structure of the blood vessels and then evaluating the length-to-width ratio. Finally, the false positives were eliminated by checking the following features extracted from candidate images: the number of pixels, contrast, 13 features calculated from the co-occurrence matrix, two features based on gray-level difference statistics, and two features calculated from the extrema method. The sensitivity of detecting hemorrhages in the fundus images was 85% and that of detecting exudates was 77%. Our fully automated scheme could accurately detect hemorrhages and exudates.

Hatanaka, Yuji; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Mizukusa, Yutaka; Fujita, Akihiro; Kakogawa, Masakatsu; Kawase, Kazuhide; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

2007-03-01

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Root exudates of transgenic cotton and their effects on Fusarium oxysporum.  

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The components of the root exudates from two transgenic insect-resistant cotton lines and their parental cotton lines, and their effects on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. The results demonstrated that the resistance of transgenic insect-resistant cotton to F. oxysporum was significantly reduced compared with their parental lines. Likewise, the root exudates from transgenic insect-resistant cotton significantly promoted the spore germination and mycelial growth of cotton F. oxysporum. The types of compounds found in the root exudates of transgenic insect-resistant cotton were similar to those of the parental cotton, but the composition and relative content of the compounds were different. The type and content of the fatty acids and esters were significantly reduced in the root exudates of the transgenic insect-resistant cotton, as were certain specific materials, whereas several alkanes were increased. The inhibition of the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum caused by the root exudates from the transgenic insect-resistant cotton was decreased compared with the parental cotton. This result provides a scientific basis for the decline in disease resistance in transgenic insect-resistant cotton. PMID:23276956

Li, Xiao-gang; Wei, Qin; Liu, Biao; Alam, Mohammad-Saiful; Wang, Xing-xiang; Shen, Wenjing; Han, Zheng-min

2013-01-01

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Resolution of exudative retinal detachment and regression of retinal macrocyst post-laser in Coats disease  

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Full Text Available Yusoff Munira,1 Embong Zunaina,1,2 Yaakub Azhany1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Abstract: A 15-year-old boy presented with painless progressive blurring of vision in the right eye for 1 year in duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was hand movement. The right fundus showed presence of extensive subretinal exudates at the posterior pole and a retinal macrocyst at the temporal periphery. It was associated with exudative retinal detachment at the inferior periphery of the retina. Fundus angiography revealed telangiectatic retinal vessels at the superotemporal retina. Based on clinical and angiographic findings, a diagnosis of Coats disease was made. He was treated with retinal laser photocoagulation. There was resolution of the exudative retinal detachment, reduction of subretinal exudates, and regression of the retinal macrocyst with improvement of visual acuity to 1/60 post-laser therapy. Keywords: exudative retinal detachment, retinal macrocyst, Coats disease, laser

Munira Y

2013-08-01

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Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism  

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Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with benthic primary producers were always estimated to be net autotrophic. However, estimates of microbial consumption of DOC at the reef scale surpassed the DOC exudation rates suggesting net consumption of DOC at the reef-scale. In situ mesocosm experiments using custom-made benthic chambers placed over different types of benthic communities exhibited identical trends to those found in incubation experiments. Here we provide the first comprehensive dataset examining direct primary producer-induced, and indirect microbially mediated alterations of elemental cycling in both benthic and planktonic reef environments over diurnal cycles. Our results highlight the variability of the influence of different benthic primary producers on microbial metabolism in reef ecosystems and the potential implications for energy transfer to higher trophic levels during shifts from coral to algal dominance on reefs.

Andreas F. Haas

2013-07-01

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How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?  

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Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism's activity and exudates. Kohler-Milleret, R., R.-C.L. Bayon, C. Chenu, J.-M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2013. Impact of two root systems, earthworms and mycorrhizae on the physical properties of an unstable silt loam Luvisol and plant production. Plant Soil: 1-15. Milleret, R., C. Le Bayon, F. Lamy, J.M. Gobat, and P. Boivin. 2009. Impact of root, mycorrhiza and earthworm on soil physical properties as assessed by shrinkage analysis. Journal of Hydrology 373: 499-507.

Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

2014-05-01

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Influence of root-exudates concentration on pyrene degradation and soil microbial characteristics in pyrene contaminated soil.  

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The effect of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) root-exudates concentration on pyrene degradation and the microbial ecological characteristics in the pyrene contaminated soil was investigated by simulating a gradually reducing concentration of root exudates with the distance away from root surface in the rhizosphere. Results showed that, after the root-exudates were added 15 d, the pyrene residue in contaminated soil responded nonlinearly in the soils with the same pyrene contaminated level as the added root-exudates concentration increased, which decreased first and increased latter with the increase of the added root-exudates concentration. The lowest pyrene concentration appeared when the root exudates concentration of 32.75 mg kg(-1) total organic carbon (TOC) was added. At the same time, changes of microbial biomass carbon (MBC, C(mic)) and microbial quotient (C(mic)/C(org)) were opposite to the trend of pyrene degradation as the added root-exudates concentration increased. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis revealed that bacteria was the dominating microbial community in pyrene contaminated soil, and the changing trends of pyrene degradation and bacteria number were the same. The changing trend of endoenzyme-dehydrogenase activity was in accordance with that of soil microbe, indicating which could reflect the quantitative characteristic of detoxification to pyrene by soil microbe. The changes in the soils microbial community and corresponding microbial biochemistry characteristics were the ecological mechanism influencing pyrene degradation with increasing concentration of the added root-exudates in the pyrene contaminated soil. PMID:22520968

Xie, Xiao-mei; Liao, Min; Yang, Jing; Chai, Juan-juan; Fang, Shu; Wang, Run-han

2012-08-01

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Casuarina root exudates alter the physiology, surface properties, and plant infectivity of Frankia sp. strain CcI3.  

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The actinomycete genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants, representing more than 200 different species. Very little is known about the initial molecular interactions between Frankia and host plants in the rhizosphere. Root exudates are important in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, especially for initiating Nod factor synthesis. We measured differences in Frankia physiology after exposure to host aqueous root exudates to assess their effects on actinorhizal symbioses. Casuarina cunninghamiana root exudates were collected from plants under nitrogen-sufficient and -deficient conditions and tested on Frankia sp. strain CcI3. Root exudates increased the growth yield of Frankia in the presence of a carbon source, but Frankia was unable to use the root exudates as a sole carbon or energy source. Exposure to root exudates caused hyphal "curling" in Frankia cells, suggesting a chemotrophic response or surface property change. Exposure to root exudates altered Congo red dye binding, which indicated changes in the bacterial surface properties at the fatty acid level. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed fatty acid changes and revealed further carbohydrate changes. Frankia cells preexposed to C. cunninghamiana root exudates for 6 days formed nodules on the host plant significantly earlier than control cells. These data support the hypothesis of early chemical signaling between actinorhizal host plants and Frankia in the rhizosphere. PMID:22101047

Beauchemin, Nicholas J; Furnholm, Teal; Lavenus, Julien; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Doumas, Patrick; Bogusz, Didier; Laplaze, Laurent; Tisa, Louis S

2012-01-01

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Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation - insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest  

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Healthy plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exo-enzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C) mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The causal role of exudation, however, is difficult to isolate with in-situ observations, given the complex nature of the rhizosphere environment. We investigated the potential effects of root exudation on microbial and exo-enzyme activity using a theoretical model of decomposition and a field experiment, with a specific focus on the stoichiometric constraint of nitrogen (N) availability. The field experiment isolated the effect of exudation by pumping solutions of exudate mimics through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils over two 50-day periods. Using a combined model-experiment approach, we tested two hypotheses: (1) exudation alone is sufficient to stimulate microbial and exo-enzyme activity in rhizosphere soils, and (2) microbial response to C-exudates (carbohydrates and organic acids) is constrained by N-limitation. Experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exo-enzymes that decompose labile components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars), while decreasing the activity of exo-enzymes that degrade recalcitrant SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin). However, delivery of C-only exudates had no effect on microbial biomass or overall exo-enzyme activity, and only increased microbial respiration. The theoretical decomposition model produced complementary results; the modeled microbial response to C-only exudates was constrained by limited N supply to support the synthesis of N-rich microbial biomass and exo-enzymes, while exuding C and N together elicited an increase in modeled microbial biomass, exo-enzyme activity, and decomposition. Thus, hypothesis (2) was supported, while hypothesis (1) was only supported when C and N compounds were exuded together. This study supports a cause-and-effect relationship between root exudation and enhanced microbial activity, and suggests that exudate stoichiometry is an important and underappreciated driver of microbial activity in rhizosphere soils.

Drake, J. E.; Darby, B. A.; Giasson, M.-A.; Kramer, M. A.; Phillips, R. P.; Finzi, A. C.

2012-06-01

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The plant stigma exudate  

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During sexual reproduction, pollen performance is greatly influenced by the female tissues. The stigma exudate, i.e., the extracellular secretion that covers the stigma outermost surface, has been usually regarded as a reservoir of water, secondary metabolites, cell wall precursors and compounds that serve as energy supply for rapid pollen tube growth. In an attempt to identify the proteins present in the stigma secretome, we performed a large-scale analysis in two species (Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea) following a proteomic-based approach. The resulting data strongly suggest that the stigma exudate is not a mere storage site but also a biochemically active environment with a markedly catabolic nature. Thus, this secretion may modulate early pollen tube growth and contribute to the senescence of stigma after pollination. In addition, a putative cross-talk between genetic programs that regulate stress/defense and pollination responses in the stigma is also suggested. The stigma exudate might also functionally diverge between species on the basis on their ecology and the biochemical, morphological and anatomical features of their stigmas. Unexpectedly, we identified in both exudates some intracellular proteins, suggesting that a mechanism other than the canonical ER-Golgi exocytic pathway may exist in the stigma and contribute to exudate secretion. PMID:24589550

Rejon, Juan David; Delalande, Francois; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alche, Juan de Dios; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Castro, Antonio J

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

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Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress  

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The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution.

Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

2008-09-15

63

Purification and molecular mass determination of a lipid transfer protein exuded from Vigna unguiculata seeds  

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Full Text Available Plants exude a variety of substances through their surface especially of roots and germinating seeds. Some of these released compounds seem to have an inhibitory action against certain pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are 9 kDa cysteine-rich cationic peptides and are thought to play a role in the protection of plants against microbial infections. The aim of this work was to isolate and determine the molecular mass of a LTP present in the exudates of imbibed cowpea seeds. For exudation induction, 50 seeds were submerged in 50 mL sterile 100 mmol.L-1 Na-acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and shaken at 30 ºC for 24 h. The resulting exudate was subjected to ammonium sulphate fractionation and the pellet formed between 0 and 70 % saturation was dialysed and recovered by freeze drying. Further purification steps were carried out using chromatographic methods and the molecular mass of the LTP determined. All of these steps were monitored by SDS-Tricine gel electrophoresis and Western blotting using an anti-LTP serum. The purified LTP showed a relative molecular mass of 9 kDa.

Diz Mariângela S. S.

2003-01-01

64

[Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the dynamics of in situ root exudates and soil microbial composition among three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages (9, 13 and 31 a) in Miyaluo, west Sichuan, China. The results showed that the secretion rates of root exudation per fine biomass, length, surface area and tip were significantly different among the three plantations with different stand ages. The secretion rate of root exudation was the highest in the 9-year-old plantation stand. The root activity of P. asperata was the weakest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. Besides, soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were significantly different among the three plantation stands. MBC and MBN contents of rhizosphere soil gradually increased with stand ages, while those of non-rhizosphere soil were the largest in the 13-year-old plantation stand. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and their summation in rhizosphere soil presented a trend of high-low-high with stand ages. The opposite pattern was found in the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, the summation of PLFA, and the ratio of fungi number to bacteria in non-rhizosphere soil. It is suggested that root exudates might have a positive rhizosphere effect on soil microbial biomass C, N and PLFAs of functional groups. PMID:24830229

Li, Jiao; Jiang, Xian-Min; Yin, Hua-Jun; Yin, Chun-Ying; Wei, Yu-Hang; Liu, Qing

2014-02-01

65

Influence of the microbial loop on trophodynamics and toxicity of cadmium complexed by cyanobacterium exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd) is an important industrial and toxic metal. Its fate and toxicity in the environment may be mediated by association with dissolved organic materials excreted by phytoplankton. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trophodynamics and toxicity of Cd complexed with Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exudates in a plankton food chain. The microbial loop involves heterotrophic bacteria as the primary consumer, which is supplemented with a Cd-exudate complex. The secondary consumer (protozoan Paramecium caudatum) was fed on the bacteria, and the tertiary consumer (copepod Mesocyclops longisetus) on the protozoa. The Cd complexing properties of the exudate were determined before the experiments, to ensure that all Cd was furnished to the organisms as the organic complex alone. The results showed that free Cd2+ ions caused the highest observed toxicity to bacteria, while Cd complexed to the cyanobacterial exudate was less toxic, but could be bioavailable and transferred through the food web. This study is a contribution to aquatic ecosystem management and to current knowledge of Cd dynamics, bioavailability and interaction with aquatic planktonic organisms. PMID:24619145

Nogueira, Patricia F M; Nogueira, Marcelo M; Lombardi, Ana T

2014-05-01

66

Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear. In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species. Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour. This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings. PMID:25039372

Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

2014-11-01

67

An Efficient Integrated Approach for the Detection of Exudates and Diabetic Maculopathy in Colour fundus Images  

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Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is a major cause of blindness. Exudates are one of the primary signs ofdiabetic retinopathy which is a main cause of blindness that could be prevented with an early screeningprocess In this approach, the process and knowledge of digital image processing to diagnose exudatesfrom images of retina is applied. An automated method to detect and localize the presence of exudatesand Maculopathy from low-contrast digital images of Retinopathy patient’s with non-dilated pupils isproposed. First, the image is segmented using colour K-means Clustering algorithm. The segmentedimage along with Optic Disc (OD is chosen. To Classify these segmented region, features based oncolour and texture are extracted. The selected feature vector are then classified into exudates and nonexudatesusing a Support Vector Machine (SVM Classifier. Also the detection of Diabetic Maculopathy,which is the severe stage of Diabetic Retinopathy is performed using Morphological Operation. Using aclinical reference standard, images with exudates were detected with 96% success rate. This methodappears promising as it can detect the very small areas of exudates.

B.Ramasubramanian

2012-10-01

68

Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter  

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Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

2013-12-01

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Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

70

Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between ba [...] cteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

Manuella Nóbrega, Dourado; Andrea Cristina, Bogas; Armando M., Pomini; Fernando Dini, Andreote; Maria Carolina, Quecine; Anita J., Marsaioli; Welington Luiz, Araújo.

1331-13-01

71

Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism  

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Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals) on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community ...

Haas, Andreas F.; Nelson, Craig E.; Forest Rohwer; Linda Wegley-Kelly; Quistad, Steven D.; Carlson, Craig A.; Leichter, James J.; Mark Hatay; Smith, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

72

Impact of Bio Inoculants Consortium on Rice Root Exudates, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of individual and microbial consortium viz., Azospirillum lipoferum-Az 204, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-1 on rice root exudates and plant growth under hydroponic culture conditions. Detailed investigations were made on the impact of bio-inoculants application on the influence of crop growth through production of total sugars, reducing sugars, amino nitrogen content, plant growth promoting substances in the root exudates and biological nitrogen fixation capacity. Through this study we have identified, the bioinoculants consortium improves the colonization potential, sustainability within the inoculants and enhances crop growth. We hypothesize that microbial consortium enhances plant growth positively by a multitude of synergistic mechanisms when compared to single inoculants application.

P. Raja

2006-01-01

73

The Past, Present, and Future of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatment  

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Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular “destructive treatments,” such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitre...

Barak, Yoreh; Heroman, Wesley J.; Tezel, Tongalp H.

2012-01-01

74

Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

2009-04-15

75

Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine to which extent root-derived carbon contributes to the effects of plants on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers, four solutions containing different proportions of sugar, organic acids and amino acids mimicking maize root exudates were added daily to soil microcosms at a concentration of 150 microg C g(-1) of soil. Water-amended soils were used as controls. After 1 month, the size and structure of the nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities were analysed using the narG and napA, and the nirK, nirS and nosZ genes as molecular markers respectively. Addition of artificial root exudates (ARE) did not strongly affect the structure or the density of nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities whereas potential nitrate reductase and denitrification activities were stimulated by the addition of root exudates. An effect of ARE composition was also observed on N(2)O production with an N(2)O:(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio of 0.3 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 80% of sugar and of 1 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 40% of sugar. Our study indicated that ARE stimulated nitrate reduction or denitrification activity with increases in the range of those observed with the whole plant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the composition of the ARE affected the nature of the end-product of denitrification and could thus have a putative impact on greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:18393993

Henry, S; Texier, S; Hallet, S; Bru, D; Dambreville, C; Chèneby, D; Bizouard, F; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

2008-11-01

76

Proteomics profiling reveals novel proteins and functions of the plant stigma exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteomic analysis of the stigmatic exudate of Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea led to the identification of 51 and 57 proteins, respectively, most of which are described for the first time in this secreted fluid. These results indicate that the stigmatic exudate is an extracellular environment metabolically active, participating in at least 80 different biological processes and 97 molecular functions. The stigma exudate showed a markedly catabolic profile and appeared to possess the enzyme machinery necessary to degrade large polysaccharides and lipids secreted by papillae to smaller units, allowing their incorporation into the pollen tube during pollination. It may also regulate pollen-tube growth in the pistil through the selective degradation of tube-wall components. Furthermore, some secreted proteins were involved in pollen-tube adhesion and orientation, as well as in programmed cell death of the papillae cells in response to either compatible pollination or incompatible pollen rejection. Finally, the results also revealed a putative cross-talk between genetic programmes regulating stress/defence and pollination responses in the stigma. PMID:24151302

Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; de Dios Alché, Juan; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Castro, Antonio Jesús

2013-12-01

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Role of Synthesis and Exudation of Organic Acids in Phosphorus Nutrition in Plants in Tropical Soils  

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Full Text Available Plants have evolved a diverse array of strategies to uptake adequate Phosphorus (P under limiting conditions in tropical and sub-tropical soils, including modifications to root architecture (e.g. cluster roots in Proteaceae, carbon metabolism and membrane structure, exudation of low molecular weight organic acids, protons and enzymes and enhanced expression of numerous genes involved in low-P adaptation. These adaptations seem to be less pronounced in mycorrhizal-associated plants as mycorrhiza in roots significantly helps plants in P uptake at low P soils. The formation of cluster roots in concert with enhanced exudation of low molecular weight organic acids such as citric, oxalic, malic, fumaric, succinic etc. under P-stress by the non-mycorrhizal plants and the accompanying biochemical changes exemplify many of the plant adaptations that enhance P acquisition and use. Several biotechnological approach are now in progress to increase exudation of organic acids from the roots of economically important crop plants for sustainable crop production in tropical and sub-tropical soils.

Hasna Hena Begum

2005-01-01

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Intravitreal bevacizumab combined with plaque brachytherapy reduces melanoma tumor volume and enhances resolution of exudative detachment  

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Full Text Available Samuel K Houston,1 Nisha V Shah,1 Christina Decatur,1 Marcela Lonngi,1 William Feuer,1 Arnold M Markoe,2 Timothy G Murray1–31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab as an adjuvant treatment to plaque brachytherapy in the treatment of choroidal melanoma.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive study of 124 patients treated from 2007 to 2009 for choroidal melanoma with plaque brachytherapy. Patients were treated with I-125 plaque brachytherapy with 2 mm margins and 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Consecutive patients were injected intravitreally with 2.5 mg/0.1 mL bevacizumab at a site away from the primary tumor and immediately following plaque removal. Choroidal melanomas were observed using indirect ophthalmoscopy, wide-angle photography, and ultrasound. The main outcome measures were tumor volume, resolution of exudative retinal detachment, and visual acuity.Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 65.7 years, and the mean apical tumor height was 4.0 ± 2.7 mm and basal diameter was 12.7 ± 3.0 mm. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Prior to treatment, 100% of tumors had exudative retinal detachment, and pretreatment visual acuity was 20/55 (median 20/40. Tumor control was 100%, metastasis was 0% at last follow-up, and 89.8% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, with a mean time to resolution of 3.36 months. At one month, 43% had complete resolution of exudative retinal detachment, which increased to 73% at 4 months. Visual acuity was 20/62 (median 20/40 at 4 months, with stabilization to 20/57 (median 20/40 at 8 months, 20/56 (median 20/30 at 12 months, and 20/68 (median 20/50 at 24 months. Tumor volume following combined therapy was shown to be reduced by 22.2% at 3 months, 28.9% at 6 months, 39.3% at 12 months, and 52.2% at 24 months (all P < 0.001. All patients tolerated the procedure well without systemic side effects.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab may be used as an adjuvant agent following plaque brachytherapy. Treated choroidal melanomas show reduction in tumor volume as well as resolution of exudative retinal detachments.Keywords: choroidal melanoma, brachytherapy, Avastin (bevacizumab, retinal detachment

Houston SK

2013-01-01

79

Characterisation and authentication of A. senegal and A. seyal exudates by infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authentication of Acacia gums samples requires usually the use of sophisticated and time consuming analytical techniques. There is a need for fast and simple analytical techniques for the objective of a quality control methodology. Commercial Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal gums present characteristic MIR spectra. Principal Component Analysis of the infrared spectra of gum exudates of trees allow to distinguish Acacia gums from another gum exudates (Combretum, Ghatti, Karaya, Tragacanth). Moreover, gums of A. senegal and A. seyal separate them and from other Acacia species (Acacia dealbata, Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana). Chemometric treatments of A. senegal and A. seyal MIR spectra were assessed for the quantification of moisture content in Acacia gums, for the classification into the two species and for the adulteration detection and quantification. Results were quite satisfactory, the moisture content was estimated at 3.1%, adulteration was detected at 3.4% and quantified at 5.6%. The discrimination of the two species is done without any ambiguity. PMID:22980842

Vanloot, Pierre; Dupuy, Nathalie; Guiliano, Michel; Artaud, Jacques

2012-12-15

80

Exudation and decomposition of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from some temperate macroalgae  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantity of chromophoric or coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) released by eleven species of intertidal and sub-tidal macroalgae commonly found on UK shores was investigated. The subsequent breakdown of CDOM was also measured by exposing collected CDOM samples to light and dark conditions for over two weeks. CDOM absorption properties were compared at a fixed wavelength of 440 nm and across two integrated wave - bands; UV-A (400-315 nm) and UV-B (315-280 nm). Absorption spectra of macroalgal CDOM samples were typically characterized by peaks and shoulders in the UV bands, features which were species specific. The spectral slope, derived using the log-linear method, proved to be very specific to the species and to the effect of light. Slope measurements ranged from 0.010 to 0.027 nm -1, in the range of normal seawater values. Significantly more CDOM was produced by algae which were illuminated, providing evidence for a light driven exudation mechanism. Averaged across all species, exudation in the dark accounted for 63.7% of that in the light in the UV-B band. Interspecific differences in exudation rate encompassed an order of magnitude, with the highest absorption measurements attributable to brown algae. However, some brown algae produced considerably less CDOM (e.g. Pelvetia canaliculata), which were more comparable to the green and red species. Over an exposure time of 16 days, significant photochemical degradation of CDOM was observed using a natural summer sunlight regime, showing that natural solar radiation could be an important removal mechanism for newly produced algal CDOM. Though the most obvious effect was a decrease in absorption, photo-bleaching also caused a significant increase in the spectral slope parameter of 0.004 nm -1.

Hulatt, Christopher J.; Thomas, David N.; Bowers, David G.; Norman, Louiza; Zhang, Chi

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates. PMID:19552666

Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

2009-10-01

82

Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

2010-01-13

83

Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

2009-02-01

84

Deacylation of purified lipopolysaccharides by cellular and extracellular components of a sterile rabbit peritoneal inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which the mammalian host is capable of enzymatic degradation and detoxification of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is still unknown. Partial deacylation of LPS by the enzyme acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH) provides such a mechanism, but its participation in the disposal of LPS under physiological conditions has not been established. In this study, deacylation of isolated radiolabeled LPS by both cellular and extracellular components of a sterile inflammatory peritoneal exudate elicited in rabbits was examined ex vivo. AOAH-like activity, tested under artificial conditions (pH 5.4, 0.1% Triton X-100), was evident in all components of the exudate (mononuclear cells [MNC] > polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN] > inflammatory [ascitic] fluid [AF]). Under more physiological conditions, in a defined medium containing purified LPS-binding protein, the LPS-deacylating activity of MNC greatly exceeded that of PMN. In AF, MNC (but not PMN) also produced rapid and extensive CD14-dependent LPS deacylation. Under these conditions, almost all MNC-associated LPS underwent deacylation within 1 h, a rate greatly exceeding that previously found in any cell type. The remaining extracellular LPS was more slowly subject to CD14-independent deacylation in AF. Quantitative analysis showed a comparable release of laurate and myristate but no release of 3-hydroxymyristate, consistent with an AOAH-like activity. These findings suggest a major role for CD14(+) MNC and a secondary role for AF in the deacylation of cell-free LPS at extravascular inflammatory sites. PMID:10377115

Weinrauch, Y; Katz, S S; Munford, R S; Elsbach, P; Weiss, J

1999-07-01

85

Linkage and candidate gene analysis of X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary eye disorder characterized by avascularity of the peripheral retina, retinal exudates, tractional detachment, and retinal folds. The disorder is most commonly transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but X-linked transmission also occurs. To initiate the process of identifying the gene responsible for the X-linked disorder, linkage analysis has been performed with three previously unreported three- or four-generation families. Two-point analysis showed linkage to MAOA (Z{sub max} = 2.1, {theta}{sub max} = 0) and DXS228 (Z{sub max} = 0.5, {theta}{sub max} = 0.11), and this was further confirmed by multipoint analysis with these same markers (Z{sub max} = 2.81 at MAOA), which both lie near the gene causing Norrie disease. Molecular genetic analysis further reveals a missense mutation (R121W) in the third exon of the Norrie`s disease gene that perfectly cosegregates with the disease through three generations in one family. This mutation was not detected in the unaffected family members and six normal unrelated controls, suggesting that it is likely to be the pathogenic mutation. Additionally, a polymorphic missense mutation (H127R) was detected in a severely affected patient. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Shastry, B.S.; Hartzer, M.K. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States); Hejtmancik, J.F. [National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-05-20

86

Flavonoids and Strigolactones in Root Exudates as Signals in Symbiotic and Pathogenic Plant-Fungus Interactions  

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Full Text Available Secondary plant compounds are important signals in several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. The present review is limited to two groups of secondary plant compounds, flavonoids and strigolactones, which have been reported in root exudates. Data on flavonoids as signaling compounds are available from several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, whereas only recently initial data on the role of strigolactones as plant signals in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis have been reported. Data from other plant-microbe interactions and strigolactones are not available yet. In the present article we are focusing on flavonoids in plant-fungalinteractions such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM association and the signaling between different Fusarium species and plants. Moreover the role of strigolactones in the AM association is discussed and new data on the effect of strigolactones on fungi, apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, are provided.

Horst Vierheilig

2007-07-01

87

Composition and effect of salt on rheological and gelation properties of Enterolobium contortisilliquum gum exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition, structure and rheological properties and metal ions interaction with Enterolobium contortisilliquum gum were investigated. This gum contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid as main monosaccharide components. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the anomeric composition is similar to the Enterolobium cyclocarpum exudate, however no 4-O-methylglucuronic acid was detected for E. contortisilliquum. The rheological experiment resulted in a very similar flow behaviour to that found for E. cyclocarpum gum. The empirical stiffness parameter, B was determined (B=0.090) and suggested that the polysaccharide possesses semi-flexible chains. Cation affinity of the gum aqueous solution was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements and gelation. The melting temperature of gels pointed to a charge/ionic radius ratio dependence for metal ions. Thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy and entropy) at the melting temperature were also calculated. PMID:11429187

Oliveira, J D; Silva, D A; de Paula, R C; Feitosa, J P; Paula, H C

2001-07-19

88

Anointing chemicals and hematophagous arthropods: responses by ticks and mosquitoes to citrus (Rutaceae) peel exudates and monoterpene components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some birds and mammals roll on or wipe themselves with the fruits or leaves of Citrus spp. or other Rutaceae. These anointing behaviors, as with anointing in general, are thought to function in the topical acquisition of chemicals that deter consumers, including hematophagous arthropods. We measured avoidance and other responses by nymphal lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and adult female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) to lemon peel exudate and to 24 volatile monoterpenes (racemates and isomers), including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetates, ketones, and oxides, present in citrus fruits and leaves in order to examine their potential as arthropod deterrents. Ticks allowed to crawl up vertically suspended paper strips onto a chemically treated zone avoided the peel exudate and geraniol, citronellol, citral, carveol, geranyl acetate, ?-terpineol, citronellyl acetate, and carvone. Ticks confined in chemically treated paper packets subsequently were impaired in climbing and other behaviors following exposure to the peel exudate and, of the compounds tested, most impaired to carveol. Mosquitoes confined in chambers with chemically treated feeding membranes landed and fed less, and flew more, when exposed to the peel exudate than to controls, and when exposed to aldehydes, oxides, or alcohols versus most hydrocarbons or controls. However, attraction by mosquitoes in an olfactometer was not inhibited by either lemon peel exudate or most of the compounds we tested. Our results support the notion that anointing by vertebrates with citrus-derived chemicals deters ticks. We suggest that some topically applied compounds are converted into more potent arthropod deterrents when oxidized on the integument of anointed animals. PMID:21409496

Weldon, Paul J; Carroll, John F; Kramer, Matthew; Bedoukian, Robert H; Coleman, Russell E; Bernier, Ulrich R

2011-04-01

89

Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities  

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Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 compared to 269 ?g Gum Xanthan eq l?1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities were increased by factor 1.64 and 2.25, respectively, in the medium and high compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that Nodularia spumigena can grow faster under elevated pCO2 by enhancing the recycling of organic matter to acquire nutrients.

M. Nausch

2012-04-01

90

Structural and functional properties of a phospholipase A2 purified from an inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cell-free supernatant of sterile inflammatory peritoneal exudates contains a phospholipase A2 that participates in the digestion of Escherichia coli killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes or by the purified bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) of these cells. This phospholipase A2 has been purified, and the sequence of the NH2-terminal 39 amino acids has been determined and compared with sequences of both BPI-responsive and BPI-nonresponsive phospholipases A2 from snake venoms and mammalian pancreas. The high concentration and location of basic residues in the NH2-terminal region is a common feature of BPI-responsive phospholipases A2 and may characterize those phospholipases A2 participating in inflammatory events. PMID:3548813

Forst, S; Weiss, J; Elsbach, P; Maraganore, J M; Reardon, I; Heinrikson, R L

1986-12-30

91

A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants  

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Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

Cindy Bongard

2012-08-01

92

Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp  

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Full Text Available In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated with the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90. Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM.

M. Giacomini

2011-10-01

93

Data collection and advanced statistical analysis in phytotoxic activity of aerial parts exudates of Salvia spp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In order to define the phytotoxic potential of Salvia species a database was developed for fast and efficient data collection in screening studies of the inhibitory activity of Salvia exudates on the germination of Papaver rhoeas L. and Avena sativa L.. The structure of the database is associated wi [...] th the use of algorithms for calculating the usual germination indices reported in the literature, plus the newly defined indices (Weighted Average Damage, Differential Weighted Average Damage, Germination Weighted Average Velocity) and other variables usually recorded in experiments of phytotoxicity (LC50, LC90). Furthermore, other algorithms were designed to calculate the one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test to highlight automatically significant differences between the species. The database model was designed in order to be suitable also for the development of further analysis based on the artificial neural network approach, using Self-Organising Maps (SOM).

M., Giacomini; A., Bisio; E., Giacomelli; S., Pivetti; S., Bertolini; D., Fraternale; D., Ricci; G., Romussi; N., De Tommasi.

94

Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods: Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results: Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD) logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50) preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38) in the first postoperative week (P < 0.001), to - 0.64 (0.40) in the first postoperative month (P < 0.001), and to - 0.62 (0.42) (P < 0.001) on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 – 9 months). Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD) logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79) preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53) in the first postoperative week (P < 0.001), to - 0.86 (0.45) in the first postoperative month (P < 0.001), and to - 0.90 (0.47) (P < 0.001) on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 – 49 months). Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion: The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month. PMID:21713234

Mansour, Ahmad; Bashshur, Ziad F.; Sibai, Tarek A.; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Hamam, Rola N.

2011-01-01

95

Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy  

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Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

Mansour Ahmad

2011-01-01

96

Isolation and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from an inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sterile peritoneal exudates produced in rabbits injected with 1% glycogen contain a phospholipase A activity in a cell-free supernatant fraction that hydrolyzed a synthetic phospholipid (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine) and phospholipids of autoclaved Escherichia coli. This phospholipase activity (phosphatidylacylhydrolase EC 3.1.1.4) exhibited an apparent bimodal pH optimum (pH 6.0 and pH 7.5) and was Ca(2+)-dependent; Mg(2+) and monovalent cations (Na(+) and K(+)) did not substitute for Ca(2+) in the reaction; EDTA was a potent inhibitor. The phospholipase hydrolyzed 1-[1-(14)C]palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine to form only radio-active lysophosphatidylethanolamine as the product, indicating that the enzyme had phospholipase A(2) specificity. The phospholipase A(2) was purified 302-fold by two successive chromatographic steps on carboxymethyl Sephadex. Gel filtration (Sephadex G75) of the purified enzyme resulted in a single peak of biological activity with a molecular weight of approximately 14,800. The same estimate of molecular weight was obtained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which yielded a single band. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this fraction at pH 4.3 revealed a single protein band migrating beyond lysozyme, with the dye front, suggesting that this protein was more basic than lysozyme (pI 10.5). The enzymatic and physical-chemical characteristics of this soluble enzyme were remarkably similar to a recently described phospholipase A(2) of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes derived from glycogen-induced peritoneal exudates. The possible origin and physiological role of this soluble enzyme are discussed. PMID:23403

Franson, R; Dobrow, R; Weiss, J; Elsbach, P; Weglicki, W B

1978-01-01

97

Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility and bioavailability of biosolid-borne metals in soils. (author)

98

Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

2014-01-01

99

Exudative pleural diseases in small animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudative pleural diseases are a common cause of respiratory distress and systemic illness in dogs and cats. This article addresses the pathophysiology, development, and classification of exudative pleural effusions. The most current diagnostic strategies, causes, imaging findings, and medical or surgical treatment options for select diseases are reviewed in detail. PMID:24268340

Epstein, Steven E

2014-01-01

100

Isolation and identification of male medfly attractive components inLitchi chinensis stems andFicus spp. stem exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male Mediterranean fruit flies [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), (Diptera: Tephritidae)] to a stem extract of a host plant,Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae), and to milky exudates from stems of nonhost plants,Ficus retusa L. andF. benjamina L. (Moraceae), were attributed to the presence of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene. The presence of ?-copaene in the milky exudate from stems ofF. benghalensis L. is also suggested as eliciting similar behavioral responses in male medflies. The presence of minor quantities of ?-ylangene in the plants and its contributory effects to the behavioral response of male medflies is discussed. Short-range attraction/feeding stimulation of male medflies to equal amounts of ?-ylangene-free ?-copaene samples (94.5%+), prepared from ?-copaene-enriched angelica seed oil and copaiba oil, respectively, showed no difference in intensity of response. ?-Ylangene elicited a slightly less intense response for male medflies than ?-copaene. PMID:24272193

Warthen, J D; McInnis, D O

1989-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To describe 1-year clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD and to evaluate whether early treatment is a predictive value for prognosis of the disease.Materials and methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 104 eyes that underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for exudative AMD. Patients were divided into two groups according to their symptom duration: group 1, <1 month; and group 2, 1–3 months. After three monthly injections, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed.Results: There were 43 female (48.9% and 45 males (51.1%. The follow-up time was 13.7±1.9 (12–19 months. The mean logarithm of minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved significantly, from 0.45±0.639 at baseline to 0.08±0.267 at 12 months in group 1, and from 1.06±0.687 at baseline to 0.75±0.563 at 12 months in group 2. The increase in BCVA was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.009. The mean central retinal thickness (CRT decreased significantly, from 355.13±119.93 µm at baseline to 250.85±45.48 µm at 12 months in group 1, and from 371.88±91.047 µm at baseline to 268.61±53.51 µm at 12 months in group 2. The decrease in CRT was statistically significant in group 1 (P=0.001.Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy was effective in significantly increasing mean BVCA and reducing CRT. Shorter duration of AMD, as measured by the subjective duration of visual symptoms, is associated with better visual outcome after treatment.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, optical coherence tomography (OCT, ranibizumab, visual acuity

Canan H

2014-01-01

102

Zinc chemical forms and organic acid exudation in non-heading Chinese cabbages under zinc stress  

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Full Text Available As an essential element, zinc also is a heavy metal. Non-heading Chinese cabbage showed obvious tolerance to Zn stress in former research. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Zn adaptability and detoxification, two genotypes Suzhouqing and Aijiaohuang were selected to investigate the chemical forms of Zn and root exudation. Zinc stress obvious strained the plant growth, and Aijiaohuang was more injured than Suhouqing under Zn stress. Under normal Zn levels, the chemical forms of Zn were diverse in three organs between genotypes. Results showed extractions of 2% HAc, 80% ethanol and 1 M NaCl were separately dominant in roots, petioles and leaves. However, under Zn stress (13 mg·L–1 and 52 mg·L–1 most of the Zn was extracted by 1M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Zn was extracted by 80% ethanol. In the control only four types of organic acid could be detected. While under Zn stress, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and amber acid were all detected, so it could be speculated Zn detoxification with organic ligands or integrated with pectates and proteins in cells might be responsible for the adaptation of Zn stress in Chinese cabbage.

Xiumin Cui

2012-07-01

103

Protein profile of Lupinus texensis phloem sap exudates: searching for Fe- and Zn-containing proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive overview of the phloem sap protein profile of Lupinus texensis, with a special focus on proteins binding Fe and Zn. L. texensis was chosen as model plant given the simplicity to obtain exudates from sieve elements. Protein profiling by 2DE revealed 249 spots, and 54 of them were unambiguously identified by MALDI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The largest number of identified protein species belongs to protein modification/turnover and general metabolism (19-21%), followed by redox homeostasis (9%) and defense and cell structural components (7%). This protein profile is similar to that reported in other plant species, suggesting that the phloem sap proteome is quite conserved. Staining of 2DE gels for Fe-containing proteins and affinity chromatography experiments revealed the presence of two low molecular weight Fe-binding proteins in phloem sap: a metallothionein-like protein type 2B identified in the Fe-affinity chromatography, and a second protein identified with both Fe staining methods. This protein species had a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, a pI of 5.6 and 51% homology to a phloem-specific protein from Medicago truncatula. Zinc affinity chromatography revealed four Zn-binding proteins in phloem sap, one belonging to the dehydrin family and three Zn finger proteins. PMID:23712964

Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Andaluz, Sofía; Matros, Andrea; Calvete, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor

2013-08-01

104

Automated detection of exudates and macula for grading of diabetic macular edema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical systems based on state of the art image processing and pattern recognition techniques are very common now a day. These systems are of prime interest to provide basic health care facilities to patients and support to doctors. Diabetic macular edema is one of the retinal abnormalities in which diabetic patient suffers from severe vision loss due to affected macula. It affects the central vision of the person and causes total blindness in severe cases. In this article, we propose an intelligent system for detection and grading of macular edema to assist the ophthalmologists in early and automated detection of the disease. The proposed system consists of a novel method for accurate detection of macula using a detailed feature set and Gaussian mixtures model based classifier. We also present a new hybrid classifier as an ensemble of Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine for improved exudate detection even in the presence of other bright lesions which eventually leads to reliable classification of input retinal image in different stages of macular edema. The statistical analysis and comparative evaluation of proposed system with existing methods are performed on publicly available standard retinal image databases. The proposed system has achieved average value of 97.3%, 95.9% and 96.8% for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy respectively on both databases. PMID:24548898

Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khan, Shoab A; Javed, M Younus

2014-04-01

105

Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates was investigated in this study. The total carbohydrate and protein content were found to be 73.72±2.44% and 2.33±1.25%, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharide composition by HPLC-RI system after acid hydrolysis of the gum showed the presence of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose. The molecular weight of the gum was also found to be 5.55×10(5)Da. FTIR and DSC studies showed characteristics typical of a natural polysaccharide. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow and the gum was also found to show pH dependent swelling. Determination of the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate the gum possess fairly good powder flow property. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining DPPH and hydroxyl scavenging activities, reducing power and total phenolic contents which showed the gum possess antioxidant property. PMID:24875319

Malsawmtluangi, C; Thanzami, K; Lalhlenmawia, H; Selvan, Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

2014-08-01

106

Rheological Modeling, Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Characterization of Raphia hookeri (RH Gum Exudate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Raphia hookeri (RH gum exudate has been analysed for physical (colour, odour, taste, pH, salinity, turbidity, chemical (solubility in some solvents, proximate/elemental composition, vitamin composition, phytochemicals and anti-nutrients and spectroscopic (wavelength of maximum absorption, GCMS, FTIR and SEM properties. The results obtained from the study revealed that RH gum has the potentials for utilization as an emulsifier, food additives and as pharmaceutical excipient. Rheological modeling on the gum revealed that the average intrinsic value of the gum, (deduced from Huggins, Kraemer, Tanglerpaibul and Rao models is approximately 3.0 dl/g. The calculated values of Huggins and Kraemer constants revealed the existence of molecular association in the gum. The gum is found to possess unique rheological properties including absent of degradation/conformational changes, existent of intra and inter molecular interactions, adoption of random coil model and absent of coil overlap transition. RH gum is a shear thinning, non- Newtonian gum with pseudo-plastic behavior. The calculated thermodynamic parameters were comparable to those reported for some food gums.

Nnabuk Okon EDDY

2015-02-01

107

The past, present, and future of exudative age-related macular degeneration treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular "destructive treatments," such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitreal injections that also carry the inherit risks of infection, retinal tears, and detachment. Several new and more potent VEGF inhibitors are at different stages of development. The goal of evolving pharmacotherapy is to preserve the therapeutic effect while reducing or eliminating the discomfort of intravitreal drug delivery, as well as identify new therapeutic targets. Complement inhibitors, immunomodulators, integrin inhibitors are a few of the new class of drugs that are expected to be in our armamentarium soon. Current medications act to decrease leakage through abnormal subretinal choroidal vasculature and promote involution. However, these medications are only effective in treating the active stage of the choroidal neovascular membrane. Restoration of vision of a large number of patients with involuted choroidal neovascular membranes is warranted. For this purpose, tissue engineering techniques have been employed to reconstruct the subretinal anatomy. Discovery of biomarkers, pharmacogenetics, and very specific targeting holds the promise of increased potency and safety in the future. PMID:22346114

Barak, Yoreh; Heroman, Wesley J; Tezel, Tongalp H

2012-01-01

108

Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species of Astragalus, and this variation led to interesting differences in functional properties. Rheological measurements performed on dispersions of the six species of gum tragacanth demonstrated viscoelastic properties. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the different gum tragacanth dispersions had distinctive viscoelastic behaviours. Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of the different gum dispersions in the presence of NaCl revealed that the addition of NaCl could lead to slight to drastic decreases in the G?, G? or ?? values of the various gums. In general, the results indicated that the six varieties of gum tragacanth studied exhibited significantly different rheological properties; therefore, these different gums may find use in a variety of applications as stabilisers, thickeners, emulsifiers and suspending agents depending on their rheological behaviour.

Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan

2011-01-01

109

Influence of Cooling on the Glycolysis Rate and Development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) Meat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate pH values fall rate in chicken breast meat under commercial refrigeration processing conditions and the development of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat. Broiler breast samples from the Cobb breed, both genders, at 47 days of age (n = 100) were taken from refriger [...] ated carcasses (RS) immersed in water and ice in a tank chilled at 0°C (±2). pH and temperature (T) values were recorded at several periods throughout refrigeration in comparison to samples left at room T as control (CS). The ultimate pH (pHu) value of 5.86 for RS carcasses were only reached at 11°C after 8.35 h post mortem (PM) while, for CS samples, pHu value was 5.94 at 22°C after 4.08 h PM. Thus, under commercial refrigeration conditions, the glycolysis rate was retarded by over 4.0 h PM and the breast meat color was affected. At 24.02 h PM, PSE meat incidence was 30% while for CS, meat remained dark and PSE meat was not detected. Results show retardation in the glycolysis rate and PSE meat development was promoted by the refrigeration treatment when compared with samples stored at processing room temperature.

Mayka Reghiany, Pedrão; Talita, Kato; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Fábio Augusto Garcia, Coró; Moises, Grespan; Fernanda, Paião; Massami, Shimokomaki.

110

Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at ? 101.6, ? 75.5, ? 73.9, ? 72.5, and ? 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1?4)-linked ?-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration. PMID:24702919

Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

2014-07-17

111

Early detection and identification of amphizoic amoebae from nasal exudates of a symptomatic case.  

Science.gov (United States)

A man visited the Out Patient Department of the hospital for Tropical Diseases in February 2004 with low grade fever and severe headache for a week. He had the history of diving in a natural pond 2-3 days before the onset of the disease. A thick bloody mucous was observed from the nasal discharge. Fresh microscopic observation of the exudates in 0.85% sodium chloride revealed numerous active amoeba trophozoites. Two groups of the trophozoites were observed The first group was 10 micro sized amoeba with active directional movement by lobopodia and the second group was 15-30 micro sized amoeba with active multiprogressive movement by filopodia. Few flagellate forms were observed after exflagellation in distilled water and some polygonal cysts were also found. Giemsa' stain was used to differentiate the amoeba trophozoites from the leukocytes. It was concluded that this patient was infected by both Naegleria spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. This is the first report of double infection of free-living amoeba in a symptomatic and non-fatal patient. PMID:16146264

Siripanth, Chutatip; Punpoowong, Benjanee; Riganti, Mario

2005-04-01

112

Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused our study on identifying the bacteria capable of rice root exudate assimilation on anodes of planted SMFCs. Using stable isotope probing (SIP) with {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} combined with high throughput sequencing, we detected that labeled bacteria belonged to {beta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae indicating their relevance in root exudate degradation. The main current producing bacteria, belonging to {delta}-proteobacteria were not able to assimilate root exudates. A microbial ''food chain'' combining activities of anode reducing bacteria with root exudate degrading bacteria is necessary for current production. However, we cannot dismiss the possibility that some bacteria might be able to directly use root exudates for current production. In the last part, we found that by submerging an anode into rice field soil up to 50% methane emission was reduced compared with open circuit controls. This mitigation could not only be explained by competition for common electron donors like acetate. We suggest that the anode, even in non-current controls, can be used as electron acceptor capturing electrons and transferring them from one part of the sediment to a spatially distant one, communicating biogeochemical processes occurring in different parts of the sediment. Our work is a first approach in understanding the microbial diversity on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudation and their potential as methane emission mitigation strategy. (orig.)

Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

2010-11-26

113

Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein. PMID:19735229

Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

2010-10-01

114

The Diagnostic Values of Protein to Lactate Dehyrogenase Ratio in Serum and Pleural Fluid in Exudate Pleural Effusions  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Different etiologies of pleural effusion are diagnosed based on serum and plural fluid characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the serum and pleural fluid protein to lactate dehyrogenase (Pr/LDH ratio in exudative pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients with exudative pleural effusion including: 20 cases with parapneumonic , 20 cases with Tuberculosis (TB, and 20 cases with malignancy. The serum and pleural Pr/LDH were measured and compared among 3 groups. Result: The mean age of the patients was 55±19SD (years and male to female ratio was 36/24. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age of the patients among 3 groups (p=0.08. There were statistically significant differences in serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios among groups ( p=0.04 and p= 0.1, respectively. Additionally the comparisons of serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios between malignancy and tuberculosis groups were significant ( p=0.02 and p=0.001 , respectively. The serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratios were higher in TB group. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that serum and pleural Pr./LDH ratio can be used in differentiating the etiology of exudative pleural effusion, but needs to be confirmed by larger study.

2013-07-01

115

Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer. PMID:18661243

Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

2008-01-01

116

Influence of light, temperature and salinity on dissolved organic carbon exudation rates in Zostera marina L.  

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Abstract Background Marine angiosperms, seagrasses, are sentinel species of marine ecosystem health and function. Seagrass carbon budgets provide insight on the minimum requirements needed to maintain this valuable resource. Carbon budgets are a balance between C fixation, growth, storage and loss rates, most of which are well characterized. However, relatively few measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaf exudation or rhizodeposition rates exist for most seagrass s...

Kaldy James

2012-01-01

117

Pleural effusion lipoproteins measured by NMR spectroscopy for diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions: a novel tool for pore-size estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of biofluids has been increasingly used in laboratory diagnosis of various diseases. In this study, we extended the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions using pleural fluids. We compared this new NMR-based test with Light's criteria, the current gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of exudative pleural effusions. We analyzed 67 samples of pleural effusions from patients with pulmonary malignancy (N = 32), pulmonary tuberculosis (N = 18), and congestive heart failure (N = 17). The metabolomes of pleural effusions were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy on a Bruker 600 MHz spectrometer. Through a metabolome-wide association approach with filtering of insignificant markers (p value area-under-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 with sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 88%, and accuracy of 98%. In contrast, the current gold standard, Light's criteria, give a specificity of only 65% at the same sensitivity level of 98%. Using the principle of size exclusion, NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids has an unprecedented diagnostic performance superiority over the Light's criteria. The capillary leaks secondary to inflammation result in a larger pleural pore-size, which allows the large-sized lipoproteins to accumulate in exudative pleural effusions. In contrast, the pleural permeability is intact in transudates, which allow only small-sized lipoproteins to pass into the pleural effusions. The average capillary pore-size of the pleura can therefore be determined by using NMR-based lipoprotein profiling of pleural fluids. We believe this new test will change the current clinical practice for management of pleural effusions and will become a new standard for clinical practice. PMID:25072840

Lam, Ching-Wan; Law, Chun-Yiu

2014-09-01

118

Modulation of rosR Expression and Exopolysaccharide Production in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii by Phosphate and Clover Root Exudates  

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Full Text Available The acidic exopolysaccharide (EPS secreted in large amounts by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is required for the establishment of an effective symbiosis with the host plant Trifolium spp. EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia is a very complex process regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and influenced by various nutritional and environmental conditions. The R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with a C2H2 type zinc-finger motif involved in positive regulation of EPS synthesis. In silico sequence analysis of the 450-bp long rosR upstream region revealed the presence of several inverted repeats (IR1 to IR6 and motifs with significant identity to consensus sequences recognized by PhoB and LysR-type proteins associated with phosphate- and flavonoid-dependent gene regulation in R. leguminosarum. Using a set of sequentially truncated rosR-lacZ transcriptional fusions, the role of the individual motifs and the effect of phosphate and clover root exudates on rosR expression were established. In addition, the significance of IR4 inverted repeats in the repression, and P2–10 hexamer in the activation of rosR transcription, respectively, was found. The expression of rosR increased in the presence of phosphate (0.1–20 mM and clover root exudates (10 ?M. PHO boxes and the LysR motif located upstream of the rosR translation start site were engaged in the regulation of rosR transcription. The synthesis of EPS and biofilm formation decreased at high phosphate concentrations, but increased in the presence of clover root exudates, indicating a complex regulation of these processes.

Anna Skorupska

2011-06-01

119

Developmental Physiology of Cluster-Root Carboxylate Synthesis and Exudation in Harsh Hakea. Expression of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and the Alternative Oxidase1  

Science.gov (United States)

Harsh hakea (Hakea prostrata R.Br.) is a member of the Proteaceae family, which is highly represented on the extremely nutrient-impoverished soils in southwest Australia. When phosphorus is limiting, harsh hakea develops proteoid or cluster roots that release carboxylates that mobilize sparingly soluble phosphate in the rhizosphere. To investigate the physiology underlying the synthesis and exudation of carboxylates from cluster roots in Proteaceae, we measured O2 consumption, CO2 release, internal carboxylate concentrations and carboxylate exudation, and the abundance of the enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and alternative oxidase (AOX) over a 3-week time course of cluster-root development. Peak rates of citrate and malate exudation were observed from 12- to 13-d-old cluster roots, preceded by a reduction in cluster-root total protein levels and a reduced rate of O2 consumption. In harsh hakea, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expression was relatively constant in cluster roots, regardless of developmental stage. During cluster-root maturation, however, the expression of AOX protein increased prior to the time when citrate and malate exudation peaked. This increase in AOX protein levels is presumably needed to allow a greater flow of electrons through the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the absence of rapid ATP turnover. Citrate and isocitrate synthesis and accumulation contributed in a major way to the subsequent burst of citrate and malate exudation. Phosphorus accumulated by harsh hakea cluster roots was remobilized during senescence as part of their efficient P cycling strategy for growth on nutrient impoverished soils. PMID:15122030

Shane, Michael W.; Cramer, Michael D.; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Millar, A. Harvey; Day, David A.; Lambers, Hans

2004-01-01

120

Developmental physiology of cluster-root carboxylate synthesis and exudation in harsh hakea. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and the alternative oxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harsh hakea (Hakea prostrata R.Br.) is a member of the Proteaceae family, which is highly represented on the extremely nutrient-impoverished soils in southwest Australia. When phosphorus is limiting, harsh hakea develops proteoid or cluster roots that release carboxylates that mobilize sparingly soluble phosphate in the rhizosphere. To investigate the physiology underlying the synthesis and exudation of carboxylates from cluster roots in Proteaceae, we measured O2 consumption, CO2 release, internal carboxylate concentrations and carboxylate exudation, and the abundance of the enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and alternative oxidase (AOX) over a 3-week time course of cluster-root development. Peak rates of citrate and malate exudation were observed from 12- to 13-d-old cluster roots, preceded by a reduction in cluster-root total protein levels and a reduced rate of O2 consumption. In harsh hakea, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase expression was relatively constant in cluster roots, regardless of developmental stage. During cluster-root maturation, however, the expression of AOX protein increased prior to the time when citrate and malate exudation peaked. This increase in AOX protein levels is presumably needed to allow a greater flow of electrons through the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the absence of rapid ATP turnover. Citrate and isocitrate synthesis and accumulation contributed in a major way to the subsequent burst of citrate and malate exudation. Phosphorus accumulated by harsh hakea cluster roots was remobilized during senescence as part of their efficient P cycling strategy for growth on nutrient impoverished soils. PMID:15122030

Shane, Michael W; Cramer, Michael D; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Cawthray, Gregory R; Millar, A Harvey; Day, David A; Lambers, Hans

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin were investigated using [125I] bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E1-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ?g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ?g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E1-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E1 in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems

122

The role of polysaccharides and diatom exudates in the redox cycling of Fe and the photoproduction of hydrogen peroxide in coastal seawaters  

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Full Text Available The effect of artificial acidic polysaccharides (PS and exudates of Phaeodactylum tricornutum on the half-life of Fe(II in seawater was investigated in laboratory experiments. Strong photochemical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production of 5.2 to 10.9 nM (mg C?1 h?1 was found in the presence of PS and diatom exudates. Furthermore when illuminated with UV light the presence of algal exudates had a net stabilising effect on ferrous iron in seawater (initial value 100 nmol L?1 above that expected from oxidation kinetics. In the dark the PS gum xanthan showed no stabilising effect on Fe(II. The photochemical formation of superoxide (O2? in the presence of diatom exudates and its reducing effect on Fe(III appears to result in greater than expected concentrations of Fe(II. A model of the photochemical redox cycle of iron incorporating these processes supported the observed data well. Diatom exudates seem to have the potential to play an important role for the photochemistry of iron in coastal waters.

S. Steigenberger

2010-01-01

123

The effect of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork on the sensory quality characteristics of low fat bacon  

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This research focused on studying the sensory quality of low fat bacon when pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork is used during processing. Low fat bacon is different from normal bacon in that the amount of visible fat in low fat bacon has been reduced. This is as a result of consumer interest in weight control and cholesterol, creating a demand for meat and meat products with reduced fat levels. PSE pork is a condition in which certain muscles are very pale, soft and watery. It is produced wh...

Mokwena, Moshadiwa Germina

2005-01-01

124

The effect of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork on the sensory quality characteristics of low fat bacon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focused on studying the sensory quality of low fat bacon when pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork is used during processing. Low fat bacon is different from normal bacon in that the amount of visible fat in low fat bacon has been reduced. This is as a result of consumer interest in weight control and cholesterol, creating a demand for meat and meat products with reduced fat levels. PSE pork is a condition in which certain muscles are very pale, soft and watery. It is produced wh...

Mokwena, Moshadiwa Germina

2003-01-01

125

Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.  

Science.gov (United States)

An animal model has been used to investigate the immunogenicity and non-specific irritant properties of exudate gums. The materials studied were four preparations of gum arabic (Acacia spp.), two of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.), two of gum tragacanth (Astralagus spp.) and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic. Groups of animals were intradermally immunized with the gum in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody levels were measured by an ELISA technique and delayed hypersensitivity responses by a footpad swelling test. Antigenic cross-reactivity within each gum species was tested in a crossover fashion. All gum preparations elicited systemic immune responses after immunization. Further processing reduced immunogenicity, although there was no evidence that systemic immunity to these complex polysaccharide antigens responses could be completely abolished by processing or purification. The ethanolic extract, and some of the gum preparations, particularly tragacanth and karaya, caused considerable footpad swelling when injected intradermally. It is concluded that processing and awareness of subspecies differences can reduce the inherent immunogenicity and potential irritant effects of exudate gums. PMID:3956793

Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

1986-01-01

126

Automated detection of circinate exudates in retina digital images using empirical mode decomposition and the entropy and uniformity of the intrinsic mode functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a new automated system to detect circinate exudates in retina digital images. It operates as follows: the true color image is converted to gray levels, and contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is applied to it before undergoing empirical mode decomposition (EMD) as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The entropies and uniformities of the first two IMFs are then computed to form a feature vector that is fed to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The experimental results using a set of 45 images (23 normal images and 22 images with circinate exudates taken from the STARE database) and tenfold cross-validation indicate that the proposed approach outperforms previous works found in the literature, with perfect classification. In addition, the image processing time was <4 min, making the presented circinate exudate detection system fit for use in a clinical environment. PMID:24615482

Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

2014-08-01

127

Pleural effusion: diagnosis, treatment, and management  

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Full Text Available Vinaya S Karkhanis, Jyotsna M JoshiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, TN Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: A pleural effusion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. It can pose a diagnostic dilemma to the treating physician because it may be related to disorders of the lung or pleura, or to a systemic disorder. Patients most commonly present with dyspnea, initially on exertion, predominantly dry cough, and pleuritic chest pain. To treat pleural effusion appropriately, it is important to determine its etiology. However, the etiology of pleural effusion remains unclear in nearly 20% of cases. Thoracocentesis should be performed for new and unexplained pleural effusions. Laboratory testing helps to distinguish pleural fluid transudate from an exudate. The diagnostic evaluation of pleural effusion includes chemical and microbiological studies, as well as cytological analysis, which can provide further information about the etiology of the disease process. Immunohistochemistry provides increased diagnostic accuracy. Transudative effusions are usually managed by treating the underlying medical disorder. However, a large, refractory pleural effusion, whether a transudate or exudate, must be drained to provide symptomatic relief. Management of exudative effusion depends on the underlying etiology of the effusion. Malignant effusions are usually drained to palliate symptoms and may require pleurodesis to prevent recurrence. Pleural biopsy is recommended for evaluation and exclusion of various etiologies, such as tuberculosis or malignant disease. Percutaneous closed pleural biopsy is easiest to perform, the least expensive, with minimal complications, and should be used routinely. Empyemas need to be treated with appropriate antibiotics and intercostal drainage. Surgery may be needed in selected cases where drainage procedure fails to produce improvement or to restore lung function and for closure of bronchopleural fistula.Keywords: thoracocentesis, biopsy, thoracoscopy, decortication

Karkhanis VS

2012-06-01

128

Microbial processes and community composition in the rhizosphere of European beech - The influence of plant C exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant roots strongly influence C and N availability in the rhizosphere via rhizodeposition and uptake of nutrients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of resource availability on microbial processes and community structure in the rhizosphere. We analyzed C and N availability, as well as microbial processes and microbial community composition in rhizosphere soil of European beech and compared it to the bulk soil. Additionally, we performed a girdling experiment in order to disrupt root exudation into the soil. By this novel approach we were able to demonstrate that enhanced resource availability positively affected N mineralization and hydrolytic enzyme activities in the rhizosphere, but negatively affected nitrification rates and oxidative enzyme activities, which are involved in the degradation of soil organic matter. Both rhizosphere effects on N mineralization and oxidative enzyme activities disappeared in the girdling treatment. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere, assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, differed only slightly from bulk soil but was markedly altered by the girdling treatment, indicating additional effects of the girdling treatment beyond the reduction of root exudation. Differences in oxidative enzyme activities and nitrification rates between rhizosphere soil and bulk soil, however, suggest considerable differences in the (functional) microbial community composition. PMID:21412402

Koranda, Marianne; Schnecker, Jörg; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Stange, Claus Florian; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

2011-03-01

129

The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

130

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substratess as primary substrates

131

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

2005-08-15

132

A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis  

CERN Document Server

We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

Ceseri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

133

Inhibition and stimulation effects in communities of wood decay fungi: exudates from colonized wood influence growth by other species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of exudates from uncolonized and from partly decayed beech wood on the extension rates of 16 later stage decay fungi were investigated. The partly decayed wood had been colonized by the pyrenomycete Eutypa spinosa, or the basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, and Trametes versicolor, all known as common early decay agents in European beech forests. Sterilized wood pieces were placed onto 0.5% malt agar, opposite to small agar plugs containing the test fungi. The latter showed very variable and species-specific growth responses to the various wood types. The presence of uncolonized wood stimulated extension rates in many species, whereas the four previously decayed wood types had variable stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Wood decayed by S. hirsutum resulted in reduced extension rate, delayed growth, or total inhibition in the majority of species, thus it is suggested that this species uses secondary metabolites in a defensive strategy. A single species was, however, stimulated in the presence of S. hirsutum-decayed wood. In contrast, the presence of wood decayed by F. fomentarius was stimulatory to 45% of the species. The other previously decayed wood types generally resulted in more variable responses, depending upon species. The results are discussed in an ecological context and it is suggested that the exudates from the partly decayed wood that are responsible for the reported effects may function as infochemicals, structuring microbial communities in wood. PMID:16003479

Heilmann-Clausen, J; Boddy, L

2005-04-01

134

Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.  

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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

2014-01-01

135

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a four-period, cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to calves, alone and in combination with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA). Both drugs were administered intramuscularly (IM) at doses of 2 mg/kg. A tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the actions of the mild irritant carrageenan, was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were 15.1 ?g·h/mL for serum, 12.1 ?g·h/mL for inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and 9.6 ?g·h/mL for noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). Values of C(max) were 1.84, 0.35 and 0.31 ?g/mL, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. Mean residence time (MRT) of 23.6 h (exudate) and 22.6 h (transudate) also differed significantly from serum MRT (8.6 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB was investigated using a bovine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Time-kill curves were established ex vivo on serum, exudate and transudate samples. Modelling the ex vivo serum time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24 h) /MIC values required for bacteriostatic (18.3 h) and bactericidal actions (92 h) of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism was 139 h. Corresponding values for MB + TA were 20.1, 69 and 106 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules for a bactericidal action, assuming a MIC(90) value of 0.24 ?g/mL, a dose of 2.6 mg/kg for MB and 2.19 mg/kg for MB + TA were determined, which are similar to the currently recommended dose of 2.0 mg/kg. PMID:21091727

Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, M H S; Toutain, P L; Lees, P

2011-08-01

136

Evaluation of pleural and pericardial effusions by magnetic resonance imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR examinations of 36 patients with pleural and/or pericardial effusions were retrospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine of MR imaging is capable of differentiating between pleural and pericardial effusions of different compositions using standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and nongated spin echo pulse sequences. Additional data was obtained from experimental pleural effusions in 10 dogs. The results of this study indicate that old haemorhages into the pleural or pericardial space can be differentiated from other pleural or pericardial effusions. However, further differentiation between transudates, exudates and sanguinous effusions is not possible on MR images acquired with standard spin echo pulse sequences. (orig./MG)

137

The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.  

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The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens. PMID:23332028

Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

2013-03-01

138

Pleural effusion following ventriculo-pleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients? demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience.

Kupeli Elif

2010-01-01

139

Pleural effusion following ventriculopleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature.  

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Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS) is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients' demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience. PMID:20835312

Küpeli, Elif; Yilmaz, Cem; Akçay, Sule

2010-07-01

140

Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59 resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated with the presence of a 4.4 kb plasmid in 17 strains studied. Resistance to penicillin, observed in 44 strains, and resistance to kanamycin, observed in 15 strains, could not be related to plasmids in any of these strains. The 11.5 kb plasmid was observed in 39% of the strains isolated from piglets with EE, and in 7% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A Comparative Study on the Organic Acid Content and Exudation in Maize (Zea mays L. Seedlings under Conditions of Copper and Cadmium Stress  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on the comparative effects of copper and cadmium on the organic acid content and exudation in maize (Zea mays L.. We have also discussed the role of organic acids in copper and cadmium tolerance. The maize seedlings were grown in hydroponics for 8 days and then treated with 100 ?M copper or cadmium for 4 days. The copper reduced more than cadmium root fresh wt and shoot dry wt, while Cd had more decreasing effect on root dry wt. Analysis of organic acids in root exudates showed that citrate exudation was not affected by both metals, suggesting that root exudation was not involved in copper or cadmium tolerance in maize. This prompted us to investigate the role of organic acids in internal tolerance mechanism. Total organic acids were decreased in roots but remained unchanged in shoots of Cu and Cd-treated plants. However, malate content decreased substantially in roots by 68 and 53%, respectively with Cu and Cd. The marked increase in the content of citrate with both metals in roots, as well as in those of malate with Cu and citrate with Cd in shoots, underlined the main role of these organic acids in Cu and Cd tolerance in maize.

Radhouane Chaffai

2006-01-01

142

Evaluation of the chemical composition of Dacryodes edulis and Raphia hookeri Mann and Wendl exudates used in herbal medicine in south eastern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytochemical contents and medicinal values of Dacroydes edulis and Raphia hookeri exudates were investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant showed that they contain the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins (2.08-3.98 mg 100 g(-1)), alkaloids (0.28-0.49 mg 100 g(-1)), tannins (0.47-0.72 mg 100 g(-1)), flavonoids (0.26-0.39 mg 100 g(-1)), and phenolic compounds (0.01-0.05 mg 100 g(-1)). The carbohydrates, lipids and protein content were 77.42-78.90%, 2.02-4.185% and 16.63-18.38% respectively. The exudates are a good source of water soluble vitamins; ascorbic acid (7.04-26.40 mg 100 g(-1)), niacin (3.12-4.00 mg 100 g(-1)), riboflavin (0.14-0.54 mg 100 g(-1)) and thiamine (0.15-0.22 mg 100 g(-1)). Both plants exudates are good sources of minerals such as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn while Cr and Co were trace. These results indicate that exudates can be potential sources of feedstock for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20161937

Okwu, D E; Nnamdi, Fred U

2008-01-01

143

Pork loin two-toning and drip loss in relation to steak cross-section anatomical position, plasma and exudate glucose  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Perception of color and its relationship to water holding capacity are important for defining the yield and quality of the pork production process. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship among color measurements taken at various anatomical positions in the cross-sectional surface of [...] pork loin steak, and measurements of fluid exudation and its glucose concentration, as well as the impact on these attributes due to plasma glucose at slaughter. Two assays were conducted sequentially: i) investigation of the surface color parameters at different anatomical positions in the pork loin cross-section and their relationship to general exudation; and ii) the effect of plasma glucose levels on surface color variables, drip loss and glucose exudate concentration in three anatomical regions in the steak. The L* value of the ventro-lateral region, in the first assay, had the highest correlation with average steak drip loss at all anatomical points, exudation increasing proportionally between 48 and 72 h. The hue angle was also positively correlated with drip loss and lightness. The drip loss was greater when the animals had high plasma glucose, especially in the intermediate and lateral regions of the steak surface. The intermediate region presented greater lightness and lower redness. The plasma and glucose exudate concentrations, potential indicators of the muscle glycolytic metabolism, were related to color and drip loss. These variables can be influenced by the anatomical region inside the muscle, impacting the ability to retain water, two-toning occurrence and overall pork loin quality.

Patricia Maloso, Ramos; Eduardo Francisquine, Delgado.

2014-08-01

144

Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the uniformly negative results of a lung perfusion scan, Doppler ultrasound, and culture of bronchoalveolar lavage and plural effusion, and because our patient showed spontaneous improvement. Conclusions False positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause lung trauma presenting as pulmonary contusion and cavitation with plural effusion.

Nouri-Majalan Nader

2010-08-01

145

14CO2 labeling: a reliable technique for rapid measurement of total root exudation capacity and vascular sap flow in crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ability of roots to release organic compounds in its rhizosphere is known to improve plant available nutrients and reduces heavy metal toxicity by immobilization. It is regarded as an important determinant of micro nutrient deficiency tolerance in plants. Uptake of nutrients and translocation of photoassimilates, on the other hand are governed by the strength of the transpiration stream and sink demand respectively. Measurement of vascular sap flow, thus, is critical for understanding of the translocation efficiency and consequently the sink demand that keeps changing during the crop growth cycle. Measurement of the root exudation capacity and the vascular sap flow is cumbersome and time consuming. Since, the exudates released by the roots and the photosynthates translocated between the source and the sink are essentially carbon compounds, use of labeled carbon as tag could potentially be exploited for a rapid and reliable measurement of exudation and vascular sap flow in crop plants. We report here the experimental results involving 14C labeling of groundnut, a legume crop, as 14CO2 generated by acidification of sodium bicarbonate. An additional factor of seed gamma irradiation was used to generate variability in the root exudation and the sap flow. The 14C release by the roots was compared against the 14C transport in the vascular sap. An experimental hypothesis that a higher 14C level in the vascular sap would indicate a higher root release of carbon by the roots into the rhizosphere was verified. (author)

146

Deacylation of lipopolysaccharide in whole Escherichia coli during destruction by cellular and extracellular components of a rabbit peritoneal inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deacylation of purified lipopolysaccharides (LPS) markedly reduces its toxicity toward mammals. However, the biological significance of LPS deacylation during infection of the mammalian host is uncertain, particularly because the ability of acyloxyacyl hydrolase, the leukocyte enzyme that deacylates purified LPS, to attack LPS residing in the bacterial cell envelope has not been established. We recently showed that the cellular and extracellular components of a rabbit sterile inflammatory exudate are capable of extensive and selective removal of secondary acyl chains from purified LPS. We now report that LPS as a constituent of the bacterial envelope is also subject to deacylation in the same inflammatory setting. Using Escherichia coli LCD25, a strain that exclusively incorporates radiolabeled acetate into fatty acids, we quantitated LPS deacylation as the loss of radiolabeled secondary (laurate and myristate) and primary fatty acids (3-hydroxymyristate) from the LPS backbone. Isolated mononuclear cells and neutrophils removed 50% and 20-30%, respectively, of the secondary acyl chains of the LPS of ingested whole bacteria. When bacteria were killed extracellularly during incubation with ascitic fluid, no LPS deacylation occurred. In this setting, the addition of neutrophils had no effect, but addition of mononuclear cells resulted in removal of >40% of the secondary acyl chains by 20 h. Deacylation of LPS was always restricted to the secondary acyl chains. Thus, in an inflammatory exudate, primarily in mononuclear phagocytes, the LPS in whole bacteria undergoes substantial and selective acyloxyacyl hydrolase-like deacylation, both after phagocytosis of intact bacteria and after uptake of LPS shed from extracellularly killed bacteria. This study demonstrates for the first time that the destruction of Gram-negative bacteria by a mammalian host is not restricted to degradation of phospholipids, protein, and RNA, but also includes extensive deacylation of the envelope LPS. PMID:10593958

Katz, S S; Weinrauch, Y; Munford, R S; Elsbach, P; Weiss, J

1999-12-17

147

Association between Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration and the G6721T Polymorphism of XRCC7 in Outdoor Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To investigate whether the G6721T polymorphism (rs.7003908) of the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair XRCC7 gene contributes to the development of exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Methods The present case-control study consisted of 111 patients with exudative ARMD and 112 sex frequency-matched healthy controls that were randomly selected from unrelated volunteers in the same clinic. Genotypes were determined by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based method. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ARMD risk associated with polymorphism of XRCC7. In all analysis the GG genotype was considered to be the reference genotype. Results There was no significant association between genotypes of XRCC7 and susceptibility to ARMD. Considering the significant difference in age distribution between cases and controls, age was used as a covariate in further analysis. After ORs were adjusted for age, the same result was observed. In the next step we stratified our subjects into outdoor and indoor groups according to their job titles. The outdoor and indoor patients were occupationally exposed to sunlight and not exposed to sunlight, respectively. Our present study showed that among indoor subjects there was no association between XRCC7 polymorphism and susceptibility to ARMD. However, among outdoor subjects, the GT + TT genotypes compared to the GG genotype increased the risk of ARMD (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.04-9.39; p = 0.042). Conclusions Our study revealed that the T allele of the G6721T polymorphism of XRCC7 increased the risk of ARMD among outdoor subjects. PMID:23204796

Saadat, Iraj; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh; Farvardin-Jahromi, Majid

2012-01-01

148

Effects of genetically modified starch metabolism in potato plants on photosynthate fluxes into the rhizosphere and on microbial degraders of root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high percentage of photosynthetically assimilated carbon is released into soil via root exudates, which are acknowledged as the most important factor for the development of microbial rhizosphere communities. As quality and quantity of root exudates are dependent on plant genotype, the genetic engineering of plants might also influence carbon partitioning within the plant and thus microbial rhizosphere community structure. In this study, the carbon allocation patterns within the plant-rhizosphere system of a genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) were linked to microbial degraders of root exudates under greenhouse conditions, using (13)C-CO(2) pulse-chase labelling in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, GM plants were compared with the parental cultivar as well as a second potato cultivar obtained by classical breeding. Rhizosphere samples were obtained during young leaf developmental and flowering stages. (13)C allocation in aboveground plant biomass, water-extractable organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and PLFA as well as the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere varied significantly between the natural potato cultivars. However, no differences between the GM line and its parental cultivar were observed. Besides the considerable impact of plant cultivar, the plant developmental stage affected carbon partitioning via the plant into the rhizosphere and, subsequently, microbial communities involved in the transformation of root exudates. PMID:21348886

Gschwendtner, Silvia; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Reichmann, Michael; Müller, Martin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

2011-06-01

149

Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal aggregates having a fractal dimension D = 2.55. When this value was applied to historical TEP size spectra from a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway for dissolved organic carbon in coastal seas. The carbon to nitrogen ratio of TEP was measured from particles formed by bubbling exudates of the diatoms T. weissflogii, Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros neogracile and C. affinis. Each of these diatom species was grown under various N:P ratios, from N-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent from that of the cells.

1999-01-01

150

Optic disc neovascularization in dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy (DEVR) is inherited retinal vascular disorder which is characterized by peripheral retinal neovascularization, tractional retinal detachment, subretinal, exudation, and vitreous fibrosis. A milder form of involvement characterized by capillary nonperfusion and straightening of the retinal vessels may be present in asymptomatic individuals. We describe a 15-year-old patient who presented with optic disc neovascularization, a finding not previously reported in association with DEVR. Angiographic evidence of DEVR in successive generations confirmed the diagnosis. The findings in mild and advanced DEVR are reviewed, and the pathogenesis of the capillary nonperfusion is discussed. PMID:2483463

Barondes, M J; Hamilton, A M

1989-01-01

151

A Study and Comparison of Automated Techniques for Exudate Detection Using Digital Fundus Images of Human Eye: A Review for Early Identification of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exudates are a visible sign of diabetic retinopathy which is the major cause of blindness in patients with diabetes. If the exudates extend into the macular area, vision loss can occur. Automated early detection of the presence of exudates can assist ophthalmologists to prevent the spread of the disease more efficiently. Hence, detection of exudates is an important diagnostic task. Exudates are found using their high grey level variation. The detection of the optic disc is indispensable in th...

Ramaswamy, M.; Anitha, D.; Priya Kuppamal, S.; Sudha, R.; Fepslin Athish Mon, S.

2011-01-01

152

Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

Matsuo,Toshihiko

2006-06-01

153

Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author) these cereals. (author)

154

Management of exudative retinal detachment in choroidal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exudative retinal detachment is the most common source of visual loss associated with malignant melanoma of the uveal tract. Management has historically been conservative, leading to irreversible visual loss from photoreceptor damage during the several months needed for post-radiation resolution. The purpose of this paper is to describe timely vitreoretinal surgical intervention for exudative retinal detachments associated with choroidal melanomas. This was an interventional case series including six consecutive patients with malignant melanoma who experienced VA reduction secondary to associated exudative retinal detachment. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and B-scan ultrasound. Treatment included proton-beam radiation or brachytherapy, prognostic transretinal tumour biopsy with 25-gauge vitrector and surgical treatment of exudative retinal detachment, including vitrectomy and drainage of subretinal fluid at the time of irradiation. Successful management of exudative retinal detachments associated with choroidal melanomas was observed in all cases, with significant restoration of vision. Steady regression of tumour thickness was noted clinically and ultrasonographically, without extrascleral extension or metastasis, and with no recurrence of exudative retinal detachment found over follow up. In the present study, the investigators have showed effective surgical treatment of exudative retinal detachment associated with malignant melanoma. These patients had significant restoration of vision, confirming that timely intervention of exudative retinal detachment associated with malignant melanoma can reverse visual loss in these patients. These findings are in contrast to previous reports of irreversible visual loss after exudative retinal detachments, and suggest that photoreceptor atrophy might play a role in visual loss associated with chronic exudative retinal detachments. PMID:19788660

Gibran, Syed K; Kapoor, Kapil G

2009-09-01

155

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

156

Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com menor atividade de GSH-Px.

Adriana Lourenço Soares

2012-02-01

157

Comparison of logistic regression and neural network classifiers in the detection of hard exudates in retinal images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of visual impairment in industrialized countries. Automatic recognition of DR lesions in retinal images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of this disease. The aim of this study is to automatically detect one of these lesions: hard exudates (EXs). Based on their properties, we extracted a set of features from image regions and selected the subset that best discriminated between EXs and the retinal background using logistic regression (LR). The LR model obtained, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier and a radial basis function (RBF) classifier were subsequently used to obtain the final segmentation of EXs. Our database contained 130 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. Fifty of them were used to obtain the training examples. The remaining 80 images were used to test the performance of the method. The highest statistics were achieved for MLP or RBF. Using a lesion based criterion, our results reached a mean sensitivity of 95.9% (MLP) and a mean positive predictive value of 85.7% (RBF). With an image-based criterion, we achieved a 100% mean sensitivity, 87.5% mean specificity and 93.8% mean accuracy (MLP and RBF). PMID:24111079

Garcia, Maria; Valverde, Carmen; Lopez, Maria I; Poza, Jesus; Hornero, Roberto

2013-01-01

158

Effect of lidocaine- and prilocaine-based topical anesthetics on the inflammatory exudates in subcutaneous tissue of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this present study was to evaluate the irritative potential of 2 topical anesthetics used in intrapocket anesthesia for periodontal scaling/root planing when applied in subcutaneous tissue of rats. Sixty animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, saline solution (control); group 2, poloxamer gel (thermosetting vehicle); group 3, lidocaine and prilocaine poloxamer thermosetting gel; group 4: EMLA, a lidocaine and prilocaine dermatological cream. Injections of 2% Evans blue were administrated intravenously into the lateral caudal vein. In order to analyze vascular permeability, the tested substances were injected intradermally. The rats were sacrificed 3, 6, and 9 hours after injection of the substances. The dorsal skin was dissected and removed. The vascular permeability was evaluated by the measurement of area of dye extravasation and the dye was subsequently extracted after immersion in formamide. Statistical analyses were made by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test and Pearson correlation. The 2 methods to analyze the exudative phase of the inflammatory process showed statistically significant difference among the groups and periods of evaluation (P < .05). Both methods had a significant correlation (P < .0001). Under the tested conditions, the anesthetic agents showed mild initial inflammatory response when implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue. PMID:22822991

Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Neto, José Laufer; Jassen, Jocélia Lago; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André

2012-01-01

159

Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in the rhizosphere and therefore the enhancement of bioavailability of the mentioned elements to plants. Based on the suction cup experiment we conclude that in vertical soil profile the bioavailable germanium is heavily affected by the activity of exudates, as the complexation processes of germanium take place at the root zone and below affected by the interplay of the infiltration of citric acid solutions and the actually produced exudates. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. BS contributed as an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

2014-05-01

160

Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process. PMID:19700341

Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

2005-08-01

162

How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lupines (Lupinus species; Fabaceae) are an ancient crop with great potential to be developed further for high-protein feed and food, cover crops, and phytoremediation. Being legumes, they are capable of symbiotically fixing atmospheric nitrogen. However, Lupinus species appear to be nonmycorrhizal or weakly mycorrhizal at most; instead some produce cluster roots, which release vast amounts of phosphate-mobilizing carboxylates (inorganic anions). Other lupines produce cluster-like roots, which function in a similar manner, and some release large amounts of carboxylates without specialized roots. These traits associated with nutrient acquisition make lupines ideally suited for either impoverished soils or soils with large amounts of phosphorus that is poorly available for most plants, e.g., acidic or alkaline soils. Here we explore how common the nonmycorrhizal phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on exudation of carboxylates is in the genus Lupinus, concluding it is very likely more widespread than generally acknowledged. This trait may partly account for the role of lupines as pioneers or invasive species, but also makes them suitable crop plants while we reach "peak phosphorus". PMID:23347972

Lambers, Hans; Clements, Jon C; Nelson, Matthew N

2013-02-01

163

Immunological and functional properties of the exudate gum from northwestern Mexican mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in comparison with gum arabic.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison between the fine structural features of exudate gum from mesquite (Prosopis spp.) indigenous to NW Mexico and commercial gum arabic from Acacia spp. was achieved by means of immunological techniques. Their functional properties were compared from the ability to form oil-in-water emulsions and encapsulate cold press orange peel essential oil by spray drying. Fine comparison of the antigenic compounds in both materials against polyclonal rabbit antibodies, showed that the carbohydrate-rich components with slow mobility of mesquite gum are closely related to the faster ones of gum arabic. Also, close identity was observed for the components in the proteic fraction of both gums. Similar tannin concentrations were found in both materials (approximately 0.43%) with only dark coloured samples bearing higher amounts (approximately 1.9%). Gum arabic retained nearly 100% of the quantity of orange peel essential oil emulsified in water before spray drying, while mesquite gum did so for 90.6% of the citrus oil. From these results it is believed that mesquite gum might be a suitable replacement of gum arabic in arid regions of the world were Prosopis trees have widespread occurrence. PMID:9283013

Goycoolea, F M; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Balderrama, J R; Valenzuela, J R

1997-08-01

164

Phytochemical analysis of mature tree root exudates in situ and their role in shaping soil microbial communities in relation to tree N-acquisition strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eperua falcata (Aublet), a late-successional species in tropical rainforest and one of the most abundant tree in French Guiana, has developed an original strategy concerning N-acquisition by largely preferring nitrate, rather than ammonium (H. Schimann, S. Ponton, S. Hättenschwiler, B. Ferry, R. Lensi, A.M. Domenach, J.C. Roggy, Differing nitrogen use strategies of two tropical rainforest tree species in French Guiana: evidence from (15)N natural abundance and microbial activities, Soil Biol. Biochem. 40 (2008) 487-494). Given the preference of this species for nitrate, we hypothesized that root exudates would promote nitrate availability by (a) enhancing nitrate production by stimulating ammonium oxidation or (b) minimizing nitrate losses by inhibiting denitrification. Root exudates were collected in situ in monospecific planted plots. The phytochemical analysis of these exudates and of several of their corresponding root extracts was achieved using UHPLC/DAD/ESI-QTOF and allowed the identification of diverse secondary metabolites belonging to the flavonoid family. Our results show that (i) the distinct exudation patterns observed are related to distinct root morphologies, and this was associated with a shift in the root flavonoid content, (ii) a root extract representative of the diverse compounds detected in roots showed a significant and selective metabolic inhibition of isolated denitrifiers in vitro, and (iii) in soil plots the abundance of nirK-type denitrifiers was negatively affected in rhizosphere soil compared to bulk. Altogether this led us to formulate hypothesis concerning the ecological role of the identified compounds in relation to N-acquisition strategy of this species. PMID:23727287

Michalet, Serge; Rohr, Julien; Warshan, Denis; Bardon, Clément; Roggy, Jean-Christophe; Domenach, Anne-Marie; Czarnes, Sonia; Pommier, Thomas; Combourieu, Bruno; Guillaumaud, Nadine; Bellvert, Floriant; Comte, Gilles; Poly, Franck

2013-11-01

165

Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

Danuta Pi?tka

2001-06-01

166

Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gum exudates from Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from –43.2o to –52o for Acacia Senegal var. Senegal and +36.0o to +60.0o for A. seyal var. fistula. Likewise, the acid equivalent weights (AEWs have been found to vary from 1093 to 1920 for A. Senegal var. Senegal and 1063 to 1749 for A. seyal var. fistula. Significant intra-species variation for the tannin content has also been observed for the species studied, whereas the nitrogen content has been observed to vary significantly only in A. seyal var. fistula. The results in this study show that the variation of the properties among batches of commercial Acacia gum may be due to admixture of gums from different Acacia species as well as intra-species variation.

Gaspar S. Mhinzi

2003-06-01

167

The effect of two oleo-gum resin exudate from Ferula assa-foetida and Dorema ammoniacum on mild steel corrosion in acidic media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this study, a comparative study of two oleo-gum resins was performed. ? The adsorption of both oleo-gum resins is well described by Langmuir isotherm model. ? Oleo-gum resins behave as mixed type inhibitors. ? Inhibition efficiency of both oleo-gum resins in 2 M HCl decreased with rise in temperature. ? Quantum chemical calculations used to explain the difference in behavior of two resins. - Abstract: A comparative study of two oleo-gum resins exudate from Ferula assa-foetida (F. assa-foetida) and Dorema ammoniacum (D. ammoniacum), as inhibitors for mild steel corrosion in 2 M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that both oleo-gums behave as mixed type inhibitors. The effect of temperature on the inhibition efficiency was studied. At all temperatures, the experimental data fit Langmuir isotherm for both oleo-gum resin exudates. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of some specific components of two oleo-gum resin exudates.

168

Effects of regular and modified starches on cooked pale, soft, and exudative; normal; and dry, firm, and dark breast meat batters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of potato and tapioca starches (regular and modified) on the texture, yield, and microstructure of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE); normal; and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) chicken breast meats were studied. Cook yield and fracture force were higher in DFD than in normal and PSE meat. All starches significantly improved yield with modified tapioca showing the best results. Light microscopy showed even distribution and gelatinization of large potato starch granules and small tapioca granules. Addition of starches to the normal meat (46 pH meat protein functionality lost in PSE meat. PMID:15913192

Zhang, L; Barbut, S

2005-05-01

169

Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)?, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. RESULTS: We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFN? were low and not associated with AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNF? can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells.

Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina

2014-01-01

170

Vehicle thermal microclimate evaluation during Brazilian summer broiler transport and the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O microambiente térmico formado no caminhão de transporte de frangos da granja ao abatedouro pode ser a causa primária que compromete o bem estar das aves e a qualidade final da carne com o desenvolvimento de PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) em filés de peito de frango. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aval [...] iar o efeito do microambiente formado durante o transporte por caminhão em uma linha comercial. Para classificação de filés de peito em PSE, o pH e a cor (L*, a* e b*) foram medidos nos filés de peito de frango 24 h postmortem. Os resultados mostraram que em jornadas longas, as aves transportadas nas regiões do meio e fundo do veículo apresentaram maior ocorrência de PSE devido às drámaticas condições de temperatura e umidade relativa no microambiente destas regiões. A ventilação diminuiu gradualmente da frente à trazeira do caminhão e a aplicação do banho de água sobre os frangos após o carregamento na granja foi benéfica em jornadas longas ao reduzir a ocorrência de carnes PSE. Abstract in english The formation of a thermal microclimate within the vehicle during the transport of broilers from farm to slaughterhouse affects the birds' welfare and potentially promotes the development of PSE meat. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of routine commercial practices on the vehic [...] le microclimate formed during transportation of broilers. Twenty-four hours postmortem Pectoralis major m. samples were classified as PSE meat by determining pH and color (L*, a* e b*). Results showed that broiler located at the rear of the truck and with longer journey presented higher amounts of PSE meat because birds were under harsh conditions of both temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation decreased gradually from the front to the rear of the truck, and the water bath at the farm was beneficial over a long distance by reducing the overall occurrence of PSE meat.

Gislaine Silveira, Simões; Alexandre, Oba; Tiemi, Matsuo; Alessandro, Rossa; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

171

Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

2005-12-01

172

Study of the Chemical Composition of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium Sclerocarpum and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of the Phenolic Compounds and the Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heliotropium sclerocarpum Phil. (Heliotropiaceae is a resinous bush that grows in the Atacama of northern Chile. The chemical composition of its resinous exudate was analyzed for the first time. One aromatic geranyl derivative: filifolinol (1, one flavanone: naringenin (2 and a new type of 3-oxo-2-arylbenzofuran derivative 3 were isolated and their structures were determined. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and resin was evaluated using the bleaching of DPPH radical method and expressed as fast reacting equivalents (FRE and total reacting equivalents (TRE.

René Torres

2009-11-01

173

Demonstration of pathogenic bacteria in "sterile" inflammatory exudates.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and twenty-seven exudates from inflammatory processes, judged sterile after incubation on standard isolation media, were further investigated. This involved the exclusion of slow-growing strains by a further 48 hours incubation of the primary plates and subcultures from hypertonic broth that had been inoculated concurrently with the initial cultures. Over 80% of otherwise sterile exudates grew presumptive pathogens only after passage through the hypertonic broth and no further iso...

Bridger, R. C.

1983-01-01

174

Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots to aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amino acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes

175

[Erespal effectiveness in exudative otitis media].  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard conservative treatment of exudative otitis media (EOM) was performed in 82 patients, but 44 of them received adjuvant fenspiride (erespal) in a dose 80 mg per os 3 times a day for 10 days. Dynamic pure tone audiometry, tympanometry and subjective response demonstrated higher treatment efficiency in the erespal group. Therefore, it is recommended to include erespal in combined conventional therapy of EOM. PMID:13677026

Levina, Iu V; Luchikhin, L A; Krasiuk, A A

2003-01-01

176

Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis [  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis.Methods: Case report.Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months.Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

Osman Saatci, Ali

2012-11-01

177

PHYTOREMEDIATION: PLANT UPTAKE OF ATRAZINE AND THE ROLE OF ROOT EXUDATES. (R825549C060)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

178

Enhanced Hatching of Globodera tabacum solanacearum Juveniles by Root Exudates of Flue-cured Tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulation of hatching of a tobacco cyst nematode (Globodera tabacum solanacearum) by root exudates from resistant NC 567 and susceptible K 326 cultivars of flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, was investigated. Root exudates were collected by soaking seedlings in deionized water for 2 hours at 22 degrees C in the dark. Fifteen mature and uniformly sized cysts were exposed at 15, 20, or 25 degrees C to undiluted root exudate, root exudate diluted 1:1 or 1:3 with deionized water, or deionized water alone. Hatched juveniles were counted and removed at weekly intervals during 42 and 53 days of exposure in experiments conducted in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Root exudates from both susceptible cultivar K 326 and resistant cultivar NC 567 stimulated more hatching than deionized water at 25 degrees C in 1994, and at all three tested temperatures in 1995. In 1994, dilution of root exudates 1:3 reduced stimulation of hatching at 25 degrees C compared to undiluted exudate. Hatching at 25 degrees C was similarly stimulated by exposure to undiluted root exudate and exudate diluted 1:1. In 1995, both dilutions reduced stimulation of hatching by root exudates at all the temperatures. PMID:19274185

Wang, J; Johnson, C S; Eisenback, J D

1997-12-01

179

Exudative pleurisy of coccidioidomycosis: A case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common manifestation in primary coccidioides infections (Coccidioides immitis, C. posadasii. It is essential that this endemic dimorphic fungus be considered in order to proceed with the most appropriate diagnostic tools and therapy. Case presentation We present a rare case of primary pleural coccidioides and a review of the current literature for optimal diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies. Conclusion With increased domestic and international travel, coccidioidomycosis will likely be encountered in nonendemic regions. Recognition by physicians is critical for a timely diagnosis and therapy. Tissue culture can assist in the diagnosis and polymerase chain reaction analysis shows potential as a possible addition.

Afshar Kamyar

2008-09-01

180

Color Retinal Image Analysis for Automated Detection and Severity of Exudates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic macular edema (DME is an advanced symptom of diabetic retinopathy and can lead to irreversible vision loss. In this paper, a two-stage methodology for the detection and classification of DME severity from color fundus images is proposed. DME detection is carried out via a supervised learning approach using the normal fundus images. A feature extraction technique is introduced to capture the global characteristics of the fundus images and discriminate the normal from DME images. Disease severity is assessed using a rotational asymmetry metric by examining the symmetry of macular region.

Sarika Madhu

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Visual outcome of intravitreal ranibizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration: timing and prognosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Handan Canan,1 Selçuk Sizmaz,2 Rana Altan-Yaycio?lu,1 Ça?la Saritürk,3 Gürsel Yilmaz41Department of Ophthalmology, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Çukurova University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Baskent University School of Medicine, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey...

Canan H; S?zmaz S; Altan-Yayc?o?lu R; Sar?türk C; Y?lmaz G

2014-01-01

182

Effects of micronutrients deficiency and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chelator exudation by tomato root  

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Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can affect their host plants growth through nutrient uptake enhancement. Determination of chelators (siderophores and phytosiderophores in root leachates is of importance in order to account for the effects of AMF on nutrient uptake by plants. In this study, tomato plants were inoculated with either Glomus intraradices or Glomus etunicatum or left un-inoculated as non-mycorrhizal control, in pots containing sterile and acid washed perlite. Rorison’s nutrient solution harbouring three levels of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu (full strength, half strength and without micronutrients was applied to the pots during three month- growth period. Root leachates were collected and total chelator concentration was quantified by titration with DTPA. Plant roots showed lower mycorrhizal colonization in this condition. The amounts of chelators produced by roots were significantly different in AMF species. In plants inoculated with G. intraradices, the highest chelator production occurred in the absence of micronutrients and in its half strength as well, but the micronutrient levels had no significant effect on chelator production in plants inoculated with G. etunicatum. In the absence of micronutrients, chelator production was higher in G.intraradices inoculated plants compared to the G. etunicatum ones.

E. Shirmohammadi

2010-12-01

183

Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

184

Spatial and temporal dynamics of root exudation: how important is heterogeneity in allelopathic interactions?  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding allelopathy has been hindered by the lack of methods available to monitor the dynamics of allelochemicals in the soil. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microtubing (silicone tubing microextraction, or STME) to construct sampling devices to monitor the release of lipophilic allelochemicals from plant roots. The objective of this study was to use such sampling devices to intensively monitor thiophene fluxes beneath marigolds over several weeks to gain insight into the magnitude of temporal and spatial heterogeneity in these fluxes. Marigolds were grown in rhizoboxes (20.5 x 20.5 x 3.0 cm) with 16 individual STME samplers per box. Thiophene sampling and HPLC analysis began 45 days after planting. At the end of the study, roots around each sampler were analyzed by HPLC. Results confirmed the tremendous spatial and temporal heterogeneity in thiophene production seen in our previous studies. STME probes show that thiophene concentrations generally increase over time; however, these effects were sampling-port specific. When sampling ports were monitored at 12 h intervals, fluxes at each port ranged from 0 to 2,510 ng day(-1). Fluxes measured over daylight hr averaged 29 % higher than those measured overnight. Fluxes were less than 1 % on average of the total thiophene content of surrounding roots. While the importance of such heterogeneity, or "patchiness", in the root zone has been recognized for soil nutrients, the potential importance in allelopathic interactions has seldom been considered. The reasons for this variability are unclear, but are being investigated. Our results demonstrate that STME can be used as a tool to provide a more finely-resolved picture of allelochemical dynamics in the root zone than has previously been available. PMID:25172314

Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Mohney, Brian K; Shihada, Nader; Rupasinghe, Maduka

2014-08-01

185

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Alexandre, Oba; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

2009-11-01

186

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

187

Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa) por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesi [...] a foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352) com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL +) e não-sensível (HAL -), baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94) frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248) HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75) foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade das aves ao halotano e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE embora amostras de HAL - também apresentaram carnes PSE sugerindo que outros fatores estão relacionados com a formação da anormalidade. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% hal [...] othane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342) aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+) or insensitive (HAL-), depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94) of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248) were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Alexandre, Oba; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

188

Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

2013-03-01

189

Detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina por técnicas de morfologia matemática e agrupamento nebuloso / Exudate detection in retina images by mathematical morphology techniques and fuzzy clustering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A retinopatia diabética (RD) é uma das principais complicações do diabetes mellitus, pois causa sérios danos à retina e consequentemente à visão, podendo inclusive resultar em cegueira. O diagnóstico da RD é realizado através da análise visual de imagens de retina, sendo os exsudatos (depósitos de g [...] ordura) os principais padrões rastreados pelo médico especialista. Vale destacar que o diagnóstico precoce, realizado através do monitoramento regular, associado ao tratamento adequado apresenta inúmeros benefícios na prevenção da deficiência visual. Neste trabalho, é proposto um algoritmo de detecção de exsudatos em imagens de retina, cuja validação experimental é realizada na base pública DIARETDB1. A escolha desta base se deve à disponibilidade da localização dos exsudatos na retina, o que constitui o padrão ouro para a validação dos algoritmos. A metodologia proposta combina agrupamento nebuloso e técnicas de morfologia matemática, além de prover a detecção do disco óptico considerando que o mesmo é um ponto de convergência dos vasos. Os resultados mostraram que o método de detecção de exsudatos apresentou taxas de acerto na avaliação por imagens e por regiões na ordem de 73,03% e 99,41%, respectivamente. Estes resultados confirmam que houve uma melhoria no desempenho na detecção, quando comparados, aos resultados de métodos disponíveis na literatura. Abstract in english Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and, furthermore it causes severe damage to the retina and consequently to the vision. DR may lead to blindness and therefore it is important to prevent it or early detect and treat it. The diagnosis of DR is performed [...] by visual analysis of retinal images being exudates (fat deposits) the main patterns traced by a specialist doctor. It is noteworthy that early diagnosis, through regular monitoring when coupled with proper treatment, results in numerous benefits in the prevention of visual impairment. Thus, this paper proposes an algorithm for exudate detection in retinal images, whose experimental validation is performed on retina images of the publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The reason for choosing this database is that it provides spatial coordinates of exudates in retina images which constitute ground truths for the algorithm validation. The proposed methodology combines fuzzy clustering and mathematical morphology techniques, and thus it provides a method for optic disk detection considering that it is as the convergent point of vessels. The exudate detection method presented successful rates of 73.03% and 99.41% concerning the use of the whole image and only partial regions, respectively. These results confirm the performance improvement provided by the proposed methodology, when comparing it to other methods available in the literature.

Rodrigo de Melo Souza, Veras; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de, Medeiros; Flávio Henrique Duarte de, Araújo; André Macêdo, Santana; Romuere Rodrigues Veloso e, Silva.

190

Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The carbon content of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) was measured in the laboratory in particles produced by bubbling exudates of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under nitrogen non-limited conditions (N:P = 7). The carbon content of these particles (TEP-C) appears to vary as a function of their size according to TEP-C = 0.25 x 10-6 r2.55 (µg C TEP-1), where r is the equivalent spherical radius of the TEP particle (µm). This relationship implies that TEP are fractal agg...

Mari, Xavier

2009-01-01

191

Chromium(VI) Bioremoval by Pseudomonas Bacteria: Role of Microbial Exudates for Natural Attenuation and Biotreatment of Cr(VI) Contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

N Mercan Dogan; C Kantar; S Gulcan; C Dodge; B Coskun Yilmaz; M Ali Mazmanci

2011-12-31

192

Chromium(VI) bioremoval by pseudomonas bacteria: role of microbial exudates for natural attenuation and biotreatment of Cr(VI) contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the role of microbial exudates, e.g., exopolymeric substance (EPS) and alginic acid, on microbial Cr(VI) reduction by two different Pseudomonas strains (P. putida P18 and P. aeuroginosa P16) as a method for treating subsurface environment contaminated with Cr(VI). Our results indicate that microbial exudates significantly enhanced microbial Cr(VI) reduction rates by forming less toxic and highly soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes despite the fact Cr(III) has a very low solubility under the experimental conditions studied (e.g., pH 7). The formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes led to the protection of the cells and chromate reductases from inactivation. In systems with no organic ligands, soluble organo-Cr(III) end products were formed between Cr(III) and the EPS directly released by bacteria due to cell lysis. Our results also provide evidence that cell lysis played an important role in microbial Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas bacteria due to the release of constitutive reductases that intracellularly and/or extracellularly catalyzed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The overall results highlight the need for incorporation of the release and formation of organo-Cr(III) complexes into reactive transport models to more accurately design and monitor in situ microbial remediation techniques for the treatment of subsurface systems contaminated with Cr(VI).

Dogan, N.M.; Dodge, C.; Kantar, C.; Gulcan, S.; Yilmaz, B.C.; Mazmanci, M.A.

2011-02-14

193

Purification of a cellular (granulocyte) and an extracellular (serum) phospholipase A2 that participate in the destruction of Escherichia coli in a rabbit inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A granule-associated phospholipase A2 from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a closely similar phospholipase A2 from rabbit serum have been purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography. The cellular (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) phospholipase A2 has been purified greater than 100,000-fold and the extracellular (serum) phospholipase A2 approximately 60,000-fold. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the ascitic fluid phospholipase A2 that we have recently purified from inflammatory exudates produced in rabbits is nearly identical (15 of 16 residues) to that of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte phospholipase A2 and completely identical (19 of 19 residues) to that of the purified serum phospholipase A2. The functional properties of these three phospholipases A2 are indistinguishable. Each enzyme is active against Escherichia coli killed by the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein of polymorphonuclear leukocyte, a property shared only by a subset of phospholipases A2. The presence of structurally and functionally very closely similar phospholipases A2 in the cellular and extracellular compartments of an inflammatory exudate is consistent with the apparent role of these enzymes in the destruction of certain microbial invaders during the acute inflammatory response. PMID:2182625

Wright, G W; Ooi, C E; Weiss, J; Elsbach, P

1990-04-25

194

Detection, isolation and characterization of a root-exuded compound, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate, responsible for biological nitrification inhibition by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).  

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Nitrification results in poor nitrogen (N) recovery and negative environmental impacts in most agricultural systems. Some plant species release secondary metabolites from their roots that inhibit nitrification, a phenomenon known as biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Here, we attempt to characterize BNI in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In solution culture, the effect of N nutrition and plant age was studied on BNI activity from roots. A bioluminescence assay using recombinant Nitrosomonas europaea was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of root exudates. One major active constituent was isolated by activity-guided HPLC fractionations. The structure was analysed using NMR and mass spectrometry. Properties and the 70% inhibitory concentration (IC(70)) of this compound were determined by in vitro assay. Sorghum had significant BNI capacity, releasing 20 allylthiourea units (ATU) g(-1) root DW d(-1). Release of BNI compounds increased with growth stage and concentration of supply. NH4+ -grown plants released several-fold higher BNI compounds than NO3- -grown plants. The active constituent was identified as methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate. BNI compound release from roots is a physiologically active process, stimulated by the presence of NH4+. Methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate is the first compound purified from the root exudates of any species; this is an important step towards better understanding BNI in sorghum. PMID:18657214

Zakir, Hossain A K M; Subbarao, Guntur V; Pearse, Stuart J; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Ito, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Naoyoshi; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

2008-01-01

195

Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria.  

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Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7?×?10? CFU g?¹) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5?×?10? CFU g?¹). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. PMID:22202970

Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

2012-09-01

196

Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

2012-09-15

197

Cells in pleural fluid and their value in differential diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Background : Both non-malignant and malignant causes of effusion can be identified by the relatively non-invasive technique of pleural fluid cytology. With this basis the present study on cytology of pleural fluids was taken up. The diagnostic significance of the cytologic study of the fluid may be attributable to the fact that the cell population present in the sediment is representative of a much larger surface area than that obtained by needle biopsy. Materials and Methods : One hundred samples of pleural fluid were examined for total cell count, cell type and cellular features. They were also subjected to biochemical study to find out the level of protein, glucose and chloride. Results : A total of 82% samples were exudative and 18% were transudative. Total leukocyte count (TLC was less than 1000 cells/cu.mm in most (88.89% of transudative effusions. Overall 52.44% of exudative effusions had TLC greater than 1000 cells/cu.mm. It was noted that 96.88% of tuberculous effusions had more than 50% lymphocytes, 81.25% had protein greater than 5 gm/dl and 90.63% had glucose greater than 60 mg/dl. Approximately 28% of pleural effusions were positive for malignant cells. Most (82% of malignant effusions were exudative. The primary site could be assessed by cytological examination in 57.14% of malignant effusions. Conclusions: The most useful test in establishing the diagnosis of pleural effusion is pleural fluid cytology and pleural fluid cell count. Cytologic study of pleural fluid is a complete diagnostic modality which aims at pointing out the etiology of effusion as well as, in certain cases, a means of prognostication of disease process.

Kushwaha Rashmi

2008-01-01

198

Correlation between Octopus perimetry and fluorescein angiography after strontium-90 plaque brachytherapy for subfoveal exudative age related macular degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM—To evaluate the correlation between the central visual field and changes in fluorescein angiography and fundus photography in patients treated with strontium plaque radiotherapy for subfoveal exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD).?METHODS—Octopus program 34 automated static perimetry, fluorescein angiography, and colour fundus photography were performed on 19 patients at baseline and at 12 months after strontium-90 plaque therapy. A schematic picture outlining the areas of hyperfluorescent neovascular membranes and subretinal blood was drawn of a projected 30° fundus fluorescein angiogram. This drawing was superimposed on the size adjusted Octopus visual field. The changes in retinal sensitivity were calculated and related to angiographic changes.?RESULTS—Three of the 19 patients had a reliability factor (RF) >15% and were excluded from further analysis. In the remaining 16 patients the mean defect (MD) and loss variance (LV) values remained unchanged in patients showing regression of the choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) to irradiation at 12 months. MD was 7.7 (SD 1.7) at baseline and 7.6 (1.9) at 12 months (p = 0.86), and LV was 32.6 (13.9) at baseline and 32.4 (15.7) at 12 months (p = 0.94). However, in patients with progression of the CNVM at 12 months, both the MD and LV increased significantly during the 12 month follow up (MD from 7.3 (2.9) to 13.1 (3.6) ( p = 0.05) and LV from 31.0 (22.9) to 71.8 (24.1) (p = 0.017)). When comparing the mean retinal sensitivity in the area of the primary CNVM (including classic, occult, and haemorrhagic components), the results were analogous: in patients with a regression of the CNVM after irradiation the mean sensitivity remained almost unchanged. It was 10.3 (6.4) dB at baseline and 9.4 (7.3) dB at 12 months (p = 0.58). In five out of 11 patients (45%) with regression of the CNVM, the mean retinal sensitivity even improved by 2.0-5.0 dB in the area of the original lesion during follow up. Instead, in patients showing progression of the CNVM at 12 months, there was a significant loss in mean retinal sensitivity—from 9.9 (4.6) dB at baseline to 1.0 (1.1) dB at 12 months (p = 0.019). The mean retinal sensitivity in the area of the irradiated but clinically normal retina during follow up was not significantly altered (21.5 dB at baseline, 19.7 dB at 12 months (p = 0.10)).?CONCLUSIONS—Regression of subfoveal choroidal membranes in AMD after focal strontium irradiation is connected with stabilisation or even improvement of retinal sensitivity in central visual field measured by automated perimetry. Strontium plaque irradiation does not change the sensitivity in clinically normal paramacular retina during a 12 month follow up.?? Keywords: choroidal neovascular membranes; age related macular degeneration; Octopus perimetry; strontium PMID:9924368

Jaakkola, A.; Vesti, E.; Immonen, I.

1998-01-01

199

Complexation of lead by Bermuda grass root exudates in aqueous media.  

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Exudates produced from Bermuda grass roots were collected in deionized water from sterilized Bermuda grass sod at 3-day intervals over a period of 15 days. Exudates were analyzed for total organic carbon, and characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Exudate samples were adjusted to pH values of 4.5, 6.5, and 7.5, amended with lead and quantified for soluble and complexed lead via Inductively Coupled Plasma--Optical Emission Spectrometry. Data obtained from total organic carbon measurements indicated compositional changes in Bermuda grass root exudates as organic carbon concentrations increased over time. Analysis of the infrared spectroscopy data indicated that carboxylic acids and amine functional groups were present in root exudates. Also, the ability of root-exuded compounds to solubilize lead in aqueous media was demonstrated as exudate samples dissolved an average of 60% more lead than deionized water. At pH values 4.5 and 7.5, lead complexation by Bermuda grass root exudates increased with decreasing molecular weight size fractions, while an opposite trend was observed at pH 6.5. Results from this study demonstrated the ability of Bermuda grass root exudates to complex lead in aqueous media. PMID:24912248

Thomas, Catherine; Butler, Afrachanna; Larson, Steven; Medina, Victor; Begonia, Maria

2014-01-01

200

The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ?, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1?cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400?mg, ibuprofen tablets (400?mg, NAC (400?mg/ibuprofen (200?mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- ?, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p?=?0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p?=?0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p?=?0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p?=?0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

Ehsani Maryam

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain  

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Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

2012-09-01

202

Prevalence of Mannheimia haemolytica Isolated from Bovine Nasal Exudates and Associated Factors, in Dairy Farms in the North-Central of Mexico  

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Full Text Available Mannheimia sp. strains obtained from bovine nasal exudates of either clinically healthy (n = 1902 or infected with pneumonia animals (n = 189 were isolated and characterised to estimate the prevalence of isolated serotypes and to identify some factors associated to prevalence in dairy farms in Mexico, by means of a transectional descriptive study. Strains were isolated and typified through conventional in vitro culture methods, biochemical and immunological tests. Chi square or fisher statistical tests were applied, as well as odds ratio calculation and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association and effect of some variables on Mannheimia sp. isolation. Isolates were composed in 48% by serotype A1, in 2.4% by A6 and 49.3% were non-typable. The apparent prevalence rates of Mannheimia haemolytica were significantly higher in diseased bovines (OR = 2.54; pM. haemolytica isolates.

L. Jaramillo-Meza

2007-01-01

203

AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

204

Extracellular accumulation of potently microbicidal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and p15s in an evolving sterile rabbit peritoneal inflammatory exudate.  

Science.gov (United States)

To what extent the host defense role of granule-associated antibacterial proteins and peptides of PMN includes extracellular action has not been established. To address this question, we have analyzed the antibacterial activity of cell-free (ascitic) fluid (AF) obtained from glycogen-induced sterile inflammatory rabbit peritoneal exudates in which > 95% of the accumulating cells are PMN. AF, but not plasma collected in parallel, exhibits potent activity toward serum-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Total and specific antibacterial activity of AF increases during the first 12 h after injection of glycogen in parallel with the influx of PMN. At maximum, > 99% of 10(7) encapsulated Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are killed in 30 min/ml of AF. Neutralizing antibodies against the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of PMN abolishes activity of AF toward encapsulated E. coli but has no effect on activity vs staphylococci. However, BPI alone (approximately 1 microgram/ml in AF) can only account for < or = 20% of AF activity toward E. coli. AF also contains 15 kD PMN proteins (p15s) that act in synergy with BPI. Purified BPI and p15s, in amounts present in AF, reconstitute the growth-inhibitory activity of AF toward encapsulated E. coli. These findings show for the first time an extracellular function of endogenous BPI, providing, together with the p15s, a potent microbicidal system toward Gram-negative bacteria resistant to plasma-derived proteins and phagocytes in inflammatory exudates. PMID:7706499

Weinrauch, Y; Foreman, A; Shu, C; Zarember, K; Levy, O; Elsbach, P; Weiss, J

1995-04-01

205

Radial reduction profile of root exudates facilitates water uptake  

Science.gov (United States)

A large fraction of carbon assimilated by many vascular plants is released to the soil in the form of active exudation of long chain polymers--rhizodeposits. Rhizodeposits sustain rhizosphere microbial communities, facilitate nutrient cycling, and enhance rhizosphere soil moisture status. However, the precise physical mechanism by which these deposits facilitate nutrient and water acquisition by roots is not fully understood. Here we show that steep concentration gradient of organic molecules around individual roots is responsible for substantial water flow to roots without commensurate moisture gradient. This modeling work is supported by experimental data that relate water retention characteristics of the rhizosphere to exudate concentrations.

Ghezzehei, T. A.; Albalasmeh, A. A.

2013-12-01

206

Comparison of protein degradation, protein oxidation, and ?-calpain activation between pale, soft, and exudative and red, firm, and nonexudative pork during postmortem aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in protein modifications between pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and red, firm, and nonexudative (RFN) pork during postmortem (PM) aging. Longissimus dorsi (LD) including 8 PSE and 8 RFN muscles were individually removed from 16 carcasses. These 16 LD muscles were vacuum packaged at 24 h after slaughter and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5 d. The centrifugation loss, drip loss, color, protein solubility, protein oxidation, protein degradation including desmin, troponin T, and integrin, and ?-calpain activation were determined. The pH of PSE samples was significantly lower than that of RFN samples at both 1 and 24 h PM (P 0.05). In addition, PSE pork presented a lower solubility of sarcoplasmic protein, myofibrillar protein, and total protein than RFN pork except the solubility of myofibrillar protein at d 1 (P desmin and troponin T 2 in PSE pork at d 3 and 5 were significantly greater than that in RFN pork (P desmin and integrin, and the level of protein solubility in PSE pork could contribute to its low water holding capacity during PM storage. PMID:24987073

Yin, Y; Zhang, W G; Zhou, G H; Guo, B

2014-08-01

207

Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

Fan Ben

2012-06-01

208

Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

209

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE) and Raphia hookeri (RH) were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1) increased with in [...] crease in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; P.C., Okafor.

210

Eco-friendly Inhibitors from Naturally Occurring Exudate Gums for Aluminium Corrosion Inhibition in Acidic Medium  

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Full Text Available Exudates gums from Pachylobus edulis (PE and Raphia hookeri (RH were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in HCl using weight loss and thermometric measurements at 30 - 60 ºC. The exudates were found to retard corrosion rate of aluminium. The inhibition efficiency (%1 increased with increase in concentration of the exudates. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Both PE and RH exudate gums were found to obey Temkin adsorption isotherm and Kinetic-Thermodynamic Model of El-Awady et al. at all the concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameters obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. Exudate gum from RH was found to be a better inhibitor than PE.

S.A. Umoren

2008-01-01

211

Chemodiversity of exudate flavonoids in Dionysia (Primulaceae): a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 60 accessions of various Dionysia spp. were analysed for their exudate flavonoid composition. Many Dionysia spp. accumulate the typical Primula flavonoids with irregular substitution (unsubstituted flavone, its 2',5'-substituted derivatives and corresponding 5-OH-flavones), but flavones, flavonols and flavanones with regular 5,7-diOH-substitution are also encountered in their exudates. The formation of both types of flavonoids is not mutually exclusive. This paper analyses the chemodiversity of Dionysia exudates with respect to infraspecific variability, infrageneric distribution, patterns in hybrid taxa, and comparisons of biogenetic tendencies between Dionysia and closest related species of Primula. The uniqueness of occurrence of Primula-type flavonoids in the family Primulaceae, and their presumed different biosynthetic origin, suggest significance as further character in the Primula-Dionysia assemblage. Principal component analysis was applied to test the significance of variation of flavonoid composition across Dionysia. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profiles against the current taxonomic views yielded correlations, confined to the level of smaller groups, and only in parts at level of the current infrageneric concept. Flavonoid data are further discussed against the background of morphological and biogeographic differentiation of the genus. Increased diversification of flavonoid profiles may be interpreted as a derived status in Dionysia, which agrees with current views on the phylogeny of Dionysia as a specialised group within Primula. Functional aspects of exudate flavonoid formation are shortly addressed. PMID:20378133

Valant-Vetschera, Karin M; Bhutia, Tshering D; Wollenweber, Eckhard

2010-06-01

212

Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture  

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Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

M. I. Trujillo

1999-03-01

213

Diagnostic yield of closed pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion.  

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By closed pleural biopsy 49.1% of undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions could be diagnosed. This shows that closed pleural biopsy is still of value as a diagnostic procedure, and should be carried out prior to invasive procedures such as thoracoscopy or open pleural biopsy.

Abdullah A. Al-Shimemeri

2003-03-01

214

Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto / Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plantas de eucalipto com sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate são comuns em áreas em que esse herbicida é usado. Uma das possíveis formas de contato com glyphosate é por meio da exsudação radicular do produto, por plantas daninhas tratadas, e subseqüente absorção pelas plantas de eucalipto. Objeti [...] vou-se com este trabalho avaliar a exsudação de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos sobre plantas de eucalipto, por meio da aplicação de 14C-glyphosate misturado à calda de pulverização do produto comercial. Mudas de dois clones de eucalipto (UFV05 e UFV06) foram cultivadas em consórcio com Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária), em vasos contendo dois tipos de solo: um arenoso e outro argiloso. Aos 35 dias após o transplantio das mudas, foram aplicados na braquiária 50 µL da mistura de 14C-glyphosate com a formulação comercial de glyphosate Scout®, utilizando-se uma microsseringa de precisão. Aos 2, 8, 16 e 24 dias após aplicação, as plantas de eucalipto foram coletadas e fracionadas em ápice primário, ápices secundários, folhas e raízes, sendo processadas de acordo com metodologia usual para determinação da radioatividade. Não foram observados sintomas de intoxicação por glyphosate nas plantas de eucalipto, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. Entretanto, o 14C-glyphosate foi encontrado em todas as plantas de eucalipto avaliadas, independentemente do solo, do clone e da época de avaliação, em maior concentração em plantas cultivadas no solo arenoso. Os resultados evidenciam a exsudação radicular do glyphosate e/ou de seus metabólitos pela braquiária e subseqüente absorção, via raízes, pelas plantas de eucalipto, em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar intoxicação na cultura. Abstract in english Eucalypt plants commonly present symptoms of intoxication in areas where glyphosate is used. One possible way of contamination is through radicular exudation of glyphosate by the treated weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and i [...] ts effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06) were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy). At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

L.D., Tuffi Santos; J.B., Santos; F.A., Ferreira; J.A., Oliveira; S., Bentivenha; A.F.L., Machado.

215

Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 ?Ci. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%, não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos.To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531, 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 ?Ci of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after herbicide application - HAA. After 8 HAA, 14C-glyphosate on the leaf was similar in both clones. However, considering the whote plant, it was higher in 2277, at any evaluation time. After washing the leaves, higher amount of 14C-glyphosate was verified in the water of 531, indicating its smaller herbicide absorption. In the ground tissue and in the roots, 14C-glyphosate was similar in both clones, at any application time though, showing higher concentrations in the roots. Between 0.78 and 1.16% any of the applied herbicide was exuded into the nutritive solution, without showing difference on translocation and radicular exudation in both clones. The different absorption between the clones can be a likely explanation for the the different tolerance among genotypes.

A.F.L. Machado

2009-01-01

216

Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P L-1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159), 13% (26/203) and 9% (20/212) of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency. PMID:25032978

Tawaraya, Keitaro; Horie, Ryota; Saito, Saki; Wagatsuma, Tadao; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira

2014-01-01

217

Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency  

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Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L?1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

Keitaro Tawaraya

2014-07-01

218

A new chitooligosaccharide specific lectin from snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) phloem exudate. Purification, physico-chemical characterization and thermodynamics of saccharide binding.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new lectin has been purified to homogeneity from the phloem exudate of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The snake gourd phloem lectin (SGPL) specifically binds chitooligosaccharides and their inhibitory potency increased with increase in size. PAGE and SDS-PAGE studies indicate that SGPL is a heterodimer, in which the two subunits (48 and 53kDa) are joined by disulfide bonds. Consistent with this, electrospray-ionization mass spectrum yielded the exact mass of the protein as 104,621.8 Daltons. CD studies showed that SGPL contains about 9% ?-helix, 39% ?-sheet, 20% ?-turns and 32% unordered structures and that saccharide binding does not significantly affect its secondary and tertiary structures. Titration calorimetric studies indicate that the dimeric lectin binds two ligand molecules [(GlcNAc)(3-6)] with association constants determined at 25°C being 1.7×10(5) and 3.6×10(5)M(-1), for chitotriose and chitohexaose, respectively. Binding of all the chitooligosaccharides is governed by enthalpic forces, whereas the contribution from binding entropies was unfavorable. These results suggest that the SGPL-saccharide interaction is stabilized by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals' interactions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the SGPL-chitooligosaccharide interaction, suggesting that water molecules play a key role in the binding process. PMID:21672602

Narahari, Akkaladevi; Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Swamy, Musti J

2011-10-01

219

Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 [...] M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the respective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

Paul O., Ameh; Anduang O., Odiongenyi; Nnabuk O., Eddy.

2012-07-01

220

Joint Effect of Anogessius Leocarpus Gum (AL Gum) Exudate and Halide Ions on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in 0.1 M HCl  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english In an attempt to improve the corrosion inhibition potential of Anogessius leocarpus gum exudates for mild steel in solutions of HCl, corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the gum, KI, KCl, and KBr were determined experimentally using weight loss and gasometric methods. 0.05 M KI, 0.05 M KBr and 0.05 [...] M KCl were combined with various concentrations of Anogessius leocarpus gum and their combined inhibition efficiencies were used in computing synergistic parameters for the respective combinations. The results obtained indicated that combination of 0.4 and 0.5 g/L of AL gum with 0.05 M solutions of KI and KBr, respectively, enhanced inhibition efficiency of the gum. However, for all concentrations of AL gum, combinations with 0.05 M KCl recorded a remarkable increase in inhibition efficiency, but calculated values of the synergistic parameter indicated that the adsorption of AL gum on mild steel surface is antagonized by the presence of Cl-. Theory of competitive and co-operative adsorption has been used to explain the co-adsorption of the gum and the halides. From calculated values of activation energy (

Paul O., Ameh; Anduang O., Odiongenyi; Nnabuk O., Eddy.

 
 
 
 
221

Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates  

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Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

AK Gregg

2013-07-01

222

A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton  

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Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

Mark R. Viant

2013-10-01

223

A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

Selander, Erik

2013-01-01

224

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

225

Caracterização química e efeitos alelopáticos de exsudatos radiculares de plântulas de sorgo sobre alface Chemical characterization and allelopathic effects of radicular exudates of plants of sorghum over lettuce leaves  

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Full Text Available A análise química do exsudato radicular do sorgo resultou na identificação da quinona sorgoleona 1 e da diidroquinona 2, como seus principais constituintes. Em testes in vitro, uma solução a 20 mM do exsudato causou redução de 13,1% no crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa L. Em um sistema de cultura hidropônico recirculante, o exsudato radicular produzido por quatro plantas de sorgo causou uma redução de 62,4% na área foliar da alface, 33 dias após o plantio.A chemical analysis of the Sorghum bicolor root exudate lead to the identification of the quinone sorgoleone 1 and the corresponding dihydroquinone 2 as the major components. An in vitro essay have shown that at the concentration of 20 mM this exudate caused a 13.1% reduction on the radicular growth of Lactuca sativa L. In a recirculating hydroponic culture system, the exudate produced by the roots of four plants of sorghum caused a 62.4% reduction on the lettuce leaf area after 33 days of planting.

Tânia Maria L. Barbosa

1998-12-01

226

Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens for HIV testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in children in Chimanimani district, Zimbabwe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of oral mucosal transudate (OMT) specimens for HIV testing in children using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted asThe overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV part of a community-based behavioura [...] l and HIV sero-status survey testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis of adults and children in the Chimanimani district of Zimbabwe. by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV Dried blood spot (DBS) and OMT samples were collected from testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV children aged between 2 and 14 years, inclusive. Both samples were prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and tested for HIV using the Vironostika Uniform II plus O kits. The oral hygiene could have influenced the results. main study outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of OMT samples, with DBS as the gold-standard specimen. RESULTS: Paired DBS and OMT specimens were available from 1 274 (94.4%) of the 1 350 children enrolled. Using the DBS, HIV prevalence was 3.2%. Overall sensitivity of OMT was 48.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.3 - 64.5), and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI 97.7 - 99.1). CONCLUSION: The overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and oral hygiene could have influenced the results.

Wilson, Mashange; Stella May, Gwini; Stanford T, Mahati; Stephen S, Buzuzi; Chenjerai K, Mutambanengwe; Shungu, Munyati; Brian, Chandiwana; Simbarashe, Rusakaniko; Exnevia, Gomo.

2011-01-01

227

Effects of short term exposure to 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 production by peritoneal exudate cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and human health is of increasing interest. Exposure to EMF has been linked to leukemia and brain tumors in some but not all epidemiological studies. The effects of separate and combined alternating electric and magnetic fields on interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production were measured in this study. Helmholtz coils and parallel plate electrodes were used to create uniform field characteristics (300 V/in., 0.3 mT). Effects were studied at a combined field frequency of 60 Hz. This frequency did not elevate culture temperatures above ambient room temperature. Murine thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) were exposed to an electric field (E), magnetic field (M), combined electric and magnetic field, (EM), or no field (control). Three samples of PEC from each mouse were cultured with lipopolysaccharide in each field. Using commercial ELISA kits, supernatants of cell cultures were tested in duplicate after 24 hours of exposure for IL-1[alpha] levels and after 48 hours of exposure for IL-6 levels. Results were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). As a group, IL-1 production by the PEC from five mice and IL-6 production by the PEC from nine mice were unaffected by electric, magnetic, or combined electric and magnetic fields. Results from these experiments indicate that the 24-hour exposure to 60 Hz electric, magnetic, or combined electromagnetic fields had no effect on IL-1 production. Forty-eight hours of exposure to the same fields did not affect IL-6 production.

Morandi, M.A.; Del Rio, J.A.; Caren, R.P.; Caren, L.D. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States))

1994-01-01

228

Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress / Metabolismo e exsudação de ânions de ácidos orgânicos sob estresse de alumínio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Várias espécies vegetais liberam ânions de ácidos orgânicos (AO) de suas raízes em resposta a íons tóxicos de alumínio (Al) presentes no ambiente radicular. Hipoteticamente esses AO complexam os íons de Al presentes no apoplasto da raiz e/ou na rizosfera evitando assim sua interação com componentes [...] celulares e ainda sua penetração no simplasto da raiz. Dois padrões temporais de exsudação são reconhecidos. No padrão I, os AO são rapidamente liberados pelas raízes após a exposição das mesmas aos íons de Al. No padrão II de exsudação, ocorre um atraso na liberação de AO após exposição das raízes à solução contendo Al. Outros compostos além dos AO foram detectados em exsudatos radiculares e relacionados com mecanismos de resistência a Al em plantas. Espécies vegetais como trigo sarraceno e chá apresentam mecanismos de tolerância ao Al. Estes mecanismos conferem às plantas capacidade de inativar e de armazenar o Al em formas não tóxicas nas folhas. Os distúrbios induzidos por Al em rotas metabólicas ainda são desconhecidos, assim como a relação desses distúrbios com as mudanças nas concentrações de AO em raízes que estão sob estresse de Al. Altas concentrações internas de AO nas raízes nem sempre levam a altas taxas de exsudação desses compostos, mesmo quando a variabilidade espacial da concentração e da exsudação ao longo do eixo radicular é considerada. Certamente Al induz uma grande permeabilidade de AO em células jovens da raiz. Canais aniônicos localizados na membrana plasmática são os prováveis transportadores desses compostos orgânicos para fora da célula. Plantas que superexpressam genes envolvidos na síntese e na exsudação de AO bem como genes relacionados com a toxidez de Al foram desenvolvidas pela engenharia genética. Na maioria dos casos essas plantas tiveram uma maior capacidade para desenvolver sob estresse de Al. Esses resultados indicam, portanto, novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento de plantas mais adaptadas às condições de solos ácidos e com problemas de toxidez de Al. O impacto ambiental que a grande quantidade de exsudatos radiculares de plantas geneticamente modificadas pode causar, especialmente na microbiota do solo, é discutido. Abstract in english Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the [...] root symplast. Two temporal patterns of root OA exudation are observed. In pattern I, OA release is rapidly activated after the contact of the root with Al ions while in pattern II there is a lag phase between the addition of Al and the beginning of OA release. Compounds other than OA have been detected in root exudates and are also correlated with Al resistance in plants. Plant species like buckwheat and tea show mechanisms of Al tolerance, which confer them the capacity to inactivate and store Al internally in the leaves. Disturbances in metabolic pathways induced by Al are still obscure and their relation to the altered OA concentration observed in roots under Al stress is not yet established. High concentrations of OA in roots do not always lead to high rates of OA release even when the spatial distribution of these two characteristics along the root axis is taken into account. Al induces high permeability to OA in young root cells and anion channels located in the cell membrane have been proposed to mediate the transport of OA to outside the cell. Genetically modified plants that overexpress genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of OA as well as in Al toxicity events at the cell level have been generated. In most cases the transformations resulted in an improved ability of the plant to cope with Al stress. These promising findings reinforce the possibility of engineering pla

Eduardo D., Mariano; Renato A., Jorge; Willem G., Keltjens; Marcelo, Menossi.

2005-03-01

229

[Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain. PMID:8123711

Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

1993-01-01

230

Molecular structures of gum exudates from Hakea species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial acid-hydrolysis of the gum exudates from Hakea sericea and H. gibbosa yields L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-glucuronic acid, the aldobiouronic acid GlcA (beta 1,2)Man, and a dimer of this acid alpha-linked from D-Man to O-4 of GlcA. Methylation analysis showed the modes of linkage of the sugar units to be typical of those present in plant polysaccharide exudates of the arabinogalactan type, while partial acid hydrolysis and Smith degradations established the position of linkage of the peripheral sugar assemblies at O-3 of D-Man in the interior core. Some minor differences were noted between the molecular structures of the gums from these two species of Hakea, the Gal:Ara ratio being higher for H. sericea gum. PMID:7764147

Eagles, P F; Stephen, A M; Churms, S C

1993-10-01

231

ELECTRON PROBE ANALYSIS OF SAP EXUDATES OF TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sap composition was determined by electron probe analysis. With this technics, it has been possible to make the quantitative analysis of the following elements : K, Si, P, Cl, S, Mg, Ca and Na contained in the exudates.

Gartner, S.; Roinel, N.; Paris-pireyre, N.

1984-01-01

232

Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

233

Exudative Inflammatory Eye Response in Cataract Surgery: Current View on the Problem  

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Full Text Available There has been analyzed one of the most frequent and serious complications of cataract surgery — exudative inflammatory response (EIR of eye. There has been presented current view on etiopathogenesis of the condition, classifications and the description of clinical presentation of various EIR types have been given. Known techniques of prognosis and prevention of postoperative exudative uveites have been presented. There have been given present methods of complex treatment of eye EIR: drug treatment, laser therapy and surgery.

N.Y. Belousova

2011-06-01

234

Evaluation of allelopathic potential of Helianthus tuberosus L. root exudates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Allelopathy has been defined as the ability of a plant to inhibit or stimulate the growth of another plant through the release of chemicals into the environment by volatilisation, leaching, plant residues decomposition, and root exudation. Several studies have shown that Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke), a species belonging to the Asteraceae family can exhibit allelopathic activity. Experiments conducted with leaf extracts and degradation of plant residues into the soil have poin...

Ferrero, Aldo; Tesio, Franco; Vidotto, Francesco

2010-01-01

235

Diversification of exudate flavonoid profiles in further Primula spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In continuation of previous work, exudate flavonoid profiles of 22 new accessions of the genus Primula L. aligned to different subgenera were studied for the first time. Profiling was done by comparative TLC and UV-HPLC against authentic marker compounds. Most of the studied species accumulated the typical Primula flavonoids, comprising derivatives of unsubstituted flavone, of 5,8- or 5,6-hydroxyflavones including partly highly oxygenated flavones, together with 2,2'-diOH-chalcone in their exudate. The profile of P. edelbergii belonging to subgen. Sphondylia differed largely from the majority of Primula species studied so far, showing accumulation tendencies similar to those observed earlier for the closely related genus Dionysia. The phylogenetic significance of this diversification is shortly addressed. PMID:22799081

Bhutia, Tshering Doma; Valant-Vetschera, Karin M

2012-05-01

236

Exudative Inflammatory Eye Response in Cataract Surgery: Current View on the Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been analyzed one of the most frequent and serious complications of cataract surgery — exudative inflammatory response (EIR) of eye. There has been presented current view on etiopathogenesis of the condition, classifications and the description of clinical presentation of various EIR types have been given. Known techniques of prognosis and prevention of postoperative exudative uveites have been presented. There have been given present methods of complex treatment of eye EIR: drug ...

Belousova, N. Y.

2011-01-01

237

Enhanced root exudation stimulates soil nitrogen transformations in a subalpine coniferous forest under experimental warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the perceived importance of exudation to forest ecosystem function, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of elevated temperature and nutrition availability on the rates of root exudation and associated microbial processes. In this study, we performed an experiment in which in situ exudates were collected from Picea asperata seedlings that were transplanted in disturbed soils exposed to two levels of temperature (ambient temperature and infrared heater warming) and two nitrogen levels (unfertilized and 25 g N m(-2)  a(-1) ). Here, we show that the trees exposed to an elevated temperature increased their exudation rates I (?g C g(-1) root biomass h(-1) ), II (?g C cm(-1)  root length h(-1) ) and III (?g C cm(-2)  root area h(-1) ) in the unfertilized plots. The altered morphological and physiological traits of the roots exposed to experimental warming could be responsible for this variation in root exudation. Moreover, these increases in root-derived C were positively correlated with the microbial release of extracellular enzymes involved in the breakdown of organic N (R(2)  = 0.790; P = 0.038), which was coupled with stimulated microbial activity and accelerated N transformations in the unfertilized soils. In contrast, the trees exposed to both experimental warming and N fertilization did not show increased exudation rates or soil enzyme activity, indicating that the stimulatory effects of experimental warming on root exudation depend on soil fertility. Collectively, our results provide preliminary evidence that an increase in the release of root exudates into the soil may be an important physiological adjustment by which the sustained growth responses of plants to experimental warming may be maintained via enhanced soil microbial activity and soil N transformation. Accordingly, the underlying mechanisms by which plant root-microbe interactions influence soil organic matter decomposition and N cycling should be incorporated into climate-carbon cycle models to determine reliable estimates of long-term C storage in forests. PMID:23504744

Yin, Huajun; Li, Yufei; Xiao, Juan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Xinyin; Liu, Qing

2013-07-01

238

A study on intraalveolar exudates in acute mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.  

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Full Text Available Pathologic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (M. pneumonia are generally non-specific, and the literature regarding the pathologic features of M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates is limited. Clinical and histopathological studies were performed in 3 patients with M. pneumonia which did not respond to erythromycin and minocycline, but all rapidly recovered after corticosteroid therapy. In pathologic findings, we observed intraalveolar exudates and focal organization in M. pneumonia, and its intraalveolar lesions were compared between M. pneumonia and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia containing fibrin (BOOP. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase complex method with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody and anti-pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 antibody. In pathologic findings, more fibrin deposits in intaalveolar lesions were observed in M. pneumonia than in BOOP. In intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, a larger amount of nuclear debris, more neutrophils, and more erythrocytes were noted. Myofibroblasts were observed in the organization of BOOP, while in the intaalveolar lesions of M. pneumonia, myofibroblasts were not observed. These results suggest that M. pneumonia with intraalveolar exudates responds well to corticosteroid and its intraalveolar lesions apparently differed from those in BOOP.

Yoshinouchi T

2002-04-01

239

Antinociceptive and anti-exudative synergism between dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of inflammatory pain in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preclinical studies have demonstrated antinociceptive synergism between dexketoprofen (DEX) and tramadol (TRM) in acute animal models of nociception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the type of interaction between DEX and TRM in a chronic musculoskeletal pain model in mice, which fairly replicates the characteristics of chronic osteoarticular pain in humans. Inflammation was induced by a subplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in male CF1 mice. Nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate, the nocifensive spontaneous behavior and the acetone tests, while plasma extravasation (PE) was assessed with Evan's blue. We used the following experimental groups: control (no inflammation), acute (1 day after CFA injection), and chronic inflammation (7 days after CFA). Dose-response curves for DEX and TRM, individually and combined in a 1 : 1 proportion based on their potency were obtained, and the doses that produced a 50% inhibition calculated. The isobolographic analysis revealed that in all groups of study (no inflammation, acute, and chronic inflammation), the combination of DEX : TRM was synergistic, for both the inhibition of nociception and the PE. The results suggest that the DEX : TRM (1 : 1) combination could be useful in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal pains in humans; in addition, the synergistic interaction between the drugs observed both during acute and chronic inflammation suggests that less doses would be required of each drug to obtain effective analgesia. PMID:22081874

Miranda, Hugo F; Romero, Maria Asunción; Puig, Margarita M

2012-06-01

240

Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21-47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

The predictive value of subjective symptoms and clinical signs for the presence of treatment-requiring exudative age-related macular degeneration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has increased the referral rates of AMD patients with visual symptoms to treating centres considerably. However, a large proportion of the referred patients do not qualify for treatment implying that considerable resources could be saved if these patients could be identified on the basis of the clinical data available in the referring nonspecialized setting.

Hessellund, Anders; Larsen, Dorte Ancher

2012-01-01

242

IDENTIFICATION OF EXUDATES USING FUZZY MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

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Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage to the retina caused by complication and the most common cause of blindness in Thailand. Retinal image is essential for expert ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Several of method can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, the color retinal image in Thailand are low-resolution images. The existing method cannot identified low-resolution image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for identification of exudates in low-resolution retinal image. In this study a fuzzy mathematical morphology based on fuzzy logical operator and mathematical morphology method is presented. The color retinal image are segmented by using fuzzy logical operator following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. Afterward, a segmentation using mathematical morphology method was applied in this step. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the methods can achieve good performance even on low-resolution retinal images. Respect to the experimental results, the results obtained with fuzzy mathematical morphology better than the ones obtained with the fuzzy logical operator only method.

Kittipol Wisaeng

2014-01-01

243

Broiler chicken PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat and water release during chicken carcass thawing and brazilian legislation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59) (pH [...] H >5.8). Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30) and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.

Talita, Kato; Claudia Freitas, Barbosa; Elza Iouko, Ida; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Massami, Shimokomaki; Mayka Reghiany, Pedrao.

2013-12-01

244

Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal changes when injected in experimental piglets. The results showed that both virulent and avirulent strains were present simultaneously on diseased piglets. This constitutes a diagnostic problem. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine virulent strains injected in the skin of healthy piglets produced a crusting reaction in all piglets. Acanthosis was observed in the histopathological examination of the crustaceous skin. Concentrated culture supernatants from nine avirulent strains produced no macroscopic or microscopic skin changes. Protein profiles from all virulent strains and seven out of nine avirulent strains showed a high degree of protein band homology. An approximately 30 kDa protein present in all concentrated culture supernatants capable of producing skin changes, could not be detected in samples that did not produce skin changes. No other protein showed a similar association. It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin.

Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole

1993-01-01

245

Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion with pleural biopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Evaluation of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion by histopathological examination of pleural biopsy in patients with suspected tuberculous or malignant pleural effusion. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Pulmonology Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and DHQ Teaching Hospital, Rawalpindi for two years 1999-2000. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients with exudative pleural effusion underwent closed pleural biopsy with Abram's needle in standard way. Average 4 biopsy specimens were obtained in each patient which were examined histopathologically. Patients in whom a definite diagnosis was not possible were further investigated with repeat pleural biopsy, sputum examinations, bronchoscopy etc. Results definite histopathological diagnosis with pleural biopsy was possible in 59 (49.16% patients, including 13 diagnosed on repeat pleural biopsy. Two commonest diagnoses made were tuberculosis and adenocarcinoma, 64.40% and 13.55% respectively. Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation of pleural biopsy specimens can lead to diagnosis in 49.16% patients with exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. (author)

246

Biosensor reporting of root exudation from Hordeum vulgare in relation to shoot nitrate concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between shoot nitrate concentration, mediated by nitrate supply to roots, and root exudation from Hordeum vulgare. Plants were grown for 14 d in C-free sand microcosms, supplied with nutrient solution containing 2 mM nitrate. After this period, three treatments were applied for a further 14 d: (A) continued supply with 2 mM nitrate (zero boost), (B) supply with 10 mM nitrate (low boost), and (C) supply with 20 mM nitrate (high boost). At the end of the treatment period, a bacterial biosensor (Pseudomonas fluorescens 10586 pUCD607, marked with the lux CDABE genes for bioluminescence) was applied to the microcosms to report on C-substrate availability, as a consequence of root exudation. The nitrate boost treatments significantly affected shoot nitrate concentrations, in the order C>B>A. In treatments receiving a nitrate boost (B, C), increased shoot nitrate concentration was correlated with increased plant biomass, reduced root length, reduced number of root tips, and increased mean root diameter, relative to the no boost treatment (A). Imaging of biosensor bioluminescence (proportional to metabolic activity in response to availability of root exudates) indicated that root exudation increased with decreasing shoot nitrate concentration. Biosensor reporting of root C-flow indicated that exudation was greater from root tip regions than from the whole root, but that specific exudation rates for all sites were unaffected by treatments. Total root exudation across treatments was found to be closely correlated with total root length, indicating that increased root exudation, per unit root biomass, with decreasing nitrate supply was associated with altered root morphology, as a consequence of systemic plant responses to internal N-status. PMID:12493860

Darwent, Marcus J; Paterson, Eric; McDonald, A James S; Tomos, A Deri

2003-01-01

247

COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825960)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

248

Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition effici [...] ency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

S.A., Umoren; I.B., Obot; E.E., Ebenso; N., Obi-Egbedi.

249

Studies on the Inhibitive Effect of Exudate Gum from Dacroydes edulis on the Acid Corrosion of Aluminium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of exudate gum from Dacroydes edulis in the corrosion of aluminium in HCl solutions was studied using weight loss and thermometric methods at 30-60 ºC. The results reveal that the exudate gum acts as an inhibitor for corrosion of aluminium in HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of the exudate gum but decreases with increase in temperature. The Temkim adsorption isotherm was tested for its fit to the experimental data. The result confirms that the corrosion inhibition of the exudate gum from DE is attributed to the adsorption of molecules of phytochemicals present in the exudate gum on the surface of the metal. The free energies and equilibrium constant for the adsorption process were determined. A mechanism of physical adsorption is proposed.

S.A. Umoren

2008-01-01

250

Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. PMID:25194775

Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

2014-10-01

251

[In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

2009-08-15

252

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat in female lineage broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo e [...] nrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+) e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-). Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105) e HAL+ (n=13) em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b*) foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one o [...] r both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+), while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-). The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105) and HAL+ (n=13) birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Marco Antônio, Trindade; Alexandre, Oba; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Tércio, Michelan Filho; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Massami, Shimokomaki.

2009-11-01

253

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat in female lineage broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo e [...] nrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+) e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-). Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105) e HAL+ (n=13) em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b*) foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one o [...] r both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+), while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-). The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105) and HAL+ (n=13) birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.

Denis Fabrício, Marchi; Marco Antônio, Trindade; Alexandre, Oba; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Elza Iouko, Ida; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Tércio, Michelan Filho; Iris Lamberti, Ziober; Massami, Shimokomaki.

254

Sensitivity to halothane and its relationship to the development of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat in female lineage broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate female lineage broilers for halothane sensitivity and for their susceptibility to the subsequent development of PSE meat. The halothane test was carried out in an anesthetic chamber with 3.0% halothane. The unconscious birds were examined for leg muscle rigidity. If one or both legs became extended and rigid, the birds were classified as halothane sensitive (HAL+, while unresponsive birds were classified as halothane negative (HAL-. The results showed that of 298 birds aged 42 days old, 95.6% were HAL- and 4.4% were HAL+. A sample of pectoralis major muscle was collected from HAL- (n=105 and HAL+ (n=13 birds. The pH and breast fillet color were determined at 4ºC, 24 hours post-mortem. Interestingly, only 2.5% of HAL+ birds displayed PSE meat characteristics compared to 12.7% of HAL- individuals. The halothane test demonstrated that female lineage broilers displayed very little sensitivity towards halothane, indicating that the development of PSE meat is related to other environmental factors.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de aves de uma linhagem fêmea ao halotano e sua relação com o desenvolvimento de carnes PSE. O teste do halotano foi conduzido com o auxílio de uma câmara anestésica com 3,0% de halotano volatilizado. As aves inconscientes foram examinadas pelo enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Quando ambos ou um dos membros permaneceram rígidos, os frangos foram classificados como sensíveis ao halotano (HAL+ e os frangos sem enrijecimento dos membros foram classificados como não-sensíveis (HAL-. Os resultados mostraram que de 298 frangos com 42 dias de idade, 95,6% foram HAL-, e apenas 4,4% HAL+. O peito foi coletado das aves HAL- (n=105 e HAL+ (n=13 em que o pH e Cor (L*,a*,b* foram determinados a 4ºC, 24h postmortem. Interessantemente, apenas 2,5% das aves HAL+ demonstraram carnes PSE, enquanto que as aves HAL- apresentaram 12,7% de carnes PSE, em relação ao total de aves abatidas. O teste do halotano demonstrou que frangos da linhagem fêmea mostraram pouquíssima sensibilidade ao halotano, indicando que a ocorrência de carnes PSE está mais associada a fatores ambientais.

Denis Fabrício Marchi

2009-11-01

255

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial / Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, [...] resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades. Abstract in english The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 9 [...] 46 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Magali Bernardes, Maganhini; Bruno, Mariano; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Paulo D., Guarnieri; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

2007-08-01

256

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Magali Bernardes Maganhini

2007-08-01

257

Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial / Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, [...] resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades. Abstract in english The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 9 [...] 46 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

Magali Bernardes, Maganhini; Bruno, Mariano; Adriana Lourenço, Soares; Paulo D., Guarnieri; Massami, Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko, Ida.

258

Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates  

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Full Text Available Sohee Jeon, Won Ki LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates.Materials and methods: Eleven eyes (11 patients exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All patients were treated with monthly scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections for 6 months. Changes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity, amount of hard exudates on fundus photography, and macular edema detected by central subfield thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography after six serial injections, were assessed. The amount of hard exudates at each visit was evaluated as pixels in fundus photography, using an Adobe Photoshop program. Results: Ten of 11 patients completed follow-up. The mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity was 59.9±5.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/63 at baseline evaluation. The best corrected visual acuity exhibited no significant difference at month 6 compared with at baseline (57.9±6.0 letters or 20/70 at month 6; P=0.085. At month 6, mean central subfield thickness decreased from 370.4±56.5 to 334.6±65.0 µm (P=0.009. The mean amount of hard exudates increased from 4467.1±2736.1 to 6592.4±2498.3 pixels at month 6 (P=0.022. No serious adverse events occurred.Conclusion: Continuous intravitreal bevacizumab was found to have no benefit in visual acuity and amount of hard exudates, despite the improvement of macular edema at 6 months. Keywords: bevacizumab, diabetic macular edema, hard exudates

Jeon S

2014-08-01

259

Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment. PMID:23652766

Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

2013-06-01

260

Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement of iron nutrition of peanut in peanut/maize intercropping system by 14C tracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The related mechanisms of root exudates of maize in improvement iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize was investigated by 14C tracer technique. Neighboring roots between maize and peanut were separated by a 30 ?m nylon net, the iron nutrition of peanut was also improved just like normal intercropping of maize and peanut. The results proved that root exudates of maize played an important role in improvement iron nutrition of peanut. The photosynthesis carbohydrate of maize could exuded into the rhizosphere of peanut and transfer into shoot and root of peanut in intercropping system. Root exudates of maize could increased efficiency of iron in soil and improved iron utilization of peanut

262

Root exudates modify bacterial diversity of phenanthrene degraders in PAH-polluted soil but not phenanthrene degradation rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the diversity of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in an aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil is affected by the addition of plant root exudates, DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used. Microcosms of soil with and without addition of ryegrass exudates and with ¹³C-labelled phenanthrene (PHE) were monitored over 12 days. PHE degradation was slightly delayed in the presence of added exudate after 4 days of incubation. After 12 days, 68% of added PHE disappeared both with and without exudate. Carbon balance using isotopic analyses indicated that a part of the ¹³C-PHE was not totally mineralized as ¹³CO? but unidentified ¹³C-compounds (i.e. ¹³C-PHE or ¹³C-labelled metabolites) were trapped into the soil matrix. Temporal thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) analyses of 16S rRNA genes were performed on recovered ¹³C-enriched DNA fractions. 16S rRNA gene banding showed the impact of root exudates on diversity of PHE-degrading bacteria. With PHE as a fresh sole carbon source, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. were the major PHE degraders, while in the presence of exudates, Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. were favoured. These two different PHE-degrading bacterial populations were also distinguished through detection of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD(?)) genes by real-time PCR. Root exudates favoured the development of a higher diversity of bacteria and increased the abundance of bacteria containing known PAH-RHD(?) genes. PMID:21087382

Cébron, Aurélie; Louvel, Brice; Faure, Pierre; France-Lanord, Christian; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin; Leyval, Corinne

2011-03-01

263

DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA EN CANALES DE CERDO DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24, en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca. El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23% y DFD (0.77% disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P The PSE (pale, soft and exudative meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluated by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45 and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry. The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 is found for the three meat conditions evaluated at pH45 and pH24.

Wilson E CASTRILLÓN H

2005-09-01

264

DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA) EN CANALES DE CERDO / DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE) MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa) altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 [...] ) y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24), en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca). El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23%) y DFD (0.77%) disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P Abstract in english The PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluat [...] ed by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry). The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P

Wilson E, CASTRILLÓN H; Jorge A, FERNÁNDEZ S; Luís F, RESTREPO B.

2005-09-01

265

DETERMINACIÓN DE CARNE PSE (PÁLIDA, SUAVE Y EXUDATIVA) EN CANALES DE CERDO / DETERMINATION OF PSE (PALE, SOFT AND EXUDATIVE) MEAT IN PORK CARCASSES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La condición PSE (pálida, suave y exudativa) altera el color, la textura y el sabor de la carne, acidificándola y ocasionándole baja retención de agua, menor valor nutricional y rechazo por el consumidor. Para determinar la presencia de la característica PSE se hace medición de pH a 45 minutos (pH45 [...] ) y a 24 horas post-mortem (pH24), en 520 canales de cerdo. Los valores medios de pH45 indican que el 33.65% de las canales son PSE, el 47.12% es carne normal y el 19.23% se clasifica como DFD (oscura, firme y seca). El pH24 indica aumento de PSE llegando al 68% de las canales, mientras que los porcentajes de carne normal (31.23%) y DFD (0.77%) disminuyen. Al comparar el cambio de los estados de la carne entre 45 minutos y 24 horas, el 62.44% de la carne normal pasa a ser PSE, el 87% de carne DFD pasa a ser PSE, y el 94.85% de carne PSE continua igual. Las canales presentan alta incidencia de la condición PSE tanto a 45 minutos, como a 24 horas, indicando problemas antes y después del sacrificio. Existe diferencia altamente significativa (P Abstract in english The PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat condition alters the color, the texture and the flavor of pork, increasing its acidity and occasioning low water retention, low nutritional level and rejection by the consumer. To determine the presence of the PSE characteristic, the pork carcasses are evaluat [...] ed by pH measurements at 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24 after the slaughter of the pigs. The mean pH45 values indicate that 33.65% of the carcasses present the PSE condition, 47.12% are Normal and 19.23 % can be described as DFD (dark, firm and dry). The pH24 values indicate an increase in the PSE carcasses up to 68% while the normal and DFD ones decrease to 31.23 % and 0.77%, respectively. Comparing the change of the meat characteristics from 45 min to 24 hours, after the pig slaughter , it is observed that 62.44% of the normal meat and 87% of DFD one become PSE meat and 94.85% of the initial PSE one does not suffer any transformation. The pork carcasses present high incidence of the PSE characteristics at 45 minutes as well as 24 hours, indicating that there is problems before and after the slaughter of the pigs. High statistically significant difference (P

Wilson E, CASTRILLÓN H; Jorge A, FERNÁNDEZ S; Luís F, RESTREPO B.

266

Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter

2005-01-01

267

Automatic Detection of Exudates in Diabetic Retinopathy Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is globally the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. Retinal image is essential and crucial for ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Many of technique can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that the retinal images in Thailand are low-quality images. The existing algorithm cannot detect low-quality image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for detection of exudates in low quality retinal image. Approach: In this study, we presented a new method towards the development for detecting exudates pathologies of DR. The color retinal images are segmented using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering and morphological methods and following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, remove noise and color space selection. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the algorithm can achieve good performance even on low-quality retinal images. Result/Conclusion: The result shows that accuracy values increase when the FCM clustering is combined with morphological methods techniques. If any applications need to detect maximum number of exudates pixels or require execution speed, the FCM clustering technique could be used in isolation. However, if the applications require higher accuracy, the FCM clustering combined with morphological methods should be chosen. This system intends to help ophthalmologists in DR screening process to detect symptoms faster and more easily. This is not a final result application but it can be a preliminary diagnosis tool or decision support system for ophthalmologists. Human ophthalmologists are still needed for the cases where detection results are not very obvious.

Ekkarat Pothiruk

2012-01-01

268

Wound blotting: a convenient biochemical assessment tool for protein components in exudate of chronic wounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because wound exudate includes secreted proteins that affect wound healing, its biochemical analysis is useful for objective assessment of chronic wounds. Wound blotting allows for collection of fresh exudate by attaching a nitrocellulose membrane onto the wound surface. To determine its applicability for several analysis methods and its executability in clinical wound assessment, this study comprised an animal experiment and clinical case reports. In the animal experiment, full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsal skin of mice, and exudate samples were collected daily by a conventional method and by wound blotting. Extremely small but adequate volumes of exudate were collected by wound blotting for subsequent analysis in the animal experiments. Immunostaining showed the concentration and distribution of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was visualized by reaction with chemiluminescent substrate. The TNF distribution analysis indicated three different patterns: wound edge distribution, wound bed distribution, and a mostly negative pattern in both the animal and clinical studies, suggesting association between the TNF distribution pattern and wound healing. Our results indicate that wound blotting is a convenient method for biochemical analysis of exudate and a candidate tool with which to predict the healing/deterioration of chronic ulcers. PMID:23438022

Minematsu, Takeo; Nakagami, Gojiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Huang, Lijuan; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Sasaki, Sanae; Uchida, Gentaro; Fujita, Hideki; Haga, Nobuhiko; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Nagase, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

2013-01-01

269

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

2013-03-01

270

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds / Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas c [...] om extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC) foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC. Abstract in english Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extra [...] cts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.

E, Al-Sherif; A.K., Hegazy; N.H., Gomaa; M.O., Hassan.

271

Allelopathic effect of black mustard tissues and root exudates on some crops and weeds Efeito alelopático de tecidos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos da raiz de algumas culturas e plantas daninhas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of black mustard extracts and root exudates on two crops: Trifolium alexandrinum and Triticum aestivum, and two weeds: Phalaris paradoxa and Sisymbrium irio. The seeds were treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts and chloroform for eight days, or subjected to root exudates of just harvested mustard in a greenhouse for five weeks. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify phytotoxins from plant tissues. Seed germination of P. paradoxa was reduced with the lowest concentration of the different extracts. However, the aqueous extract at 4% completely curtailed the germination of all the target species. In general, plant extracts had a concentration-dependent reduction of seedling growth of the target species. However, the ethanolic extract, at the lowest concentration, has stimulated the shoot length of both T. alexandrinum and T. aestivum, and the root length of the former. Mustard root exudates inhibited emergence and growth of the target species throughout the experiment. Ferulic and syringic acids were the dominant allelochemicals found when HPLC was used.Experimentos de laboratório e estufa foram realizados para avaliar o efeito fitotóxico dos extratos de mostarda-preta e exsudatos de raiz de duas culturas: Trifolium alexandrinum e Triticum aestivum, bem como de duas plantas daninhas: Phalaris paradoxa e Sisymbrium irio. As sementes foram tratadas com extratos aquosos, etanólicos e clorofórmio por oito dias, ou submetidas a exsudatos de raiz de mostarda recém-colhidaem estufa durante cinco semanas. A cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC foi usada para a quantificação de fitotoxinas a partir de tecidos de plantas. Sementes de P. paradoxa apresentam germinação reduzida com a menor concentração dos diferentes extratos. No entanto, o extrato aquoso a 4% restringiu completamente a germinação de todas as espécies-alvo. Em geral, os extratos de plantas tiveram uma redução, dependendo da concentração do crescimento de mudas das espécies-alvo. No entanto, o extrato etanólico, na concentração mais baixa, tem estimulado o comprimento dos ramos de T. alexandrinum e T. aestivum e o comprimento da raiz da primeira. Exsudatos de raiz de mostarda inibiram o surgimento e crescimento das espécies-alvo durante todo o experimento. Os ácidos ferúlico e siringico foram os aleloquímicos dominantes encontrados utilizando HPLC.

E Al-Sherif

2013-03-01

272

Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to prote [...] ct the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1). IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

H, Schalchli; F, Pardo; E, Hormazábal; R, Palma; J, Guerrero; E, Bensch.

273

Antifungal activity of wheat root exudate extracts on Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is known for its ability to produce and release al-lelopathic compounds, which have potential for controlling weeds and diseases. Previous reports have shown the fungitoxic effects of allelochemicals present in wheat. Thus, these compounds can be exuded by roots to protect the tissues directly affected by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt fungus that causes wheat take-all disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate in vitro the allelopathic effect of root exudate extracts from four Chilean wheat cultivars on Ggt growth. Root exudates were released from wheat seedlings to a sterile culture medium without nutrients. Afterward, the exudates in the culture medium were separated by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Eight different concentrations were tested for each cultivar. The results showed that the degree to which the extracts strongly inhibit the phytopathogen growth is highly dependent on both the concentration and the cultivar. The root extract of the Domo cultivar was significantly active against Ggt (MIC=0.36 mg mL-1. IC50 and MIC values obtained for Dollinco and Domo root exudate extracts showed toxicity to Ggt. These findings may be considered in future studies related to the use of allelopathic potential as a selection factor in order to reduce the yield losses caused by various take-all diseases, as an alternative to chemical controls.

H Schalchli

2012-01-01

274

Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

Feroui Amel

2012-05-01

275

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

276

Yield of abrams needle pleural biopsy in exudative pleural effusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pleural effusion is the abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space resulting from excessive fluid production or decreased absorption and it is one of the most common clinical conditions that we come across in pulmonology clinics and in hospitals. The objective of prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of Abrams Needle Biopsy in Exudative Pleural Effusion The study was performed at the Department of Pulmonology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad over a period of 1 year, i.e., January 2008 to December 2008. Sixty-three patients of either sex and all ages with exudative pleural effusion, on whom Abrams Needle Biopsy was performed were included in the study. Minimum of four specimens from each patient were taken and histopathology done. Out of 63 patients, histopathology revealed the cause in 60 (95%) cases. Tuberculosis, malignancy and rheumatoid pleurisy were confirmed in 34, 24, and 2 cases respectively. Specimens of 3 patients did not reveal any result and showed non-specific inflammation and were further investigated accordingly. The diagnostic yield of Biopsy was 95%. Pleural biopsy is still a reliable and valuable investigation in diagnosing pleural effusion, provided that adequate pleural specimen is taken. (author)

277

Effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with hard exudates  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We evaluated the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates. Materials and methods Eleven eyes (11 patients) exhibiting diabetic macular edema with subfoveal and perifoveal hard exudates were included in this prospective, nonrandomized interventional pilot study. All patients were treated with monthly scheduled intravitreal bevacizumab injections for 6 months. Changes in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity, amount of hard exudates on fundus photography, and macular edema detected by central subfield thickness on spectral domain optical coherence tomography after six serial injections, were assessed. The amount of hard exudates at each visit was evaluated as pixels in fundus photography, using an Adobe Photoshop program. Results Ten of 11 patients completed follow-up. The mean Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best corrected visual acuity was 59.9±5.7 letters (Snellen equivalent, 20/63) at baseline evaluation. The best corrected visual acuity exhibited no significant difference at month 6 compared with at baseline (57.9±6.0 letters or 20/70 at month 6; P=0.085). At month 6, mean central subfield thickness decreased from 370.4±56.5 to 334.6±65.0 ?m (P=0.009). The mean amount of hard exudates increased from 4467.1±2736.1 to 6592.4±2498.3 pixels at month 6 (P=0.022). No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Continuous intravitreal bevacizumab was found to have no benefit in visual acuity and amount of hard exudates, despite the improvement of macular edema at 6 months. PMID:25143708

Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Won Ki

2014-01-01

278

Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

2014-01-01

279

Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

Kooren Joel A

2011-09-01

280

Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxidation occurred preferentially at primary carbons of galactose units. High degradation degree after oxidation was estimated by the difference on the expected and observed ?CGOX/?CG ratio. The presence of organic and inorganic impurities in the new polyelectrolyte was detected by TGA. A less thermally stable cashew gum is formed after the oxidation with TEMPO based on initial decomposition temperature and IPDT. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Hierarchical Detection of Hard Exudates in Color Retinal Images  

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Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is one of the common causes of blindness, and hard exudates (HEs are the primary and early clinical signs of DR. Thus, a reliable detection of HEs is significant for clinical diagnosis and preventing vision loss of patients. In this paper, a novel method is presented to detect HEs automatically in color retinal images. The method consists of two stages: coarse level and fine level. In coarse level, we extract HEs candidate regions by combining histogram segmentation with morphological reconstruction. While in fine level, we define44 representative features for each candidate region, and train a support vector machine (SVM model to classify HEs and non-HEs. We evaluate the proposed method on the public DIARETDB1 database and yield a sensitivity of94.7% and a positive predictive value of 90.0%. Experiment results show that our method can detect HEs efficiently.

Wei Bu

2013-11-01

282

Automatic Exudate Detection Using Eye Fundus Image Analysis Due to Diabetic Retinopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina is a disease caused by complications of diabetes, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of diabetes, a systemic disease, which affects up to 80 percent of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of these new cases could be reduced if there was proper and vigilant treatment and monitoring of the patient eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we introduced a new method for eye fundus image analysis, based on exudate segmentation. The proposed algorithm detects the existence of exudates and measures its distribution. In this paper, we classified images of eye fundus into no-exudate or have exudates. This initial classification helps physicians to initiate a treatment process for infected patients. The algorithm is tested using DIARETDB0. The results proved the reliability and robustness of algorithm.

Nasr Y. Garaibeh

2014-02-01

283

Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

Mann Anthea J

2011-02-01

284

Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

2003-03-01

285

Interleukin 3 (IL 3) regulates the in vitro proliferation of both blood monocytes and peritoneal exudate macrophages: synergism between a macrophage lineage-specific colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and IL 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of interleukin 3 (IL 3) on regulation of macrophage proliferation was examined. Although IL 3 alone stimulates the colony formation in bone marrow cells, it fails to stimulate the colony formation by both peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and blood monocytes. However, IL 3 greatly enhances the proliferative capacity of both PEM and monocytes in responding to suboptimal concentrations of CSF-1. At supraoptimal concentrations of CSF-1, IL 3 did not increase the number of colonies, but greatly increased colony size. Kinetic studies showed that IL 3 enhances CSF-1-induced macrophage proliferation by shortening the cell doubling time. Monocytes were more sensitive to the action of IL 3 and possessed higher proliferative potential than PEM. Binding studies with radioactive labeled CSF-1 (125I-CSF-1) showed that IL 3 treatment induced an increased expression of CSF-1 receptor activity by PEM which appears to be a result of increased number of available receptor sites. The effect of IL 3 on the expression of receptor activity is both dose- and time-dependent. IL 3 also augments the rate of receptor-mediated CSF-1 endocytosis by PEM which appears to be a direct result of increased expression of CSF-1 binding sites. These results demonstrate that, in addition to stimulating the growth and differentiation of several blood cell lineages by hemopoietic stem cells, IL 3 also possesses the ability to modulate CSF-1 receptors, thereby affecting proliferation of more mature blood monocytes and tissue-derived macrophages

286

PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis  

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Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

Suhardi

2003-12-01

287

Exudate from sporulating cultures of Hirsutella thompsonii inhibit oviposition by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acaricidal mycopathogen Hirsutella thompsonii has been found to secrete metabolites that are active against female Tetranychus urticae. Specifically, the rose-colored exudate produced on sporulating cultures of Mexican HtM120I strain sterilized female spider mites in a dose-dependent fashion. Topical application of the exudate resulted in a 100% reduction in mite fecundity over the initial six days of experimentation. Depending upon the exudate dosage, mites partially recovered within 3 and 6 d post-treatment and produced a limited number of eggs. The spider mite active HtM120I exudate contained less detectable HtA toxin than the HtM120I broth filtrate, and it was innocuous when injected into the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. larvae. Broth filtrates of HtM120I cultures, although toxic to assayed G. mellonella larvae, did not inhibit mite oviposition to the degree or duration of the exudate preparations. These findings suggest that the factor responsible for suppressing oviposition in female spider mites is linked to the sporulation process and is distinct from the well-characterized HtA produced by vegetative cells. PMID:14635809

Rosas-Acevedo, José Luis; Boucias, Drion G; Lezama, Roberto; Sims, Kelly; Pescador, Alfonso

2003-01-01

288

Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils  

Science.gov (United States)

As plant roots take up water and the soil dries, water depletion is expected to occur in the rhizosphere. However, recent experiments showed that the rhizosphere of lupines was wetter than the bulk soil during root water uptake. On the other hand, after irrigation the rhizosphere remained markedly dry and it rewetted only after one-two days. We hypothesize that: 1) drying/wetting rates of the rhizosphere are controlled by mucilage exuded by roots; 2) mucilage alters the soil hydraulic conductivity: in particular, wet mucilage increases the soil hydraulic conductivity and dry mucilage makes the soil water repellent; 3) mucilage exudation favors root water uptake in dry soil; and 4) dry mucilage limits water loss from roots to dry soils. We used a root pressure probe to measure the hydraulic conductance of artificial roots sitting in soils. As an artificial root we employed a suction cup with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 45 mm. The root pressure probe gave the hydraulic conductance of the soil-root continuum during pulse experiments in which water was injected into or sucked from the soil. First, we performed experiments with roots in a relatively dry soil with a volumetric water content of 0.03. Then, we repeated the experiment with artificial roots covered with mucilage and then placed into the soil. As a model for mucilage, we collected mucilage from Chia seeds. The water contents (including that of mucilage) in the experiments with and without mucilage were equal. The pressure curves were fitted with a model of root water that includes rhizosphere dynamics. We found that the artificial roots covered with wet mucilage took up water more easily. In a second experimental set-up we measured the outflow of water from the artificial roots into dry soils. We compared two soils: 1) a sandy soil and 2) the same soil wetted with mucilage from Chia seeds and then let dry. The latter soil became water repellent. Due to the water repellency, the outflow of water from the root in this soil was significantly reduced. The experiments demonstrated that mucilage increased the hydraulic conductance of the root-soil continuum and facilitated the extraction of water from dry soils. The increase in conductivity resulted from the higher water content of the soil near the roots. Mucilage has a lower surface tension than pure water and a higher viscosity, resulting in a slower penetration of mucilage into the soil. After mucilage was placed into the soil, it did not spread into the bulk soil, but it remained near the roots, maintaining the rhizosphere wetter and more conductive than the bulk soil. However, as mucilage dried, it turned water repellent and reduced the back flow of water from the root to soil. We hypothesize that mucilage exudation is a plant strategy to locally and temporally facilitate water uptake from dry soils. After drying, mucilage becomes water repellent and may limit the local uptake of water after irrigation. On the other hand, mucilage water repellency may as well be a strategy to reduce water loss from roots to dry soils.

Ahmed, Mutez; Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Carminati, Andrea

2014-05-01

289

Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal  

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Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

J. Buchweishaija

2008-01-01

290

Natural Products as a Source of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum Exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The inhibitive effect of the gum exudate from Acacia seyal var. seyal on the corrosion of mild steel in drinking water was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results obtained show that gum exudates could serve as effective [...] inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in drinking water network. The percentage inhibition increases with increasing the concentration of the gum at 30 ºC. The percentage inhibitor efficiency above 95 % was attained at gum concentration ³400 ppm. The corrosion rates of steel and inhibition efficiencies of the gum exudates obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that the gum behaves predominantly as an anodic inhibitor. The study also shows that the inhibition efficiency was insignificantly affected by the temperature rise of the medium.

J., Buchweishaija; G.S., Mhinzi.

291

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11) was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP) and extracellular release (ER) were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and com...

Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

2012-01-01

292

Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) broiler meat in the production of mortadella  

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This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative). PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile, emulsion stability (ES) and co...

Cassiana Kissel; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Alessandro Rossa; Massami Shimokomaki

2009-01-01

293

New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 ?M reduced the activity, and application of 100 ?M inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction. PMID:24117219

Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

2013-11-01

294

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and [...] the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

BRENDA, MODAK; RENÉ, TORRES; MARCELA, WILKENS; ALEJANDRO, URZÚA.

295

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED OF THE RESINOUS EXUDATE FROM HELIOTROPIUM SINUATUM ON PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available From the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have been isolated and characterized two compounds, pentaeicosanol 1 and 1-hydroxy-3-doeicosanone 2. Those structures and previously isolated pure compounds have been tested in their antibacterial activity on phytopathogenic bacteria. Ketone 2 and the flavonoid hesperetine 10 showed antibacterial activity on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, while the flavonoid 3-O-methylgalangine 4 showed activity on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

BRENDA MODAK

2004-03-01

296

Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum; Carboximetilacao da goma exsudada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)  

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Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: rpaula@dqoi.ufc.br

2001-07-01

297

Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso / Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exam [...] e oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL). A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg). Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity [...] of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg). After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

Fernando Korn, Malerbi; Ramon Coral, Ghanem; Jeane, Chiang; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

298

Descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento em paciente com diagnóstico de neurossífilis: relato de caso / Exudative bilateral retinal detachment and behavior changes in a patient with neurosyphilis: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Descrever caso de descolamento de retina bilateral associado a alterações de comportamento. RESULTADO: Paciente de 62 anos, sexo feminino, apresentou-se com baixa de visão bilateral, progressiva, de 3 meses de duração, associada a alterações de comportamento e agitação psicomotora. Ao exam [...] e oftalmológico apresentava acuidade visual de percepção luminosa em olho direito; e conta dedos a 30 cm em olho esquerdo. A biomicroscopia evidenciou reação de câmara anterior; à fundoscopia, apresentava edema e hiperemia do disco óptico bilateralmente, áreas extensas de descolamento de retina seroso, placas sub-retinianas amareladas peripapilares e exsudação sub-retiniana e intra-retiniana em ambos os olhos. O exame sorológico para sífilis foi positivo (FTA-Abs e VDRL). A análise liquórica revelou FTA-Abs e teste de hemaglutinação indireta positivos. Foi feito, então, diagnóstico de neurossífilis, e a paciente foi internada para antibioticoterapia endovenosa, e prednisona oral 40 mg/dia (0,5 mg/kg). Após 2 semanas, a paciente passou a apresentar melhora importante do quadro ocular com reabsorção da exsudação e melhora da acuidade visual. CONCLUSÃO: A sífilis é doença pleomórfica, podendo ter como manifestação ocular uma uveíte difusa associada a descolamento de retina exsudativo bilateral. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central deve sempre ser considerado e descartado, e o tratamento eficaz da doença pode promover melhora da função visual e diminuir suas seqüelas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral retinal detachment associated with behavior changes. RESULTS: A 62-year-old, female patient presented agitated, complaining of progressive bilateral low vision for the 3 past months, along with anxiety and behavior changes. On examination, she had visual acuity [...] of light perception in the right eye and conting fingers at 30 cm in the left eye; anterior chamber reaction; bilateral hyperemic and edematous optic disc and bilateral serous retinal detachment, yellow-white subretinal peripapillary plaques and subretinal and intraretinal exudation. On laboratory work-up, the patient had positive VDRL and FTA-Abs tests. Lumbar puncture was done; she had positive FTA-Abs and hemagglutination treponemal test on spinal fluid analysis. Neurosyphilis diagnosis was established, and the patient was admitted to the hospital for an intravenous penicillin course associated with oral prednisone (0.5 mg/kg). After 2 weeks, the patient showed marked improvement of her retinal findings, with reatachment of the retina and also an improvement of visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Syphilis is a pleomorphical disease, and may present as diffuse uveitis associated with bilateral exudative retinal detachment. Central nervous system involvement must always be evaluated and discarded; proper treatment may lead to visual function improvement and diminished sequelae.

Fernando Korn, Malerbi; Ramon Coral, Ghanem; Jeane, Chiang; Walter Yukihiko, Takahashi.

2006-02-01

299

A proteomic approach to Physcomitrella patens rhizoid exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between plants and the surrounding environment has been widely studied, specially the defence reactions and the plant-plant interactions. One of the most remarkable metabolic features of plant roots is the ability to secrete a vast array of compounds into the rhizosphere, not only of low molecular weight but also polysaccharides and proteins. Here, we took advantage of proteomics to study the rhizoid exudates of Physcomitrella patens at early and late development stages (7 and 28 days of culture in liquid medium). Samples were extracted, separated and detected with nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS, identifying 47 proteins at the development stage of 7 days, and 66 proteins at 28 days. Moreover, 21 proteins were common to the two analyzed periods. All the identified proteins were classified into 8 functional categories: response to stress, response to stimulus, oxido-reduction, cell wall modification, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, transport, DNA metabolic process and regulation/signalling. Our results show important differences in the protein expression profile along the development of P. patens, mainly at the level of regulation- and senescence-related proteins. Defence-related proteins, such as chitinases, thaumatins and peroxidases have a major role in the interaction of P. patens with the environment. PMID:25179523

Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Novo-Uzal, Esther

2014-11-01

300

Analytical Studies on the Gum Exudates from Anogeissus leiocarpus  

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Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected randomly as natural exudates from 3 different locations in Sudan, namely Abojebiha (season 1994-1995), Elfula and Rosaries (season 1996-1997). Physicochemical properties of gum samples (moisture, ash, nitrogen, protein, specific rotation, relative viscosity, refractive index, equivalent weight, pH, uranic acid, reducing sugar and tannin content). Results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied excep...

Samia Eltayeb Ahmed; Babiker ELwasila Mohamed; Karamalla Ahmed Karamalla

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Treatment of peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab  

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Kei Takayama,1 Tosio Enoki,1,2 Teruo Kojima,1,2 Sho Ishikawa,1 Masaru Takeuchi,11Department of Ophthalmology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan; 2Enoki Clinic, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy (PEHCR) is a rare disorder that sometimes causes sudden subretinal and/or vitreous hemorrhage. Choroidal neovascularization is involved in the pathogenesis, but the etiology is unknown. Treatments with photocoagulation, cryopexy, and intravitreal ...

Takayama K; Enoki T; Kojima T.; Ishikawa S; Takeuchi M

2012-01-01

302

Vitreomacular interface in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a rare hereditary vitreoretinal disease that occurs in young patients and results in an avascular peripheral retina, retinal neovascularization, and tractinal retinal detachment. Patients occasionally have concurrent macular diseases. However, the vitreomacular relationship in FEVR remains unclear. We report two cases, a 22-year-old woman (case 1) and a 14-year-old boy (case 2) with FEVR who have the characteristic findings of the disease in the vitreomacular interface and the macular morphology, observed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In case 1, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 bilaterally. SD-OCT showed a perifoveal posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) with vitreofoveal adhesion in the left eye. In case 2, SD-OCT showed a perifoveal PVD in the right eye (BCVA, 20/30) with numerous small deposits that appeared as rod-shaped attachments perpendicular to the parafoveal face without intraretinal and subretinal materials beneath the posterior hyaloid face that corresponded to white material on the fundus examination. Fluorescein angiography showed a circumferential peripheral avascular area and peripheral neovascularization in both cases. These SD-OCT findings suggested that a perifoveal PVD and small deposits, which appeared as rod-shaped attachments perpendicular to the parafoveal face in patients with FEVR, may carry the risk of macular disease and decreased visual acuity. PMID:23334617

Shimouchi, Akito; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nagaoka, Taiji; Ishibazawa, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akitoshi

2013-12-01

303

A Study on Significance of Serum Effusion Albumin Gradient in The Differential Diagnosisof Pleural Effusion  

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Full Text Available To evaluate serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG as method of differentiating pleural transudatesfrom exudates.Cases admitted in AMCH with diagnosed pleural effusion were divided into 2 groups basedon etiology. Group I (transudates: Comprising 14 patients of congestive heart failure (n=6 and nephroticsyndrome (n=3, Cirrhosis (n=4, pericardial effusion (n=1. Group II (exudates: comprising 26 cases oftuberculous (n=15, malignant (n=8 and parapneumonic effusion (n=2, rheumatoid arthritis (n=1. In allpatients estimation of pleural fluid to plasma protein ratio, pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio & pleural fluidLDH level, plasma-pleural effusion gradient were evaluated. All these parameters were compared indifferentiating pleural transudates from exudates. A total of 40 patients having pleural effusion weredivided into 2 groups. Group I (Transudates,Group II (Exudates. Pleural fluid to serum protein of .5misclassified 20%, pleural fluid LDH OF 200 U/L misclassified 17.5%, pleural fluid LDH to serum LDHmisclassified 12.5%, & serum effusion albumin gradient misclassified 5% while differentiating transudatesfrom exudates. Serum pleural effusion albumin gradient (SEAG is a very useful parameter to differentiatebetween exudates and transudates esp. in cases misclassified by Light’s criteria.

Arijit Kumar Das

2009-07-01

304

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange), T. erecta (var. Yellow) significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s) in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) of water soluble extract from th...

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam; Aruna Devaraj

2011-01-01

305

Polycystic liver disease presenting with an exudative pleural effusion: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Polycystic liver disease is asymptomatic in 95% of patients. In the remaining 5% it causes symptoms due to the local mass effect of the polycystic liver. We describe the case of a patient who presented with symptoms of a pleural effusion and was also found to have polycystic liver disease. The effusion recurred despite repeated efforts at drainage and only resolved following surgical debridement of the cystic liver. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a two-week history of increasing dyspnoea. An examination revealed a large right pleural effusion and gross hepatomegaly. An ultrasound confirmed a large polycystic liver and diagnostic thoracocentesis revealed an exudate, which was sterile to culture. The pleural effusion proved refractory to drainage and our patient underwent surgery to deroof the main hepatic cysts in an attempt to reduce the pressure on her right diaphragm. The histology was compatible with that of polycystic liver disease. No evidence of malignancy was found. After surgery, our patient had no recurrence of her effusion and, to date, has remained asymptomatic from her polycystic liver disease. Conclusion The case in this report illustrates that an exudative pleural effusion is a rare complication of polycystic liver disease. We feel that the mechanical effects of a large polycystic liver, and subsequent disruption of sub-diaphragmatic capillaries, resulted in a persistent exudative pleural effusion. Thus, surgical debulking of the hepatic cysts is required to manage these effusions.

Woolnough Kerry

2012-04-01

306

Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

2014-05-01

307

Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

2009-10-15

308

Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

309

Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

310

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

311

Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

1986-01-01

312

An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

Kemner, K.M.; O' Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

2006-06-01

313

Chemistryvis-à-vis maternalism in lace bugs (Heteroptera: Tingidae): Alarm pheromones and exudate defense inCorythucha andGargaphia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hawthorn lace bug,Corythucha cydoniae, and the eggplant lace bug,Gargaphia solani, possess alarm pheromones that are produced in dorsal abdominal glands (DAGs). WhenG. solani nymphs are grasped, they emit secretion from both DAGs; the posterior DAG secretion alone elicits alarm, but the anterior DAG secretion may hasten the response. InC. cydoniae, the response is due to a synergism between the anterior and posterior DAG secretions, and nymphs are apparently unable to voluntarily release their DAG secretions; both DAGs must be ruptured for the pheromone to escape. The alarm pheromones are interspecifically active in patterns matching the intraspecific activities. Compounds identified from tingid DAG secretions that are involved in the alarm messages are: (E)2-hexenal, (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, acetaldehyde, geraniol, and linalool. A new natural product of unknown function (designated nerolidol aldehyde) was identified from the anterior DAG secretions of both species. PMID:24258608

Aldrich, J R; Neal, J W; Oliver, J E; Lusby, W R

1991-11-01

314

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

2009-12-01

315

Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As proteínas ?-RyR e ?-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m) com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8) e não-PSE (4453) de duas linhagens distintas, de cor [...] te e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes ?-ryr ?-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ) foram inferiores (p0,05) na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para ?-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1) de ?-RyR/?-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina. Abstract in english Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53) meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the ?-ryr and ?-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ) [...] values were lower (p0.05) in ?-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The ?-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1) of ?-RyR/?-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.

Sandra Helena Inoue, Oda; Alexandre Lima, Nepomuceno; Mônica Corrêa, Ledur; Maria Cristina Neves de, Oliveira; Silvana Regina Rockenbach, Marin; Elza Iouko, Ida; Massami, Shimokomaki.

316

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition. PMID:23084327

Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

2013-01-01

317

Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos, en dos cuencas lecheras de México / Phenotypic and molecular strain characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle nasal exudate from two dairy complexes in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron 250 cepas de P. multocida aisladas de exudado nasal, 182 cepas de bovinos clínicamente sanos y 68 cepas de bovinos clínicamente enfermos de neumonía, de dos complejos lecheros, uno en la región de Tizayuca estado de Hidalgo (n = 81), y otro en la Región Lagunera de los estados de Coahu [...] ila y Durango (n = 169), México. Las cepas fueron identificadas mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el sistema comercial API 20NE. La tipificación capsular se realizó por medio de las pruebas de hiauloronidasa y acrifavina, así como por medio de una PCR múltiple para la amplificación de los genes hyaD-hyaC y dcbF. Los resultados globales mediante la prueba de hialuronidasa mostraron que 90.4% (226/250) de las cepas fueron del tipo capsular A y por medio de la prueba de acrifavina, 9.6% (24/250) fue del tipo capsular D. Por medio de la PCR múltiple, 92% (230/250) fue tipo capsular A y 8% (20/250) fue tipo capsular D. La comparación de los resultados entre las pruebas bioquímicas y la técnica de PCR concuerdan en la identificación de las cepas del tipo capsular A, pero no así con las del tipo capsular D. Se corrobora que en México el tipo capsular predominante de P. multocida es el A. Abstract in english Two hundred and fifty strains of P. multocida isolated from nasal exudate were obtained, 182 clinically healthy bovine strains and 68 clinically ill with pneumonia bovine strains, from two dairy complexes, one in the Tizayuca region of Hidalgo state (n = 81), and another in the Region Lagunera of th [...] e states of Coahuila and Durango (n = 169), Mexico. Strains were identifed by conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE commercial system. Capsular typing was performed by testing hyauloronidase and acrifavine, as well as by a multiplex PCR for amplification of genes hyaC-hyaD and dcbF. The overall results of hyaluronidase by the test showed that 90.4% (226/250) of the strains were capsular type A and through the acrifavine test 9.6% (24/250) was capsular type D. Using the multiplex PCR, 92% (230/250) was capsular type A and 8% (20/250) was capsular type D. The comparison of results between biochemical tests and PCR are consistent in identifying strains of capsular type A but not with the capsular type D. It was possible to confrm that capsular type A of P. multocida is predominat in Mexico.

Víctor Manuel, Campuzano Ocampo; Alma Delia, González Rodríguez; Rigoberto, Hernández Castro; Francisco, Suárez Güemes; Francisco José, Trigo Tavera; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo Arango.

2011-03-01

318

Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas de exudado nasal de bovinos, en dos cuencas lecheras de México / Phenotypic and molecular strain characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cattle nasal exudate from two dairy complexes in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se obtuvieron 250 cepas de P. multocida aisladas de exudado nasal, 182 cepas de bovinos clínicamente sanos y 68 cepas de bovinos clínicamente enfermos de neumonía, de dos complejos lecheros, uno en la región de Tizayuca estado de Hidalgo (n = 81), y otro en la Región Lagunera de los estados de Coahu [...] ila y Durango (n = 169), México. Las cepas fueron identificadas mediante pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y el sistema comercial API 20NE. La tipificación capsular se realizó por medio de las pruebas de hiauloronidasa y acrifavina, así como por medio de una PCR múltiple para la amplificación de los genes hyaD-hyaC y dcbF. Los resultados globales mediante la prueba de hialuronidasa mostraron que 90.4% (226/250) de las cepas fueron del tipo capsular A y por medio de la prueba de acrifavina, 9.6% (24/250) fue del tipo capsular D. Por medio de la PCR múltiple, 92% (230/250) fue tipo capsular A y 8% (20/250) fue tipo capsular D. La comparación de los resultados entre las pruebas bioquímicas y la técnica de PCR concuerdan en la identificación de las cepas del tipo capsular A, pero no así con las del tipo capsular D. Se corrobora que en México el tipo capsular predominante de P. multocida es el A. Abstract in english Two hundred and fifty strains of P. multocida isolated from nasal exudate were obtained, 182 clinically healthy bovine strains and 68 clinically ill with pneumonia bovine strains, from two dairy complexes, one in the Tizayuca region of Hidalgo state (n = 81), and another in the Region Lagunera of th [...] e states of Coahuila and Durango (n = 169), Mexico. Strains were identifed by conventional biochemical tests and API 20NE commercial system. Capsular typing was performed by testing hyauloronidase and acrifavine, as well as by a multiplex PCR for amplification of genes hyaC-hyaD and dcbF. The overall results of hyaluronidase by the test showed that 90.4% (226/250) of the strains were capsular type A and through the acrifavine test 9.6% (24/250) was capsular type D. Using the multiplex PCR, 92% (230/250) was capsular type A and 8% (20/250) was capsular type D. The comparison of results between biochemical tests and PCR are consistent in identifying strains of capsular type A but not with the capsular type D. It was possible to confrm that capsular type A of P. multocida is predominat in Mexico.

Víctor Manuel, Campuzano Ocampo; Alma Delia, González Rodríguez; Rigoberto, Hernández Castro; Francisco, Suárez Güemes; Francisco José, Trigo Tavera; Carlos Julio, Jaramillo Arango.

319

MEASURING THE DIFFUSION-COEFFICIENT OF RHIZOSPHERE EXUDATES IN SOIL .1. THE DIFFUSION OF NON-SORBING COMPOUNDS  

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A quick, convenient and robust method estimates the effective diffusion coefficient from a measured diffusion profile by optimizing the solution of a numerical simulation model describing the experimental system. The method was used to measure the effective diffusion coefficients of soluble organic compounds found in root exudates. -Author

Darrah, P.

1991-01-01

320

Contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates to the biostimulation of PAH degradation: an in vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytoremediation is considered as a promising and cost-effective method to enhance bioremediation of polluted soils. Exudation of plant root secondary metabolites similar to organic pollutants may induce the expression of microbial degradative enzymes and favour cometabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the contribution of Miscanthus x giganteus root exudates in the biostimulation of PAH-degradation. This perennial grass was chosen because of its capability to grow on polluted soils and its high biomass production for non-food purposes. First, the impact of cometabolism phenomena was evaluated on the selective enrichment of pyrene-degrading bacterial consortia. The identification of each isolated strains following incubation with pyrene only, "pyrene+phenanthrene", "pyrene+salycilate" or "pyrene+diesel fuel" showed a varying bacterial diversity and pyrene-degrading ability, depending on the co-substrate used. Then, a microplate assay was designed, based on the simultaneous measurement of bacterial consortia growth and degradation activity, in the presence of PAH and total root exudates. Results showed that i) the addition of root exudates was efficient for promoting bacterial growth, ii) but a selective enrichment of PAH-degraders compared to aliphatic ones could be clearly demonstrated, thereby conducing to an enhanced PAH catabolism. The identification of plant secondary metabolites showed the presence of a broad range of flavonoid-derived compounds that could play a role in cometabolic processes. Microplate assays with the two major molecules, quercetin and rutin, suggested a partial involvement of these compounds in biostimulation processes. Further investigations with the other identified secondary metabolites (apigenin, isovitexin, catechin, gallic and caffeic acid) should provide more information on the exudate-PAH cometabolic degradation phenomenon. PMID:21782215

Técher, Didier; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Henry, Sonia; Bennasroune, Amar; Formanek, Pavel; Martinez-Chois, Claudia; D'Innocenzo, Marielle; Muanda, François; Dicko, Amadou; Rejšek, Klement; Falla, Jairo

2011-09-15

 
 
 
 
321

Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 ?g/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

2014-06-01

322

[Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus), as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket) between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and beta-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis-aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus) can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases). Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analysed as more amenable to chairside utilization. PMID:19594076

Caki?, Sasa

2009-01-01

323

Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and ?-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

?aki? Saša

2009-01-01

324

Evaluation and outcomes of pediatric pleural effusions in over 10 years in Northwest, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Pleural effusion is the accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity. Most information available about pleural effusion is obtained from studies on adults and little evidence is available in children. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the existing status and explain the disease process, signs, treatment, and prognosis. Children with pleural effusion who were admitted to children’s university hospital during the last ten years were studied in this research. Methodology: In this descriptive research, children with pleural effusion who were admitted and undergone thoracocentesis in the children’s university hospital during the last ten years were studied. The data obtained from in vitro experiments and the information questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS-18 through descriptive statistics of frequency, percent, and mean. Findings: Ninety-four children with pleural effusion were admitted during 10 years. Pleural effusion was exudate in 56.38% and transudate in 43.61% of children. The most common symptoms were tachypnea, fever, and cough. Antibiotic administration was the most performed therapeutic action. Conclusion: The mode of addressing pleural effusion in this research was similar to other studies. Considering the results, better planning can be performed regarding preventing this disease or improving its prognosis.

Mohammad Hassan Kargar maher

2014-08-01

325

Determination by ultrafiltration of the fraction of unbound estradiol and its variation in peritoneal fluid during the menstrual cycle.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An ultrafiltration method employing a Centrifree filter for determining the unbound fraction of estradiol was studied. Centrifugation was performed under conditions similar to those in vivo. Good correlation was recognized between this method and the equilibrium dialysis. This method was employed to determine the unbound fraction of estradiol in the serum and the peritoneal fluid of 26 infertility patients classified according to their menstrual dates. The total estradiol and progesterone contents in the peritoneal fluid were high after ovulation. There was no significant difference in the percentage of unbound estradiol in the serum among various groups. In the peritoneal fluid, however, the percentage of unbound estradiol for the day 12-14 patients was 4.5 +/- 0.2% in contrast with 3.8 +/- 0.4% for the day 15-18 group (p less than 0.05 and 3.5 +/- 0.1% (p less than 0.05 for the day 19-28 group. Moreover, the fraction (4.5% of unbound estradiol in the peritoneal fluid of a patient with luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF syndrome was comparable with that of patients in the follicular phase. The difference between the percentage of unbound estradiol in the peritoneal fluid before and after ovulation is considered to be due to the transudation of follicular estradiol in the follicular phase and the exudation of estradiol from the corpus luteum into the peritoneal cavity in the luteal phase.

Lin,Yaw-tyng

1987-02-01

326

A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

Ba?arah Basel

2009-01-01

327

Sinorhizobium meliloti chemoreceptor McpU mediates chemotaxis toward host plant exudates through direct proline sensing.  

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Bacterial chemotaxis is an important attribute that aids in establishing symbiosis between rhizobia and their legume hosts. Plant roots and seeds exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil to attract their bacterial symbionts. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses eight chemoreceptors to sense its environment and mediate chemotaxis toward its host. The methyl accepting chemotaxis protein McpU is one of the more abundant S. meliloti chemoreceptors and an important sensor for the potent attractant proline. We established a dominant role of McpU in sensing molecules exuded by alfalfa seeds. Mass spectrometry analysis determined that a single germinating seed exudes 3.72 nmol of proline, producing a millimolar concentration near the seed surface which can be detected by the chemosensory system of S. meliloti. Complementation analysis of the mcpU deletion strain verified McpU as the key proline sensor. A structure-based homology search identified tandem Cache (calcium channels and chemotaxis receptors) domains in the periplasmic region of McpU. Conserved residues Asp-155 and Asp-182 of the N-terminal Cache domain were determined to be important for proline sensing by evaluating mutant strains in capillary and swim plate assays. Differential scanning fluorimetry revealed interaction of the isolated periplasmic region of McpU (McpU40-284) with proline and the importance of Asp-182 in this interaction. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we determined that proline binds with a Kd (dissociation constant) of 104 ?M to McpU40-284, while binding was abolished when Asp-182 was substituted by Glu. Our results show that McpU is mediating chemotaxis toward host plants by direct proline sensing. PMID:24657863

Webb, Benjamin A; Hildreth, Sherry; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

2014-06-01

328

Organic matter exudation by Emiliania huxleyi under simulated future ocean conditions  

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Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi (strain B 92/11 was exposed to different nutrient supply, CO2 and temperature conditions in phosphorus controlled chemostats to investigate effects on organic carbon exudation and partitioning between the pools of particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. 14C incubation measurements for primary production (PP and extracellular release (ER were performed. Chemical analysis included the amount and composition of high molecular weight (>1 kDa dissolved combined carbohydrates (HMW-dCCHO, particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO and the carbon content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP-C. Applied CO2 and temperature conditions were 300, 550 and 900 ?atm pCO2 at 14 °C, and additionally 900 ?atm pCO2 at 18 °C simulating a greenhouse ocean scenario. Enhanced nutrient stress by reducing the dilution rate (D from D = 0.3 d?1 to D = 0.1 d?1 (D = ? induced the strongest response in E. huxleyi. At ? = 0.3 d?1, PP was significantly higher at elevated CO2 and temperature and DO14C production correlated to PO14C production in all treatments, resulting in similar percentages of extracellular release (PER; (DO14C production/PP × 100 averaging 3.74 ± 0.94%. At ? = 0.1 d?1, PO14C production decreased significantly, while exudation of DO14C increased. Thus, indicating a stronger partitioning from the particulate to the dissolved pool. Maximum PER of 16.3 ± 2.3% were observed at ? = 0.1 d?1 at elevated CO2 and temperature. While cell densities remained constant within each treatment and throughout the experiment, concentrations of HMW-dCCHO, pCCHO and TEP were generally higher under enhanced nutrient stress. At ? = 0.3 d?1, pCCHO concentration increased significantly with elevated CO2 and temperature. At ? = 0.1 d?1, the contribution (mol % C of HMW-dCCHO to DOC was lower at elevated CO2 and temperature while pCCHO and TEP concentrations were higher. This was most pronounced under greenhouse conditions. Our findings suggest a stronger transformation of primary produced DOC into POC by coagulation of exudates under nutrient limitation. Our results further imply that elevated CO2 and temperature will increase exudation by E. huxleyi and may affect organic carbon partitioning in the ocean due to an enhanced transfer of HMW-dCCHO to TEP by aggregation processes.

A. Engel

2012-08-01

329

Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and<