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1

Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

K.P.Tyagi; M.N.Khan

2010-01-01

2

Development of a tunable diode laser sensor for measurements of gas turbine exhaust temperature  

Science.gov (United States)

A tunable diode laser (TDL) temperature sensor is designed, constructed, tested, and demonstrated in the exhaust of an industrial gas turbine. Temperature is determined from the ratio of the measured absorbance of two water vapor overtone transitions in the near infrared where telecommunication diode lasers are available. Design rules are developed to select the optimal pair of transitions for direct absorption measurements using spectral simulations by systematically examining the absorption strength, spectral isolation, and temperature sensitivity to maximize temperature accuracy in the core flow and minimize sensitivity to water vapor in the cold boundary layer. The contribution to temperature uncertainty from the spectroscopic database is evaluated and precise line-strength data are measured for the selected transitions. Gas-temperature measurements in a heated cell are used to verify the sensor accuracy (over the temperature range of 350 to 1000 K, ?T˜2 K for the optimal line pair and ?T˜5 K for an alternative line pair). Field measurements of exhaust-gas temperature in an industrial gas turbine demonstrate the practical utility of TDL sensing in harsh industrial environments.

Liu, X.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.; Hinckley, K. M.; Woodmansee, M. A.

2006-03-01

3

Exhaust gas recirculation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas recirculation system for cleaning exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is provided in which a variable constriction is provided between an intake pipe and a pressure control valve in operative connection to a throttle valve in the carburetor and the pressure differential across said variable constriction is maintained constant to keep off any influence of the exhaust gas pressure while the ratio of the exhaust gas flow rate to the air intake into the engine is varied in correspondence to the intake pipe negative pressure. This exhaust gas recirculation system can be adapted to a fuel injection type intake system as well as other intake systems provided with an air valve for regulating air intake or having no venturi constriction such as employed in an su type carburetor.

Minoura, M.; Yorioka, K.

1980-11-18

4

Exhaust gas recirculation control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas recirculation control system variably controls the amount of exhaust gas recirculated to a diesel engine in accord with the quantity of fuel supplied per engine revolution between a maximum amount at a first predetermined quantity of fuel per revolution and a minimum amount at a second predetermined quantity of fuel per revolution. The system maintains a substantially constant relationship between the exhaust gas recirculation amount and the quantity of fuel injected for each revolution over the speed range of the engine even though the fuel control element positions providing the first and second predetermined values of fuel quantity per revolution each increases at different rates as a function of increasing engine speeds.

Hamren, G.C.

1983-02-15

5

Exhaust Fan Temperature Switch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 13000 cfm 'emergency' vent fan must be protected from over cooling which would result in a mechanical failure. Over cooling could result from a catastrophic cryogen release from the cryostat(s) or Argon Storage Dewar. In order to protect the fan, a VPT has been calibrated for -31 C to open a switch which sends a signal to allow warm gas to enter the sump by means of a motor controlled louver installed at 'sidewalk level' in the ductwork between the assembly hall and the Argon Dewar Enclosure. The bulb of the VPT is enclosed in a thermal well and will be placed in the gas stream directly above the fan. The switching unit will be mounted nearby on the wall in order to isolate it from vibrational effects. Should the fan be activated due to a cryogen release, it should not experience any problems when operating above -40 C. The switch was set and checked in a saturated calcium chloride solution cooled to -31 C by running cold gaseous Nitrogen through a copper tube coiled in a dewar. Switching temperature was measured by a thermocouple tied to the VPT bulb. The thermocouple was checked in LN2, in an ice water bath, and against an ordinary thermometer (which was assumed to be accurate to plus or minus 0.3 C) at room temperature. The results are shown below in 'Table 1' By interpolation of the data, thermocouple error at -31.0 C was found to be 0.43 C on the warm side. Since this error was small, it was ignored. 'Table 2' shows the results of the tests. Ten readings were taken with the switch wired in the 'normally open' mode. This results in a signal at room temperature. The worst deviation was 2.5 C. Three readings were then taken from the 'normally closed' wiring arrangement (the way it will be wired for installation). The greatest deviation was 1.2 C. The next day, the switch was checked five times wired in the 'normally open' configuration. The greatest error was 1.1 C. A graph has been prepared showing the switching and resetting temperatures. The errors these tests bore out do not threaten the exhaust fan and are therefore acceptable.

Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

1989-05-11

6

High temperature-resistant materials for car exhaust gas catalysts; Hochtemperaturfeste Werkstoffe fuer Autoabgaskatalysatoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the work consisted of the development of a material for car exhaust gas catalysts which can be used in catalysts situated near the engine. Because of the occurrence of temperatures up to 1000 C in use, there are considerably higher requirements for this material than for previous materials. Titanium in the form of foil and metal mesh and nickel in the form of metal mesh was tested as substrate materials. Ti-hybrid, Ni and Cu were tested as diffusion blockers, and Pt noble metal coating as galvanic layer and as product of the thermal decomposition of a Pt complex salt free of chloride. It was found that Ti is not stable at a temperature of 1000 C and neither are the diffusion blockers. Ni with platinum plating does not change at 1000 C. The examination of the application technique of the Ni metal mesh gave no satisfactory conversion rates for Co, HC and NO{sub x}. Information was obtained in what conditions and in which geometrical shape metal mesh is suitable as the substrate geometry for exhaust gas catalysts. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Ziel der Arbeiten bestand in der Entwicklung eines Werkstoffes fuer Autoabgaskatalysatoren, der in motornah angeordneten Katalysatoren eingesetzt werden kann. An diesen Werkstoff werden wegen der im Einsatz auftretenden Temperaturen bis 1000 C wesentlich hoehere Anforderugen als an die bisherigen Werkstoffe gestellt. Es wurden Ti in Form von Folie und Streckmetall sowie Ni in Form von Streckmetal als Substratwerkstoffe getestet. Als Diffusionssperren wurden Ti-Hybrid, Ni und Cu und als Edelmetallbeschichtung Pt als galvanische Schicht und als Produkt der thermischen Zersetzung eines chloridfreien Pt-Komplexsalzes getestet. Es zeigte sich, dass Ti bei der Temperaturbelastung von 1000 C nicht stabil ist, auch nicht die Diffusionssperren. Ni, platiniert, erfaehrt bei 1000 C keine Veraenderungen. Die anwendungstechnische Untersuchung des platinierten Ni-Streckmetalles ergab keine zufriedenstellenden Konvertierungsraten fuer CO, HC und NO{sub x}. Es wurden Erkenntnisse gewonnen, unter welchen Bedingungen und in welcher geometrischer Form sich Streckmetall als Substratgeometrie in Abgaskatalysatoren eignet. (orig.)

Einenkel, A.

1996-06-30

7

Comparison of sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of methyl esters of vegetable oils blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke engine fuelled with Vegetable oil methyl ester and its blends with standard diesel. Among different vegetable oils which can be used as alternate fuels, five vegetable oils, i.e., Nerium (Nerium oleander), Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata), Mahua (Madhuca indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) oils were selected for analysis. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1800 rpm. It has found that the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of vegetable oil methyl ester and its diesel blends closely followed those of standard diesel.

S. Prabhakar; K. Annamalai

2011-01-01

8

Pt-loaded zeolites for reducing exhaust gas emissions at low temperatures and in lean conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, pure and platinum-loaded zeolites, ZSM-5, Beta, zeolite Y and Ferrierite, were examined for the reduction of NO with propene in lean conditions and at low temperatures. The studies were carried out by utilising the FT-IR technique both in determination of surface species as well as concentrations in the gas flow at reactor outlet. The maximum in the intermediate formation can be observed at the light-off temperatures over all studied catalyst materials. The maximum conversions of NO were reached with 1wt% Pt-loaded Beta and Y zeolites in excess oxygen. The lowest light-off temperatures of NO as well as propene can be detected also with Beta and Y zeolite catalysts

2005-02-28

9

Exhaust gas sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The automotive industry needed a fast, reliable, under-the-hood method of determining nitrogen oxides in automobile exhaust. Several technologies were pursued concurrently. These sensing technologies were based on light absorption, electrochemical methods, and surface mass loading. The Y-12 plant was selected to study the methods based on light absorption. The first phase was defining the detailed technical objectives of the sensors--this was the role of the automobile companies. The second phase was to develop prototype sensors in the laboratories--the national laboratories. The final phase was testing of the prototype sensors by the automobile industries. This program was canceled a few months into what was to be a three-year effort.

Hiller, J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miree, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Allen Park, MI (United States)

1997-02-09

10

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

11

High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

Svenningstorp, Henrik

2000-07-01

12

Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

2002-02-19

13

Exhaust gas temperature sensor based on thermocouples with integrated electronics; Abgastemperaturfuehler auf Basis von Thermoelementen mit integrierter Auswerteelektronik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABB Automation Products GmbH manufactures temperature sensors and volumetric flow meters as a section in the global ABB company in the Frankish Alzenau. Here not only the market of the power plant instrumentation is served but also with increasing emphasis the automotive industry. In many engine dynamometers the so called Sensyflow system works satisfactorily for the mass measurement of gaseous media for many years. Following contribution describes the newest variant of a further product of the house, the exhaust gas temperature sensor DTS-P. Apart from function descriptions of highly supercharged petrol engines potential approaches for the diagnosis of catalysts and particle filters are figured out. (orig.) [German] ABB Automation Products GmbH, Alzenau, fertigt als eine Sparte im ABB-Konzern Temperatursensoren und Durchflussmessgeraete. Hierbei werden nicht nur die Maerkte der Instrumentierungstechnik bedient, sondern auch mit wachsendem Anteil die Automobilindustrie. In zahlreichen Motorenpruefstaenden bewaehrt sich seit vielen Jahren das sogenannte Sensyflow-System zur Massenmessung gasfoermiger Medien. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die neueste Variante eines weiteren Produkts des Unternehmens, den Abgastemperaturfuehler DTS. Neben Funktionsweise werden Applikationen im Bereich hochaufgeladener Ottomotoren sowie Moeglichkeiten zur Diagnose von Katalysatoren und Partikelfiltern aufgezeigt. (orig.)

Laurinat, R.; Kleeberg, I.; Konken, A.; Reusswig, D. [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

2003-09-01

14

Exhaust gas clean up process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01

15

Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation chamber and to the engine intake manifold; and a cyclone drum connected to the electrostatic precipitator for removing particles from the exhaust gases in the electrostatic precipitator. The method consists of: dissociating the molecules of the exhaust gas from the engine in the dissociation chamber into monomolecules by subjecting the exhaust gas to the effects of a corona discharge in the dissociation chamber; removing carbon and other particulate matter from the exhaust in the electrostatic precipitator and cyclone drum to dedust the exhaust gas; and igniting a mixture of fuel and the dedusted exhaust gas in the combustion chamber of the engine, whereby fuel is initially oxidized solely by an oxygen component of the dissociated exhaust gas.

Suzuki, N.

1986-05-13

16

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

17

Higashi-Niigata thermal power station the 3rd list thermal efficiency improvement by changing exhaust gas boiler feed water temperature. Higashiniigata karyoku hatsudensho 3 go keiretsu hai gas boiler kyusui ondo henko ni yoru netsukoritsu kojo ni tsuite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The third system of the Higashi Niigata thermal power station employs combined cycle power generation system, and it consumes liquefied natural gas. The combined cycle power generation system is a combination of gas turbine power system and steam turbine power system which utilizes the steam from exhaust gas boiler. The exhaust gas boiler which equips economizer and feed water pre-heater for the purpose of improving thermal efficiency, was investigated in the setting value of the feed water temperature. By changing the control valve setting value of the feed water temperature at the exit of economizer, output was increased. Also, the power reduction of the high pressure feed water pump and the condensate pump was accomplished. The driving power of each feed water pump was reduced by reducing the amount of recirculating feed water in the economizer and by lowering the loss of exhuast gas, so that the energy-saving was realized. 5 figs.

Wakamizu, A. (The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan))

1991-02-04

18

Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

2013-05-21

19

Exhaust gas purification system for internal combustion engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas purification system is disclosed for internal combustion engine having a thermal reactor interposed in the exhaust passage. The thermal reactor comprises a heat insulated inner shell for defining a reaction chamber therein and a core shell provided in the core shell spaced therefrom for providing a space between the both shells. A pair of exhaust pipes communicating with the exhaust valves of the engine are inserted into the core shell through an opening of the core shell so as to form a confluence and constant swirling of the exhaust gases in the core shell to provide a high temperature zone in the center of the swirling. The opening of the core shell is narrowed for preventing high temperature zone from moving out of the reaction chamber.

Oya, H.; Tatejima, M.

1980-03-11

20

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14

 
 
 
 
21

Technical trend of medium/low temperature exhaust heat recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As regards the approx. 30 to 200/sup 0/C medium/low temperature exhaust heat utilization, its recent trend of basic engineering was exhibited. In the exhaust heat recovery engineering, the exhaust heat boiler is the most spreaded and but problematic about prevention against the low temperature corrosion. The heat pipe can control, with high accuracy, the exhaust gas side surface temperature to be higher than the acid dew point. The heat resistant glass using heat exchanger, capable of refrigerating exhaust gas to a lower temperature than the dew point, deserves attention. The exhaust heat recovery type heat pump is being engineering-wise developed to plan the heightening in efficiency through the multi-stage compression/condensation at the small difference in temperature and adoption of non-azeotropic mixture refrigerant. Ammonia was utilized for the combination between the advanced adsorption heat pump and chemical heat pump so that the heightening in temperature to higher than 200/sup 0/C was achieved. Further, its utilization for the power recovery bottoming cycle is considerably effective. It will be required, in future, to endeavor to realize the bottoming cycle in the cogeneration. (3 figs, 1 tab)

1988-08-30

22

Tail pipe for drafting engine exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine leaving a conventional muffler will flow through the perforated pipes in the muffler to delay its discharge movement and to cause back pressure against an engine cylinder, thereby resuling in incomplete combustion of the gas mixture within the engine and counteracting the engine output. These phenomena are counteracted by the device of this invention, which provides a tail pipe including a front perforated pipe connected to a muffler, an outer pipe jacketed outside the front pipe for leading in ambient air, a central pipe connected with a rear portion of the front pipe and disposed inside the outer pipe, and plural swirl perforated plates. Each plate is helically secured between the central pipe and the outer pipe and each swirl plate secures the rear portion of the front pipe between the outer pipe and the central pipe. Upon a discharge of engine exhaust gas, the pressure of a partial exhaust gas stream is reduced by the induced ambient cooling air and the pressure of the remaining gas stream is further reduced since the gas stream is guided through the swirl perforated plates to exert an eddy flow at the pipe exit to suck the exhaust gas outwardly. 6 figs.

Lin, S.-S.

1991-03-05

23

Cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.; Nonnenmann, M.

1981-08-04

24

Exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. Abgasturbolader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns an exhaust gas turbo-supercharger, which is operated in the supercritical speed range, and preferably has a compressor wheel at one end of a rotor shaft and a turbine wheel at the other end. There is considerable adverse environmental effect from exhaust gas turbo-superchargers due to noise emitted. Such noise is mainly produced by resonance phenomena on components of the turbo-supercharger, and these are converted into body noise. In order to reduce the noise generated, particularly for small exhaust gas turbo-superchargers, and to contribute to protecting the environment, it is proposed that two bodies will be situated in at least one plane at right angles to the rotor axis, whose centres of gravity can move freely on circular paths concentric to the rotor axis under the effect of gravity.

Spurk, J.H.; Zloch, N.

1985-10-24

25

Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

Regar, K.N.

1982-01-26

26

Method of controlling exhaust gas emissions from an electric arc furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for controlling exhaust gases emitted from a direct arc furnace melting furnace is described. Prior to cleaning the temperature of the gases is sensed and the arc power is regulated in response to the sensed exhaust gas temperature. Also, the cleaning process of the gases is changed depending upon the sensed gas temperature.

Squibbs, J.D.

1980-12-30

27

TREATMENT PROCESS FOR EXHAUST GAS OF BENZENE HOMOLOG AIR OXIDATION PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A treatment process for exhaust gas of benzene homolog air oxidation process is provided, in which the high-temperature pressurized exhaust gas produced in the benzene homolog air oxidation process is used as the power and heat source. Firstly, the exhaust gas enters into a turbine refrigerator (TM-01) to do work and generate refrigeration used to condense the gas phase at the top of the flash evaporator (FT-01) and organics entrained in the exhaust gas. Next, the exhaust gas with lowered temperature and pressure is introduced into corresponding heat exchangers (H-03) to provide a part of heat for the flash evaporator (FT-01) and preheat the reaction raw materials. Furthermore, the condensed exhaust gas is also introduced into a water absorption scrubber (W-01) to further remove trace organics entrained in it.

ZHANG ZHIBING; WANG GUANNAN; DAI YUE; LI LEI; MENG WEIMIN

28

Exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. Abgasturbolader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust gas turbo-supercharger includes a radial turbine and a gas flow housing, which is divided into a main duct and an auxiliary duct. This division is continued to the outlet of a turbine guide device to just before the turbine rotor. The auxiliary duct can be smoothly closed upstream by means of a shut-off device and is therefore removed in crossection from the gas flow. This produces a reduction of the effective turbine crossection, which leads to an increase of the turbine energy and is converted into an increase of the charging pressure on the compressor side.

Heintze, W.; Haefner, R.

1991-05-02

29

Particulate trap for purifying diesel engine exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A particulate trap for purifying diesel engine exhaust gas is provided that is high in trapping efficiency with a low pressure loss and which is resistant to thermal shock by temperature increase and cooling at the time of regeneration. A particulate trap for purifying diesel engine exhaust gas comprising a container provided midway along the length of an exhaust system, and filter elements mounted in the container, characterized in that the filter elements each comprise a three dimensional network porous structure constituted by a heat resistant metal framework having communicating air pores, that the average diameter of the air pores ranges from 0.1 to 1 mm, that the average number of the air pores in a thickness direction of the filter elements is ten or more, that the volume packing rate accounted for by the metal framework at the filtering portions of the filter elements ranges from 10 to 40%, and that the exhaust gas inflow surface area of the filter elements is 400 cm[sup 2] or more per one liter exhaust of an engine on which the trap is mounted. (author) figs.

Ishii, M.; Honda, M.; Nishi, T.; Okamoto, S.

1993-11-25

30

Internal combustion engine with exhaust gas recirculation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An internal combustion engine for an automobile is equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation system by means of which exhaust gases are recirculated into the intake passage. The carburetor system of the engine contains a fuel enrichment valve. A control vacuum line connected to the intake passage actuates a regulating valve which controls the recirculation control valve and the fuel enrichment valve. The flow-resistance in the control-vacuum line is controlled by a predetermined actuating variable which may depend on the engine temperature alone but also on the engine speed, engine load (intake vacuum) or atmospheric pressure.

Gotoh, O.; Otobe, Y.; Kawamoto, M.; Fujimura, A.

1980-02-02

31

Exhaust gas recirculation system for crankcase scavenged two cycle engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a two cycle crankcase scavenged engine comprising: a cylinder having a piston reciprocable disposed, the piston and cylinder forming a combustion chamber; a crankcase; an exhaust port opening into the combustion chamber; exhaust system means connected to the exhaust port for conducting exhaust gas away from the engine and cooling the exhaust gas; means for forming an air-fuel mixture and introducing the mixture into the crankcase through an intake opening; a transfer passage connecting the crankcase to the combustion chamber; an exhaust recirculation port opening into the crankcase; and exhaust gas recirculation means connected to the exhaust system means for recirculating exhaust gas into the crankcase through the recirculation port.

Kaufman, V.R.; Geringer, M.S.

1987-07-28

32

Flue gas corrosion and soiling of exhaust boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the content of corrosive and polluting particles in diesel exhaust used as a heating medium for exhaust gas boilers, the reasons and the mechanism of corrosion processes on the heating surfaces is explained. The acid dew point that is to say the condensation temperature of the vaporous sulfuric acid in the exhaust is most important. Soot acts as an additional catalyst in acid formation and is deposited together with oil ash on the heating surfaces. Heat transfer is impaired considerably, pressure losses increase. Calculation for four finned tube geometries shows the influence of dirt accumulation on thermal output and pressure loss. Design and operational measures are pointed out which act against or almost prevent corrosion and pollution.

Buxmann, J.

1981-01-01

33

Device for purification of exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device for the purification of exhaust gas is disclosed. This purification device comprises a ceramic porous body having a three-dimensional network cellular structure with a plurality of interconnected voids and a bulk specific gravity of 0.25-0.6, an activated alumina layer covering the surfaces of cell strands of the ceramic porous body, and a noble metal catalyst layer supported on the activated alumina layer, or comprises a reactive member composed of the purification device as described above, and an agitating member composed of a ceramic porous body or a gas adsorbing member composed of a ceramic porous body and a gas adsorbent applied to the ceramic porous body.

Izuhara, S.; Narumiya, T.

1981-12-29

34

Critical topics in exhaust gas aftertreatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Critical Topics in Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment reviews the major technical issues of the subject from an applications and systems perspective. It describes where today's aftertreatment fails, what new types of aftertreatment are currently under research, and how aftertreatment can most effectively by integrated into a vehicle's powertrain. The test is organised according to eight specific problems currently faced by the automotive industry, and which must be solved or circumvented if air quality goals are to be met. Much of the material has not appeared in monograph form before, and included is an extensive list of seen hundred references. (Author)

Eastwood, Peter [Ford Motor Co., Research and Engineering Centre, Basildon (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

35

Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

2008-05-27

36

Exhaust gas sensor based on tin dioxide for automotive application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the potentialities of gas sensor based on semi-conductor for exhaust gas automotive application. The sensing element is a tin dioxide layer with gold electrodes. This gas sensor is able to detect both reducing and oxidizing gases in an exhaust pipe with varyin...

Valleron, Arthur; Pijolat, Christophe; Viricelle, Jean-Paul; Breuil, Philippe; Marchand, Jean-Claude; Ott, Sébastien

37

Water cooled exhaust gas pipe of an internal combustion engine. Wassergekuehltes Abgasleitungssystem einer Brennkraftmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with an improved water cooling exhaust gas pipe system for internal combustion engines. The exhaust gas pipe is connected with the channels of the cylinder heads and covered by a sheet tube, serving as cooling water room. It is intended that the exhaust gas pipe system has a good thermal insulation, can be easily manufactured and has a light weight. This exhaust gas pipe consists of grey cast-iron and is provided with flanges with stop rails for fastening a shell-shaped sheet jacket. In conjunction with the exhaust gas pipe serves this jacket as the cooling water rooms. The thin, very elastic sheet jacket is resistant against high temperature strains.

Eckert, R.

1981-08-13

38

Exhaust gas cleaning system for diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-resistant filters 6, 7 are disposed at the upstream side of a catalyst bed 9. These heat-resistant filters 6, 7 perform filtration to completely catch and remove the smoke particles suspended by the exhaust gas, so that the undesirable attaching of the smoke particles to the catalyst bed 9 is fairly avoided. Also, means are provided to regenerate the heat-resistant filters simply by burning the smoke particles attaching to these filters. In another embodiment, a heat-resistant filter 24 and a catalyst bed 26 are shaped to have hollow cylindrical forms and are superposed to each other. For regenerating the heat-resistant filter 24, hot air is introduced into the filter 24 by the action of a high pressure burner 28 or a vacuum generating section 33. The heat-resistant filter 24 and the catalyst bed 26 are accomodated by a single case 21.

Chiba, K.; Iwasawa, Y.; Kajioka, Y.; Komine, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Tukuhiro, T.

1982-08-24

39

New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

1996-12-31

40

Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The con...

Sakhrieh Ahmad

 
 
 
 
41

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Orlando, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA); Tonkyn, Russell G. (Kennewick, WA)

1999-01-01

42

Exhaust gas cleaning device of internal combustion engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas cleaning device of an internal combustion engine, comprising a secondary-air supply system connected to exhaust ports to supply the secondary air for cooling the exhaust gas, and reed valve devices installed in the secondary-air supply system and adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating pressure generated in the exhaust ports when the engine is in operation. The reed valve devices are mounted on the side surface of the cylinder block, each of which has a reed valve chamber and a reed valve that divides the reed valve chamber into an upstream chamber and a downstream chamber and that is adapted to be opened and closed by the pulsating exhaust gas. The upstream chamber is communicated with the open air via a secondary-air intake pipe, and the downstream chamber is connected to the exhaust port via a secondary-air supply passage. The exhaust gas cleaning device is simply constructed so that its maintenance is easy and the presence of the device does not hinder maintenance operation for the internal combustion engine such as replacement of spark plugs, adjustment of tappets, and the like.

Ikenoya, Y.; Ishida, Y.

1984-03-06

43

Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A muffler for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving an expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a first, perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound-absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the first perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the first, perforated pipe, (e) at least one partition within the casing defining gas expansion chambers.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1987-10-20

44

Methane oxidation over noble metal catalysts as related to controlling natural gas vehicle exhaust emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. This paper reports on methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, which has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd/Al2O3 > Rh/Al2O3 > Pt/Al2O3. Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry

1992-01-01

45

Controlling the injection of ammonia in a dry type exhaust gas denitration process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a first processor unit the relationship between the amount of nitrogen oxides in a combustion exhaust gas and a numerical value representing an amount of combustion, E.G. - fuel flow rate or the like, is stored. In a second processor unit the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides as a function of the combustion exhaust gas temperature is stored. A numerical value corresponding to the actual measured amount of combustion is inputted to the first processor unit to derive the amount of nitrogen oxides in the combustion exhaust gas. The actual measured combustion exhaust gas temperature is inputted to the second processor unit to derive the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides. The optimum amount of ammonia to be injected is derived by multiplying the amount of nitrogen oxides, derived by means of the first processor unit, by the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides derived by means of the second processor unit. In a preferable embodiment of the present invention, the ratio of ammonia to nitrogen oxides is corrected before the multiplication by means of a correction factor which is stored in a third processor unit and which corresponds to a time variation rate of the combustion exhaust gas temperature.

Shiraishi, Y.; Ukawa, N.

1982-02-02

46

Exhaust gas purifying system for internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas purifying system for an automobile engine including at least first and second engine cylinder has a shutter valve for interrupting the supply of a combustible air-fuel mixture to the first engine cylinder during a particular engine operating condition, a three-way electromagnetically operated valve for controlling the operation of the shutter valve, and a secondary air supply unit including a switching valve for selectively supplying a secondary air to a portion of an exhaust passage upstream of at least one catalyst unit disposed in the exhaust passage.

Higashi, H.; Iida, K.; Shiraishi, H.

1982-08-24

47

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

48

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

1999-01-01

49

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

BIELICKI, B.E.

1999-05-20

50

Muffler for exhaust gas from internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A muffler is described for exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine comprising, (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet for receiving and expelling, respectively, the exhaust gas, (b) a cylindrical sound-absorbing body comprising, (i) a perforated pipe having openings formed therein, (ii) a cylindrical porous sound-absorbing material concentrically surrounding the perforated pipe, (iii) and a thin film sandwiched between the perforated pipe and the sound absorbing material, (c) means for balancing the gas pressure between the space which is surrounded by the perforated pipe, the thin film and the sound-absorbing material, and the space surrounding the sound-absorbing material, (d) the cylindrical sound-absorbing body being positioned within the casing to cause the exhaust gas flowing from the inlet to the outlet to pass through the perforated pipe, and (e) gas expansion chambers in the casing positioned to cause exhaust gas passing from the inlet to the outlet to enter at least one of the plurality of gas expansion chambers.

Tanaka, H.; Sekiya, M.; Uchikawa, F.

1986-09-09

51

Metal supports for exhaust gas catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1979, metal supports as pre-catalysts have been mass-produced and installed in export models of German automobiles bound for the United States and Japan. The close-to-engine installation directly behind the exhaust manifold places specially high demands on the thermal and mechanical durability of the metal supports. Sueddeutsche Kuehlerfabrik Behr produces these metal supports under the name of ''Metalit''. The development, properties and special advantages of these metal supports are covered. The successful use of hundreds of thousands of metal supports, a number of automobile manufacturers are working on programs to employ the Metalit concept for primary catalysts.

Nonnenmann, M.

1985-01-01

52

Fermentation exhaust gas analysis using mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Perkin Elmer MGA-1200 mass spectrometer has been coupled with a mini-computer and a sampling manifold to analyze up to 8 components in the exhaust gases of fermentors. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen are typically analyzed, but ethanol for yeast fermentations can also be tested by heating the line from the fermentor to the sampling manifold. Specifications, operation, and performance of the system are described. The system has been used for process control, the study of fermentation kinetics, and process development. 8 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Buckland, B.; Brix, Fastert, H.; Gbewonyo, K.; Hunt, G.; Jain, D.

1985-11-01

53

Exhaust gas liquid heating system for internal combustion engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas liquid heating system is described for a two cylinder internal combustion engine, the system comprising a main heat exchanger spaced from an engine exhaust manifold and connected thereto by a pair of primary exhaust pipes which extend, in use, between exhaust ports of the engine and the main heat exchanger, the main heat exchanger comprising; inner and outer tubes forming a liquid jacket therebetween, inlet means whereby the primary exhaust pipes are respectively connected to communicate with the bore of the inner tube adjacent opposite ends thereof, outlet means whereby a secondary exhaust pipe is connected to communicate with the bore of the inner tube between the ends thereof and at a point substantially mid-way between the inlet means, and end caps forming a fluid seal over the ends of the tubes; and a serial liquid circuit including a holding tank, a pump for pumping liquid from the tank through a series of heat conducting coils wound around the primary and secondary exhaust pipes and in contact therewith, a liquid inlet on the main heat exchanger for providing communication between an end of the coils and the liquid jacket, and a liquid outlet on the man heat exchanger for providing communication between the liquid jacket and a tube extending to the holding tank, the liquid inlet and outlet being spaced apart along a portion of the length of the main heat exchanger being a similar portion over which the inlet and outlet means are spaced whereby exhaust gases passing along the inner tube between the inlet means and outlet means causes heat to be supplied to liquid passing along the liquid jacket between the liquid inlet and liquid outlet.

McConnell, P.J.

1986-06-10

54

IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane; Natarajan Alagumurthy; Krishnaraj Palaniradja; G Selvaraj Gunasegarane

2010-01-01

55

Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

Sakhrieh Ahmad

2013-01-01

56

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31

57

Study of recycling exhaust gas energy of hybrid pneumatic power system with CFD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A hybrid pneumatic power system (HPPS) is integrated by an internal combustion engine (ICE), a high efficiency turbine, an air compressor and an energy merger pipe, which can not only recycle and store exhaust gas energy but also convert it into useful mechanical energy. Moreover, it can make the ICE operate in its optimal state of maximum efficiency; and thus, it can be considered an effective solution to improve greatly the exhaust emissions and increase the overall energy efficiency of the HPPS. However, in this system, the flow energy merger of both high pressure compressed air flow and high temperature exhaust gas flow of the ICE greatly depends on the merging capability of the energy merger pipe. If the compressed air pressure (Pair) at the air inlet is too high, smooth transmission and mixture of the exhaust gas flow are prevented, which will interfere with the operation condition of the ICE. This shortcoming is mostly omitted in the previous studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the level of Pair and the contraction of cross-section area (CSA) at the merging position on the flow energy merger and determine their optimum adjustments for a better merging process by using computation fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the CFD model was validated on the basis of the experimental data, including the temperature and static pressure of the merger flow at the outlet of the energy merger pipe. It was found that the simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that exhaust gas recycling efficiency and merger flow energy are significantly dependent on the optimum adjustment of the CSA for changes in Pair. Under these optimum adjustments, the exhaust gas recycling efficiency can reach about 83%. These results will be valuable bases to research and design the energy merger pipe of the HPPS.

2009-01-01

58

Piston-type internal combustion engine with at least two turbo-superchargers for exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In piston type internal combustion engines, which are supercharged by at least 2 exhaust gas turbo-superchargers, there is a lack of charging air for the internal combustion engine when switching over from operation with only one exhaust gas turbo-supercharger to the parallel operation of 2 exhaust gas turbo-superchargers. This lack of air is caused by the drop in exhaust gas pressure when switching in the second exhaust gas turbine, which disturbs the speed and therefore the charging of the first exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. According to the invention this problem is solved by taking the excess exhaust gas of the continuously switched on turbo-supercharger via an adjustable throttle to the turbo-supercharger which can be switched off. After reaching the same speed for all superchargers, the throttle valve is opened and the charging air supply is provided in the usual way by parallel connection of all exhaust gas turbo-superchargers.

Deutschmann, H.; Klotz, H.

1980-07-03

59

Metal substrate for automotive exhaust gas catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Behr has been producing its metal substrate Metalit for installation in Daimler-Benz vehicles since 1979. This was the first and has remained the only volume-production of it in the world up to now. Several hundred thousand metal substrates have been supplied, giving the company broad-based, positive feedback from users in the USA and Japan. Metal's physical properties and the technology developed by Behr all help make metal substrates particularly well suited for applications in motor vehicles. The advantages of metal substrates are outlined in this article. They offer high catalytic efficiency, stability under high temperatures, high tensile and dynamic strength, a short warm-up period and low pressure drop. Special attention is given to cost factors, the substrate's modest space requirements and very simple canning.

Nonnenmann, M.

1984-12-01

60

An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Performance of NO{sub x} reduction catalysts with simulated dimethyl ether diesel engine exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characteristics of dimethyl ether oxidation and formaldehyde formation with NO reduction catalysts were investigated in comparison with noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used in this research were Co and Sn as NO{sub x} catalysts and Pt, Pd, Rh as noble metal catalysts. Moreover, all the catalysts were loaded with gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In addition, a pure {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was also used. Laboratory experiments were conducted by using the above catalysts in the presence of oxygen-rich simulated dimethyl ether engine exhaust gas. The catalyst temperature and the concentration of NO in the simulated exhaust gas were selected as experimental parameters. The experimental results showed that low temperature dimethyl ether oxidation was possible with Pt, Pd and Rh catalysts, whereas higher temperature dimethyl ether oxidation was observed with Co, Sn and pure {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. A large amount of formaldehyde was formed during the use of NO{sub x} reduction catalysts over a certain temperature range. However, the noble metal catalysts did not show any formation of formaldehyde. The effect of NO on dimethyl ether oxidation and formaldehyde formation with NO{sub x} reduction catalysts was significant. The dimethyl ether oxidation ratio became lower and the amount of formaldehyde formation increased with increase in NO in the simulated exhaust gas. (author)

Alam, M. [Pennsylvania State University (United States). The Energy Institute; Fujita, O.; Ito, K. [Hokkaido University (Japan)

2004-04-01

62

A cyclic variability monitoring system based upon cycle resolved exhaust temperature sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyclic dispersion is a cycle-to-cycle variability in spark ignition engine output. Cyclic variability worsens as the air/fuel mixture becomes more dilute. This paper presented a cyclic variability monitoring system for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in reciprocating engines. A propane-fuelled GM 4 cylinder 2.2 litre light truck engine was used in an experiment in an effort to reduce cyclic dispersion and improve engine efficiency. Modern engines demand very low cyclic variability as well as a 20 per cent limit for the coefficient of variation (COV) at indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). By monitoring cyclic variability during engine operation, closed loop control strategies could be used to maximize dilution levels, resulting in lower fuel consumption and reduced NOx emissions. The proposed monitoring system uses robust exhaust temperature sensors that can detect cycle-to-cycle variations in the gas temperatures near each exhaust port. These variations are related to cyclic variations in combustion and tend to increase as cyclic variability worsens. The results of the experiment showed that there is an overall correlation between individual cycle values for the exhaust cyclic variability (ECV) signal and their respective IMEP values, although the ECV signal can vary greatly at a given IMEP. The distribution of the cycle-by-cycle values of the ECV signal changes significantly in response to changes in the COV of IMEP caused by changes in the air/fuel ratio. 2 refs., 9 figs.

Gardiner, D.P. [Nexum Research Corp., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bardon, M.F. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

2006-07-01

63

77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and 45-28] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine...SUMMARY: This action amends the emission standards for turbine engine powered...nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on International Civil...

2012-12-31

64

Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control  

Science.gov (United States)

A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

2009-04-28

65

Exhaust gas desulfurization equipment with active carbon moving bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust gas desulfurization equipment is introduced which employs an adsorption tower for the processing of large amount of gas exhausted at thermoelectric power stations. This report is made mainly on the cross current moving bed adsorption tower employed as the desulfurization system. A study was made on the method of positively suppressing the performance degradation resulting from the adsorption by active carbon and repetitive regeneration by heating. The computation of the performance to remove sulfur dioxide was made by the equations of sulfur dioxide adsorption reaction velocity and material balance based on unit particle. The calculated values of the sulfur dioxide removal performance were verified by the experimental data ovtained with a 10000 Nm/sup 3//h active carbon moving bed. The computed values fiarly well reproduced the experimental values. Further, evaluations were made for regeneration characteristic by heating, relations of ununiform movement of active carbon with sulfur dioxide removing capacity, effect of dust accumulation on distribution of gas flow velocity, study on sulfure recovering process, safety, etc. (10 figs, 1 tab, 16 refs)

Komuro, Takeo; Arashi, Norio; Kanda, Osamu

1988-03-01

66

The effect of EGR ratio on a spray combustion and emission[Exhaust Gas Recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was widely known that preheating of primary air and EGR were effective to reduce NOx emission in a combustion system. Then the authors proposed the effective system of the external EGR for a spray combustion system such as a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, they tried to obtain various combustion characteristic related to the EGR effect. The EFR ratio was defined by the O{sub 2} concentrations of the EGR gas and the total inlet gas to which EGR gas was added. The combustion characteristics at 0% to 20% of the EGR ratio were measured to investigate the effect of the external EGR. The total inlet gas was the mixture, in which a fresh air was mixed with a hot burned gas recirculated externally. The O{sub 2} concentration in the total inlet gas decreased from 21% to 19%. The temperature of the total inlet gas increased from room temperature to about 110 C. The results showed that the combustion characteristics were improved by the EGR. At a high level of the EGR ratio, hot EGR gas promoted to vaporize the kerosene spray. This kerosene vapor and combustion air formed a homogeneous mixture gas which stabilized high intensity flame. It resulted flame stabilization in wide range of the EGR. Flame which was filled up fully in the combustion chamber was non-luminous flame like a gaseous fuel combustion. Also, the level of NO concentration in the exhaust gas was reduced. IN the flame of high EGR ratio, hot spots which caused NO formation in the flame were highly reduced. And the residence time in the combustion chamber was also reduced, because of the average sectional velocity increased with an increase of the recirculating gas flow in the system. So the maximum values of NO concentration in the combustion chamber were reduced in all cases of experimental conditions with EGR. The level of NO concentration in the exhaust gas was suppressed to about 60% compared with no EGR combustion states.

Ogawa, Hirokatsu; Ogiwara, Goro; Arai, Masataka

1998-07-01

67

Characteristics of exhaust gas, liquid products, and residues of printed circuit boards using the pyrolysis process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The pyrolytic method was employed to recycle metals and brominated compounds blended into printed circuit boards (PCBs). METHODS: PCBs were crushed into pieces 4.0-4.8 mm in size, and the crushed pieces were pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 degrees C. The compositions of pyrolytic residues, liquid products, and exhaust were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pyrolytic exhaust was collected by an impinger system in an ice bath cooler to analyze the composition fraction of the liquid product, and uncondensable exhaust was collected for gas constituent analysis. RESULTS: Phenol, methyl-phenol, and bromo-phenol were attributed mainly to the liquid product. Metal content was low in the liquid product. In addition, CO, CO(2), CH(4), and H(2) were the major components of pyrolytic exhaust. CONCLUSIONS: Brominated and chlorinated compounds-i.e., dichloromethane, trans-1,2 dichloroethylene, cis-1,2 dichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, bromophenol, and bromoform-could be high, up to the several parts per million (ppm) level. Low molecular weight volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-i.e., methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, acrylonitrile, 1-butene, propene, propane, and n-butane-contributed a large fraction of VOCs. The concentrations of toluene, benzene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and styrene were in the ppm range.

Chiang HL; Lo CC; Ma SY

2010-03-01

68

Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration of oxygen, the combustion process will be affected. The lower oxygen concentration decreases the stability and the increased amount of CO2, H2O and N2 will decrease the combustion temperature and thus, the NOx emissions. Testing has been performed on a 65 kW gas turbine combustor, to investigate the effect of adding N2, CO2 and O2 in the combustion process, with focus on stability and emissions of NOx. Results show that adding N2 and CO2 decreases the NOx emissions, whereas O2 addition increases the NOx emissions. The tests have been performed both in a diffusion flame (pilot burner) and a premixed flame (main burner), and for additives being injected with the fuel or with the air stream. Addition into the fuel stream is proven to affect the NOx emissions the most. The stability limits of the flames are indicated with respect to mass-based additive-to-fuel ratios.

Petter E. Røkke; Johan E. Hustad

2005-01-01

69

[Tracer gas evaluations of local exhaust hood performance].  

Science.gov (United States)

A local exhaust hood is one of the most commonly used controls for harmful contaminants in the working environment. In Japan, the performance of a hood is evaluated by hood velocity measurements, and administrative performance requirements for hoods are provided as control velocities by the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law. However, it is doubtful whether the control velocity would be the most suitable velocity for any industrial hood since the control velocity is not substantiated by actual measurements of the containment ability of each hood. In order to examine the suitability of the control velocity as a performance requirement, a hood performance test by the tracer gas method, using carbon dioxide (CO(2)), was conducted with an exterior type hood in a laboratory. In this study, as an index of the hood performance, capture efficiency defined as the ratio of contaminant quantity captured by the hood to the total generated contaminant quantity, was determined by measuring the CO(2) concentrations. When the assumptive capture point of the contaminant was located at a point 30 cm from the hood opening, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of less than the current control velocity. Without cross draft, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s (corresponding to 40% of the control velocity) at the capture point. Reduction of the suction velocity to 0.2 m/s caused an 80% decrease in exhaust flow rate. The effect of cross draft, set at 0.3 m/s, on the capture efficiency differed according to its direction. When the direction of the cross draft was normal to the hood centerline, the effect was not recognized and a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.2 m/s. A cross draft from a worker's back (at an angle of 45 degrees to the hood centerline) did not affect the capture efficiency, either. When the cross draft blew at an angle of 135 degrees to the hood centerline, a capture efficiency of >90% could be achieved with a suction velocity of 0.4 m/s. The reduction of suction velocity would beneficially reduce running costs of local exhaust hoods and air conditioning. Effective and economical exhaustion would be achieved if the minimum velocity obtained by the tracer gas method were to be substituted for the excessive control velocity. PMID:17938560

Ojima, Jun

2007-09-01

70

Direct and Indirect Applications of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma to Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Exhaust Gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was utilized to oxidize NO contained in the exhaust gas to NO2, ultimately improve the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In the one case, DBD was created directly in the exhaust gas (direct application), and in the an other case, ozone produced by DBD was injected into the exhaust gas (indirect application). A comparative study between such direct and indirect applications of DBD plasma was made in terms of the NOx removal efficiency and the energy consumption. The NO2 content in the exhaust gas was changed by the voltage applied to the DBD device (for direct application) or by the amount of ozone added to the exhaust gas (for indirect application). In both cases, NO was easily oxidized to NO2, and the change in NO2 content largely affected the NOx removal performance of the catalytic reactor placed downstream, where both NO and NO2 were reduced to N2 in the presence of ammonia as the reducing agent. The experiments were primarily concerned with the effect of reaction temperature on the catalytic NOx reduction at various NO2 contents. The direct and indirect applications of DBD were found to remarkably improve the catalytic NOx reduction, especially at low temperatures.

2006-01-01

71

An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

1995-12-31

72

An efficient venturi scrubber system to remove submicron particles in exhaust gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient venturi scrubber system making use of heterogeneous nucleation and condensational growth of particles was designed and tested to remove fine particles from the exhaust of a local scrubber where residual SiH4 gas was abated and lots of fine SiO2 particles were generated. In front of the venturi scrubber, normal-temperature fine-water mist mixes with high-temperature exhaust gas to cool it to the saturation temperature, allowing submicron particles to grow into micron sizes. The grown particles are then scrubbed efficiently in the venturi scrubber. Test results show that the present venturi scrubber system is effective for removing submicron particles. For SiO2 particles greater than 0.1microm, the removal efficiency is greater than 80-90%, depending on particle concentration. The corresponding pressure drop is relatively low. For example, the pressure drop of the venturi scrubber is approximately 15.4 +/- 2.4 cm H2O when the liquid-to-gas ratio is 1.50 L/m3. A theoretical calculation has been conducted to simulate particle growth process and the removal efficiency of the venturi scrubber. The theoretical results agree with the experimental data reasonably well when SiO2 particle diameter is greater than 0.1 microm. PMID:15828674

Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wang, Yu-Min; Hunag, Cheng-Hsiung; Li, Shou-Nan; Wu, Zong-Xue; Wang, Feng-Cai

2005-03-01

73

Method of controlling exhaust-gas recirculation in internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of controlling the recirculation of exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine provided with an exhaust-gas recirculation system by which the exhaust gases emitted from the exhaust manifold are partially recirculated into the intake manifold of the engine, comprising cutting off the recirculation of exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine when the engine is being warmed up, recirculating exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine at a rate variable in a predetermined required exhaust-gas recirculation ratio to the rate at which air is circulated to the intake manifold of the engine after the engine is warmed up, and recirculating exhaust gases to the intake manifold of the engine with a reduced exhaust-gas recirculation ratio lower than said required exhaust-gas recirculation ratio during a transient period of time intervening the conditions in which the engine is being warmed up and the conditions in which the engine has been warmed up.

Narasaka, S.; Kishida, E.; Otsuka, K.

1984-10-23

74

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

75

Exhaust pipe system for multi-cylinder internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. Abgasleitungsanlage fuer eine mehrzylindrige Brennkraftmaschine mit einem Abgasturbolader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to an exhaust pipe system for a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. The purpose of the invention is to develop such an exhaust pipe system with little expense, so that the efficiency of the turbo-supercharger is improved, particularly in the low load range with unchanged certainty of operation. According to the invention, this problem is solved by making at least one exhaust pipe (manifold) smaller at its opening into the turbo-supercharger. From the smaller exhaust pipe at its opening into the turbo-supercharger there is a bypass line with a blow-off valve. At least 3 exhaust pipes open into the turbo-supercharger, and another exhaust pipe is smaller at its opening than the third full size exhaust pipe. There is again a bypass line with a blow-off valve from this exhaust pipe.

Dommes, W.; Haertl, A.; Poelzl, H.W.

1980-06-26

76

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on SI Engines at Wide Open Throttle  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaust gas recirculation, a charge dilution technique, has proven to be an effective method of reducing NOx emissions and fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Wide open throttle operation also increases overall engine efficiency by reducing the pumping losses caused by throttling. In this study, the emissions and fuel economy benefits of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at wide open throttle conditions were quantified using a 2.4L port-injected engine. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded as the percentage of EGR in the intake charge was increased from zero to just above thirty percent (the EGR limit). This EGR percentage, in-cylinder pressure measurements, and the temperatures and pressures of the intake and exhaust were all recorded to ensure stable operating conditions. These tests were performed with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio at a constant speed of 2000 rpm at wide open throttle. The variation of brake specific fuel consumption and emissions (in particular NOx) with increasing EGR percentages was analyzed.

Bronson, Sydney; Puzinauskas, Paulius

2011-11-01

77

Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH4) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH4 appear to account for the higher CH4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions.

1992-01-01

78

Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the formulation of a controller feedback multivariable is presented, designed with the combination of the technologies of fuzzy logic and neural networks with the purpose of improving the control of speed, power and temperature of the UTG. This proposed control is used in conjunction with the scheme of conventional control of the existent UTG, to integrate a strategy of control hybrid feedback. The control feedback is compound for a fuzzy inference system of multiple entrances and a left exit designed with entrance data and exit of the plant. The controller feed forward is compound for conventional controllers type PI in this type of units. With this strategy, the controller feedback provides a bigger contribution in the control sign the effort of the conventional controllers' PI control and the strong interaction that it exists among them diminishing. The controllers PI feed forward contribute a smaller control sign used for fine adjustments in the control sign. [Spanish] La demanda de energia electrica en Mexico ha obligado al sector electrico a estar en una busqueda constante de metodos y sistemas que, entre otros objetivos, mejoren continuamente la operacion de las centrales generadoras de energia electrica. Como parte de su mision, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha promovido y apoyado la investigacion aplicada y el desarrollo tecnologico para mejorar los indices de seguridad, disponibilidad, confiabilidad, eficiencia y durabilidad de centrales generadoras mediante el desarrollo y la implantacion de grandes sistemas digitales de informacion y control. En la actualidad, dentro del esquema de generacion de energia electrica, las unidades turbogas (UTG) representan 7% de la generacion del sector electrico nacional [1]. Estas unidades se han convertido en el modo dominante de la nueva generacion electrica en los EE.UU, ya sea en ciclo simple o combinado. Lo anterior, es atribuible al menor costo de instalacion por kilowatt generado, a los programas de construccion mas cortos, a bajos niveles de emision de contaminantes y costos de operacion competitivo

Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

2004-11-15

79

Analysis of exhaust waste heat recovery from a dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the exhaust waste heat recovery potential of a high-efficiency, low-emissions dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Potential improvements in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and specific emissions (NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2}) with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ORC turbocompounding were quantified over a range of injection timings and engine loads. With hot EGR and ORC turbocompounding, FCE improved by an average of 7 percentage points for all injection timings and loads while NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions recorded an 18 percent (average) decrease. From pinch-point analysis of the ORC evaporator, ORC heat exchanger effectiveness ({epsilon}), percent EGR, and exhaust manifold pressure were identified as important design parameters. Higher pinch point temperature differences (PPTD) uniformly yielded greater exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator, irrespective of engine operating conditions. Increasing percent EGR yielded higher FCEs and stable engine operation but also increased exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator. It was observed that hot EGR can prevent water condensation in the ORC evaporator, thereby reducing corrosion potential in the exhaust piping. Higher {epsilon} values yielded lower PPTD and higher exergy efficiencies while lower {epsilon} values decreased post-evaporator exhaust temperatures below water condensation temperatures and reduced exergy efficiencies. (author)

Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Mago, Pedro J.; Krishnan, Sundar R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mail Stop 9552, 210 Carpenter Building, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2010-06-15

80

Exhaust gas discharge system for two-stroke internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a two stroke internal combustion engine. It comprises first, second, third, and fourth cylinders which sequentially fire in the stated series and at an even firing interval of 90{degrees} and which include respective first, second, third, and fourth exhaust ports which open and close in response to piston movement, and an exhaust gas discharge means communicating with the exhaust ports, including a duct portion, and being operable, in response to firing of the second cylinder and opening of the second exhaust port, to afford passage of exhaust gas from the second exhaust port so as to provide an outgoing positive acoustical pressure wave which travels in the duct portion and which arrives at the first exhaust port prior to closure of the first exhaust port and to provide a returning negative acoustical pressure wave which travels in the duct portion after substantial completion of the travel of the outgoing positive acoustical pressure wave in the duct portion and which arrives at the second exhaust port prior to closing of the second exhaust port.

Blair, A.J.

1992-04-07

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

2012-09-18

82

Analysis of exhaust gas composition in JT-60U discharge cleaning experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The composition of exhaust gas from vacuum vessel in a discharge cleaning is an essential information of the removal characteristics of hydrogen isotopes and is useful data for the design of the fuel cycle system of a fusion reactor. Especially for the hydrogen trapped in carbon layers, removal by a form such as hydrides is important process, so the analysis of chemical species and the measurement of carbon and oxygen degassing are valuable information. Thus, to establish the method of analysis of these chemical species, the concentrations and the time-dependent behaviors of chemical species such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons and other chemical species were analyzed using a gas chromatograph in JT-60U discharge cleaning experiments. In the experiments, glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECRDC) were adopted and the temperature of the first wall (room temp. -300degC) and working gas for the discharges (He, Ar and H2) were varied as the major experimental parameters. Hydrogen, hydrocarbons and other chemical species were observed in the exhaust gas. The number of chemical species increased with the first wall temperature especially in GDC. The degassing rates in GDC were much larger than in TDC and ECRDC. This tendency was similar to that of tritium degassing. Observed chemical species of hydrocarbons were methane, acetylene, ethylene and ethane. They are considered to be produced by the reaction of hydrogen with carbon material of the first wall. The productivity of hydrocarbons was significant in GDC using H2 and depended on the temperature of the first wall. From the viewpoint of application to the removal of carbon-tritium codeposited layers which is a crucial issue for ITER, consumption of carbon by the reaction was estimated. About monolayer of the carbon tile surface is expected to be removed with an hour operation of GDC. (author)

2003-01-01

83

Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

Clark CR; Dutcher JS; Brooks AL; McClellan RO; Marshall WF; Naman TM

1982-07-01

84

Method and apparatus of periodically obtaining accurate opacity monitor readings of an exhaust gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes in an opacity monitor associated with an exhaust stack, the monitor having a transmitter and a receiving which cooperate to measure a quantity of particulate matter in an exhaust gas stream, a method of periodically obtaining opacity monitor readings. It comprises: shielding the monitor from the exhaust gas stream by placing two windows adjacent to the monitor, a first window being placed between the transmitter and the exhaust gas stream and a second window being placed between the receiver and the exhaust gas stream; cleaning at least one of the windows for a first predetermined time period by spraying a volatile nonflammable cleaning solvent onto the window by means of a sprayer intermittently operable during the first predetermined time period while wiping the window with a reciprocating wiper arm in resilient engagement therewith; then obtaining an opacity monitor reading by directing a light beam across the exhaust stack from the transmitter via the first window through the exhaust gas stream to the receiver via the second window; and alternately repeating the step of cleaning the window with the step of obtaining an opacity monitor reading.

Weaver, K.L.; Bellows, J.C.

1990-01-23

85

Numerical simulation of selective non-catalytic reduction of NO in exhaust gas with urea particle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To reduce the amount of NO in exhaust gas from the furnace, a kinetics in the gas phase of Selective Non-Catalytic reduction of NO using urea and the characteristics of N{sub 2}O formation with NO reduction are investigated. Calculated results of NO and N{sub 2}O concentration are in accordance with experimental data from literature. Both calculated and measured NO concentrations show that NO concentration is minimum at 1250 K and N{sub 2}O concentration has the maximum peak at same temperature. Detailed study of the reaction mechanism of NO reduction is conducted and the important reactions in NO reduction and N{sub 2}O formation are explained. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Morozumi, Y.; Aoki, H.; Miura, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry and Engineering

1995-12-31

86

NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from October 2003 to April 2004.

Palitha Jayaweera

2004-05-01

87

Design and Characterization of an Isokinetic Sampling Train for Particle Size Measurements Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A particulate sampling train has been constructed which satisfies the conflicting requirements of isokinetic sample extraction and constant flowrate through an inertial sizing device. Its design allows a variable fraction of the filtered exhaust gas to be...

A. D. Williamson D. B. Harris R. S. Martin T. E. Ward

1984-01-01

88

Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-27

89

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01

90

Development of dry analytical method for formaldehyde in exhaust emissions. Haishutsu gas chu no aldehyde no kanshiki bunsekiho no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the dry analytical method of formaldehyde in automobile exhaust emission, sampling conditions such as temperature and flow rate, and measurable concentration ranges were examined. Silicagel cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazin (DNPH) were prepared, and a prototype gas sampling system was fabricated to sample by both conventional impinger method and the cartridge method at the same time, and a high performance liquid chromatograph was used for analysis. As a result, since a collection efficiency reached 100% at 70 {degree} C in a high formaldehyde concentration range over 10ppm, it was necessary to heat a sampling line. As heated, formaldehyde was fully collected independently of moisture in exhaust emission, and a sampling rate of 0.5l/min was also desirable. The measurable concentration range entirely covered that of formaldehyde in exhaust emission, and a measurement accuracy was also equivalent to that of the impinger method. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Akutsu, Y.; Sugano, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Ota, M. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan) Yokohama Environmental Research Institute, Yokohama (Japan))

1990-04-25

91

Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance  

Science.gov (United States)

An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

2003-01-01

92

Exhaust gas purifying device for internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An oxygen sensor is disposed upstream of a three-way catalyst in an exhaust system of an internal combustion engine and includes a sensing element of metal oxide whose electromotive force or resistance value varies in response to the concentration of oxygen in the engine exhaust gases. A catalytic body including a catalytic metal material exhibiting the same catalytic performance as that of the three-way catalyst is disposed around the sensing element or upstream of the oxygen sensor or is formed by impregnating a portion of the sensing element with the catalytic metal material, so that the air-fuel ratio at the intake side or exhaust side of the engine can be controlled depending on the output of the oxygen sensor.

Asano, M.; Kondo, K.; Segawa, Y.

1981-03-03

93

Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

Kolmanovsky, Ilya V. (Ypsilanti, MI); Jankovic, Mrdjan J (Birmingham, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

2000-03-14

94

Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NOx, O2 and CO2, were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

2009-01-01

95

Development of probes to measure in-duct sound pressure levels of a gas turbine exhaust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current state of development of specialized microphone probes to measure in-duct sound pressure levels of a gas turbine exhaust was described. The main requirement for a measurement of sound power level is to measure valid sound pressure levels in a high velocity, hot gas, highly turbulent exhaust flow. The conditions under which valid and invalid sound pressure levels can be measured were discussed. A single microphone is usually not enough to distinguish between pressure fluctuations caused by sound waves and those caused by turbulence. Two probes have been developed to accomplish accurate measurements: a slit tube, and a second probe called a perpendicular tube. Both probe tubes are flush mounted to the internal exhaust duct wall. Results of successfully applying the in-duct procedures to measure the dynamic insertion loss (DIL) of a gas turbine exhaust silencer system were discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs.

Sacks, M.P. [Tacet Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

1997-12-31

96

Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-03-01

97

Effects of exhaust gas recirculation in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ignition control is an important issue in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, which have the advantages of low NO{sub x} emission and high thermal efficiency. In this study, the effect of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the ignition control of HCCI engines is discussed using an engine cycle simulation in which a homogeneous mixture is assumed. Auto-ignition of 65 per cent iso-octane + 25 per cent toluene + 10 per cent n-heptane, which is used as a fuel to evaluate the characteristics of a gasoline-like fuel, is represented by a detailed reaction model. The dilution by EGR delays the ignition timing when the charged gas temperature is not changed by EGR. The temperature rise of the charged gas promotes auto-ignition. Based on these characteristics, it was suggested that the ignition timing could be controlled by EGR with temperature control, when the amount of fuel supply is constant. This control method can also be applied to control of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) in the cylinder while maintaining the optimum ignition timing. In spite of the difference in the A/F and the EGR ratios, no significant difference was found in the pressure rise rate at combustion and the NO{sub x} emission when the ignition timing was the same. (Author)

Nakano, M.; Mandokoro, Y.; Kubo, S.; Yamazaki, S. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Reaction Dynamics Lab., Aichi (Japan)

2000-07-01

98

Greenhouse system with co-generation power supply, heating and exhaust gas fertilization  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A greenhouse is combined with a gas turbine generator set, wherein power, heat and fertilization products are all supplied to the greenhouse by the gas turbine and its exhaust gas in a balanced system for year-round continuous plant production. The system is preferably located at a landfill along with other similar units and is fueled by landfill gas. Excess power from the gas turbine generator in summer months is sold to the electric utility grid as "green power".

CRUTCHER WILLIAM C

99

Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results.

Smits M; Vanpachtenbeke F; Horemans B; De Wael K; Hauchecorne B; Van Langenhove H; Demeestere K; Lenaerts S

2012-01-01

100

The Purification and Thermal Recovery of Exhaust Gas with the Wet-type Electrostatic Precipitator  

Science.gov (United States)

The exhaust gas ejected from engine heat pump contain the injurious materials, SOx, NOx and dust. And it also has a good deal of thermal energy, so thermal recovery from the exhaust gas increases the total C.O.P. of the heat pump system. The experimental study for the purpose of the purification of the exhaust gas and the thermal recovery from exhaust gas has been conducted with the wet-type electrostatic precipitator, which has the advantage of high collection efficiency and the gas-liquid direct heat-exchanism. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the dust, the collection efficiency of 96 % was achieved, when applied voltage was 19,000V. 2. The effect of the alkali absorption of Nox and SOx gases was made sure by the experiment. 3. The fundamental equation which is useful for design method was resolved by kinetic model of charged particle. 4. In the phenomenon of coagulation the velocity constant was decided with "Chemical Kinetics" and so that the density of coagulant, Ca(OH)2 was decided. 5. It is shown that mixing coagulant, Ca(OH)2, was a very effective way to remove the dust particles from the waste water. 6. Thermal energy of 5.3 kW was recovered from exhaust gas, so that total C.O.P. of heat pump system increases from 1.83 to 1.97.

Umemiya, Hiromichi; Koike, Hiroshi

 
 
 
 
101

Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters.

Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

2006-01-01

102

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NOx emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed

2004-01-01

103

Platform for a hydrocarbon exhaust gas sensor utilizing a pumping cell and a conductometric sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga(2)O(3) or doped SrTiO(3) are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

2009-09-18

104

Carbon Dioxide Emission Analysis of Chilled Water Production by Using Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon dioxide from exhaust heat emission is one of the major contributorsto the environmental pollutant in power generation plants. This problem could be addressed if the emitted exhaust heat is recovered. In cogeneration plant, the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam usingHeat Recovery Steam Generator. The steam from Heat Recovery Steam Generator is then used for chilled water generation in Steam Absorption Chillers by absorption process. This study analyzed the total estimated amount of CO2 released to the environment due to chilled water production by using gas turbine exhaust heat. University Teknologi PetronasMalaysia cogeneration system is used as a case study. The energy balance principlewas adopted for the analysis. Results indicate that approximately 44% of CO2is avoided from being released to the environment by this process.

Adzuieen Nordin; Mohd Amin Abd Majid

2013-01-01

105

Chemical gas sensors for car exhaust and cabin air monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A combination of charcoal and particle filters has previously been shown to reduce effectively the smell of diesel exhaust. In this paper it is shown that the smell of diesel exhaust can successfully be predicted by the concentration of total volatile organic compounds and the concentration of certain carbonyl compounds. Projection to latent structures was utilised for model building. An electronic nose consisting of MOFSET and MOS sensors could less successfully predict the smell, but identified the same filter combination as being most efficient. The car cabin during urban driving was also monitored, both by the means of MOFSET sensors and by chemiluminescence. The pollution level inside the car is shown to be elevated by about 30% compared to outside the car. A combination filter together with an air inlet sensor switch is shown to reduce the NO{sub x} levels inside te car by 30% compared to outside, with the ability to significantly decrease the peak levels. (author)

Kalman, E.-L.; Winquist, F. [Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Laboratory of Applied Physics, Linkoeping University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rudell, B. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Centre of Public Health Sciences, Linkoeping, Gothenburg (Sweden); Loefvendahl, A. [Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wass, U. [Volvo Technological Development Corporation, Gothenburg (Sweden)

2002-07-01

106

Identification, structure elucidation, and synthesis of volatile compounds in the exhaust gas of food factories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our investigations deal with the identification and synthesis of volatile, odoriferous compounds contained in the exhaust gas of food factories and on the biodegradation of alkylpyrazines. Collection of odour emissions samples was performed with a gas sampler equipped with filter tubes containing the styrene-polymer SuperQ. After elution with solvents of different polarity, the extracts were analysed by GC/MS and chemical microreactions. Proposed structures were verified by comparison of analytical data with those of synthetic reference samples. Major components in the exhaust gas of a fat finishing factory were found to be aliphatic aldehydes, strongly dominated by hexanal. The identification of 1,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclohexene shows that for structural proof of target compounds the use of authentic reference samples is indispensable. In the exhaust gas from a chocolate factory, several carbonyl compounds and alkylated pyrazines could be identified. Biodegradation of the latter starts with hydrogenation at the nucleus.

Nagorny S; Francke W

2005-01-01

107

Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

1991-01-01

108

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

109

APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THE SOURCE PM10 EXHAUST GAS RECYCLE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The document describes assembly, operation, and maintenance of the Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) sampling system. The design of the sampling train allows the operator to maintain a constant flow rate through an inertial sampler while the gas flow rate into the sampling nozzle is adju...

110

Exhaust gas purification of stationary diesel engines in decentralised energy producing units. Final report. Abgasnachbehandlung stationaerer Dieselmotoren dezentraler Energieversorgungssysteme. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emissions of diesel-powered heat pumps up to a heating power of 25 kW were examined and methods and devices for a reduction of the emission level developed. For reduction of the NO/sub x/-level exhaust gas recirculation, for reduction of the CO- and HC-emissions an oxidation-catalyst and for reduction of the particulate emissions a ceramic filter with a catalytic coating that lowers the ignition point of accumulated soot was used. All measures are very dependent of the construction and the operation-mode of the heat-pump because the temperature of the exhaust gas varies widely depending on both. Yearly emissions were calculated and compared to the emissions of an oil-fired boiler. (orig.) With 112 refs., 9 tabs., 72 figs.

Schick, K.P.; Strutz, J.; Stahlhut, S.; Blaha, R.; Widdershoven, J.; Pischinger, F.; Lepperhoff, G.

1985-01-01

111

Process for efficiently removing oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for removal of oxides of nitrogen from the waste gas produced by various combustion processes discloses thoroughly mixing the waste gas with ammonia by means of a static mixing element and then passing the resultant mixture through a catalytic reactor. The ammonia may be supplied by reacting a portion of the waste gas with natural gas in the presence of a catalyst.

Henke, W.

1983-07-12

112

Heat revoery of boiler exhaust gas by improving feed water system. Kyusui keito no kaizen ni yoru boiler hai gas netsukaishu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat recovery of boiler exhaust gas by improving feed water system of a paper mill was reported. Heat recovery was tried by boiler feed water because the exhaust gas temperature of recovery boiler was high, but a problem of heat recovery was involved due to high system temperature caused by recovered process drain and turbine condensate water. The feed water system was then reviewed. Because raising temperature by mixing process system drain and turbine condensate water is not a good policy, the drain of process system was separated from the drain recovered from turbine for subsequent filtering of drain. Drain of process system and ion exchange water were recovered through heat exchange and sent to ion exchange water tank to recover the drain into demineralized water tank. As a result of this, considerable steam of deaerator was saved. Exhaust gas temperature was also reduced from 200 {degree} to 140 {degree} and the energy saving efficiency of 4,095 tons per year as calculated in terms of coal was achieved. 3 tabs.

Okiyama, Y. (Jujo Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-02-04

113

Method for producing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cartridge is disclosed for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of a automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1983-08-30

114

Process for manufacturing a cartridge for purifying exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cartridge for purifying exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine of an automotive vehicle or some other source comprising a catalyst support matrix wound of metal foil and a metal jacket housing said support matrix wherein a press fit exists between the exterior of the support matrix and the interior surface of the jacket and the support matrix and the jacket are welded or brazed together within the area of the press fit. Processes and apparatus for producing the cartridge of the invention are also disclosed.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Hesse, W.

1985-05-28

115

Numerical solution of gas exhaustion from a reciprocating engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical simulations of a flow around an exhaust valve, inside the cylinder of a fourstroke combustion engine. The different flow models have been tested. Besides, the impact of the dimensionality and geometry detailness has been studied. Fixed (i.e. non-moving) geometry and steady boundary conditions have been assumed for all simulations. All the results presented have been obtained by a newly developed CFD package, based on finite volume method (FVM) with an AUSM-family numerical scheme.

Žaloudek M.; Fo?t J.; Deconinck H.

2010-01-01

116

HEAT TRANSFER IN EXHAUST SYSTEM OF A COLD START ENGINE AT LOW ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the engine cold start, there is a significantly increased emission of harmful engine exhaust gases, particularly at very low environmental temperatures. Therefore, reducing of emission during that period is of great importance for the reduction of entire engine emission. This study was conducted to test the activating speed of the catalyst at low environmental temperatures. The research was conducted by use of mathematical model and developed computer programme for calculation of non-stationary heat transfer in engine exhaust system. During the research, some of constructional parameters of exhaust system were adopted and optimized at environmental temperature of 22 ?C. The combination of design parameters giving best results at low environmental temperatures was observed. The results showed that the temperature in the environment did not have any significant influence on pre-catalyst light-off time.

Snežana D Petkovi?; Radivoje B Peši?; Jovanka K Luki?

2010-01-01

117

New developments in optical exhaust gas measurement technology; Neue Entwicklungen in der optischen Abgasmesstechnik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Against the background of more stringent global exhaust gas regulations for vehicles, the automobile industry requires innovative measurement techniques that enable sensitive, selective and highly time-resolved multi-component analysis of the exhaust gases. This goal can be achieved using specially adapted infrared systems and laser measurement procedures. Dynamic hydrocarbon measurements in the exhaust gas system are possible using the fast filter photometer HCAT. The DEGAS IV laser measurement system allows for the concentrations of different exhaust gas components to be determined simultaneously - time-resolved down to one revolution cycle. This optimizes engine management and exhaust gas aftertreatment considerably. The unit meets the strict requirements of reliable operation at an engine test station. High sensitivity, selectivity and measurement speed are achieved when measuring in the middle infrared range for DEGAS IV. Technological achievements in the development of novel infrared lasers, especially the quantum cascade laser (QCL), have resulted in great potential for future unit developments. Compact and highly sensitive laser measurement systems without complex cooling are possible with QCLs. A demonstration system with pulsed quantum cascade lasers was constructed. Examples of measurement results for CO, NO and NH{sub 3} are shown. (orig.)

Lambrecht, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Physikalische Messtechnik (IPM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2008-07-01

118

Support for an exhaust gas turbo supercharger. Traeger fuer einen Abgasturbolader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A support on the case of a piston internal combustion engine is used to fix an exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. The support consists of a supporting bracket and a piece of pipe made in one piece with it, to which the outlet ducts on the turbine case of the exhaust gas turbo-supercharger are connected by flanges. Such a support makes it possible to fix exhaust gas turbo superchargers, which do not have a case specially matched to the support. A shut-off device of an engine brake can be fitted in the piece of pipe. The rigidly fixed piece of pipe produces precise coordination between the shut-off device and a control cylinder also fixed to the case of the internal combustion engine.

Petrovsky, J.; Roloff, H.

1984-01-26

119

Removal of Carbon Dioxide Gas From the Exhaust Gases Generated at the Takoradi Thermal Power Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takoradi Thermal Power Station (TTPS) generates electricity by burning fossil-fuel and hence it also generates greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide, which is vented into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases are pollutants known to cause global warming. A method for the removal of carbon dioxide gas from the exhaust gases generated at TTPS is proposed in this research. It aims at reducing the plant’s carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere and hence reducing the plant’s rate of pollution into the atmosphere. The method employed is a modification of a method known as the Fluor Daniel ECONAMINE FG process. This method removes carbon dioxide from exhaust gas by using an amine solution which comes into “contact” with the exhaust gas in a counter-current manner. This method has been applied by 23 companies which produce CO2 on a large scale. However, before TTPS apply this method a cost feasibility study is recommended.

M. Charles; S.P. Agbomadzi

2010-01-01

120

Measuring method for exhaust gas turbocharger with pulsating hot gas flow; Messverfahren fuer Abgasturbolader mit pulsierendem Heissgas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust gas turbocharger is an effective device for reducing fuel consumption by shifting the operating point to operating points of better efficiency. To provide the largest possible enthalpy to the turbocharger turbine, exhaust systems are extremely compact. Thus, the turbocharger and the internal combustion engine have to be optimally matched. Continental and the University of Applied Sciences Ravensburg-Weingarten present a new method which measures turbocharger characteristics under engine-relevant operating conditions. (orig.)

Reuter, Stefan; Koch, Achim [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Kaufmann, Andre [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten (Germany). Thermodynamik und Stroemungslehre

2011-04-15

 
 
 
 
121

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear analysis of the highly non-linear dynamics. Control architectures are investigated and performance in terms of disturbance rejection and reference tracking are investigated under model uncertainty. Classical feed-forward and feedback controller designs are investigated using classical and Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability.

Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens

2013-01-01

122

HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acrolein (H2C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH3CH2CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH3)2CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines.

2008-01-01

123

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EXHAUST PARTICLES FROM GAS TURBINE ENGINES  

Science.gov (United States)

A program was conducted to chemically characterize particulate emissions from a current technology, high population, gas turbine engine. Attention was focused on polynuclear aromatic compounds, phenols, nitrosamines and total organics. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were...

124

Process and plant for exhaust gas purification and a combination of this exhaust gas purification with that of waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a process for separating solid and or liquid particles, especially of small diameter, and/or gaseous components from a stream of gas by means of particle separation units, the separation action of which is supported by the use of very finely atomized washing liquid, in that the stream of gas is taken to one or more adjacent or successive similar or different particle separation units, into the gas intake of which washing liquid is sprayed in the direction of gas flow immediately in front of the separation unit by means of one or more pneumatic dual-substance nozzles. (author)

Ebert, F.; Buettner, H.; Krames, J.; Gebert, W.; Parzermair, F.; Lanzersdorfer, C.

1994-09-15

125

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines...CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled...

2009-07-01

126

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate...Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...109-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring...

2010-07-01

127

Method of producing monolithic catalyst for purification of exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of producing a monolithic catalyst for simultaneous oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, the method including the steps of providing an active alumina base coating to a monlithic carrier by treating the monolithic carrier with a coating slip in which an active alumina powder containing cerium oxide, which is formed by thermal decomposition of a cerium salt applied to the active alumina as a solution, is dispersed and then baking the treated carrier, and depositing at least one noble metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Rh and Pd on the coating by thermal decomposition of an aqueous solution of a compound of each selected noble metal on the coating, characterized in that a ceria powder is additionally dispersed in the coating slip; wherein the amount of the ceria powder is such that, in the coating, Ce of the ceria powder amounts to 5 to 50% by weight of the coating, and wherin the content of Ce in the active alumina powder is in the range from 1 to 5% by weight.

Sawamura, K.; Eto, Y.; Mine, J.; Masuda, K.

1986-05-06

128

System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks

1998-01-01

129

Exhaust Gas Purification of Stationary Diesel Engines in Decentralised Energy Producing Units. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of diesel-powered heat pumps up to a heating power of 25 kW were examined and methods and devices for a reduction of the emission level developed. For reduction of the NOx-level exhaust gas recirculation, for reduction of the CO- and HC-emission...

K. P. Schick J. Strutz S. Stahlhut R. Blaha J. Widdershoven

1985-01-01

130

Exhaust gas turbo-supercharger for an internal combustion engine. Abgasturbolader fuer eine Brennkraftmaschine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust gas turbo-supercharger for an internal combustion engine is described, in which the compression space in the compressor housing is separated from the internal space of the bearing housing for supporting the turbo-supercharger shaft by a pressure compensation chamber. The pressure compensation chamber prevents the suction of lubrication oil from the bearing housing into the compressor housing.

Sumser, S.; Hanauer, H.

1989-07-20

131

System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks.

Waldo, E.J.

1998-03-11

132

Catalytic study of SOFC electrode materials in engine exhaust gas atmosphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A single chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC) is a device able to produce electricity from a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxidant. An innovative application of this system would be to recover energy from exhaust gas of a thermal engine. This paper presents a study of stability and catalytic behavi...

Briault, Pauline; Rieu, Mathilde; Laucournet, Richard; Morel, Bertrand; Viricelle, Jean-Paul

133

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30

134

Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N{sub 2} dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Roy, M.M. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

2009-07-01

135

Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

2009-01-01

136

Measurement of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in gasoline vehicle exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels from most combustion sources including motor vehicles. Extensive studies have been carried out in the past on the identification and quantitation of PAH in particular matter, primarily from diesel vehicles; however, only limited data are available on gas phase emissions from motor vehicles. Gas phase emissions are important from both a health perspective and because of their higher chemical reactivity during atmospheric transport. A method was sought to allow the authors to measure gas phase PAH in diluted vehicle exhaust over the relatively short collection times permitted during the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) or Federal Test Procedure (FTP). In this paper, the authors describe their results on the development of a method using adsorption/thermal desorption with Tenax solid absorbent for the analysis of PAH and PAH derivatives in dilute vehicle exhaust

1992-01-01

137

The effect of heat transfer on performance of the Diesel cycle and exergy of the exhaust gas stream in a LHR Diesel engine at the optimum injection timing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a Diesel cycle analysis taking combustion and heat transfer into account on performance has been performed. The effect of heat transfer is analysed in terms of design parameters such as compression ratio and cut-off ratio. The effects of heat transfer from the cylinder on exhaust temperature were also investigated for different heat transfer and combustion modes. It was observed that the work output and exhaust temperature proportionally increase with the decrease of heat transfer for a fixed combustion rate and cut-off ratio. In the experimental study, it was found that the minimum fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared to the standard (STD) engine was obtained with a 4 deg. crank angle (CA) retardation of the injection timing from the 38 deg. (CA). The decrease in specific fuel consumption at this injection timing reached 6%, and the increase in brake thermal efficiency was 2%. The exhaust temperature of the LHR Diesel engine with the injection timing of 38 deg. CA was 10.8% higher than that of the STD engine, whereas, the increase in the temperature reached 22.8% at 34 deg. CA. Thus, as a consequence of its great potential for optimisation of system performance, a comparative exergy analysis has been performed with the purpose of calculating the amount of available energy of the exhaust gas stream at the optimum injection timing (34 CA) for the LHR engine. While the maximum amount of available energy in the LHR engine exhaust gas stream with the injection timing of 38 deg. CA was 13.45%, the increase at the optimum injection timing of 34 deg. CA was found to reach 38%. It was concluded that the exhaust gas stream of a low heat rejection (LHR) Diesel engine is the most important source of available energy, which must be recovered via a secondary heat recovery system.

2005-01-01

138

Electron beam degradation of simulated toluene-containing exhaust gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With toluene as an example, experimental investigation on VOCs treatment by electron beam irradiation was carried out. The system uses 0.8 MeV electron beams to irradiate simulated toluene-containing gases to 5kGy-40kGy for investigatiing effects of initial concentration, absorbed dose, humidity on toluene removal rate. The toluene removal rate increased with absorbed dose. With 0.5-l.2Nm3/h of the gas flow at an initial toluene concentration of 1600mg/Nm3, the toluene removal rate was 46.5% at 10kGy and 72.2% at 40kGy. And increasing humidity increased the toluene removal rate, too. Qualitative analysis on by-products of the toluene degradation was made by means of Gas Chromatogram-Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) and Chromatography of Ions (IC). It was found that the by-products consist of mainly benzaldehyde and formic acid, plus a little benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, methyl pyridine, nitrotoluene, o-cresol, phenol and benzoin ethyl etherl. Mechanisms of the E-beam toluene removal, i.e. the contributions of OH free radicals and O2 to the oxidation of toluene, were discussed. (authors)

2007-01-01

139

Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near atomic scale such as layer distance, lamella length, and tortuosity were not observed to be influenced by the scrub-ber. We also found that particles in the size range between 30 and 50 nm, which were abundant in the exhaust before and after scrubber, were not graphitic soot. Furthermore, we found indications that these particles are composed of other crystalline material (salts).

Lieke, Kirsten Inga; RosenØrn, Thomas

2013-01-01

140

Lean burn natural gas fueled S.I. engine and exhaust emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was undertaken to study exhaust emission from a lean-burn natural gas spark ignition engine. The possibility that such an engine may help to reduce exhaust emissions substantially by taking advantage of natural gas fuel properties, such as its antiknock properties and extended lean flammability limit compared to gasoline, was the main motivation behind the investigation. A four cylinder, automotive type spark ignition engine was used in the investigation. The engine was converted to operate on natural gas by replacing its fuel system with a gaseous carburetion system. A 3-way metal metrix catalytic converter was used in the engine exhaust system to reduce emission levels. The engine operated satisfactorily at an equivalence ratio as lean as 0.6, at all speeds and loads. As a result NOx emissions were significantly reduced. However, hydrocarbon emissions were high, particularly at very lean conditions and light loads. Most of these hydrocarbons were made up of methane with small concentrations of ethane and propane. Coefficient of variations in hydrocarbons were generally high at very lean operating conditions and light loads, but decreased with increasing equivalence ratio and engine speed. Methane concentrations in the engine exhaust decreased with increasing load and equivalence ratio. At lean air-to-fuel ratios and light loads oxidation of methane in the catalyst was substantially limited and no NOx reduction was achieved. In addition, the proportion of nitric oxide in oxides of nitrogen increased with increasing amount of NOx in the engine exhaust. A major problem encountered in the study was the inability of the fuel system to maintain near constant air-to-fuel ratios at steady operating conditions.

Varde, K.S.; Patro, N.; Drouillard, K. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

Gas chromatographic method to determine formaldehyde traces in automobile exhaust gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the gas chromatographic determination of traces of formaldehyde is described. The formaldehyde is detected by means of a modified FID which contains a microreactor inside the jet for the hydrogenation of formaldehyde to methane. Only a slight modification to an ordinary FID is needed with no additional gas tubes and no alteration to the existing detector heater. The additional dead volume and peak broadening is negligible. The system is calibrated by means of a gas generator. The described method is used for determining the content of formaldehyde in the exhaust gases of methanol-driven cars.

Bergmann, K.; Schneider, W.

1982-10-01

142

NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from May 2004 to October 2004 including testing of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, and software development.

Palitha Jayaweera

2004-05-01

143

Experimental research on exhaust gas purifying facilities in incinerating treatment of radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Among the research on the incinerating treatment of combustible low level wastes, three items, that is, combustible low level radioactive wastes and incinerating treatment method, wet type exhaust gas purifying facilities and ceramic filter type dry exhaust gas purifying facilities, were selected, and experimental research was carried out on the main theme of exhaust gas purification in the incineration of low level radioactive wastes. The definition of combustible low level radioactive wastes was decided, and the wastes conforming to this criteria were investigated and classified. The combustible low level wastes generated in the Tokai Research Establishment were classified and weighed, and the results reflected well the state of activities. The change of radioactive wastes to radioactive aerosol, radioactive gas and residue by incineration was investigated. The effect of volume reduction by incineration was studied. The decontamination performance of wet purifying system, the release of tritium steam, the cooling capacity of scrubbers and their corrosion, the construction of the test incinerator using ceramic filters, and the various tests on ceramic filters are reported. (K.I.)

1988-01-01

144

Dry exhaust gas processing equipment with cross current moving bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For stable and efficient removal of noxious gases such as hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, etc. produced at city refuse incinerator plants, a system has been put to practical use which employs a cross current moving bed using quick lime as the reaction agent. An all dry type system requiring no water was studied which performs as efficiently as the wet processing system. 11 systems were adopted at 5 plants including those now under construction. A space between separators is filled with 2 - 3 mm grains of quick lime, and a roll feeder is rotated to form a moving bed. Grain components in the moving bed were analyzed to learn the reaction characteristics of the moving bed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride at the inlet was about 1,100 - 1,300 ppm and that at the outlet was 20 - 40 ppm, the removal factor being approximately 97%. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas at the outlet was 1 - 2 ppm showing a very high removal factor. A record showing the operational conditions for 40 days is presented. The equipment has been operated with the target of making the outlet concentration of hydrogen chloride less than 50 ppm (average/day). (11 figs, 1 tab, 6 refs)

Morioka, Shuichi

1988-03-01

145

Matrix for a catalytic reactor for exhaust gas cleaning on internal combustion engines. Matrix fuer einen katalytischen Reaktor zur Abgasreinigung bei Brennkraftmaschinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a matrix for a catalytic reactor for exhaust gas cleaning on internal combustion engines, consisting of one or more temperature resistant steel sheets or steel tapes coated with catalyst material, at least one of which is corrugated to form flow ducts for the exhaust gas. The purpose of the invention is to create such a matrix so that a displacement of the coatings in the direction of the flow of exhaust gas is avoided with certainty, and also so that turbulent flow of the gas in the matrix ducts is created. According to the invention, this problem is solved by such a matrix, by providing at least one of the steel sheets or steel tapes with local projections and/or indentations, which combine in a form-locking way with the adjacent steel sheet or steel tape positions to prevent mutual displacement in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas. According to the design of the invention, the projections or indentations are made as punched fins in the surface of the steel sheet.

Nonnenmann, M.; Bardong, H.; Haller, K.; Humpolik, B.; Kluna, V.

1981-04-30

146

Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynamic models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst principles followed by parameter identication and compares the results of these approaches. The paper performs a validation against experimental data from a test engine and presents a linearised model for EGR control design.

Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Goran

2013-01-01

147

Device for checking the effectiveness of exhaust gas sensors. Vorrichtung zum Pruefen von Wirksamkeit von Abgassensoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is the creation of the possibility of blocking the feedback of exhaust gas for a period or to reduce its flow cross section in order to cause the sensor to emit a pulse. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the device having a unit which can be introduced behind the sensor through an opening in the wall of the exhaust gas feedback into the flow path, which can be moved by actuation from the outside in steps so that it narrows or blocks the flow cross section. This unit consists of a balloon consisting of an expanding material, which can be filled with a liquid. (HWJ).

1986-02-06

148

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of fabric filter for incineration exhaust gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer fabric filters used for the incinerator exhaust gas cleaning were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to investigate degradation of the filters. On the other hand, depth profile of coating materials on a glass fabric filter after heat treatment was observed by XPS under Ar sputtering. Sulfur bound to benzoic carbon on polyphenylene sulfide filter was thought to change to the high oxidized states such as -SO3 and/or -SO4, and carbon in carbonyl group (-C(O)-) bound to benzoic carbon on the polyimide filter to change to O=C-O- state. The result showed that the chain state bond of both polymers was broken by oxidants in the exhaust gas at 170-200degC. Two layers having a silicon compound and polytetrafuluoroethylene coated on glass fabric filter was found to be mixed after heat treatment at 200degC for 120h. (author).

1995-01-01

149

Metal oxide coatings for piezoelectric exhaust gas sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have deposited ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and SnO{sub 2} films on ST-cut quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices via sol-gel techniques. The films range from 100 to 300 nm thick and have porosities after calcination at 300{degrees}C that range from 82-88 % for ZrO{sub 2}, 77-81% for TiO{sub 2}, and 57-66% for SnO{sub 2}. In all cases, we have varied the synthesis and processing parameters over a wide range to optimize film properties: metal ion concentration (0.05-1.0 M), the H{sub 2}O:metal ratio (0.3-5.3), the acid concentration in the sol (0.02-0.7 M), the modifier ligand:metal ratio (r = 0.0-1.0), the processing conditions (100-900{degrees}C). The modifier ligand, triethanolamine (TEA), is added to each solution to allow multilayer films to be made crack free. The multilayer films are studied by optical microscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, and N{sub 2} sorption. Preliminary high temperature frequency response measurements to target gases, such as, H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and propylene indicate limited sensitivity for the configurations tested.

Anderson, M.T.; Cernosek, R.W.

1996-06-01

150

NO[sub x] reduction by external exhaust gas recirculation. Experiences and limit of application. NO[sub x]-Reduzierung durch externe Abgasrueckfuehrung. Erfahrung und Grenzen der Anwendung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By recirculating a part of the exhaust gas flow to the combustion cycle thermally produced NO emissions can be considerably reduced due to a reduction of the flame temperature and of the partial pressure of oxygene. Reduction rates of 30 to 40% in case of fuel oil EL and 50 to 60% in case of natural gas can be attained with this method. This rate depends among others on the supplied exhaust gas rate which is limited by the flame stability. Exhaust gas recirculation can normally be sensibly used with medium and high-power burners. It is at present the most favourable and safest method for the reduction of NOx in case of oil and gas firing systems. It has hardly any effect on the boiler effeiciency as the reduced heat transmission in the radiative part of the boiler is due to a lower flame temperature compensated by higher heat transmission in the convective part due to a higher gas velocity. (orig.).

Ahmadi, B. (Weishaupt (Max) GmbH, Schwendi (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung)

1992-11-01

151

Exhaust gas turbocharging with waste gate control for small diesel engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By matching waste gate controlled exhaust gas turbochargers to small Diesel engines, an increase and displacement of the maximum torque towards lower engine speeds can be realized. The high air surplus permits this tuning without the Bosch unit exceeding the ECE limit. The increase of the specific consumption in the upper speed range is 5%. The relevant facts are explained in this paper by means of the results obtained from tests with two small Diesel engines at KKK, Frankenthal.

Henssler, H.D.; Rebling, P.

1980-10-01

152

Exhaust gas catalyst and process for its manufacture. Abgaskatalysator und Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust gas catalyst according to the invention consists of about 50 to about 95% by weight of silicon carbide and about 5 to about 50% by weight of an alloy of silicon with one or more of the metals from the group copper, iron, cobalt, nickel, chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, zinc, silver, platinum, palladium or other catalytic metals; the catalytic surface is additionally activated by oxidation and/or a subsequent chemical treatment.

Pohlmann, H.J.; Strobel, K.

1986-02-27

153

Process for producing an exhaust gas reactor. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Abgas-Reaktorkoerpers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for producing an exhaust gas reactor using a ceramic foam body covered with a catalyst material. The special feature is that a thin slurry, dispersion or solution of catalyst material is introduced before, during or after the pre-drying of the foam body (polyurethane) impregnated with the slurry of ceramic material which is finely divided by centrifuging and the body is then burnt.

Drache, F.

1986-09-25

154

Destruction of pollutants in waste water or exhaust gas by electron irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollutants in waste water (e.g. dyes, organochlorine compounds, phenols, etc.) or exhaust gas (e.g. NOsub(x), SO2, H2S, CS2, etc.) may be destroyed by radiation doses of about 1 to 50 kGy. Using electron accelerators as radiation sources, treatment costs can be calculated which under the most favourable conditions are already comparable to conventional treatment costs. (auth.)

1980-04-15

155

New exhaust gas turbo-super-chargers for the diesel engines of the future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BBC has extended its existing range of turbo-superchargers by the units of type range 4. They are designed for charging pressure ratios between 3.5 and 4.5 and achieve overall efficiencies around 67%. Because of this new range, engine designers can now increase the specific output of their machines at a reasonable price by using these compact economic exhaust gas turbo-super-chargers.

Jung, D.

1980-01-01

156

Analyzing the effects on the atmosphere of exergy changes due to exhaust-gas emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exergy is a type of useful or available energy and can be used to describe the capabilities of doing work of heat and matter, contained in a system at a specified state. In thermodynamic studies, a system refers to everything to be investigated within a boundary, while the environment adjacent to the system is called the surroundings. During reversible processes, whether matter is contained in a closed system or flows through an open system, the exergy is a function of the system or flow and a reference environment. This paper presented an investigation of the exergy change of the surroundings adjacent to exhaust-gas emitting ports, and the probable effects on the atmosphere. The current stable state changing point of atmosphere was determined. The paper also described the potential of doing work. The effects of the amount of exhaust gas on the atmosphere were studied through an exergy change function, which was a nonlinear dynamic function. This function accounts for the flow direction of the exhaust gas without local wind. The study showed that exergy could be used as a state function to describe the change, the stability and the order of a system. 1 tab., 8 figs.

2009-01-01

157

An experimental investigation into the use of exhaust gas recirculation for diesel engine NOx control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The underlying mechanisms which determine the influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine performance and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions was examined so that a control technology could be successfully implemented into diesel powered engines. NOx emissions from the transportation sector are primarily responsible for the generation of smog for which diesel powered vehicles have been identified as the prime contributors. An experimental study was performed using a synthetic atmosphere diesel engine test facility to test the EGR control strategy. This is based upon chemically and thermodynamically altering the composition of the intake working fluid by recycling a portion of the exhaust gas back to the engine intake. The impact of EGR on diesel engine performance and NOx emissions was quantified and the mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of this control technology were determined. EGR was found to significantly reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. The dilution of the intake oxygen concentration by the recirculation of exhaust gas into the incoming air charge was the main parameter that controlled the influence of EGR on in-cylinder NOx generation.

Bowen, C.E.

1998-12-31

158

Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.).

1990-01-01

159

Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

1990-01-01

160

Burner for burning exhaust gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A burner is described for burning exhaust gases, particularly those from nuclear plants, using means of oxidation, which is space-saving, easy to handle and safe to operate, and which supplies little secondary exhaust gas. Mixing chambers are situated in a high temperature part, with tangentially fixed incoming pipes for the means of oxidation. The high temperature part is also heated by two or more separately controlled heating windings. (orig.)

1984-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Numerical Simulation of Membrane Reactor for Detritiation of Plasma Exhaust Gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the design targets for the ITER Tokamak Exhaust Processing system is to suppress the loss of tritium to less than 10-5 g/h into the Normal Vent Detritiation System of the Tritium Plant. The plasma exhaust gas, therefore, needs to be processed with an overall tritium removal efficiency of about 108. Such a high decontamination factor can be achieved by multistage processes. The third step of the three step CAPER process developed at the TLK is based on a so-called permeator catalyst (PERMCAT) reactor, a direct combination of a Pd/Ag permeation membrane and a catalyst bed. In this work, a numerical simulation of the PERMCAT reactor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data.

2005-01-01

162

Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

Ralf Moos

2010-01-01

163

Emission factor of exhaust gas constituents during the pyrolysis of zinc chloride immersed biosolid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pyrolysis enables ZnCl2 immersed biosolid to be reused, but some hazardous air pollutants are emitted during this process. Physical characteristics of biosolid adsorbents were investigated in this work. In addition, the constituents of pyrolytic exhaust were determined to evaluate the exhaust characteristics. Results indicated that the pyrolytic temperature was higher than 500 °C, the specific surface area was >900 m(2)/g, and the total pore volume was as much as 0.8 cm(3)/g at 600 °C. For non-ZnCl2 immersed biosolid pyrolytic exhaust, VOC emission factors increased from 0.677 to 3.170 mg-VOCs/g-biosolid with the pyrolytic temperature increase from 400 to 700 °C, and chlorinated VOCs and oxygenated VOCs were the dominant fraction of VOC groups. VOC emission factors increased about three to seven times, ranging from 1.813 to 21.448 mg/g for pyrolytic temperatures at 400-700 °C, corresponding to the mass ratio of ZnCl2 and biosolid ranging from 0.25-2.5.

Chiang HL; Lin KH; Chiu HH

2013-08-01

164

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zammit, M.G. (Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. (General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Bruetsch, R.I. (US Environmental Protection Agency (United States))

1992-01-01

165

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge `92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the US Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine. out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zammit, M.G. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States); Davies, J.G.; Salmon, G.S. [General Motors of Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Bruetsch, R.I. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1992-11-01

166

Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

2000-07-01

167

Exhaust characteristics of LPG/gas-oil diesel engines; LPG konnyu diesel engine no haiki tokusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attempts have been made to improve exhaust gas characteristics of the direct injection diesel engine under dual-fuel operation with gas oil and LPG. In dual-fuel operation with LPG as a sub- fuel, two kinds of LPG mixing methods can be employed. One is LPG mixing in gaseous state with the intake air, which is so-called `fumigation`. The other is LPG mixing in liquid state with gas oil prior to injection. The experimental results show that the mixing method in liquid state is better than the fumigation method in terms of NO and THC emission and specific energy consumption. In the mixing method in liquid state, NO is reduced in comparison with the base engine without the increase in THC, smoke and specific energy consumption if a proper squish intensity is employed. 15 refs., 12 figs.

Ikeda, M. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Mikami, M.; Kojima, N. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1998-09-25

168

Method for simultaneously scrubbing cement kiln exhaust gas and producing useful by-products therefrom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of simultaneously scrubbing acidic oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon from the hot exhaust stream from a cement kiln and utilizing acids derived therefrom to produce useful products from the carbonates and oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals contained as solids in cement kiln dust comprising the carbonates and oxides and insoluble silicates, aluminates and iron compounds is described, which comprises (a) mixing the dust with water to form a slurry comprising undissolved solids and a solution of the soluble compounds in the dust, and (b) passing the gas stream into the slurry whereby the acidic oxides contained therein will react with water to produce acids. The latter will react with the carbonates and oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals to yield a solution of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts comprising principally the cationic components, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, and anionic components, carbonate, sulfate and nitrate, and a precipitate of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts with insoluble silicates, aluminates and iron compounds, and the gas of the gas stream after passing through the slurry emerges as scrubbed exhaust.

Morrison, G.L.

1987-12-29

169

Matrix for a catalytic reactor for cleaning of exhaust gas from internal combustion engines. Matrix fuer einen katalytischen Reaktor zur Abgasreinigung bei Brennkraftmaschinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a matrix for a catalytic reactor for cleaning of exhaust gas from internal combustion engines. It consists of one or more temperature resistant steel sheets or steel tapes coated with catalyst material, at one of which is corrugated in order to form flow ducts for the exhaust gas, where the steel sheets are coated with catalyst material before or after the manufacture of the matrix. The purpose of the invention was to create such a matrix so that as much turbulent flow as possible is generated in its ducts, and particularly to reduce the length of the matrix. According to this invention, the problem is solved by having holes extending over the whole length of the sheet or tape with flat or corrugated steel sheet or steel tape, so that individual narrow strips of sheet or tape follow one another in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas. This ensures that the gas flow can mix between the individual narrow strips of sheet, and is divided in the subsequent narrow strip, so that new parts of the gas flow come into contact with the surface of the subsequent narrow strip.

Nonnenmann, M.

1980-07-31

170

Rare earth containing perovskites with catalytic properties for the cleaning of automobile exhaust gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various types of metal oxides with the perovskite structure were synthesized. In the ABO3 type with A = La and B = Co, Mn, part of the A-cations were substituted by Sr or Ce. A2BO4 oxides with A = La, B = Co were prepared as well and partially substituted by Sr. Finally, double perovskites were investigated. The catalytic effect of the oxides were tested for oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO and for the reduction of NO using automobile exhaust gas. The catalysts of the ABO3-type showed the best activity.

1991-01-01

171

The effect of manganese fuel additive and exhaust gas recirculation on diesel particulate emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was undertaken to determine the combined effect of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) fuel additive and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on particulate and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from a single-cylinder light-duty diesel engine. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the particulate material were determined to better understand MMT and EGR effects on these emissions. The results showed that EGR always decreased NOx emissions, and that MMT had no significant effect on them. In addition, EGR always increased particulate emissions, but MMT was effective in limiting this increase especially at high EGR levels.

Hilden, D.L.; Bergin, S.P.

1986-01-01

172

Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

1997-12-31

173

An Experimental Study of Different Effects of EGR Rates on The Performance And Exhaust Emissions of The Stratified Charge Piston Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of the principal techniques used to control spark ignition NOX. A fraction of the exhaust gas is recycled through a control valve from the exhaust to the engine intake system. However, EGR has different effect on performance, combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish such as increase of intake temperature, delay of Rate Of Heat Rrelease (ROHR), decrease of peak heat release, decrease in oxygen concentration etc. Therefore the impact of EGR on the aforementioned engine parameters (i.e., performance, combustion and exhaust emission) is not perfectly understood, especially under high EGR rates. An experimental study has been conducted to analyze various effects of EGR rates on the performance and emissions of the stratified charge piston direct injection compressed natural gas engine and to determine the stable operating limit of the engine at different excess air ratios ( = 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2) which represents rich, stoichiometric, slightly lean and moderately lean mixture respectively. The results showed that as the EGR is increased, the brake torque, brake specific fuel consumption decreased, while nitric oxide emissions (NO) reduced drastically at various fraction of EGR, just as Unburnt Hydro Carbon (UHC) increased. EGR has no significant effect on carbon monoxide (CO) emission. The addition of EGR also reduces cylinder’s gas temperature and pressure. It can be concluded that in introducing EGR in DI-CNG engines, there is a tradeoff between the engine’s performance and NOX emission, while it is difficult to realize stable combustion at high temperature.

Saheed O. Wasiu; Shaharin A. Sulaiman; A. Rashid A. Aziz

2011-01-01

174

Use of a remote plasma source for CVD chamber clean and exhaust gas abatement applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Remote plasma sources have traditionally been used in semiconductor processing applications such as dry removal of photoresist, where the capability of delivering a large flux of atomic oxygen into a semiconductor process chamber, with little of the associated plasma used to dissociate the oxygen, has made them attractive. With the development of fluorine-compatible remote plasma sources, a range of new application opportunities has opened up. In remote cleaning of CVD chambers, the remote plasma source is positioned before the process chamber, and a stream of atomic fluorine from the source is flowed into the chamber, where it can effectively clean a wide variety of materials such as SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and W. The cleaning process is purely chemical, with no associated in-situ plasma which can cause degradation of the process chamber. In exhaust gas abatement, the remote plasma source is located between the outlet of the etch or deposition process chamber and the mechanical pump. By adding appropriate gases, the exhaust stream from the chamber can be converted to form which can be managed more readily. Using a robust toroidal plasma source design, the ASTRON{trademark} remote plasma source has been used to address both of these areas. As an atomic fluorine source, over the typical operating range of 2--10 Torr several SLM of gases such as NF{sub 3} can be fully dissociated. As an exhaust gas abatement device, with operating pressure in the 0.1--1.0 Torr regime, abatement of perfluorocompounds (PFC's) at greater than 95% levels has been demonstrated. Using a variety of techniques--FTIR, RGA, and sample etching--the operation of this source technology and issues such as transport of atomic fluorine over substantial distances has been investigated.

Holber, W.; Chen, X.; Smith, D.; Besen, M.

1999-07-01

175

Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

Miracolo MA; Drozd GT; Jathar SH; Presto AA; Lipsky EM; Corporan E; Robinson AL

2012-08-01

176

DOE 6430.1a compliance checklist for the rotary mode core sampling exhauster flammable gas interlock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document examines the Safety Class I criteria in DOE 6430.1a and determines applicability to the rotary mode core sampling exhauster flammable gas interlock. Purpose of the interlock is to prevent the design basis accident of deflagration in single shell flammable gas watchlist tank

1995-01-01

177

Oxidation and exhaust gas corrosion resistance of the cobalt base clad layers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this work is describing the behaviour of the cobalt base cladding layers after treatment in hot air (750°C, 200 hours) and exhaust gases (700°C, two month).Design/methodology/approach: The layers were produced by two cladding, laser and PTA, cladding technique. Cladding was conducted with a high power diode laser HDPL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 and Plasma Transformed Arc method. The layers consisted of three multitracking sublayers. The cobalt base layers were evaluated by microstructure investigations (optical and scanning electron microscope SEM), chemical analysis and micro hardness measurements.Findings: The microstructure of the investigated layers did not change much, neither on the top part nor in the clad/steel interface after treatment in both environments. On the outer surfaces the oxide layers were observed which consisted generally of chromium and iron oxides. The compositions of this scales were reviled by the EDS analyze. The changes in chemical compositions before and after oxidation and after corrosion in exhaust gases in the dendritic regions and micro regions were confirmed by the semi-quantitative chemical analysis (EDS). Neither the oxidation nor exposition for two month in exhaust gases did not influence on the morphology of the clad layers in any region however changes in chemical composition were observed. For both sort of clads the oxide layers were observed on the surface. The proposed layers are resistant for the hot exhausted gases.Research limitations/implications: The future researches should be done on microstructural and kinetic analyze of high temperature corrosion for higher temperature and times of the process.Practical implications: The clad layers, of this composition, were designed as a method to prolong service time for the ship engine exhausted valve and after this investigation the first valve heads with laser clad layer were installed in working ship engine.Originality/value: The chemical composition of the powder was new one. Also using the laser cladding technique for ship engine parts subject of interesting.

H. Smolenska

2008-01-01

178

ZIGBEE Based Implementation on Exhaust Gas Detection Services Oriented System Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vehicle exhaust gas emission is directly related with the quality of air. This paper describes theresearch and development of an ZIGBEE based exhaust gas detection system applying the service orientedarchitecture for the purpose of environmental protection. An edge engine supporting the EPC global ALEspecification, a complex event processing engine dealing with the complex streaming ZIGBEE events and servicebus, which are involved in the architecture of the system, are discussed both separately and in a whole picture. Theedge engine is composed of four modules, which are kernel module, device management module, events filter module,and configuration module. It provides features to encapsulate the applications from device interfaces; to process the raw observations captured by the readers and sensors; and to provide an application-level interface formanaging readers and querying ZIGBEE observations. Event processing engine consists of a network of event processing agents running in parallel that interact using a dedicated event processing infrastructure, which provides an abstract communication mechanism and allows dynamic reconfiguration of the communication topology between agents at run-time. Web Services and asynchronous APIs are pivotal system implementation for flexiblecomponents reuse, dynamic configuration and optimized performance. Service bus, through its service integrationand management capabilities, is the backbone of the system. Lastly, the system is proven to be effective with highperformance in the benchmark.

SK SABIHA BEGUM; B.UMASANKA

2013-01-01

179

Energy saving by change in deodorizing treatment method against sludge incinerating exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contents of improvement in the deodorizing facilities, against exhaust gas produced from the sludge incinerator in automobile factory, are presented. To treat waste water treatment slugde produced from evey factory shops, there are four trains of facilities, i.e., three trains of 50 tons/day and one train of 60 tons/day in incinerating capacity, each comprising, in order of treatment, the rotary kiln incinerator, multi-cyclone, deodorizer, refrigerator, EP and chimney. The annually consumed fuel in total attains to even 1,850 kl, of which 60 % is occupied by the deodorizers. The deodorizer 4 was modified to incinerate waste in the nearest possible vicinity of burner, by the change in flow type from direct to parallel and installation of damring. While by the conduction of exhaust gas produced from the incinerators 1 through 3 into the incinerator 4, together with the adoption of rotary flow type to this conduction, the heightening in efficiency was engineered. Designed to incinerate paint lees, and waste grease and oil, the incinerator 4 was provided with a unit to individually adjust the incineratee in supply condition depending upon its physical property, through which the ratio of decrease in fuel consumption atteined to 65% in total covering the incinerators 1 through 4 and deodorizers. (6 figs, 4 tabs)

Yamanaka, Masami

1988-08-30

180

Cleaning the exhaust gas of Volkswagen FSI engines; Die Abgasreinigung der FSI-Motoren von Volkswagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order further to reduce the fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop a spark-ignition engine with direct fuel injection. So as to be able to launch this new engine concept while at the same time meeting the EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and this was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and dmc{sup 2} Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The article describes the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines, its adjustment to the vehicle and the most important development aspects. (orig.) [German] Zur weiteren Absenkung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs ihrer Fahrzeugflotte hat sich die Volkswagen AG fuer die Entwicklung eines Ottomotors mit Kraftstoffdirekteinspritzung entschieden. Um dieses neue Motorkonzept unter Einhaltung der EU-IV-Grenzwerte betreiben zu koennen, war die Entwicklung eines adaequaten Abgasnachbehandlungssystems notwendig, die im Rahmen einer intensiven Zusammenarbeit zwischen der Volkswagen AG und der dmc{sup 2} Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG realisiert wurde. Der Artikel beschreibt das Abgasnachbehandlungssystem fuer die FSI-Motoren von Volkswagen, dessen Integration im Fahrzeug, sowie die dafuer wichtigen Entwicklungsrichtungen und -schwerpunkte. (orig.)

Glueck, K.H.; Goebel, U.; Hoehne, J.; Kreuzer, T. [Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG (Germany); Hahn, H.; Krebs, R.; Pott, E. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Technology of exhaust emission improvement in IDI diesel engine for automobile. Jidoshayo IDI diesel kikan no haishutsu gas teigen gijutsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution problem having been raised due to economic activities concentrated in the large urban area in the early 1980 {prime} s, a recommendatory report was submitted by the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control in December, 1989 to quantitatively decrease the exhaust gas at both the short and long term stages. In the present report, contents of technological R and D were explained to quantitatively decrease the exhaust gas from the indirect injection Diesel engines, mainly used for passenger cars and light/medium weight cars. The technology is classified into the following three main technical points: Improvement in combustion by reforming the fuel injection system and combustion chamber. Exhaust gas recirculation system to recirculate the exhaust gas into the combustion chamber for aiming at the quantitative decrease in NO {sub x}. Post-treatment technique for aiming at the collection and oxidation of particulate substance, black smoke and hydrogen sulfide. However judging from the qualitative environment condition of air in the large urban area, challenge is necessary to innovative technology as technological development is urgently needed to further decrease the quantity of gas to be exhausted. 20 refs., 17 figs.

Konishi, Y.; Tanaka, T. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-09-01

182

Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

Miller, Paul Albert

2010-11-01

183

Determination of analytical dependences in order to calculate the exhaust gas boiler with helical belt inserts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research is the identification of regularities of heat and aerodynamic processes and determination of analytical dependences in order to calculate heat exchange Nu = (Re, S/d) and aerodynamic resistance ? = f(Re, S/d) of the exhaust gas boiler with helical belt inserts. The experimental research of heat exchange and aerodynamics of all used helical belt inserts was performed in the same conditions, based on one methodology and the same ex-perimental installation. The received dependences help to evaluate the increasein heat exchange and aerodynamic resistance of a gas flow while using helical belt inserts with different geometrical specifications, and to select the best option of the geometry of the insert for a specific construction of a recuperative heat exchanger with multi-phase heat exchange environments.

Kolyadin Evgeniy Alekseevich; Vinogradov Sergey Vladimirovich; Vorobyev Alexander Valentinovich

2010-01-01

184

Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much reduction of electrical resistance. HHO system addition to the engine without any modification resulted in increasing engine torque output by an average of 19.1%, reducing CO emissions by an average of 13.5%, HC emissions by an average of 5% and SFC by an average of 14%. (author)

Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

2010-10-15

185

Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

2004-01-01

186

New drying system with exhaust gas circulation for coal drying by hot-gas penetrating vibration bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot test on coal drying in a hot-gas penetrating vibration bed is briefly introduced. The test results show that the coal surface moisture of 50{approximately}6 mm size fraction can be reduced from 5.80% to 1.11%, and that of 50{approximately}0 mm size fraction from 10.0% to 1.97%, thus further proving that this drying technique has characteristics of fast and homogeneous drying. According to the pilot test results, a new coal drying system with part exhaust gas circulation and its design method are put forward. The calculating results of an industrial system show that this new coal drying system has advantages of saving fuel and electricity. In addition, it is safe due to reduction of oxygen content inside the system. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Yang, G.; Chen, Q.; Tao, X.; Fan, M. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Energy Utilisation and Chemical Engineering

1999-07-01

187

Automobile exhaust gas as a source of aqueous phase OH radical in the atmosphere and its effects on physiological status of pine trees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Free radical generation potential of automobile exhaust gas was examined by measuring hydroxyl (OH) radical photo-formation rates in exhaust gas-scrubbing water. Effects of automobile exhausts on physiological status of Japanese red pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) were also investigated to elucidate the mechanism how the free radicals derived from exhaust gas damage higher plants. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases were scrubbed into pure water. Potential photo-formation rates of OH radical in aqueous phase (normalized to sun light intensity of clear sky midday on May 1 at 34°N) for gasoline and diesel cars were ave. 51 and 107 ? Mh?¹ m?³ of exhaust gas, respectively. Nitrite was a dominant source (ca. 70-90%) of photochemical formation of OH radical in both gasoline and diesel car exhausts. The scrubbed solution of diesel car exhaust gas was sprayed for six times per week to needles of pine tree seedlings in open top chambers. Control, exhaust+mannitol (added as OH radical scavenger), and nitrite+nitrate standard solution (equivalent levels existed in the exhaust gas) were also sprayed. Two months sprays indicated that the sprayed solutions of diesel exhaust and nitrite+nitrate caused a decrease of maximum photosynthetic rate and stomata conductance in pine needles while the control and exhaust+mannitol solution showed no effects on photosynthetic activities of pine needles. These results indicated that OH radicals generated mainly from photolysis of nitrite occurring in the scrubbing solution of exhaust gas are responsible for the decrease of photosynthetic activities of pine needles.

Sakugawa H; Matsuda T; Nakatani N

2011-10-01

188

Automobile exhaust gas as a source of aqueous phase OH radical in the atmosphere and its effects on physiological status of pine trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free radical generation potential of automobile exhaust gas was examined by measuring hydroxyl (OH) radical photo-formation rates in exhaust gas-scrubbing water. Effects of automobile exhausts on physiological status of Japanese red pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) were also investigated to elucidate the mechanism how the free radicals derived from exhaust gas damage higher plants. Gasoline and diesel exhaust gases were scrubbed into pure water. Potential photo-formation rates of OH radical in aqueous phase (normalized to sun light intensity of clear sky midday on May 1 at 34°N) for gasoline and diesel cars were ave. 51 and 107 ? Mh?¹ m?³ of exhaust gas, respectively. Nitrite was a dominant source (ca. 70-90%) of photochemical formation of OH radical in both gasoline and diesel car exhausts. The scrubbed solution of diesel car exhaust gas was sprayed for six times per week to needles of pine tree seedlings in open top chambers. Control, exhaust+mannitol (added as OH radical scavenger), and nitrite+nitrate standard solution (equivalent levels existed in the exhaust gas) were also sprayed. Two months sprays indicated that the sprayed solutions of diesel exhaust and nitrite+nitrate caused a decrease of maximum photosynthetic rate and stomata conductance in pine needles while the control and exhaust+mannitol solution showed no effects on photosynthetic activities of pine needles. These results indicated that OH radicals generated mainly from photolysis of nitrite occurring in the scrubbing solution of exhaust gas are responsible for the decrease of photosynthetic activities of pine needles. PMID:21767866

Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshihide; Nakatani, Nobutake

2011-07-20

189

Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is 60Co ?-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

2000-01-01

190

Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko

2000-03-01

191

Dual-catalyst aftertreatment of lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dual-catalyst system for the reduction of NO with CH4 under lean conditions was investigated. The system is comprised of a mixed bed containing a Co/ZrO2 catalyst, active for the oxidation of NO to NO2, and a Pd/sulfated zirconia (SZ) catalyst that is active for the reduction of NO2 with CH4. Such a system is capable of taking advantage of higher reduction rates for NO2, as compared to NO, that have been previously observed. When simulated exhaust streams from lean-burn natural gas engines are used as feed, the dual-catalyst system is simultaneously active for the reduction of NOx and the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO. (author)

2007-06-18

192

Apparatus and a method for diagnosing an exhaust gas purification system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method for diagnosing at least three sensors of an exhaust gas purification system, which includes a predetermined relationship between outputs of the three sensors comprising: detecting an output of a first sensor of the three sensors; detecting an output of a second sensor of the three sensors; detecting an output of a third sensor of the three sensors; detecting an engine revolution number; and determining whether the engine revolution number is within a first revolution range when the output of the second sensor is contrary to an output predicted in accordance with the outputs of the first and third sensors on the basis on the predetermined relationship, whereby the method does not diagnose any of three sensors as out of order when the engine revolution number is within the first revolution range.

Shibata, N.; Uchitani, N.

1988-09-13

193

Renault Gordini EF1 - the first formula-1-engine with exhaust-gas turbocharging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1966 all Grand-Prix races have been held on the basis of the current regiment stipulating that either a 3-liter naturally aspirated engine or a 1.5-liter turbocharged engine be used. Up to and including 1976, not one team opted for the challenge of entering a race with a turbocharged engine because the displacement handicap appeared too great. In 1975 Renault became the first company to go ahead with the development of a Formula 1 racing engine with exhaust-gas turbocharging. But then the Renaults that had at first been severely handicapped because of their bad startability and a throttle response that suffered from turbo lag especially on slow stretches soon became the fastest cars on almost all Grand-Prix circuits thanks to intensive on-going development work. The following is a description of the layout and technical development of Renault's Formula 1 turbocharged engine.

Hoefer, C.

1984-10-01

194

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon...

D. L. Hillis J. Hogan M. R. Wade M. Hellermann J. Ehrenberg

1998-01-01

195

Effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy water temperature on subsequent exhaustive running performance in normothermic conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of cold water immersion (CWI) in normothermic conditions, little data is available on its effect on subsequent endurance performance. This study examined the effect of CWI as a recovery strategy on subsequent running performance in normothermic ambient conditions (?22°C). DESIGN: Nine endurance-trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive running bouts on three separate occasions. The running bouts (Ex1 and Ex2) were separated by 15min of un-immersed seated rest (CON), hip-level CWI at 8°C (CWI-8) or hip-level CWI at 15°C (CWI-15). METHODS: Intestinal temperature, blood lactate and heart rate were recorded throughout and V?O2, running economy and exercise times were recorded during the running sessions. RESULTS: Running time to failure (min) during Ex2 was significantly (p<0.05, ES=0.7) longer following CWI-8 (27.7±6.3) than CON (23.3±5) but not different between CWI-15 (26.3±3.4) and CON (p=0.06, ES=0.7) or CWI-8 and CWI-15 (p=0.4, ES=0.2). Qualitative analyses showed a 95% and 89% likely beneficial effect of CWI-8 and CWI-15 during Ex2 compared with CON, respectively. Time to failure during Ex2 was significantly shorter than Ex1 only during the CON condition. Intestinal temperature and HR were significantly lower for most of Ex2 during CWI-8 and CWI-15 compared with CON but they were similar at failure for the three conditions. Blood lactate, running economy and V?O2 were not altered by CWI. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that a 15min period of cold water immersion applied between repeated exhaustive exercise bouts significantly reduces intestinal temperature and enhances post-immersion running performance in normothermic conditions.

Dunne A; Crampton D; Egaña M

2013-09-01

196

Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based on a finite-element approach. On each discretized segment, fluid properties, heat transfer process and TEG performance are locally calculated for higher model precision. To benefit both the system design and fabrication, the way to model TEG modules is herein reconsidered; a database of commercialized compact plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance of the model accuracy and the optimization on system configuration. Future studies will concentrate on heat exchanger structures.

Xin, Gao; Andreasen, SØren Juhl

2012-01-01

197

Process for operating stack gas collectors at reduced temperature. Verfahren zum Betreiben von Rauchgas-Sammlern bei verminderter Temperatur  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns a process for operating exhaust gas collectors at reduced temperature. The stack gas is treated with a material (e.g. lime, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/) in a quantity which is at least sufficient to eliminate the sulphur trioxide before the particle collector. The acid dew point is reduced in this way. After eliminating the SO/sub 3/, the stack gas is preferably cooled to a temperature of 60 to 66/sup 0/C. The cooled stack gas is then subjected to particle collection for example in an electrostatic precipitator (separator) or a bag filter.

Feldman, P.L.; Gleason, R.J.

1987-04-02

198

Gas exchange measurement during pediatric mechanical ventilation - Agreement between gas sampling at the airway and the ventilator exhaust.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A variety of indirect calorimetry (IC) devices are used for gas exchange measurement and calculation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in the pediatric intensive care unit. The aim of this investigation was to compare oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2), REE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in mechanically ventilated children, obtained by 2 devices using distinct gas sampling methods. METHODS: Mechanically ventilated children were targeted for IC and gas exchange measurements were recorded for a 30 min period, simultaneously using the E-COVX(®) (gas sampling at the airway) and the Vmax(®) (gas sampling at the humidifier and ventilator exhaust). Steady state gas exchange measurements by the 2 devices were tested for agreement using Spearman correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: Steady state data from both devices were available in 19 tests and were included in the analysis. The correlations coefficients for measurements by the 2 devices were r = 0.903(P RQ, respectively. The mean percentage bias (limits of agreement) for VO2, VCO2, REE and RQ values between the two methods (Vmax-E-COVX) was 0.2 (-41.8-42.3), -0.8 (-21.8-20.1), -2.2 (-33.9-29.6) and 1.9 (-21-24.9) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite strong correlations and small mean biases for VO2, VCO2 and REE obtained by the Vmax(®) and E-COVX(®), the limits of agreement were beyond the clinically acceptable range. These devices should not be used interchangeably for gas exchange measurements in mechanically ventilated children. PMID:23587734

Smallwood, Craig D; Mehta, Nilesh M

2013-03-22

199

Exhaust gas detoxification of thermal power stations and conventional heaters. Final report. Schadstoffreduzierung bei Abgasen aus Waermeerzeugungsanlagen. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

14 exhaust gas detoxification systems for the sector of household and small consumers have been tested in order to get knowledges on their efficiency, their long term durability and their usability. In this work, many problems could be detected, which have to be solved, before the systems can be used in practice. (orig.) With 24 refs., 108 figs.

Brandl, A.; Goeddeke, H.; Kunz, W.; Lechelmayr, H.; Michas, D.

1989-09-01

200

Calculation methods for designing the gas dynamics of exhaust systems; Berechnungsmethodik zur Auslegung der Gasdynamik von Abgasanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CAE programs provide active support in the process of functional development of exhaust systems. There is a strong interaction between sound, charge change, and counterpressure, and these characteristics must be considered jointly in gas dynamics calculations, as this contribution shows. (orig.)

Mochkaai, Y.; Zimmermann, K.; Spindler, K. [Zeuna Staerker GmbH und Co. KG, Augsburg (Germany)

2003-04-15

 
 
 
 
201

Effectiveness of overflow openings in air-exhaust gas chimneys. Zur Wirksamkeit von Ueberstroemoeffnungn in Luft-Abgas-Schornsteinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All air/exhaust gas chimneys approved by building inspection have an overflow opening. This was originally required for safety reasons but today its effect has become insignificant. There are several advantages but just as many disadvantages. From the point of view of energy consumption the overflow opening is rather disadvantageous. (orig.)

Kalisch, A. (Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Lehrgebiet Heizungs- und Raumlufttechnik, TU Dresden (Germany)); Richter, W. (Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Lehrgebiet Heizungs- und Raumlufttechnik, TU Dresden (Germany))

1993-12-01

202

Reduction of NOx contained in combustion exhaust gas by N2 corona discharge; Chisso corona hoden ni yoru nensho hai gas chu no chisso sankabutsu no jokyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the development of advanced corona discharge methods for removing pollutants such as NOx and SOx from combustion exhaust gas, the feasibility of the N2 corona discharge method was studied for saving electrical energy required for plasma production, where N2 gas is excited by passing directly through a corona discharge tube, and produced nitrogen radicals such as nitrogen atom and excited molecule are mixed and reacted with exhaust gas. In experiments, some types of corona discharge tubes composed of two kinds of outer electrodes with different diameters and some center electrodes with different diameters were used together with simulated exhaust gas containing N2, O2, CO2, H2O and NO to obtain the optimal condition. As a result, O2 and H2O contents had no effect on NOx reduction, and no CO gas was generated from CO2 gas. NOx reduction of nearly 10% was achieved by N2 corona discharge within an input power of 30 W nearly one-half that in conventional corona discharge method passing directly exhaust gas through a tube. 11 refs., 10 figs.

Morimune, T. [Shonan Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Tsukakoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-25

203

PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.

RANBIR SINGH; SAGAR MAJI

2012-01-01

204

Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

2005-03-01

205

A wind-tunnel study on exhaust-gas dispersion from road vehicles. Part 2. Effect of vehicle queues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By a reduced-scale wind-tunnel experiment, we investigate the dispersion behavior of exhaust gas from automobiles. Based on the results of single-vehicle cases in Part I of our work, we consider vehicle queues consisting of passenger cars (P) and small-size trucks (T). The roles of the vehicles before and after the gas-emitting vehicle are as follows. By their turbulent wake, the preceding vehicles make the concentration field approximately symmetric in the spanwise direction despite the significant lateral offset of the exhaust pipe. The vehicles behind the gas-emitter expand the exhaust plume considerably in the spanwise direction; T expands the plume also in the vertical direction in its roll-up wake, while P scoops up the oncoming plume only around the centerline. For vehicle queues of mixing ratio P:T=2:1, the concentration fields when one of the component vehicles emit the gas are measured. It turns out that the plume shape is determined mostly by the type of the gas-emitting vehicle whereas the type of the following vehicles has minor effect. We also present an analytical procedure to approximate the overall contribution from all the queue-forming vehicles by a Gaussian line-source plume formula. (author)

Kanda, Isao; Uehara, Kiyoshi; Yamao, Yukio [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yasuo; Morikawa, Tazuko [Petroleum Energy Center, 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2006-09-15

206

Exhausted jackknife validation exemplified by prediction of temperature optimum in enzymatic reaction of cellulases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This was the continuation of our previous study along the same line with more focus on technical details because the data are usually divided into two datasets, one for model development and the other for model validation during the development of predictive model. The widely used validation method is the delete-1 jackknife validation. However, no systematical studies were conducted to determine whether the jackknife validation with different deletions works better because the number of validations with different deletions increases in a factorial fashion. Therefore it is only small dataset that can be used for such an exhausted study. Cellulase is an enzyme playing an important role in modern industry, and many parameters related to cellulase in enzymatic reactions were poorly documented. With increased interests in cellulases in bio-fuel industry, the prediction of parameters in enzymatic reactions is listed on agenda. In this study, two aims were defined (a) which amino acid property works better to predict the temperature optimum and (b) with which deletion the jackknife validation works. The results showed that the amino acid distribution probability works better in predicting the optimum temperature of catalytic reaction by cellulase, and the delete-4, more precisely one-fifth deletion, jackknife validation works better.

Yan S; Wu G

2012-02-01

207

Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere o...

Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

208

Gas-particle partitioning of primary organic aerosol emissions: (1) Gasoline vehicle exhaust  

Science.gov (United States)

The gas-particle partitioning of the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions from fifty-one light-duty gasoline vehicles (model years 1987–2012) was investigated at the California Air Resources Board Haagen–Smit Laboratory. Each vehicle was operated over the cold-start unified cycle on a chassis dynamometer and its emissions were sampled using a constant volume sampler. Four independent yet complementary approaches were used to investigate POA gas-particle partitioning: sampling artifact correction of quartz filter data, dilution from the constant volume sampler into a portable environmental chamber, heating in a thermodenuder, and thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of quartz filter samples. This combination of techniques allowed gas-particle partitioning measurements to be made across a wide range of atmospherically relevant conditions – temperatures of 25–100 °C and organic aerosol concentrations of quartz filter POA emission factors in order to update emissions inventories for use in chemical transport models.

May, Andrew A.; Presto, Albert A.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Robinson, Allen L.

2013-10-01

209

Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upcoming regulations for vehicle exhaust emission demand substantial reduction of particle emission in diesel exhaust. To achieve these emission levels, the car manufacturing industry is developing new combustion concepts and exhaust after-treatment techniques such as the use of catalysts and particle filters. Many of the state-of-the-art analytical instruments do not meet the required detection limits, in combination with a high temporal resolution necessary for engine optimization. This paper reports a new detection system and the first results of its application to on-line diesel exhaust soot measurements on a engine test bench (MAN diesel engine facility Nürnberg, Germany). The instrument is based on differential photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of black carbon aerosol. It contains two identical PA cells, one for the measurement of the aerosol particles and one which analyses the particle-free gas. Thus, a potential cross-sensitivity to gaseous absorbers in the exhaust gas can be excluded. The PA cells were characterized in a laboratory set-up, with water vapor as reference gas and artificial soot generated by a spark discharge generator. The detection limit was found to be 2 microg m(-3) BC (for diesel soot) with a sampling rate of 3 Hz. The temporal response of the system was found to be in the order of 1 s. After full characterization of the cells, the system was transferred into a mobile 19"-rack. Characterization of the mobile sensor system under real-world conditions was performed during several measurement campaigns at an engine test bench for heavy-duty diesel engines. Results for the limit of detection, the time resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and robustness of the sensor system are very promising with regards to a routine application of the system in engine development. PMID:12733029

Beck, H A; Niessner, R; Haisch, C

2003-03-28

210

Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Upcoming regulations for vehicle exhaust emission demand substantial reduction of particle emission in diesel exhaust. To achieve these emission levels, the car manufacturing industry is developing new combustion concepts and exhaust after-treatment techniques such as the use of catalysts and particle filters. Many of the state-of-the-art analytical instruments do not meet the required detection limits, in combination with a high temporal resolution necessary for engine optimization. This paper reports a new detection system and the first results of its application to on-line diesel exhaust soot measurements on a engine test bench (MAN diesel engine facility Nürnberg, Germany). The instrument is based on differential photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy of black carbon aerosol. It contains two identical PA cells, one for the measurement of the aerosol particles and one which analyses the particle-free gas. Thus, a potential cross-sensitivity to gaseous absorbers in the exhaust gas can be excluded. The PA cells were characterized in a laboratory set-up, with water vapor as reference gas and artificial soot generated by a spark discharge generator. The detection limit was found to be 2 microg m(-3) BC (for diesel soot) with a sampling rate of 3 Hz. The temporal response of the system was found to be in the order of 1 s. After full characterization of the cells, the system was transferred into a mobile 19"-rack. Characterization of the mobile sensor system under real-world conditions was performed during several measurement campaigns at an engine test bench for heavy-duty diesel engines. Results for the limit of detection, the time resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and robustness of the sensor system are very promising with regards to a routine application of the system in engine development.

Beck HA; Niessner R; Haisch C

2003-04-01

211

Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning.

Wentzell JJ; Liggio J; Li SM; Vlasenko A; Staebler R; Lu G; Poitras MJ; Chan T; Brook JR

2013-07-01

212

Metal complex and exhaust gas purification catalyst manufacture method using the same  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a metal complex in which ligands are coordinated to one metal atom or a plurality of metal atoms of the same kind, characterized in that at least one of the ligands has an uncoordinated functional group that is not coordinated to a metal atom and that is selected from the group consisting of: -COOH, -COOR 8 , -CR 8 R 9 OH, -NR 8 {C(=O)R 9 }, -NR 8 R 9 , -CR 8 =N-R 9 , -CO-R 8 , -PR 8 R 9 , -P(=O)R 8 R 9 , -P(OR 8 )(OR 9 ), -S(=O) 2 R 8 , -S + (-O - )R 8 , -SR 8 , -CR 8 R 9 -SH, -CR 8 R 9 -SR 10 , and -CR 8 =CR 9 R 10 (R 8 to R 10 each independently are hydrogen or a monovalent organic group). The complexes may be dissolved and a porous metal oxide catalyst support impregnated with the solution, followed by drying and firing, to provide an exhaust gas purification catalyst.

MASHIMA KAZUSHI; OHASHI MASATO; YAGYU AKIHIRO; HIRATA HIROHITO

213

COMBINED IMPACT OF BIODIESEL (MENO) AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON NOX EMISSIONS IN DI DIESEL ENGINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The steep rises in the prices of the petroleum fuels and the concern for the environment have forced the researchers to find alternative renewable fuels which are called bio-fuels. The objective of this work is to find the optimum EGR and biodiesel blend matrix for the better performance and optimum emission reduction in a DI diesel engine. The bio fuel used in the experimentation is derived from the Neem oil. A twin-cylinder, air-cooled, constant speed direct injection diesel engine is used for experiments. HC, NOx, CO, and smoke of the exhaust gas are measured. Various engine performance parameters such as thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption are calculated from the acquired data. As the percentage of bio diesel increased in diesel and bio fuel blend the NOx emission increased. In order to reduce the emission from bio diesel EGR is used. Application of EGR with biodiesel blends resulted in reductions in NOx emissions without any significant penalty in smoke emissions. The results reveal that the Blend 100 (100 % bio fuel) produces maximum NOx emission (300 ppm). With 25% volume flow rate of EGR with the same B100 bio diesel, the NOx emission is reduced approximately 300 ppm to 100 ppm

B. Jothithirumal; E. James Gunasekaran

2012-01-01

214

New high-performance gas flow equalizing metal supports for exhaust gas catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the theory of catalysis and in the light of the all-important exchange of substances, the existing type of catalyst metal supports has been redesigned. The new metal supports vary from their predecessors by largely split and slotted honeycomb passages. Thus the gas flow is cutted and divided again and again. In this way, thin boundary layers and turbulence are generated on the catalytically active support surfaces, with resultant intense exchange of substances between the core stream and the surface contacting zone. The increase in catalytic performance thus obtained makes it now possible to lower the specific number of cells from 400 to 200 per sq. in. Along with this goes a 27% saving of support material with a consequent reduction of cost. On the other hand, this new specific performance may be put to work by reducing the total support volume.

Nonnenmann, M.

1989-04-01

215

Formaldehyde in the exhaust gas of biogas engine plants and natural gas cogeneration plants; Formaldehyd im Abgas von Biogasmotoranlagen und Erdgas-Blockheizkraftwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pricing regulations of the Renewable Energy Law EEG 2009 enabled the operation of biogas facilities within the agricultural range. The emissions of formaldehyde in the exhaust gas are regarded with respect to the future limiting values with biogas combustion engine plants.

Ebertsch, Gerald [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg (Germany); Fiedler, Alexander [Regierung von Oberbayern, Muenchen (Germany)

2010-07-01

216

Procedure for improving the exhaust-gas behaviour of spark ignition engines. Verfahren zur Verbesserung des Abgasverhaltens von Ottomotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for improving the exhaust gas behaviour of spark ignition engines involves the output signal of an oxygen measurement probe arranged in the exhaust gas duct of the spark ignition engine, to be supplied to a controller, and the output voltage of the controller to form a control variable to control the fuel-to-air ratio. A change-over of the output voltage of the oxygen measurement probe is followed by a jump depending from the direction of change-over, and then by an essentially time-continuous change in a control variable for the fuel-to-air ratio. If a jump of the control variable to be expected fails to occur, a jump is superimposed which has the same direction as the preceding jump of the control variable.

Weingaertner, R.; Demel, M.

1990-05-10

217

Method for improving the exhaust-gas behaviour of spark ignition engines. Verfahren zur Verbesserung des Abgasverhaltens von Ottomotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Method for improving the exhaust gas behaviour of spark ignition engines with the output signal of an oxygen measuring probe arranged in the exhaust gas duct of a spark ignition engine being supplied to a controller and the output voltage of the controller forming a correcting variable to control the air-to-fuel ratio. After transition from idling to partial load, the correcting variable is kept constant at a set value for an initial, set period. Thereafter, the correction variable is changed independently from the output signal of the oxygen measuring probe for a second, set period to enhance the air-to-fuel ratio after which the control will set in again.

Uenver, R.; Demel, M.

1990-05-17

218

Reduction of the exhaust gas emissions during warm up by improving the mixture preparation of spark-ignition engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During warm-up the engine emits the highest concentration of exhaust gas emissions. An improvement of the atomization behaviour of the injected fuel should lead to a good mixture preparation in the manifold and combustion chamber and further to lower exhaust gas emissions during warm up. During these investigations it was found out that the build-up of fuel film in the manifold of cold spark-ignition engines can not be prevented. But by injecting the fuel at the open inlet valve it is possible to reduce the fuel film. The injection of extremely finely atomized fuel at the open inlet valve leads to a better mixture preparation with smaller fuel dropplets in the manifold and combustion chamber. This again leads, during warm-up of the spark ignition engine, to a reduction of the HC emissions of 30% and the CO emissions of 50%. (author).

1992-01-01

219

A wind-tunnel study on exhaust gas dispersion from road vehicles. Part 1. Velocity and concentration fields behind single vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By a reduced-scale model in a wind tunnel, we investigate the dispersion behavior of exhaust gas from automobiles. Two types of vehicles are considered, a passenger car and a small-size truck. Tracer gas experiments show that the exhaust gas dispersion is enhanced significantly by the vehicle wake compared to the case when the vehicle body is absent. The passenger car and the truck promote dispersion in the horizontal and the vertical direction, respectively. The wake field is analyzed by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the distribution of the mean and the fluctuation fields is found to conform to the concentration field of the exhaust gas. The buoyancy of the exhaust gas has minor effect except on the vertical spread behind the truck whose wake flow amplifies the vertical displacement generated near the pipe exit. (author)

Kanda, Isao; Uehara, Kiyoshi; Yamao, Yukio [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yasuo; Morikawa, Tazuko [Petroleum Energy Center, 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan)

2006-09-15

220

A laboratory test unit for exhausted gas cleaning by electron beam and combined electron beam-microwave irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the electron accelerator laboratory, NILPR, Bucharest developed a small laboratory test unit (max. gas flow rate = 1 Nm{sup 3}/h) for exhaust gas cleaning by means of electron beam and combined electron beam microwave irradiation. The aim of these methods is to obtain the concomitant removal of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} by precipitation with ammonia. Several parameters such as residence time and dose, reaction temperature, argon and NH{sub 3} concentration, etc. were investigated. The removal efficiencies were: only for electron beam irradiation 63-80% for SO{sub 2} and 0-63% for NO{sub x}; for combined electron beam-microwave treatment 68-95% for SO{sub 2} and 0-70% for NO{sub x}. Also, the presence of a small concentration of argon in the irradiated gaseous mixture increases the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency (between 5% and 10%) for both electron beam and electron beam-microwave treatment. As electron beams generator was used the Linear Accelerator ALID-7 (5.5 MeV, 670 W). The microwave applicator consists of a power-controlled generator with a 2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power, a launcher to fit to waveguide WR430, a dual directional coupler and a three stub tuner for impedance matching. Our tests also demonstrated that the combined method electron beam-microwave irradiation, due to the additional use of microwave energy, leads to the decrease of the electron beam average power from 30% to 50%, at the same removal efficiency. (orig.) 8 refs.

Radoiu, M.; Martin, D.; Bestea, V.; Indreias, I.; Matei, C. [Inst. for Atomic Phys., Bucharest (Romania). Electron Accel. Lab.; Georgescu, I.I.; Calinescu, I. [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Calea Grivitei 132, 78122 Bucharest (Romania)

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Temperature control device of marsh gas generator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to temperature control equipment of a marsh gas generator by utilizing solar energy, temperature improvement and heat preservation are carried out to the marsh gas generator for realizing anaerobic fermentation under the conditions of high temperature and stability the marsh gas generator is arranged in a glass sunlight greenhouse for maintaining higher environmental temperature of the marsh gas generator by utilizing greenhouse effect a heat insulating material is attached on the outer side of the marsh gas generator for reducing heat loss of the marsh gas generator light-absorbing powder is coated on the outer surface of the heat insulating material for enhancing the sunlight energy absorption capacity a solar energy heat-aggregated device is arranged on the marsh gas generator, and solar energy collected by the solar energy heat-aggregated device is utilized for heating feed liquid of the marsh gas generator.

HUAXIN CHEN; QINGLI YANG; FENG ZHU; SHANLIN YU; PENG JIANG; SONG QIN; DAWEI FENG

222

Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

1999-07-01

223

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression.

Cuddy JS; Ruby BC

2011-06-01

224

MEGAS - multi-electrode gas sensor system. Micromechanical high-temperature sensor system on a Si basis for measurements of nitrogen monoxide concentrations in motor car exhaust. Final report; MEGAS - Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem. Mikromechanisches Hochtemperatur-Sensorsystem aus Silizium-Basis zur Ermittlung von Stickstoffmonoxid-Konzentrationen im Kfz-Abgas. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IMSAS is working on an actively heated Si substrate with interdigital structures fo working temperatures up to 550 C and for aggressive working media. The following tasks were achieved: Gas sensor design; Process development and optimisation; Processing of the Si substrate; Optimisation of the sensor substrate. The following problems were encountered: Minimisation of intrinsic stress of the stratified packages; Optimisation of the adhesive strength; Development of a stable sensor heating up to 550 C; Development and optimisation of structuring methods; Combination of thin film and thick film technologies. Resistive gas sensors with titanium-tungsten mixed oxides must be heated to 500 C for fast and sensitive response to a NO atmosphere. The gas sensitivity is strongly temperature-dependent, i.e. gas sensor temperature contro is required. In the case of diesel engine catalytic converters, ambient temperatures are high and vary with the mode of operation and operating time. The sensor temperature must be at least as high as the maximum ambient temperature and must be kept stable at this level. (orig.) [German] Am IMSAS liegt der Schwerpunkt im Bereich der Entwicklung eines aktiv beheizten Siliziumsubstrates mit Interdigitalstrukturen, das Arbeitstemperaturen bis zu 550 C und aggressiven Umgebungsbedingungen standhaelt. Die Arbeitspakete lassen sich grob zusammenfassen: - Designerstellung des Gassensors - Prozessentwicklung und -optimierung - Prozessierung des Siliziumsubstrates - Optimierung des Sensorsubstrates. Aus diesen Schwerpunkten ergeben sich Schwierigkeiten, die im Projektverlauf geloest werden muessen: - Minimierung des intrinsischen Stresses der Schichtpakete - Optimierung der Haftfestigkeit der Schichten/Schichtpakete - Entwicklung einer stabilen Sensorheizung bis 550 C - Entwicklung und Optimierung der Strukturierungsmethoden - Kombination von Duenn- und Dickschichttechnik (Si-Technologie und Siebdruck). Resistive Gassensoren mit Titan-Wolfram-Mischoxiden muessen waehrend ihres Betriebs auf ca. 500 C geheizt werden, um schnell und empfindlich eine NO-Atmosphaere ansprechen zu koennen. Die Gassensitivitaet ist stark von der Temperatur abhaengig. Aus diesem Grunde muss die Temperatur des Gassensors geregelt werden. Im Anwendungsfall Dieselkatalysator sind erhoehte Umgebungstemperaturen vorhanden, diese variieren je nach Betriebsdauer und Lastfall. Die Sensortemperatur muss deshalb mindestens so hoch sein, wie die maximale Temperatur der Umgebung und dabei stabil gehalten werden. (orig.)

Junge, S.

2002-07-01

225

Shock propagation in the exhaust gas handling system of the proposed large altitude rocket cell: methods and preliminary analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical predictions are to be performed of the shock pressures that would result from the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT. The initial phase of the project was to develop the methodology for analyzing the problem, develop a preliminary conceptual design to use in initial simulations, and estimate over-pressures, inside the conceptual facility, resulting from the propellant detonation. This report discusses the methods of analysis used to study the problem of the detonation of the propellant, and the propagation of the shock wave inside the exhaust gas processing system, and presents preliminary results. The KOVEC computer code was used to simulate the detonation of 100,000 lbm TNT and develop a boundary prescription for use in the gas dynamics code GASP which models the propagation of the shock wave through the LARC exhaust gas processing system. Results are presented showing the effect of cross-sectional area changes and variations in the initial pressure in the gas processing system on the shock wave peak pressure and propagation speed.

Sutton, S.B.; Pierce, R.E.

1984-10-04

226

Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, an H(?) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions.

Najimi E; Ramezani MH

2012-03-01

227

Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an H(?) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. PMID:22062324

Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

2011-11-05

228

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

229

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon exhaust was observed in both machines. An attempt to better understand the basic processes governing the exhaust of noble gases in ELMy H-mode with cryopumping has been undertaken. Since divertor geometries investigated in the DIII-D and in the JET cases have significant differences, a comparative modeling study has been undertaken using the MIST core impurity transport code and the b2.5 time-independent divertor transport code. Photodiode measurements are used to determine ELM frequency, and charge-exchange recombination (CER) measurements are compared with the MIST ELM model to evaluate transport coefficients in the core plasma. A significant reduction in the anomalous diffusivities is found for the non-ELM component of radial transport without the need for a pinch velocity, and the model provides a more coherent description than the conventional ELM-averaged approach. Sensitivity to boundary conditions has been studied through establishment of a database of divertor enrichment cases using b2.5.

Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.; Wade, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hellermann, M. von; Ehrenberg, J.; Horton, L.; Koenig, R.; Morgan, P.; Saibene, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

1998-05-01

230

Investigation of ambient temperature on the performance of GE-F5 gas turbine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of ambient temperature in determining the performance of GE-F5 gas turbine is analysed by investigating the Shirvan gas turbine power plant 10MW, 15MW and 20MW power output. These parameters have been brought as a function of ambient temperature. The results show when ambient temperature increases 1 deg C, The compressor pressure decreases about 20kPa, compressor outlet temperature increases about 1.13 deg C and exhaust temperature increases about 2.5 deg C. It is revealed that variations are due to decreasing the efficiency of compressor and less due to mass flow rate of air reduction as ambient temperature increases at constant power output. The results shows cycle efficiency reduces 3% with increasing 50 of ambient temperature, also the m increases as ambient temperature increase for constant turbine work. These are also because of reducing the compressor efficiency as ambient temperature increases.

2002-01-01

231

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN AMMONIA REMOVAL UNIT FROM THE EXHAUST GAS OF A MANURE DRYING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The storage and handling of animal wastes is one of the main sources of ammonia gas emissions. Ammonia gas has a distinct, unpleasant odor and can become detrimental to the health of humans and animals at high concentrations. Ammonia emissions are of particular concern in manure drying systems, where large losses of nitrogen, in the form of ammonia can cause air quality concerns. The aim of this study was to develop an ammonia removal system for a poultry manure drying system. The thin layer drying of poultry manure in 1-3 cm thick layers resulted in effective sterilization; with the removal of 99.44-99.56% of total bacterial count, 88.51-93.705 of yeast and mold cells, 99.13-99.565 of E.coli cells, and complete removal of Salmonellae. The drying of poultry manure resulted in a large loss of nitrogen, through ammonia loss in the exhaust gasses. The use of a water scrubber resulted in a 75-99% removal of ammonia gas from the exhaust gases. The absorption of ammonia into the scrubberâ??s water resulted in an increase in pH, which subsequently fell as the drying process finished, and ammonia emission decreased. The heated air drying of poultry manure, with the use of an ammonia removal system proved effective in reducing the odor intensity and offensiveness of the poultry manure drying process, resulting in increased air quality. While producing a high value product.

A. E. Ghaly; K. N. MacDonald

2013-01-01

232

Catalytic automotive exhaust gas de-pollution; La catalyse d`epuration des gaz d`echappement automobiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas after-treatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be de-polluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition), and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars. (authors) 43 refs.

Prigent, M. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-12-31

233

Electrochemical cell with integrated hydrocarbon gas sensor for automobile exhaust gas; Elektrochemische Zelle mit integriertem Kohlenwasserstoff-Gassensor fuer das Automobilabgas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the future sensors will be necessary to control the compliance with hydrocarbon limiting values, allowing a direct detection of the hydrocarbons. Appropriate sensor-active functional materials are metal oxides, which have a hydrocarbon sensitivity but are also dependent on the oxygen partial pressure. It is proposed that the gas-sensing layer should be integrated into an electrochemical cell. The authors show that the integration of a resistive oxygen sensor into a pump cell allows a defined oxygen concentration level at the sensor layer in any exhaust gas.

Biskupski, D.; Moos, R. [Univ. Bayreuth (Germany). Bayreuth Engine Research Center, Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionsmaterialien; Wiesner, K.; Fleischer, M. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT PS 6, Muenchen (Germany)

2007-07-01

234

Helium gas turbine plant with high temperature gas cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dreams of the Nuclear Gas Turbine was broken about 10 years ago after long term R and D in Europe and U.S. since 1960's, while HTGR'S penetration to the nuclear power market was failed in mid 1970's. In later 1980's, Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor became one of the most promising 'Passively and Inherently Safe' concept for next decades, and an appeal to call back the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine was risen by Prof. L.M. Lidsky of MIT-NPI. Supported by GCRA, ESEERCO and US-DOE, the first 'International Workshop on the Closed-Cycle Gas-Turbine Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor' was held at MIT in June 17-19, 1991, and since then various activities are going on. Looking back the past experiences and summarizing the present status, the writer describes a revival of the Nuclear Gas Turbine. (author)

1992-01-01

235

Influence of steam injection through exhaust heat recovery on the design performance of solid oxide fuel cell . gas turbine hybrid systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyzed the influence of steam injection on the performance of hybrid systems combining a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. Two different configurations (pressurized system and ambient pressure system) were examined and the effects of injecting steam, generated by recovering heat from the exhaust gas, on system performances were compared. Performance variations according to the design of different turbine inlet temperatures were examined. Two representative gas turbine pressure ratios were used. Without steam injection, the pressurized system generally exhibits higher system efficiency than the ambient pressure system. The steam injection augments gas turbine power, thus increasing the power capacity of the hybrid system. The power boost effect due to the steam injection is generally greater in the relatively higher pressure ratio design in both the pressurized and ambient pressure systems. The effect of the steam injection on system efficiency varies depending on system configurations and design conditions. The pressurized system hardly takes advantage of the steam injection in terms of system efficiency. On the other hand, the steam injection contributes to the efficiency improvement of the ambient pressure system in some design conditions. In particular, a higher pressure ratio provides a better chance of efficiency increase due to the steam injection

2009-01-01

236

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

2011-05-17

237

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

2012-05-08

238

[Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

Wirth I; Varchmin-schultheiss K; Schmeling A

2011-05-01

239

Working process of a piston internal combustion engine with exhaust gas turbo-supercharger. Arbeitsverfahren einer Kolben-Brennkraftmaschine mit Abgasturbolader  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust gases from the cylinders are taken to a post-combustion chamber and then to the exhaust gas turbine of the turbo-supercharger. The ignition of the cylinders is switched off in operation under thrust, and the supercharging air is introduced into the post-combustion chamber. The unburnt fuel-air mixture of the cylinders is burnt in the post-combustion chamber with additional supercharging air and brings the turbo-supercharger up to full output.

Mezger, H.

1983-05-26

240

Effect on combined cycle efficiency of stack gas temperature constraints to avoid acid corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect on combined cycle performance of raising the stack gas temperatures to levels high enough to avoid corrosion when burning fuels containing sulfur is presented and discussed. The use of fuels containing sulfur requires that the cold-end heat exchanger surface and exhaust stack gas temperatures be kept above the sulfuric acid condensation temperatures. Sulfur in the fuel results in acid formation which then requires a higher stack inlet temperature compared to low-sulfur fuel. Raising the exhaust stack gas temperature, however, results in lower combined cycle efficiency compared to a combined cycle system burning a sulfur-free fuel. Dew points were estimated as a function of fuel sulfur content and gas turbine design parameters. An empirical correlation was used for these dew point calculations. The effect on combined cycle efficiency was determined for air-cooled and water-cooled gas turbine combined cycle systems. Combined cycle performance calculations were made assuming first a sulfur-free fuel and then a fuel with 0.8% sulfur by weight. This is the maximum sulfur content for a liquid fuel that can be used without sulfur dioxide emission control devices and still meet environmental regulations. The maximum difference between the combined cycle performance using sulfur-free fuel and using the 0.8% sulfur fuel was less than one percentage point in efficiency.

Nainiger, J.J.

1980-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

A Generalized Experimental Study of Inlet Temperature Rise of Jet V/STOL Aircraft in Ground Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in exhaust pressure ratio (weight flow) had very little effect on the inlet temperature rise. Reduction in exhaust gas temperature lowered the inlet air temperature significantly. Large changes in wing area and variations in lift engine inlet/ex...

R. F. Speth P. E. Ryan

1966-01-01

242

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge '92  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge '92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-01-01

243

Meeting future exhaust emissions standards using natural gas as a vehicle fuel: Lessons learned from the natural gas vehicle challenge `92  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge `92, organized by Argonne National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and many others, resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck, donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers strived to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student-modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Factors in achieving good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W.A.; Larsen, R.P.

1992-09-01

244

Detection of ethene and other hydrocarbons in gas turbine engine exhaust using non-intrusive FTIR spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the EU funded project AEROJET2, a number of gas turbine engine tests were performed in different facilities around Europe. At Farnborough, UK a Spey engine was used to test a suite of prototype optically based instrumentation designed to measure exhaust gas emissions without using extractive probe systems. In addition to the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation, a Bruker Equinox 55 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to obtain infrared spectra of the exhaust plume both in emission and absorption mode. The Bruker FTIR spectrometer was fitted with a periscope system so that different lines of sight could be monitored in the plume in a vertical plane 25 cm downstream from the nozzle exit and 20 cm upstream of the center line of sight of the AEROJET 2 prototype instrumentation. DERA (now QinetiQ) provided exhaust gas analysis data for different engine running conditions using samples extracted from the plume with an intrusive probe. The probe sampled along a horizontal plane across the centerline of the engine 45 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. The Bruker spectrometer used both InSb (indium antimonide) and MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride) detectors to maximize the sensitivity across the IR range 600-4000 cm-1. Typically, CO2 and H2O IR signatures dominate the observed spectra of the plume. However, the engine tests showed that at low power engine conditions spectral features associated with CO around 2147 cm-1 and with hydrocarbons could be observed at around 3000 cm-1. In particular the presence of ethene (C2H2) was detected from observation of its characteristic in and out of plane vibration mode at 949 cm-1. At high engine powers the presence of NO was detected at 1900.3 cm-1. Species concentrations were calculated using a slab model for each line of sight compared against reference spectra. The engine plume was assumed to be symmetric about the centerline. On this basis, data from the extractive sampling gas analysis that had been obtained by traversing the probe across a horizontal plane through the centerline could be compared with non-intrusive measurements made by scanning vertically. Adjustments have been made to account for the 20 cm downstream offset in measurement planes of the probe and the spectrometer behind the nozzle exit.

Arrigone, Giovanni M.; Welch, Michael A.; Hilton, Moira; Miller, Michael N.; Wilson, Christopher W.

2003-04-01

245

Design of thermoelectric generators operating on exhaust gas from marine diesel engines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of thermoelectric generator (TEG), forming the exhaust system of the vessel, is offered in the paper. Thermal calculation of the TEG for the ves-sel engine, Ro-8 6VDS48/42-AL2, with the capacity of 2 650 kW is given. Values of output parameters of the TEG are comparable with output values of the pa-rameters of existing analogues. The thermoelectric generator with the received parameters can be used on a vessel as an additional source of the direct current electric power.

Vinogradov Sergey Vladimirovich; Gorbachev Maksim Mikhaylovich; Khalykov Kamil Rafaelevich

2010-01-01

246

Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

247

Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

2002-08-25

248

Device for reducing pollutant components in the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines. Einrichtung zum Verringern von Abgas-Schadstoffkomponenten eines Verbrennungsmotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with a device for reducing pollution components of the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine. For this reason the fuel-air-mixture is fed through an exhaust gas pipe to a lambda-probe, which controls the mixture to a stoechiometric value ''1''. A multi-functional 3-way catalyst and a secondary air feeding system are provided for the catalytic after-burning. The invention is characterized by one-piece 3-way catalyst and a secondary air suction system. In the aspiration circuit exist a self-succing flutter valve, controlled by the under pressure in the engine exhaust gas pipe. By this flutter valve, no external valve controller is needed as well as a synchronization. Flutter valves are simple, robust and not cost expensive.

Bianchi, V.; Schulte, E.

1981-10-08

249

Medium temperature carbon dioxide gas turbine reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pre-cooling and partial condensation gas turbine cycles attain comparable cycle efficiencies of 46 to 48% at medium temperature of 650degC with a typical helium (He) gas turbine cycle of PBMR (45.3%) at 900degC. This higher efficiency is ascribed to: reduced compression work around the critical point of CO2 and in the liquid phase (only available in the partial condensation cycle); and consideration of variation in CO2 specific heat at constant pressure, Cp, with temperature and pressure into cycle configuration. Compared to He cycles, the CO2 cycle gas turbomachinery weight is about one-fifth while recuperator size is comparable. Considering these results, power generation cost per unit electricity is evaluated to be lower for the CO2 cycle than in the He cycle. At medium temperature of 650degC, corrosion resistance of materials and reliability of components in CO2 have been proven during extensive operation in AGRs. Lowering temperature to 650degC provides flexibility in choosing materials and eases maintenance through the lower diffusion leak rate of fission products from coated particle fuel. The proposed medium temperature CO2 gas turbine reactors are expected to be alternative solutions to current high temperature He gas turbine reactors. (author)

2003-01-01

250

Temperature changes involved in membrane gas separations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation has been made to find out whether membrane gas separations involve temperature changes. A themodynamic study shows that these separations can be regarded as isenthalpic processes. Dependent on the thermodynamic properties of the gases, the pressure difference across the membrane and the stage cut, there appears to be some change in temperature. This paper proposes a computerized method for calculating these temperature changes. Three examples of gas separations are elaborated. In two cases, an air separation and a synthesis gas separation, the temperature modifications of the gas streams are found to be less than 5/sup 0/C. In another case, a bio-gas separation, there appears to be a temperature decrease of more than 30/sup 0/C in the reject and 15/sup 0/C in the permeate. A simplified method is presented for estimating the order of magnitude of the temperature changes. The results of this method can be used for deciding whether further investigations on this phenomenon are required.

Gorissen, H.

1987-08-15

251

Exhaust Gas Analysis and Parametric Study of Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the future availability of energy resources, as well as the need for reducing CO2 emissions from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels. This research is done taking commercial gasoline as reference which is originally blended with 5% ethanol. Hence 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% ethanol blended with Gasoline initially was tested in SI engines. Physical properties relevant to the fuel were determined for the four blends of gasoline. A four cylinder, four stroke, varying rpm, Petrol (MPFI) engine was tested on blends containing 5%,10%,15%,20% ethanol and performance characteristics, and exhaust emissions were evaluated. Even though higher blends can replace gasoline in a SI engine, results showed that there is a reduction in exhaust gases, such as HC, O2, CO, CO2 and increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency on blending. Hence we can conclude from the result that using 10% ethanol blend is most effective and we can utilize it for further use in SI engines with little constraint on material used to sustain little increase in pressure.

Jitendra kumar

2013-01-01

252

Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

1994-12-31

253

Exhaust gas improvement in M. A. N. truck diesel engines by controlled injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to indirect-injection diesel engines, high-economy direct-injection diesel engines have various drawbacks, i.e. emission of cold smoke, unpleasant fumes, HC and NOx. M.A.N.'s Engine Research Department in Nuernberg has been looking for ways to reduce the emission of the products of incomplete combustion while simultaneously reducing fuel consumption to an even lower level. The tests were made with direct-injection diesel engines operating on the M-combustion principle. An analysis of processes in the engine, and specifically in the injection nozzle during injection, revealed that conventional hole-type nozzles have inherent deficiencies. Basing on this knowledge, various tests were performed with injection nozzles which do not have the disadvantages of conventional hole-type nozzles. Nozzles of this kind are the pintle nozzle, and the new so-called 'controlled single hole nozzle'. These nozzles enable the nozzle discharge area to be controlled as a function of needle lift, the controlled single hole nozzle also enabling the direction of the fuel spray to be changed. In this manner injection characteristics can be matched to load and speed. The use of such injection techniques has resulted in rather substantiatl improvements with respect to cold starting ability, opacity of idling exhaust, irritation of mucous membranes due to idling exhaust, emission of smoke puffs on acceleration, fuel consumption, black smoke, HC emissions and CO emissions.

Neitz, A.; Mueller, E.

1982-09-01

254

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR RECOVERING XENON FROM EXHAUST NARCOTIC GAS MIXTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine medical engineering. ^ SUBSTANCE: method involves collecting breathing products with recovery units, desorbing gases by heating and forcing the desorbed gases out with purge gases, separating water and the carbon dioxide, precipitating xenon in xenon condenser, treating the gas with vacuum and transferring xenon in gas state by heating for pumping into balloons. The purge gas is sequentially forced through the recovery units. Non-condensed gases are directed into cooled coal absorber when precipitating xenon. The recovery units are cooled and filled with purge gas. ^ EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of recovery units reclaiming avoided xenon losses stabilized gas speed and pressure. ^ 16 cl, 1 dwg

SMETANNIKOV V P; ORLOV A N; OBUKHOV A N; GOROSHKIN G P; KLJUKINA L P; PETRUSHIN M A

255

STP Temperature Measurement Ideal Gas Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The STP DemonIdealGas program displays a histogram of the energy of a demon that exchanges energy with an ideal gas of particles. The purpose of this simulation is to understand why the demon acts as a perfect thermometer and why its mean energy is a measure of the temperature of the gas. The default system is a one-dimensional ideal gas of N=40 particles. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP DemonIdealGas is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_DemonIdealGas.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-05-28

256

Helium turbine power generation in high temperature gas reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents studies on the helium turbine power generator and important components in the indirect cycle of high temperature helium cooled reactor with multi-purpose use of exhaust thermal energy from the turbine. The features of this paper are, firstly the reliable estimation of adiabatic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, secondly the introduction of heat transfer enhancement by use of the surface radiative heat flux from the thin metal plates installed in the hot helium and between the heat transfer coil rows of IHX and RHX, thirdly the use of turbine exhaust heat to produce fresh water from seawater for domestic, agricultural and marine fields, forthly a proposal of plutonium oxide fuel without a slight possibility of diversion of plutonium for nuclear weapon production and finally the investigation of GT-HTGR of large output such as 500 MWe. The study of performance of GT-HTGR reduces the result that for the reactor of 450 MWt the optimum thermal efficiency is about 43% when the turbine expansion ratio is 3.9 for the turbine efficiency of 0.92 and compressor efficiency of 0.88 and the helium temperature at the compressor inlet is 45degC. The produced amount of fresh water is about 8640 ton/day. It is made clear that about 90% of the reactor thermal output is totally used for the electric power generation in the turbine and for the multi-puposed utilization of the heat from the turbine exhaust gas and compressed helium cooling seawater. The GT-Large HTGR is realized by the separation of the pressure and temperature boundaries of the pressure vessel, the increase of burning density of the fuel by 1.4 times, the extention of the nuclear core diameter and length by 1.2 times, respectively, and the enhancement of the heat flux along the nuclear fuel compact surface by 1.5 times by providing riblets with the peak in the flow direction. (J.P.N.).

1995-01-01

257

Improvement of the warm-up phase of an automobile internal combustion engine by exhaust gas heat recovery and modified fuel injection parameters; Amelioration de la montee en temperature d'un moteur thermique automobile par recuperation d'energie a l'echappement et modification des lois d'injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The automotive industry is constantly developing new designs in order to reduce diesel engine fuel consumption. As a result, cabin heating is compromised by low heat rejection. This thesis provides a new industrial solution to this problem. The first part of the thesis presents the energetic analysis of the Diesel engine. The heat sources and the resulting heat transfers are studied precisely. The second part relates to the design and construction of an engine test rig and the associated experimental study. The results highlight the impact of diesel injection control on heat rejection (on cooling water and exhaust gases). The third part consists in a transient thermodynamic analysis of the engine. It demonstrates the potential of a technological solution based on heat recovery of the exhaust gases with modifications on the diesel injection parameters. The fourth and last part of the thesis presents the validation of the system and its industrialization. (author)

Hocine, A.

2003-07-01

258

Development and testing of a method to clean exhaust gases in connection with exhaust-gas-heat-recovery. Final report and supplement volume. Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Verfahrens zur Abgasreinigung in Verbindung mit Abgaswaermerueckgewinnung. Abschlussbericht und Anlagenband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the work was to test whether it is possible to combine the leaning of exhaust gases with exhaust-gas-heat-recovery in a plant of the earthware industry. The mainly tested substances have been inorganic gaseous chlorine and fluorine compounds. The exhaust gases should have been cooled down beneath the dew-point of water, whereby the mentioned substances go into the condensate. In laboratory tests and tests with a laboratory-apperatus on a plant the principal feasibility has been tested. Different materials have been examined. On a technical plant the characteristic values for the demonstration plant have been worked out. At the demonstration plant (for ca. 14500 m/sup 3//h) the measurements have been made flue-gas and sewage sided (neutralisation plant). The chloride and fluoride content in the pure gas was beneath 5 mg/m/sup 3/. The heat-recovery corresponded to the expectations, the utilization of the recovered heat has still to be improved.

Gombert, J.; Ingenpass, H.; Keller, H.; Brandl, A.; Guggenberger, J.; Thallmair, E.

1986-05-01

259

Off-gas recycle for long-term low temperature gas phase uranium decontamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas phase decontamination is being developed and demonstrated at the K-25 site as a technology that has the potential to substantially lower these costs while reducing criticality and safeguards concerns and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The objective of gas phase decontamination is to employ a gaseous reagent to fluorinate nonvolatile uranium deposits to form volatile UF{sub 6}, which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The LTLT process permits the decontamination of the inside of gas-tight GDP process equipment at room temperature by substituting a long exposure to subatmospheric ClF{sub 3} for higher reaction rates at higher temperatures. Laboratory-scale experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of using LTLT gas phase decontamination with ClF{sub 3} to remove uranium deposits from this equipment. A mobile gas phase system is being designed to demonstrate the decontamination process on a full scale. If used to decontaminate the GDPs, the LTLT process would use large amounts of ClF{sub 3} and exhaust large volumes of by-product gases (ClF, C1O{sub 2}F, etc.). Initially, the excess ClF{sub 3} and reaction byproducts will be destroyed in a KOH scrubber. This paper describes a proposed system that could recover the excess ClF{sub 3}and regenerate the reaction by-products into ClF{sub 3} for use in decontamination of additional equipment. Use of this regeneration and recovery system would reduce raw material costs and also reduce the waste scrubber sludge disposal costs by reducing the amount of corrosive gases fed to the scrubber.

Bundy, R.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

1994-07-01

260

Dynamic characteristics of a hydrostatic gas bearing driven by oscillating exhaust pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vibration of a statically loaded, inherently compensated hydrostatic journal bearing due to oscillating exhaust pressure is investigated. Both angular and radial vibration modes are analyzed. The time-dependent Reynolds equation governing the pressure distribution between the oscillating journal and sleeve is solved together with the journal equation of motion to obtain the response characteristics of the bearing. The Reynolds equation and the equation of motion are simplified by applying regular perturbation theory for small displacements. The numerical solutions of the perturbation equations are obtained by discretizing the pressure field using finite-difference aproximations with a discrete, nonuniform line-source model which excludes effects due to feeding hole volume. An iterative scheme is used to simultaneously satisfy the equations of motion for the journal. The results presented include Bode plots of bearing-oscillation gain and phase for a particular bearing configuration for various combinations of parameters over a range of frequencies, including the resonant frequency. 17 references.

Watkins, C.B.; Eronini, I.E.

1984-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Method of and apparatus for processing sulfur-containing exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sulfur-containing roasting gases of an ore-roasting plant are cooled in a waste-heat boiler, which produces steam, and then are subjected to particle removal in an electrostatic precipitator or cyclone. The gases are then scrubbed with recirculated aqueous sulfur acid and the gas is then passed through an electrostatic precipitator before being supplied to a plant for the contact process production of sulfur acid. According to the invention, the process is improved by condensing water from the gas in an indirect cooler between the scrubber and the final electrostatic precipitator while water or aqueous sulfur acid is sprayed into the gas upstream of the indirect gas cooler to augment the heat transfer from the gas to the cooled wall thereof.

Wanner, D.

1980-03-25

262

Application of high temperature and high efficiency gas turbine to industrial cogeneration plant and its results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the trend to expect an energy saving effect by introducing a high temperature gas turbine to an industrial cogeneration plant has become strong. The many required power outputs of gas turbines in this field are within the range of 10-15MW and there is the objective to attain high heat efficency as a composite power plant particularly by the combination with an exhaust heat recovery boiler or the existing steam turbine. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co. developed the MF-111 type turbine which fulfills the above requirements and makes the continuous running with the gas temperature of 1,250/sup 0/C at the turbine gas intake possible. This article introduces this gas turbine and its application examples as well as their results of the industrial cogeneration plants utilizing this turbine. In terms of the value of the performance at the generator terminal while burning natural gas in which the standard suction and exhaust losses are considered, the standard performance of MF-111 type is shown as follows: the generator terminal output is 12,610KW for Model A (using 15 stage air compressor) and 14,570KW for Model B (using 16 stage compressor). (23 figs, 2 tabs)

Hasegawa, Koi; Ishikawa, Masao; Ikegami, Toshikazu

1987-09-25

263

The Performance Test on Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) System to Prevent Chlorine Gas Leakage in Water Treatment Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is a necessity of life to humans and animals. In Malaysia, Government Link Companies (GLC) or Private Companies manages most of the water treatment plants. Chlorine gas is used as one of the water treatment media to treat raw water that will then be distributed for public or commercial usage. The large volume of Chlorine gases used and stored in these treatment plants has the potential to create a disaster if it leaks. Objective of this paper to highlight a result of Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) monitoring system and their performance test in controlling of air flow from the chlorine gas building to prevent leakage and spread to the surrounding environment. Methodology used follows the American Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). The Chlorine Gas leakage system is checked and verified by using ACGIH Standard. Finally as a result, all the measured parameters (velocity, flow rate, face velocity and brake horse power (bhp)) show that the measurement and monitoring system of LEV are complied with ACGIH Standard and Local Law and Regulations.

Nor Halim Hasan; M. R. Said; A. M. Leman; Anuar Mohd Mokhtar

2013-01-01

264

Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

1996-12-31

265

Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog  

Science.gov (United States)

We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2011-12-01

266

Control of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs and PAHs emissions in exhaust of landfill gas fed engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wallonia in Belgium, like many countries around the world, planned to reduce amounts of waste generated by human activity and stored in landfills. Since they experienced a couple of crisis situations in the past, both with former and presently used landfill sites, authorities launched a demanding landfill monitoring program which covers now 9 out of the 10 major sites. Biogas produced in these landfills are collected and eliminated in two different ways. Either simply burned in a flare, or, when the methane grade and flow are high enough, the biogas can be burned in electricity producing engines. This later use represents an energy recovery from the waste. In the context of difficulty for landfill sites to be accepted by the public (the well-known NIMBY phenomenon), the question has been raised whether combustion of the biogas did not entail production of dioxins and other polyaromatic compounds. For the exhaust gases of engines operated with biogas, a check on the presence of dioxins and associated organic pollutants, composed of three different runs or days of sampling for each of 5 landfill sites was performed upon demand of responsible authorities.

Idczak, F.; Dengis, P.; Duchateau, P.; Petitjean, S. [ISSeP, Liege (Belgium)

2004-09-15

267

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles,...

2009-07-01

268

Amperometric detection of pollutants in exhausts. Electrochemical exhaust gas hydrocarbon sensors based on oxygen pumping. Final report; Amperometrische Detektion von Schadstoffen in Abgasen. Gezielte Entwicklung von selektiven Gassensoren fuer Schadstoffen in Abgasen (SEGASENS). Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1. At the beginning of the studies no chemical sensors for the detection of NO{sub x} or hydrocarbons in exhausts were commercially available. However, in particular for the control of combustion engines they are highly desired. 2. From prior work on tube-type cells based on stabilized zirconia it was known, that it is possible to measure NO and hydrocarbons in mixtures with oxygen with amperometric multi-electrode sensors. The operation of these cells is based on the separation of electrode reactions. Oxygen is reduced at a first electrode. At the subsequent electrode NO may then be reduced or HC may be oxidized. The aim of the study was the transfer from this experience to cheap and powerful thick-film structures. 3. A miniaturized thick-film design for the simultaneous analysis of O{sub 2} and NO was developed in cooperation with Siemens company. Electrical insulating layers, a heater, a temperature sensor and a temperature control was developed by Siemens and the principle operation could be demonstrated. For the diffusion channel and the gas tight glas layer materials developed in Tuebingen (diffusion channel) or tested (glas layer) were used. 4. Different materials were tested with respect to their potential use as a catalytic inactive oxygen electrode for hydrocarbon sensors. Based on the measured activity for the oxygen exchange a base structure for HC-sensors was developed. However, different problems must be solved with this structure. At first, it took a long time to realize sufficient gas-tight glas layers to achieve a sufficient separation of electrode reactions. Second, the HC-detection was disturbed by the catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbons in the highly porous diffusion channel, as validated by numerical simulations of the cell behaviour. Future work must therefore be related to a reduction of the catalytic conversion in the porous diffusion channel. 5. Important electrode systems were characterised with respect to their electrochemical properties and some selected systems were additionally characterised by combined electrochemical and surface analytical techniques. As an example, the Pt-electrodes used for the NO-sensors contain additions of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are strongly enriched at the surface of the Pt-grains. As a result, the sticking to the zirconia substrate is enhanced and the fine grained structure is stabilised leading to a high activity for the oxygen exchange. (orig.)

Reinhardt, G.; Mayer, R.

2003-05-13

269

Temperature Anisotropy in a Driven Granular Gas  

CERN Multimedia

When smooth granular material is fluidized by vertically shaking a container, we find that the temperature in the direction of energy input always exceeds the temperature in the other directions. An analytical model is presented which shows how the anisotropy can be traced back to the inelasticity of the interparticle collisions and the collisions with the wall. The model compares very well with molecular dynamics simulations. It is concluded that any non-isotropic driving of a granular gas in a steady state necessarily causes anisotropy of the granular temperature.

Van der Meer, D; Meer, Devaraj van der; Reimann, Peter

2004-01-01

270

Model experiments for the controlled catalytic cleaning of the exhaust gas from gas motors in the capacity range around 120 kW. Modellversuche zur gesteuerten katalytischen Abgasreinigung von Gasmotoren im Leistungsbereich um 120 kW  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the central works of the Thyssengas GmbH, two parallel 128 kW gas engines of the same construction line were converted to low-emission operation. The first engine was modified for lean-fuel operation, while the second, which is described in the article, was converted for lambda l operation. A heat pump operated by the two gas engines can be used for simultaneous changing of the rotational speed and load in both engines. In order to reduce the high exhaust temperature, a controllable cooler was installed downstream of the catalyst, and the effects of the ceramic three-way catalyst were determined by systematic measurements. The emissions are constant at a law level even after 2000 hours of operation. The three-way catalyst technique can be recommended also for more compolex gas engines if catalyst-damaging factors, e.g. CO/CH{sub 4} peaks and temperature peaks during transient states of operation, are carefully reduced. (orig.).

Friedrichs, G.; Wismann, G. (Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

1989-02-01

271

Reduction of VOC`S in exhaust gas of coating machines with a bioscrubber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the elimination of VOCs with a bioscrubber is discussed. In the present case acetone is the main contaminant in the crude gas during laquering and coating processes. Design data of the plant and the results of three years operation are shown. Especially the influence of different packing types and nutrients is demonstrated. Additionally detailed maintenance and operation costs will be shown.

Kellner, C.; Flauger, M. [Zander Umwelt GmbH, Spardorf-Erlangen (Germany)

1998-12-31

272

Operating limitations due to low gas temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of projects concerning continental links for the transport of treated natural gas over long distance, both on and offshore, have been implemented during the last few years or are currently being implemented. The long trunklines in North America and subsea trunklines planned or already in operation in the North Sea, are outstanding examples of such long distance transmission of gas in large diameter pipelines operated at high pressure. The development of such network has paid special attention to the effects that low temperature resulting from the transportation process may imply in terms of pipe structural integrity and environmental impact. Scope of this paper is to discuss operating limitations due to low gas temperature. New project scenarios are presented in a brief introduction. The fluido-thermo-dynamic background for the development of low temperatures are outlined. Finally some topics relevant to structural integrity are discussed in particular such as the pipe steel behaviour at low temperature, the prediction techniques of the ice bulb growth around the pipe, the interactions of the cold line with the soil and the consequences due to the differential compliancy of the pipeline towards points of fixity (in-line valves/tees or fixed plants). 30 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

Bruschi, R.; Ghiselli, W.; Spinazze, M.

1995-12-31

273

Ultrasonic measurements of exhaust mass flow and temperature with high time resolution. Final report; Abgasmassenstrom- und -temperaturmessung. Zeitlich hochaufloesende Ultraschallmessung des Abgasmassenstromes und der Abgastemperatur. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust flow out of the cylinders of piston engines is a complex gas-dynamic process with constantly changing flow rates, temperatures and pressures in the outlet duct. As yet, there is no technique for direct measurement of these parameters, which are important for further development of the internal combustion engine. The project therefore aimed at the development of a method for measurements of exhaust mass flow and temperature with high time resolution on the baasis of a ultrasonic technique. Test measurements showed good agreement with the values calculated from the fuel/air consumption, and the signals of the ultrasonic measuring length provides easily interpretable signals up to a speed of 6000 l/min. [German] Der Abgasstrom aus den Zylindern von Kolbenmotoren ist ein komplexer gasdynamischer Vorgang, bei dem sich Stroemungsgeschwindigkeit und Temperatur bzw. Druck im Auslasskanal dauernd veraendern. Eine anwendbare Technik zur direkten Messung dieser sehr schnellen und insbesonderen in den Ladungswechseln stark ausgepraegten Stroemungsgeschwindigkeits- und Temperaturveraenderungen gab es bisher nicht. Zahlreiche Entwicklungsarbeiten am Verbrennungsmotor werden entscheidend durch die Kenntnis dieser Messgroessen bestimmt. Ein wesentliches Anwendungsgebiet liegt in der Schadstoffreduzierung am Verbrennungsmotor. Es ist bekannt, dass z.B. beim Ottomotor mit Dreiwegekatalysator Fehlanpassungen aus wenigen Arbeitstakten im Instationaerbereich zu einer mangelhaften Konvertierung der Schadstoffe im Katalysator fuehren. Ebenso liegt ein wichtiges Potential in der Optimierung der Motorstartvorgaenge. Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur zeitlich hochaufgeloesten Erfassung des Abgasmassenstroms und der Abgastemperatur. Grundlage ist die Ultraschall-Laufzeitmesstechnick, wie sie bereits an der Ansaugseite des Verbrennungsmotors eingesetzt wird. Zur Loesung dieser Zielsetzung mussten folgende Kriterien beruecksichtigt werden: - Eignung fuer Messungen nahe dem Auslass (Kruemmer) und im Auspuff bis zum Endrohr - Dauerfestigkeit unter hoher thermischer Belastung. Die wesentliche Aufgabenstellung lag daher in der Schaffung einer temperaturresistenten Ultraschallsensorik. Die im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens entwickelte Sensorik und Messstrecke ist ohne Wasserkuehlung fuer Abgastemperaturen bis etwa 400 C, wassergekuehlt bis ca. 600 C einsetzbar. Auf die Erweiterung des Temperaturbereiches Richtung 1000 C wurde zugunsten der Loesung der Turbulenz- und Koerperschallproblematik verzichtet. Die mit dem Verfahren am Pruefstand zeitlich hochaufgeloest gemessenen Massenstroeme stimmten in ihren zeitlichen Mittelwerten gut mit den aus Kraftstoff/Luftverbrauch errechneten Werten ueberein. Es wurde gezeigt, dass die Ultraschallmessstrecke bis zu Drehzahlen von 6000 1/min gut auswertbare Signale liefert. (orig.)

Gebhardt, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany); Hattingen, U.; Klee, P. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen

1996-07-01

274

Exhaustion mechanisms in the Preyield domain of niobium single crystals at low temperatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pure niobium single crystals were tested by tension and by stress-relaxation at stresses below the macroscopic yield stress and at temperatures between 4.2 and 70 K. The slope of the stress-strain curve and the amount of stress relaxation were investigated as a function of the nature and density of ...

Boudet, A.; Kubin, L.P.

275

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

276

Determination of fuel composition by means of exhaust gas analysis; Berechnung der Kraftstoffzusammensetzung mit Hilfe der Abgasanalyse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The air/fuel mixture ratio, as represented by the excess-air factor {lambda}, can be determined for example by means of an equation or formula which takes into account the fuel, air, and exhaust-gas compositions. Consequently, instead of having to perform a chemical analysis, such an equation, suitably transformed, should permit the calculation of a quantily describing the fuel composition provided the air/fuel ratio - as adjusted to {lambda}=1 for instance by means of a lambda sensor - is known. Due to a mathematical property of the equation for the {lambda} calculation, but also resulting from the number of variables when oxygenic fuel components are used, this is not possible with simply a transformation of just one equation. In this paper, some of the possible calculations, with various equations for the hydrogen-carbon atomic-number ratio or for the mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the fuel are described. This can be regarded as fuel analysis by means of exhaust-gas analysis. The possible accuracy of this analysis by calculation, which is a function of the accuracy with which the required variables are measured, is about 0.1 mass%. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Das Mischungsverhaeltnis, dargestellt durch das Luftverhaeltnis {lambda}, laesst sich u.a. mit Hilfe einer Gleichung oder Formel berechnen, in der die Kraftstoff- und Luftzusammensetzung sowie die Abgaszusammensetzung beruecksichtigt werden. Eine solche Gleichung muesste bei Kenntnis des Luftverhaeltnisses, das z.B. mit Hilfe einer Sauerstoffsonde auf {lambda}=1 eingestellt wurde, umgekehrt die Moeglichkeit bieten, die Kraftstoffzusammensetzung zu berechnen, anstatt eine chemische Analyse durchzufuehren. Wegen einer mathematischen Eigenschaft der Gleichung zur {lambda}-Berechnung, aber auch wegen der Zahl der Variablen der Kraftstoffzusammensetzung bei der Verwendung sauerstoffhaltiger Kraftstoffkomponenten, ist dies nicht einfach durch die Umformung einer einzigen Gleichung moeglich. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden einige moegliche Berechnungen der Kraftstoffzusammensetzung mit verschiedenen Gleichungen fuer das Wasserstoff-Kohlenstoff-Atomzahlverhaeltnis oder fuer die Massenanteile von Kohlenstoff, Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff im Kraftstoff beschrieben, die als Kraftstoffanalysen durch Abgasanalysen betrachtet werden koennen. Die erreichbare Genauigkeit dieser rechnerischen Analysen, die von der Messgenauigkeit der erforderlichen Groessen abhaengen, betraegt etwa 0,1 Massen-Prozent. (orig./GL)

Brettschneider, J. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Zentralbereich Forschung und Vorausentwicklung, Abt. BFV3, Stuttgart (Germany)

1996-12-31

277

Development of fast-burn combustion with elevated coolant temperatures for natural gas engines. Annual report, May 1986-April 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this work is to improve the state of the art in the gas fired spark ignited engine for use in a cogeneration system. Three characteristics are in process of being enhanced for cogeneration, namely, Low Pressure Gas Induction, Improved Shaft Thermal Efficiency, and Increased Jacket Water Temperature. A major achievement in the second year is the development of a Taguchi design of experiments plan with one design factor (three combustion chamber alternatives) and four noise factors two levels of jacket water temperature, two levels of air manifold temperature, two levels of fuel quality, and two levels of exhaust back pressure. The Taguchi test work is underway.

Bruch, K.L.; Kline, J.C.

1987-05-01

278

Exhaust gas system for the internal combustion engine of a vehicle. Abgasanlage fuer die Brennkraftmaschine eines Fahrzeugs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to reduce the amplitude of vibration of the exhaust, to increase the life and to reduce the amount of noise generated a silencer of a vehicle exhaust system is connected to the actual exhaust pipe via intermediate sections made of elastic material, whose stiffness is less than 150 N/mm, so that it acts as an acoustic intermediary. The suspensions of the exhaust pipe also contain intermediate pieces, which are insulated from the fixing points as regards vibration by connectors also made of elastic material of low stiffness.

Basu, A.; Babel, M.

1983-06-09

279

On the possibility of exhaust gas recirculation in engine with combined mixture formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To the number of the considered questions there can be referred: formation of nitrogen oxides at temperature increase; the relationship of specific fuel consumption and temperature cycle indices; effect of compression ratio on engine parts; regulation of the angle of the beginning of the fuel supply and valve control mechanism. The comparison of the combined cycle with the cycle of Diesel is made. The positive features of the cycle operation approximate to isobaric, and the possibilities of obtaining the optimum ratio of specific fuel consumption and emissions of NOx are stated.

Andrusenko Sergey Evgenievich; Andrusenko Oleg Evgenievich

2012-01-01

280

IAEA high temperature gas cooled reactor activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA activities on high temperature gas cooled reactors are conducted with the review and support of Member States, primarily through the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). This paper summarises the results of the IAEA gas cooled reactor project activities in recent years along with ongoing current activities through a review of Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRPs), meetings and other international efforts. A series of three recently completed CRPs have addressed the key areas of reactor physics for LEU fuel, retention of fission products, and removal of post shutdown decay heat through passive heat transport mechanisms. These activities along with other completed and ongoing supporting CRPs and meetings are summarised with reference to detailed documentation of the results. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Uniform electron gas at finite temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

We calculate the free energy of the quantum uniform electron gas for temperatures from near 0 to 100 times the Fermi energy, approaching the classical limit. An extension of the Vashista-Singwi theory to finite temperatures and a self-consistent compressibility sum rule is presented. Comparisons are made to other local-field correction methods, as well as recent quantum Monte Carlo simulation and classical map-based results. Accurate fits to the exchange-correlation free energy from both theory and simulation are given for future practical applications.

Sjostrom, Travis; Dufty, James

2013-09-01

282

Purex canyon exhaust fan bearing temperature monitoring system doric 245 datalogger programming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A micro-processor based datalogger is used to monitor, display, and log seventeen RTD temperature channels. Five bearings are monitored for each of the three electric motor-fan assemblies and two bearings are monitored on the steam turbine unit. Several alarms per data channel (a High alarm at 236 degrees and a High High alarm at 246 degrees F) will alert the operation`s staff to increasing abnormal bearing temperatures. This procedure is cross-referenced to the manufacturers manual. All programming steps will have the following footnote: Mpg x-xx. The Mpg refers to the Manual page, with x as the section number and xx as the page number in that section. When more information is needed, such as pictures or details, then the manual section and page number is provided.

Blackaby, W.B.

1994-09-06

283

Purex canyon exhaust fan bearing temperature monitoring system doric 245 datalogger programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A micro-processor based datalogger is used to monitor, display, and log seventeen RTD temperature channels. Five bearings are monitored for each of the three electric motor-fan assemblies and two bearings are monitored on the steam turbine unit. Several alarms per data channel (a High alarm at 236 degrees and a High High alarm at 246 degrees F) will alert the operation's staff to increasing abnormal bearing temperatures. This procedure is cross-referenced to the manufacturers manual. All programming steps will have the following footnote: Mpg x-xx. The Mpg refers to the Manual page, with x as the section number and xx as the page number in that section. When more information is needed, such as pictures or details, then the manual section and page number is provided

1994-01-01

284

The Evolution of High Temperature Gas Sensors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas sensor technology based on high temperature solid electrolytes is maturing rapidly. Recent advances in metal oxide catalysis and thin film materials science has enabled the design of new electrochemical sensors. We have demonstrated prototype amperometric oxygen sensors, nernstian potentiometric oxygen sensors that operate in high sulfur environments, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide sensing mixed potentials sensors. Many of these devices exhibit part per million sensitivities, response times on the order of seconds and excellent long-term stability.

Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary)

2001-01-01

285

Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

286

Air intake contamination by building exhausts: tracer gas investigation of atmospheric dispersion models in the urban environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The establishment of a safe distance between sources of pollution and air intakes is based on a complex exercise that should take into account several wind, physical, and topographical factors. To estimate the maximum concentrations of the pollutants as a function of the distance from the emission source, some heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers use the atmospheric dispersion models suggested by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Two of these models, the Halitsky and Wilson-Chui-Lamb models, have been developed and evaluated mainly with laboratory data. There have been relatively few evaluations with full-scale field data. The objective of this study, carried out on a building in downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, was to compare the measured concentrations of a tracer gas emitted by an exhaust stack with those predicted by these models. The results indicate that the Halitsky model gives lower than actual dilution, while the Wilson-Chui-Lamb model generally gives acceptable estimates, with occasional over-estimations of the dilution.

Lazure L; Saathoff P; Stathopoulos T

2002-02-01

287

High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

1980-12-01

288

Detecting combustible or combustion-supporting constituents in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method and apparatus are provided for measuring air/fuel ratio for a fuel mixture (particularly for a spark ignition engine). A flow path is provided, for fuel mixture, which contains zones whereby either fuel can be added to lean mixtures or air can be added to rich ones (such additions being termed doping). In a subsequent reaction zone the temperature of, or current through, a conductor is maintained constant. The regulator needed to maintain the constant state enables the point of maximum heat release on combustion of a doped or undoped mixture near the conductor to be determined. A unique relationship between the ratio and such heat release enable the ratio to be determined.

Parker Peter Harry

289

Exhaust gas catalyst support made of inorganic moulding material. Abgaskatalysator-Traeger aus anorganischen Formmassen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is the simplification of a manufacturing process for the manufacture of ceramic catalyst supports, such as are used in vehicles or industrial plants. According to the invention, this is done in a simple way, where, when casting the moulding material aluminium bars or wires are placed in the ceramic support and these react with the alkalis of the moulding material, forming hydrogen and aluminium oxi-hydrate and so forming hollows in the ceramic support. According to the invention, the foreign body is produced from a flowing moulding material by hardening at 60 to 120/sup 0/C in a mould, where by the reaction an oxide mixtures with contents of amorphous SiO/sub 2/ and aluminium oxide and/or electrofilter ash from high temperature hardcoal-fired power stations and/or calcined ground bauxite and/or metakaolin are produced. (HWJ).

1985-12-05

290

Modelling of an SCR catalytic converter for diesel exhaust after treatment: Dynamic effects at low temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a fundamental and applied work on the development of an unsteady mathematical model of the NH{sub 3}-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process for design and control of integrated after-treatment systems of heavy-duty engines, we present herein a transient kinetic analysis of the standard SCR NO+NH{sub 3} system which provides new insight in the catalytic kinetics and mechanism prevailing at low temperatures. Based on kinetic runs performed over a commercial powdered V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the 175-450{sup o}C T-range feeding NH{sub 3} and NO (1000ppm) in the presence of H{sub 2}O (1-10%, v/v) and O{sub 2} (2-6%, v/v), an original dual-site modified redox rate law is derived which effectively accounts for NH{sub 3} inhibition effects observed during transient reactive experiments at T<250{sup o}C. We also demonstrate that implementation of the novel modified redox kinetics into a fully predictive 1D+1D model of SCR monolith reactors can significantly improve simulations of SCR transient runs at different scales, including engine test bench experiments over full-scale SCR honeycomb catalysts.

Tronconi, Enrico; Nova, Isabella; Ciardelli, Cristian [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Chatterjee, Daniel; Bandl-Konrad, Brigitte; Burkhardt, Thomas [DaimlerChrysler AG Abteilung RBP/C, HPC: 096-E220, D-70546 Stuttgart (Germany)

2005-08-15

291

Valve stem seals and cylinder head gaskets for minimal exhaust gas emissions and oil consumption; Ventilschaft- und Zylinderkopfdichtungen fuer minimale Abgasemissionen und Oelverbrauch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is a well known fact that ash from engine oil additives causes modern particulate filters in diesel cars to become clogged. Since the particulate filter is widely accepted throughout Europe, minimizing oil consumption has become a focal point in engine development. Above all, valve stem seals and cylinder head gaskets offer here the potential to keep exhaust gas emissions and oil consumption to a bare minimum. This article of Freudenberg Schwingungs- und Dichtungstechnik presents new sealing solutions. (orig.)

Pepin, F. [Freudenberg Dichtungs- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH und Co KG, Weinheim (Germany). Lead Center Zylinderkopfdichtungen

2007-04-15

292

High temperature high rate gas well completions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews experience in the completion of high temperature, high rate gas wells, gained during ten years as operator for the Arun Field. Over 50 production and injection wells have been completed in the Arun Field, and some of these wells have been worked over once or even twice since their initial completion. Problems which have been encountered during the operation or workover of the wells have led to changes in completion practices and equipment design. These problems are described in detail as are the subsequent completion changes and the results of these changes.

Husein, H.; Steel, D. (Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. (ID))

1988-01-01

293

Stop-Start operation of diesel engines - modified requirement for exhaust gas aftertreatment?; Stopp-Start beim Dieselmotor - geaenderte Anforderung fuer die Abgasnachbehandlung?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performed tests show the potential of Stop-Start operation to successfully reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. According to the application a reduction of at least 4 to 5 % is feasible. The impact of Stop-Start operation on the engine-out emissions is low. While on the vehicle some slightly higher HC and CO emissions were detected the test on the engine test bench showed reduced engine-out HC and CO emissions. For the NO{sub x} emission it is vice-versa. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst system depends on application and the ageing status of the catalyst. It is well known that the catalyst temperature is one of the main factors on efficiency. Therefore, operating the engine in a Stop-Start mode should have a positive impact on the HC and CO conversion efficiency as the typical cooling of the DOC due to cold exhaust gas during idling is reduced. Unfortunately this benefit could not be observed, as at this point of time no aged catalysts were evaluated. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that longer periods with the engine turned off can result in a significant temperature drop downstream of the DPF. Especially for a NO{sub x} device which most probably has to be mounted in an underfloor position - downstream of the DPF - it can result in a delayed light-off and higher emissions and has to be taken into account for engine calibration. So from today's point of view the requirements on the DOC and catalysed DPF are not increasing due to an implementation of a Stop-Start strategy. However, for a NO{sub x} device and its application this new operational conditions have to be checked carefully. (orig.)

Spurk, P.C.; Noack, H.D. [Umicore AG und Co. KG (Germany); Gerhard, S.; Zelenka, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

2008-07-01

294

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (BC at 85–100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on (a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and (b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

D. A. Lack; J. J. Corbett

2012-01-01

295

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS) limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC) emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping. Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load), fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC) increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (BC at 85–100% load); absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel) also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions. Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100%) depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC. Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers. Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a) the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and b) the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

D. A. Lack; J. J. Corbett

2012-01-01

296

New high temperature abradables for gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was to increase the knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for the wear in abradable seals of engines, and to use the insight gained for improving the abradability of gas path seals operated at temperatures above 450{sup o}C. For this purpose a testing facility capable of reproducing seal wear mechanisms observed in engines was constructed, and a complete range of conventional and new abradable seals were examined. Wear maps were used to interpret the results. Based on this investigation, a model for abradability at temperatures above 450{sup o}C was devised and verified. The abradable testing apparatus was capable of controlling the following parameters: blade velocity: 150 to 500 m/s, incursion rate: 2 to 3000 {mu}m/s, shroud surface temperature: ambient to 1200{sup o}C. Thermal spraying processes were exclusively used for the manufacture of abradable specimens. Blade tipping techniques ranging from thermal spraying to laser cladding and electro plating particle entrapment were applied. It was observed that if continuous sliding of the blade tip over the shroud specimen was allowed to take place, melting wear of the tip immediately became the predominant mechanism. Only against selected aluminium and polymer based materials did blade tips suffer no wear. For higher temperatures (above 450{sup o}C), other mechanisms had to be looked for. It was found that brittle fracture of the shroud surface zone resulted in the lowest increase in blade tip temperature and thus the best means of attaining high temperature abradability. The suggested abradable model is based on the use of a release agent encapsulating the individual particles making up the matrix. The release agent is to function as a dislocator reducing the forces required for the expulsion of particles. A polymer phase is providing crack sources for particle release. The matrix material must be oxidation and corrosion resistant enough for the hottest engine stage in which it will be utilised. (author) 61 figs., 131 refs.

Schmid, R.K.

1997-12-01

297

Controlling exhaust gas recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

Zurlo, James Richard (Madison, WI); Konkle, Kevin Paul (West Bend, WI); May, Andrew (Milwaukee, WI)

2012-01-31

298

Photochemical transformation of aircraft exhausts at their transition from the plume to the large scale dispersion in the Northern temperature belt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-D diurnally varying photochemical model of the Northern temperate zonal tropospheric belt with fixed (off line) temperature and air transport is used for the description of the formation of aircraft exhaust concentration distribution in the North Atlantic commercial flight corridor, based on actual flights in summer and winter. A strong diurnal and seasonal variation of emitted NO{sub x} oxidation rate is revealed and evaluated. (author) 11 refs.

Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

299

Adsorption of mercuric chloride from simulated incinerator exhaust gas by means of Sorbalit{sup TM} particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work the attention was focused on the use of Sorbalit{sup TM}, a mixture of impregnated activated carbon and Ca(OH)2, for adsorption of mercuric chloride from flue gas of municipal solid waste incinerators. The study was performed in an apparatus at laboratory scale in which simulated flue gas at a given temperature and HgCl2 concentration flowed through a fixed bed of adsorbent material. The experimental results showed that the adsorbate loading at saturation depends on temperature in an unusual fashion: the saturation adsorbate loading decreases with T for 70{degree}{le}T{le}150{degree}C, but then increases for 150{degree}{le}T{le}250{degree}C. This result was interpreted by assuming that for T{le}150{degree}C a process of physical adsorption takes place, while for T{ge}150{degree}C the results fall in a `transition zone` between physical adsorption and chemical adsorption. The Langmuir parameters were evaluated for the `low` temperature results, and the differential equations modeling the adsorption phenomenon were integrated, leading to the evaluation of a kinetic parameter describing the breakthrough curves experimentally determined. 23 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Lancia, A. [Universita di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Karatza, D.; Musmarra, D. [Instituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Napoli (Italy); Pepe, F. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Caserta (Italy)

1996-12-20

300

Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200?m thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Matrix for a catalytic reactor for cleaning the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines. Matrix fuer einen katalytischen Reaktor zur Abgasreinigung bei Brennkraftmaschinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create the matrix of a ctalytic reactor for cleaning the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines while retaining their good mechanical stability so that greatly turbulent flow is produced in the matrix ducts, and the length of the matrix can therefore be reduced. The design features of the invention, made clear by several schematic diagrams, include one of 2 steel sheets in contact with one another, is divided into narrow strips on top of each other in the direction of flow of the exhaust gases. The rays have different corrugations; the corrugation of tape or strips in contact are at an angle and opposed (10 patent claims). (HWJ).

Nonnenmann, M.

1985-09-26

302

On the influence of solid rocket propellant exhaust gas on the stratospheric chemistry: Investigations using a three-dimensional photochemical circulation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work investigated in how far large orbital rockets (e.g., space shuttle, Titan IV or, in the future, Ariane V), which emit their exhaust gas directly into the atmosphere, are cumbersome to the global atmosphere and especially the stratosphere. In particular, it investigated in how far existing chemical steady-states are influenced entailing damage to the ozone layer. With the aid of a photochemical 3-D model which comprises the most important ozone-relevant reactions and calculates the distribution of 20 trace gases for any time-step, precise statements regarding the global effect could be made. Besides the horizontal distribution of the exhaust gases, particular attention was paid to their vertical distribution and to the impact on O3 concentration and individual groups of trace substances. (orig./KW).

1993-01-01

303

Present status of measures against automobile exhaust gas. 2. ; Alcohol-fueled car. Jidosha hai gas taisaku no genjo. 2. ; Alcohol jidosha  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes properties and features of methanol for alcohol-fueled cars, the present developmental conditions and future problems of methanol-fueled cars. In Brazil, about one million alcohol-fueled cars are fueled with gasoline mixed with 10-20% alcohol which is abundantly produced in this country for the purpose of saving gasoline. In Japan, M-100(100% methanol) and M-85(85% methanol+15% gasoline) are used in methanol-fueled cars, which amount to a total of 120 cars consisting of 60 Otto-type cars and 60 diesel type cars as of 1992, and M-100 methanol-fueled cars are not marketed but all used in a lease system for free testing. At present, the use of methanol-fueled cars should be considered as a means for solving the exhaust gas problem in Japan, but the attitude of the car industry for the research and development relating to this matter is not always satisfactory. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

1993-06-05

304

POWER TOOL EXHAUST COOLING SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A handheld power tool (100) includes: a housing (102) enclosing an internal combustion engine (304) with a muffler, the muffler being arranged on the left or right side of the handheld power tool (100) and having an exhaust gas outlet for dispensing exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine (304), a cutting unit (118) extending from a front portion (106) of the housing (102), an outlet pipe (202) for conveying the exhaust gases from the exhaust gas outlet of the muffler and expelling them in an area (206) located in front of the housing (102) and above and/or aside said cutting unit (118), an air flow passage (304) formed from within the housing (102) and through an outlet port (208) arranged at the front of the housing (102) for conveying cooling air to said area (206) in such a way that the exhaust gases are mixed with cooling air.

VALFRIDSSON STEFAN; GEJERVALL ULRIK; FONG CARL-JOHAN

305

Determining exhausts from an annular oven at the Moscow coke gas plant during the coking of slightly caking coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented of studies of the exhaust gases formed in an annular oven during the coking of slightly-caking coals from the 50th October deposit and Novosergievskii pit. Technical data on the coals are given. A schematic diagram of the experimental oven used, to include the system of reheating and then cooling of the exhaust gases, is presented. The quantity of exhaust gases was measured with a pneumometric pipe fitted with a micromanometer. The composition of the gases taken after scrubbing was analyzed on a chromatograph. When using the resulting data to determine the make-up and quantity of pollutants, the values presented here can be corrected by taking into account changes in the starting materials, coking regime and quenching of the coke. 5 references.

Zaidenberg, M.A.; Glyanchenko, V.D.; Stefanenko, V.T.; Nechaeva, O.V.; Tutynina, R.M.; Pushkarev, Yu.V.; Aleksashin, V.N.; Gorshkova, M.N.

1984-03-01

306

Using of exhaust gases, low temperature heat sources and multiple heat transfer for utilisation of mining salt waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examines methods for the concentration of brines produced in coalbed methane development. The concentrate brines can be deposed in mine excavations, salt production, underground injection, etc. Concentration methods covered are: direct exchange of heat between exhaust gases and brines; fan evaporators; multistage evaporation and vapor condensation; and reverse osmosis. 4 figs.

Hycnar, J. [Polish State Coal Mine Agency, Katowice (Poland). Environmental Protection Division

1995-08-01

307

Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-01-01

308

Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-04-06

309

Swirl and blade wakes in the interaction between gas turbines and exhaust diffusers investigated by endoscopic particle image velocimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust diffusers studied in this thesis are installed behind the last turbine stage of gas turbines, including those used in combined cycle power plants. Extensive research made in recent years proved that effects caused by an upstream turbine need to be taken into account when designing efficient diffusers. Under certain conditions these effects can stabilize the boundary layer in diffusers and prevent separation. In this research the impact of multiple parameters, such as tip leakage flow, swirl, and rotating blade wakes, on the performance of a diffuser is studied. Experiments were conducted using a diffuser test rig with a rotating bladed wheel as a turbine effect generator and with an additional tip leakage flow insert. The major advantages of this test rig are modularity and easy variation of the main parameters. To capture the complexity and understand the physics of diffuser flow, and to clarify the phenomenon of the flow stabilisation, the 2D endoscopic laser optical measurement technique Partide Image Velocimetry (PIV) was adopted to the closed ''rotating'' diffuser test rig. Intensity and distribution of vortices in the blade tip area are decisive for diffuser performance. Large vortices in the annular diffuser inlet behind the blade tips interact with the boundary layer in diffusers. At design point these vortices are very early suppressed by the main flow. For the operating point with a low value of the flow coefficient (negative swirl), vortices are ab out two tim es stronger than for design point and the boundary layer is destabilized. V mtices develop in the direction contrary to swirl in the main flow and just cause flow destabilization. Coherent back flow zones are induced and reduction of diffuser performance occurs. For the operating point with positive swirl (for a high flow coefficient value), these vortices are also strong but do not counteract the main flow because they develop in the same direction with the swirl in the main flow. Pressure recovery in the annular diffuser is even high er than for design point because vortices energize the boundary layer and the turbulence level in the core flow is very high. Turbulent energy is better transported to the peripheral zones of the channel by the swirled flow. A small positive swirl angle in the inlet flow (behind the rotating bladed wheel in experiments) has a stabilizing effect on the diffuser, while negative swirl decreases its performance. This occurs due to change in the development of vertical structures downstream of the rotor blade tip area. The tip leakage flow from the last turbine stage positively affects pressure recovery in the diffuser energizing the boundary layer. Comparison of results for different diffuser test rig configurations with results from a more gas turbine-like test rig with a similar diffuser and a scaled turbine stage model and for higher Mach numbers showed similar pressure recovery trends, verifying the results.

Opilat, Victor

2011-10-21

310

Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O{sub 2} concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O{sub 2}) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO{sub x} gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO{sub x} but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases. (Author)

Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

2003-11-01

311

Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O2) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NOx gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NOx but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases.

2003-01-01

312

Combustion improvement of IDI diesel engine for passenger car. Technical trend of improving exhaust emission; Joyoshayo IDI engine no nensho kaizen. Hai gas teigen gijutsu no hokosei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While recreation vehicles preferably use diesel engines because of their reliability and low fuel consumption, measures to reduce gas emission require further improvement in technologies. Therefore, through utilizing the low pollution performance of IDI engine and improving the fuel consumption to make exhaust gas emission and fuel consumption compatible, discussions were made on the potentials against the exhaust gas emission regulations. As part of the efforts of improving the combustion in IDI diesel engines, reviews were given on the sub-chamber specification and the high fuel feed rate injection pump specification. On a condition that an EGR is used, increasing the sub-chamber volume can improve the smoke generation and fuel consumption. However, excessive increase will aggravate the smoke generation and fuel consumption. The use of a high fuel feed rate pump can shorten the combustion time and made fuel consumption improvement possible. It was disclosed possible that even such heavy vehicles as recreation vehicles can comply with the passenger car code of the 96 EC by expanding the sub-chamber volume, using the high fuel feed rate pump (with electronics control), expanding the use of EGR, and combining oxidation catalysts. 2 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Sato, K.; Takeuchi, K.; Sato, H.; Hamaguchi, K. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-04-20

313

Heat pump cycle by hydrogen-absorbing alloys to assist high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in producing hydrogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical heat pump system using two hydrogen-absorbing alloys is proposed to utilise heat exhausted from a high-temperature source such as a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), more efficiently. The heat pump system is designed to produce H2 based on the S-I cycle more efficiently. The overall system proposed here consists of HTGR, He gas turbines, chemical heat pumps and reaction vessels corresponding to the three-step decomposition reactions comprised in the S-I process. A fundamental research is experimentally performed on heat generation in a single bed packed with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy that may work at the H2 production temperature. The hydrogen-absorbing alloy of Zr(V1-xFex)2 is selected as a material that has a proper plateau pressure for the heat pump system operated between the input and output temperatures of HTGR and reaction vessels of the S-I cycle. Temperature jump due to heat generated when the alloy absorbs H2 proves that the alloy-H2 system can heat up the exhaust gas even at 600 deg. C without any external mechanical force. (authors)

2010-01-01

314

Reduction of nitrogen oxides in engine exhaust gases by the addition of cyanuric acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitric oxide concentrations in a portion of the exhaust of a diesel engine operated with equivalence ratios between 0.25 and 0.75 were reduced by up to 98 percent by the addition of cyanuric acid. The cyanuric acid was combined with the exhaust gas in an electrically heated quartz flow reactor. The effects of the key process parameters (temperature, exhaust gas composition and residence time, and the overall engine equivalence ratio) on NO reduction by cyanuric acid are reported. Nitric oxide reduction was evident at flow reactor temperatures above 700 K. The maximum nitric oxide reduction varied from 80 percent for a reactor temperature of 1180 K and an engine equivalence ratio of 0.25 to 98 percent for a temperature of 1120 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.75. The temperature range over which 60 percent or greater nitric oxide reduction was obtained was 1100 to 1340 K. Increasing the exhaust gas carbon monoxide concentration lowered the required reactor temperature and increased the temperature range for significant nitric oxide reduction. Increasing the exhaust gas nitric oxide concentration lowered the ratio of cyanuric acid to nitric oxide required for maximum nitric oxide reduction.

Caton, J.A. (Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (US)); Siebers, D.L. (Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (US))

1989-07-01

315

Low-temperature boilers. Constructional and operational conditions of modern low-temperature boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper abstracted discusses low-temperature boilers, boilers with low exhaust gas temperatures, boilers with low exhaust gas temperatures and sliding water temperatures, boilers with condensation range and integrated boiler/heat pump systems. The paper points out the operational features of the boilers and the requirements to be met by the different low-temperature uses. Moreover, it describes the expected efficiencies of above boilers.

Hotz, R.

1986-06-01

316

On Developing a Spectroscopic System for Fast Gas Temperature Measurements in Combustion Environments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques are known to provide reliable results for gas temperature measurements and can be comparatively easily performed on an industrial scale such as a boiler on a power plant or an exhaust of a ship engine cylinder. However temporal resolution is not high enough to trace fast temperature variations which are of great importance for complete combustion diagnostics. To eliminate the above mentioned shortcoming, a new IR spectroscopic-imaging system has been developed at Risø DTU. The schematic of the system is presented. Results on lab and industrial scale are discussed. System’s flexibility and changeability which enable applying of a number of other methods for combustion diagnostics are demonstrated.

Evseev, Vadim; Clausen, SØnnik

2009-01-01

317

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

Adam TW; Chirico R; Clairotte M; Elsasser M; Manfredi U; Martini G; Sklorz M; Streibel T; Heringa MF; Decarlo PF; Baltensperger U; De Santi G; Krasenbrink A; Zimmermann R; Prevot AS; Astorga C

2011-01-01

318

High frequency gas temperature and surface heat flux measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Further improvements of the thermal efficiency of gas turbine cycle are closely coupled to the increase of turbine inlet temperature. This requires intensive and efficient cooling of the blades. In this perspective, experimental investigations of the gas temperature and heat transfer distribution ar...

Iliopoulou, Vasiliki

319

On a Readout Technique for Monochromatic Infrared Gas Temperature Measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was desired to measure the temperature of a high velocity, high temperature, low density moving gas without disturbing the flow. The natural infrared energy loss of the gas led to an Infrared Monochromatic Radiation (IMRA) pyrometer as a measuring inst...

D. H. Murray

1966-01-01

320

Acetone laser-induced fluorescence behavior for the simultaneous quantification of temperature and residual gas distribution in fired spark-ignition engines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the fluorescence behavior of acetone has already been examined widely, the amount of data is still not sufficient for the quantification of signals over the parameter field relevant for combustion engines. This leads to large uncertainties when new excitation wavelengths are applied or in cases where temperature and pressure and bath gas composition dependences of the fluorescence yield must be extrapolated from models. This work presents calibration results of the fluorescence signal intensities in nitrogen, air, and an exhaust-gas-air mixture in the wide range from 298 to 748 K and from 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) to 20 bars for the two important excitation wavelengths 308 and 248 nm. Based on this data, measurements of temperature and exhaust gas concentrations in a fired spark ignition engine were performed with high accuracy in single-shot images also.

Löffler M; Beyrau F; Leipertz A

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Tailoring the structural and microstructural properties of nanosized tantalum oxide for high temperature electrochemical gas sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ta2O5 nanopowders to be used as sensing electrodes in high temperature electrochemical gas sensors for hydrocarbons detection were synthesized using a sol-gel method and their structural and microstructural properties were investigated. The as-synthesized powders were heated at different temperatures in the range 250-1000 degrees C and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. This investigation allowed to identify the correct thermal treatments to achieve the microstructural, textural and functional stability of materials working at high temperature, preserving their nano-metric grain size. Planar sensors fabricated by using Ta2O5 powders treated at 750 degrees C showed promising results for the selective detection of propylene at high temperature (700 degrees C). The good stability of the sensing response after gas exposure at high temperature was correlated to the stable microstructure the electrodes. Thus, Ta2O5 powders seems good candidate as sensing electrode for sensors for automotive exhausts monitoring. PMID:19916469

Bonavita, Anna; Di Bartolomeo, Elisabetta; Chevallier, Laure; D'Ottavi, Cadia; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

2009-07-01

322

Tailoring the structural and microstructural properties of nanosized tantalum oxide for high temperature electrochemical gas sensors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ta2O5 nanopowders to be used as sensing electrodes in high temperature electrochemical gas sensors for hydrocarbons detection were synthesized using a sol-gel method and their structural and microstructural properties were investigated. The as-synthesized powders were heated at different temperatures in the range 250-1000 degrees C and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. This investigation allowed to identify the correct thermal treatments to achieve the microstructural, textural and functional stability of materials working at high temperature, preserving their nano-metric grain size. Planar sensors fabricated by using Ta2O5 powders treated at 750 degrees C showed promising results for the selective detection of propylene at high temperature (700 degrees C). The good stability of the sensing response after gas exposure at high temperature was correlated to the stable microstructure the electrodes. Thus, Ta2O5 powders seems good candidate as sensing electrode for sensors for automotive exhausts monitoring.

Bonavita A; Di Bartolomeo E; Chevallier L; D'Ottavi C; Licoccia S; Traversa E

2009-07-01

323

New processes for the reduction and capture of mercury emissions in the exhaust gas treatment; Neue Verfahren zur Minderung und Erfassung von Quecksilber-Emissionen in der Abgasbehandlung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The highly volatile heavy metal mercury is deemed to be very toxic. There exist a lot of natural as well as anthropogenic sources for the pollution of the environment with mercury such as the coal-fired power generation, the electrolytic production of chlorine, the cement burning including the release of mercury from the cement raw meal, the waste incineration and the artisanal production of gold by amalgamation with liquid mercury. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on new procedures for the reduction and capture of mercury emissions in the exhaust gas treatment. The bromine supported precipitation of mercury in the exhaust gas treatment is an efficient and economic process which takes account of the future requirements of lower limit values for mercury. Simultaneously, a new measurement technique for a continuous capture of mercury with new standards on detection sensitivity, accuracy and reliability in connection with a more simple and cost-effective maintenance is developed. The bromine supported precipitation as well as the continuous capture of mercury are trendsetters and are actually the best available technologies for the reduction of mercury emissions.

Boness, Michael [Sick Maihak GmbH, Meersburg (Germany); Kanefke, Rico [Currenta GmbH und Co. OHG, Leverkusen (Germany). Sonderabfallverbrennung Leverkusen; Vosteen, Bernhard W. [Vosteen Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

2013-03-01

324

Study for development of scallop shell into material for exhaust gas processing agent; Hotate kaigara no haien shorizai genryoka ni kansuru kento  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made to find out whether scallop shell could be used, after heat treatment for decomposition and removal of the organic substances inherent in the shell, as a material to substitute for the desulfurizing agent (limestone) for the wet type limestone/gypsum-aided exhaust gas desulfurization apparatus. For desulfurization evaluation, a 2m{sup 3}N/h wet wall type bench scale test apparatus was used. As for the structure of the apparatus, it was so designed that the absorbing liquid flows down in line with the simulated exhaust gas from the top of a 1.5cm-diameter, 6m-tall absorption tower. The results of the test indicate that it is difficult to utilize scallop shell as it is as a wet-type desulfurizing agent because the organic substances that it contains though small in quantity are apt to cause, for example, abnormal foaming. It has been found, however, that most of the organic substances may be decomposed and expelled out of the scallop shell after 30-minute heating at 500{degree}C, which suggests the possibility that the scallop shell may be used as a desulfurizing agent. A business of converting scallop shell into a wet-type desulfurizing agent will be possible if more than 10,000t/year of the shell can be baked and crushed. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Ishizuka, A.; Ueno, T. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

1996-03-25

325

Automatic temperature control adjustable gas acerbity removing method for persimmon and used acerbity removing cabin thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an automatic temperature control de-astringency method of persimmons, which can adjust gas. A closed space provided with a gas inlet and an exhaust outlet is built, carbon dioxide gas with the concentration between 80 and 95 percent is filled into the space, the temperature in the closed space is heated up and kept between 19 and 24 DEG C and after 36 to 48 hours, the de-astringency process is finished. The method has the advantages that 1. de-astringency time is shortened and total de-astringency can be realized for 36 to 48 hours 2. the color of the persimmons is bright after de-astringency, the flesh has no change, when the persimmons are in the stage of hardness and brittleness, the persimmons can be kept for 7 days under room temperature and for 40 days under the condition of 0 DEG C, thus effectively prolonging shelf life 3. mass production can be carried out and 20 to 40 tons of persimmons can be deastringent at a time.

HAIFENG LIU; JIANGWANG ZHAI; YIN LI; HECONG JIANG; HONG ZHAO; BAOSHAN LU; YAGUANG DAI; QINGLIANG XU

326

Distribution of gas temperature in an unconfined glow discharge plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis is carried out to determine radial temperature distributions in the cylindrical positive column of a glow discharge formed in air in free space without confining walls. The analysis considers discharge with current densities lower than 100 mA/cm2 and at gas pressures of several tens of Torr. The plasma is represented by a set of hydrodynamic equations that include the balances for electron number density, translational energy, and the vibrational energy. The equations are solved using an iterative method to obtain gas temperatures for a range of plasma conditions. The results show that increasing discharge current densities lead to higher gas temperatures on plasma axis, however, unlike in the case with glow discharge restricted by dielectric walls, increased current densities also lead to wider radial profiles of temperature. Increased gas pressure, while leading to higher on-axis gas temperatures, results in narrower temperature profiles, mainly due to the reduced diffusion rates and vibrational-translational energy relaxation times. At low gas pressures and current densities, the electron density profiles are found to be significantly narrower than those for temperature while at higher values of these parameters, the width of the two are comparable. The characteristic radius of the predicted gas temperature distribution is in a good agreement with recent experimental findings

2003-07-15

327

Facility for impurity separation in high temperature coal gas; Koon sekitan gas no fujunbutsu bunri sochi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates a fuel cell to generate power using fuel gas supplied from a coal gasification plant, and aims to present a facility to remove the impurity from high temperature coal gas. The previous high temperature gas purification system does not remove the impurity sufficiently and the low temperature gas purification system also has problems in low removal efficiency and expense and these systems are inadequate for a fuel cell. The facility of this invention is composed of a turbine apparatus to expand the high temperature coal gas to lower the temperature and to generate power and an apparatus to separate the impurity from the coal gas of a lowered temperature and pressure. This separation apparatus is composed of a processing bed to remove chlorides, a particle bed of zinc oxide to adsorb and separate sulfur and sulfur compounds and a filter to remove the particulate impurity. 1 fig.

Cederquist, R. [Connecticut (United States); Preston, J. [Connecticut (United States); Freud, F. [Texas (United States); Chan, F. [Texas (United States)

1995-09-05

328

Regenerable sorbents for low temperature desulfurization of coal gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Z-Sorb{trademark} sorbent has been shown to be effective for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot gas (1,000 F) streams using fixed-, moving- and fluid-bed systems. Recent work with modified formulations suggests the sorbent temperature application range can be expanded to include the lower temperatures (600--800 F) used for moderate temperature gas cleanup. Data will be presented from experiments with both fixed and fluid bed work.

Khare, G.P.; Greenwood, G.J.; Kubicek, D.H.; Delzer, G.A. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

329

The transpiration cooling for blades of high temperatures gas turbine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas turbines are rapidly becoming the choice for current and future power generation systems, because they offer efficient fuel conversion and reduced cost-of-electricity. Both of these advantageous features are related to the development of gas turbines with higher firing temperatures and pressure ratios [Keppel, VGB Kraftwerks-technik 74, 324 (1994); Batenin et al., Thermal Engng 40, 790 (1993); Styrikovich et al., Thermal Engng 42, 838 (1995)]. The key to the successful evolution of gas turbine systems is a strong technology base focused on two critical areas: the introduction of new materials and/or the usage of steam for significant increases of turbine blades cooling. Aircraft engines have continued to push both materials and air-cooling technology to achieve operating conditions significantly higher than those introduced into commercial industrial/utility gas turbines. An alternative approach for commercial gas turbines is to move to an alternate cooling medium, e.g. steam [Batenin et al., Thermal Engng 40, 790 (1993)]. The use of steam (would require a change in design concept) would introduce the potential for significant increases in firing temperature without the losses associated with increased cooling air extraction. Transpiration gas cooling was selected for the critical high-temperature turbine blade. Cooling gas effused through a porous wire mesh skin to create an insulating film or boundary layer on the outer airfoil surfaces. To optimize steam usage, penetration of porous skin was selected to provide only that quantity of steam to meet constant wall temperature at the local gas steam temperature and pressure conditions. The transpiration gas-cooled blade concept had demonstrated its ability to maintain safe metal temperatures when operating at very high gas stream temperatures. The goal of 60% thermal efficiency for a gas turbine power plant is a major challenge for engineers, but developments to achieve this are already under way. (Author)

Polezhaev, Jury [Russian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for High Temperature, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

330

Device for controlling the quantity of exhaust gas fed back to the suction side of an internal combustion engine. Vorrichtung zur Regelung der Menge von zur Saugseite einer Brennkraftmaschine rueckgefuehrtem Abgas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a device for controlling the quantity of exhaust gas fed back to the suction side of an internal combustion engine with a throttle situated in an exhaust-gas feedback pipe which can be actuated by a setting device depending on the position of a main throttle valve situated in the suction pipe; also with a control device, which is controlled by at least one working parameter, which changes with the quantity of fed-back exhaust gas, characterized by the fact that the control value formed by the position of the main throttle valve for the control of the setting device can be multiplied by a factor between 0 and 1.

Zeller, H.; Latsch, R.; Bianchi, V.; Brettschneider, J.

1985-07-11

331

Noble gas and high temperature chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics covered in this book include: The Chemistry of noble gas elements helium, neon, and argon - experimental facts and theoretical predictions; Historical, spectroscopic and chemical comparison of noble gases; and Chemistry of inorganic vapors.

Cremer, D.; Frenking, G.; Hilpert, K.; Jorgensen, C.K.; Kauffman, G.B.

1990-01-01

332

Flow characteristics of high temperature helium gas loop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature helium gas loop was built at our laboratory in March 1986. It is scheduled to study the heat transfer in pipe flow of high temperature helium gas by the test facility. High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) have been in commercial operation in the United States and West Germany. HTGR is the one of the most important reactors because it gives the higher thermal efficiency than the boiling water reactors (BWRs) and the pressurized water reactors (PWRs). In Japan the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) will be constructed in 1989 by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute instead of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). In this report shown are the abstract of our facility and the obtained results concerning the pressure drop in the test section. The friction factors which are analogous to the heat transfer coefficients gave a little higher values than those calculated by Blasius equation.

Morita, Toshiki; Kutsuna, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Katsuya; Mori, Akira

1988-07-01

333

Corona discharge reactor for removal of PM and NO{sub x} in diesel exhaust; Corona hoden ni yoru diesel hai gas chu no ryushijo busshitsu to chisso sankabutsu no jokyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to remove particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) contained in diesel exhaust gas, the gas is excited by passing through a corona discharge tubes in a high electric voltage field. A corona discharge collector for PM (CCPM) is designed to collect diesel PM electrically on central electrode and accumulated PM will be removed by a controlled burning (regeneration) process every 15-20 minutes. In a corona discharge reactor for NO{sub x} removal (CRNR), the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2}, and OH radical generated from H{sub 2}O in gas reacts with NO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} concentration decreases as a result of formation of HNO{sub 3}. In this paper, the discharge instability of CCPM by the PM accumulation on electrodes is investigated, and PM collection efficiency > 90% is obtained under the condition of 23kv, 0.35 mA. As for CRNR, the effect of inlet temperature on the NO{sub x} reduction rate is discussed experimentally. The NO{sub x} removal rate of about 95% is observed at an input power of 80 watts. The configuration of a prototype reactor coupled with CCPM and CRNR is proposed in our study. (author)

Morimune, T.; Kinoshita, K. [Shonan Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-03-25

334

Apparatus using radioactive particles for measuring gas temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus for producing a signal indicative of the temperature of a heated gas is described comprising a beta particle source; a beta particle detector which intercepts particles emitted from said source; circuitry for converting the detector output to a signal indicative of the density of the gas; a pressure transducer for generating a signal indicative of the pressure on the gas; and circuitry for dividing the pressure signal by the density signal to produce a signal indicative of the average temperature of the gas along the path between the beta particle source and the beta particle detector. (auth)

1975-01-01

335

Estimated times to exhaustion and power outputs at the gas exchange threshold, physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold, and respiratory compensation point.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purposes of this study were to compare the power outputs and estimated times to exhaustion (T(lim)) at the gas exchange threshold (GET), physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold (PWC(RPE)), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Three male and 5 female subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22.4 ± 2.8 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer to determine peak oxygen consumption rate, GET, and RCP. The PWC(RPE) was determined from ratings of perceived exertion data recorded during 3 continuous workbouts to exhaustion. The estimated T(lim) values for each subject at GET, PWC(RPE), and RCP were determined from power curve analyses (T(lim) = ax(b)). The results indicated that the PWC(RPE) (176 ± 55 W) was not significantly different from RCP (181 ± 54 W); however, GET (155 ± 42 W) was significantly less than PWC(RPE) and RCP. The estimated T(lim) for the GET (26.1 ± 9.8 min) was significantly greater than PWC(RPE) (14.6 ± 5.6 min) and RCP (11.2 ± 3.1 min). The PWC(RPE) occurred at a mean power output that was 13.5% greater than the GET and, therefore, it is likely that the perception of effort is not driven by the same mechanism that underlies the GET (i.e., lactate buffering). Furthermore, the PWC(RPE) and RCP were not significantly different and, therefore, these thresholds may be associated with the same mechanisms of fatigue, such as increased levels of interstitial and (or) arterial [K?].

Bergstrom HC; Housh TJ; Zuniga JM; Camic CL; Traylor DA; Schmidt RJ; Johnson GO

2012-10-01

336

The influence of exhaust gas parameters on N{sub 2}O-formation in a Pd/Rh catalyst; Einfluss abgasspezifischer Parameter auf die N{sub 2}O-Bildung am Pd/RH-Katalysator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The N{sub 2}O formation parameters in a Pd/Rh catalyst were examined at the Institute for Energy and Environmental Technology of the Food Industry at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Special attention was given to the effects of the individual components of the exhaust gases of spark ignition engines, the catalyst temperature, the gas hourly space velocity and the air equivalence ratio on N{sub 2}O formation. A synthesis gas reactor was used for the experiments. Several additional tests were carried out using an engine test bench. The experiments showed that the maximum N{sub 2}O formation occurs at stoichiometric to slightly lean air equivalence ratios and the light-off temperature of the catalyst. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie der Technischen Universitaet Muenschen wurden die N{sub 2}O-Bildungsparameter an einem Palladium/Rhodium-Dreiwegekatalysator untersucht. Besonderes Augenmerk galt den Einfluessen der einzelnen Abgaskomponenten im Ottomotor-Abgas, der Katalysatortemperatur und dem Luftverhaeltnis auf die N{sub 2}O-Konvertierung. Die Versuche erfolgten am Synthesegasreaktor und an Motorpruefstaenden. (orig.)

Gifhorn, A.; Meyer-Pitroff, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik der Lebensmittelindustrie

1998-06-01

337

Gas sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas sensor is described that includes a gas sensing element whose electrical resistance varies in accordance with the gas composition in the exhaust gas, especially the oxygen content in the exhaust gas, and a reference resistor connected in series with the gas sensing element. A predetermined voltage is applied across the series circuit of the gas sensing element and the reference resistor to detect the gas composition in the exhaust gas by a voltage at the junction point of the gas sensing element and the reference resistor. The gas sensor further comprises a circuit for monitoring the voltage at the junction point and another circuit responsive to the monitoring circuit to change the resistance of the reference resistor so that when the voltage at the junction point exceeds the predetermined range, the resistance of the reference resistor is changed such that the voltage at the junction point may change within the predetermined range in the state after the reference resistor is changed to ensure that the voltage at the junction point properly indicates the gas composition even if the resistance of the gas sensing element changes with the operating temperature of the gas sensing element or with time.

Ohta, M.; Segawa, Y.; Yasuda, E.

1981-03-31

338

Temperature detection in a gas turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

A temperature detector includes a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal. The first metal includes a plurality of wires and the second metal includes a wire. The plurality of wires of the first metal are connected to the wire of the second metal in parallel junctions. Another temperature detector includes a plurality of resistance temperature detectors. The plurality of resistance temperature detectors are connected at a plurality of junctions. A method of detecting a temperature change of a component of a turbine includes providing a temperature detector include ing a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal connected to each other at a plurality of junctions in contact with the component; and detecting any voltage change at any junction.

Lacy, Benjamin; Kraemer, Gilbert; Stevenson, Christian

2012-12-18

339

Changes in stack inlet temperature of the gas as a consequence of the design of the connecting piece between heat generator and stack  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stack inlet temperature of flue gases is a function of the heat generator off-gas temperature, the off-gas flow, and the design - material, length, and thermal insulation - of the connecting piece between heat generator and stack. The mass flow of the off-gas will be reduced if DIN 4701 is observed (as demanded by the Energy Conservation Act and the Ordinance on Heating Systems). As a result, less heat will be introduced into the stack. When dimensioning the stacks, care should be taken that the temperature of the inner wall of the stack mouth is higher than the water dew point temperature of the flue gases and if possible, not below the acid dew point, temperature of the exhaust gases. The temperature of the flue gases upon entering the stack is of great importance.

Marx, E.

1982-01-01

340

Temperature distribution measurement in the hot gas duct of HENDEL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HENDEL (Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop) which was completed on March, 1982, has been operated 3 times so far, including a test operation when it was handed over to JAERI. In the main part of HENDEL which is called a Mother + Adapter (M+A) loop, a hot gas duct through which helium gas of 10000C, 40 atm, 4kg/s flows is installed. This report deals with the measurement and evaluation of temperature distribution of the hot gas duct. The maximum surface temperature of the hot gas duct was 2300C, which is low enough, compared with an allowable design temperature of 3500C. The effective thermal conductivity of the insulation inside the hot gas duct was found to be 0.40 - 0.49 kcal/mh0C. (author).

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Temperature effect on gas phase alkylbenzene dealkylation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dealkylation of ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene by radiolytically formed 2H3+ ions has been studied in the gaseous phase as a function of the irradiation temperature. The extent of the reaction, which increases with the temperature follows the order ethylbenzene -1 between the activation energies for dealkylation of ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene, and of ethylbenzene and propylbenzene, respectively. (author)

1994-01-01

342

Utilisation of CO2, fixation of nitrogen and exhaust gas cleaning in electric discharge with electrode catalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 utilisation, nitrogen fixation and combustion exhaust cleaning using synergetic effect of electric discharge with heterogeneous catalysis on electrodes. The efficiency of CO2 removal is about 40-65%. The process of CO2 removal is always accompanied by NOx, VOC, SX and other component removal and is connected with O2 formation. The final product of process is powder with fractal microstructure, low specific weight, water insoluble suitable for use as nitrogen containing fertilizer. The main component (95%) of solid product is amorphous condensate of amino acids with about 5% of metal organic compound with catalytic properties. The condensate has character of statistical proteinoid. Its creation seems to play important role during formation of life in pre-biotic Earth.

2001-01-01

343

Multipass open-path Fourier-transform infrared measurements for nonintrusive monitoring of gas turbine exhaust composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detection limits for NO and NO2 in turbine exhausts by nonintrusive monitoring have to be improved. Multipass mode Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry and use of a White mirror system were found from a sensitivity study with spectra simulations in the mid-infrared to be essential for the retrieval of NO2 abundances. A new White mirror system with a parallel infrared beam was developed and tested successfully with a commercial FTIR spectrometer in different turbine test beds. The minimum detection limits for a typical turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter are approximately 6 parts per million (ppm) for NO and 9 ppm for NO2 (as well 100 ppm for CO2 and 4 ppm for CO).

Schäfer K; Brockmann K; Heland J; Wiesen P; Jahn C; Legras O

2005-04-01

344

Multipass open-path Fourier-transform infrared measurements for nonintrusive monitoring of gas turbine exhaust composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection limits for NO and NO2 in turbine exhausts by nonintrusive monitoring have to be improved. Multipass mode Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry and use of a White mirror system were found from a sensitivity study with spectra simulations in the mid-infrared to be essential for the retrieval of NO2 abundances. A new White mirror system with a parallel infrared beam was developed and tested successfully with a commercial FTIR spectrometer in different turbine test beds. The minimum detection limits for a typical turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter are approximately 6 parts per million (ppm) for NO and 9 ppm for NO2 (as well 100 ppm for CO2 and 4 ppm for CO). PMID:15835364

Schäfer, Klaus; Brockmann, Klaus; Heland, Jörg; Wiesen, Peter; Jahn, Carsten; Legras, Olivier

2005-04-10

345

Thermal Barrier Coating on High Temperature Industrial Gas Turbine Engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study program identified significant benefits from applying thermal barrier coatings to hot section components of high temperature industrial gas turbine engines. The thermal barrier coating used in this study was a yttria-stabilized zirconia materia...

N. Carlson B. L. Stoner

1977-01-01

346

Nitrogen charge temperature prediction in a gas lift valve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The operation of a class of retrievable gas-lift valves (GLV) is controlled by the axial movement of a bellows. One force acting on the bellows is due to the pressure exerted by the nitrogen gas contained in the GLV dome. It depends on the nitrogen temperature, which is influenced by both the production fluid and the injection gas temperatures in the well. This work investigated this dependence for a GLV installed in a side pocket mandrel tube. Three independent procedure (more) s were used for this purpose, comprising a compact thermal model, an experimental investigation with a thermal mockup and a numerical analysis. From these, a correlation for the nitrogen temperature was proposed, based on the local production fluid and injection gas temperatures, and on their convective coefficients with the mandrel tube surfaces.

Ganzarolli, Marcelo M.; Altemani, Carlos A. C.

2010-03-01

347

Nitrogen charge temperature prediction in a gas lift valve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The operation of a class of retrievable gas-lift valves (GLV) is controlled by the axial movement of a bellows. One force acting on the bellows is due to the pressure exerted by the nitrogen gas contained in the GLV dome. It depends on the nitrogen temperature, which is influenced by both the production fluid and the injection gas temperatures in the well. This work investigated this dependence for a GLV installed in a side pocket mandrel tube. Three independent procedures were used for this purpose, comprising a compact thermal model, an experimental investigation with a thermal mockup and a numerical analysis. From these, a correlation for the nitrogen temperature was proposed, based on the local production fluid and injection gas temperatures, and on their convective coefficients with the mandrel tube surfaces.

Marcelo M. Ganzarolli; Carlos A. C. Altemani

2010-01-01

348

Method of coverning the working gas temperature of a solar heated hot gas engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A closed-cycle hot gas engine heated by solar radiation is provided with a governing system varying the working gas pressure so as to vary the power output at a constant high temperature level of the working gas and-at least partly-at a constant engine speed.

Almstrom, S.-H.; Nelving, H.G.

1984-07-03

349

A new algorithm predicts pressure and temperature profiles of gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of the present study has been the development of a relatively simple analytical algorithm for predicting flow temperature and pressure profiles along the two-phase, gas/gas-condensate transmission pipelines. Results demonstrate the ability of the method to predict reasonably accurate pressure gradient and temperature gradient profiles under operating conditions. (author)

Mokhatab, Saied [OIEC - Oil Industries' Engineering and Construction Group, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vatani, Ali [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2003-07-01

350

Design of the exhaust system in the confinement of the HTR-10  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor has a vented confinement instead of a gastight pressurized containment due to its passive safety features. The safety class negative pressure exhaust system is used in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system to fulfill all kinds of safety-related functions at the normal operation and during accidents. This paper introduces and reviews the design of safety class negative pressure exhaust systems of the 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor-test module.

Jiang Feng E-mail: jf601@tsinghua.edu.cn; Ye Suisheng; Yang Jun

2002-10-01

351

Unstressed metal support case for exhaust gas catalysts with high thermal working loading. Spannungsentlastetes Metalltraegergehaeuse fuer Abgaskatalysatoren mit hoher thermischer Betriebsbelastung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns a metal support case for exhaust gas catalysts, consisting of spirally wound alternating smooth and corrugated metal tapes, which are fixed in a jacket tube, where a large number of support matrix cells are formed in the longitudinal direction. The design according to the invention is intended to take up alternating stresses due to elastic deformation and therefore to increase the life of the device by avoiding the formation of cracks. It is proposed that the corrugated and the smooth metal tapes should only be connected at certain contact positions, and in such a way that the spacing between the connecting positions makes possible thermal expansion of the support matrix without alternating plastic deformation. The greatest part of the matrix cells should therefore be connected to one of the two adjacent metal tapes of a connection, at most. An alternating arrangement of the connection positions in the radial and in the axial direction is particularly recommended.

Cyron, T.

1984-10-11

352

Stress-relieved metal case for exhaust gas catalysts with high thermal working stresses. Spannungsentlastetes Metalltraegergehaeuse fuer Abgaskatalysatoren mit hoher thermischer Betriebsbelastung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create a metal case for exhaust gas catalysts, which is not subject to plastic alternating load deformation at high thermal working stresses. This problem is solved by an arrangement consisting of spirally wound alternating smooth and corrugated metal strips, which are fixed in a metal tube, with the following characteristics of the invention: between the joints of the corrugated metal strip on alternate side, there are sections with points of contact to the two adjoining smooth metal layers, which are not joined. Due to this design, no wall of a matrix cell is fixed to the inner metal strip. This considerably increases the amount of play for movement on thermal or mechanical loads, so that only elastic deformation and no plastic deformation can occur. (HWJ).

1985-12-12

353

Determination of the concentration of particulate matter in the exhaust gas of various industrial plants; Bestimmung des Feinstaubgehalts im Abgas verschiedener Emittenten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Council Directive 1999/30/EC lays down limit values for particulate matter PM{sub 10}, which have to be met starting from 2005. To improve the knowledge on the emission sources of fine dust the Federal Environmental Agency co-ordinates a comprehensive emission measuring programme in which several states of Germany participate. As part of this programme the emissions of particulate matter (PM{sub 2,5} and PM{sub 10}) had been measured in the exhaust gas of various industrial plants in Bavaria. The results show that most of the total dust (about 90%) is particulate matter PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}. Thus, reduction of the emitted dust will also lead to lower PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5} emissions. (orig.)

Schlachta, R.; Behm, R. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany); Stoettner, A. [Umweltschutzreferat der Landeshauptstadt Muenchen (Germany); Brandl, A.; Samhammer, H.; Pressler, A.; Strobl, J. [TUeV Sueddeutschland, Muenchen (Germany). Fachbereich Umwelt Service

2002-03-01

354

Temperature effect on gas phase alkylbenzene dealkylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dealkylation of ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, and isopropylbenzene by radiolytically formed [sup 2]H[sub 3][sup +] ions has been studied in the gaseous phase as a function of the irradiation temperature. The extent of the reaction, which increases with the temperature follows the order ethylbenzene < propylbenzene < isopropylbenzene. The Arrhenius plots of empirical observed rate constants are linear over the temperature range investigated (40-100degC) and their slopes correspond to a difference of 12.5 and 10.0 kJmol[sup -1] between the activation energies for dealkylation of ethylbenzene and isopropylbenzene, and of ethylbenzene and propylbenzene, respectively. (author).

Perez, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Cromatografia)

1994-07-01

355

Exhaust emission characteristics of LPG/gas-oil and DME/gas oil diesel engines; LPG/keiyu oyobi DME/keiyu diesel engine no haiki tokusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engines under dual-fuel operations were investigated. The secondary fuels used were propane and dimethyl ether (DME), which have low and high cetane number respectively. Two types of secondary-fuel mixing methods were employed; one is the fumigation method and the other is binary-fuel injection (BFI) method. When DME was used as the secondary fuel for the fumigation method, low emissions in THC and NO were obtained in comparison with the case when the propane was used. In the BFI method, both secondary fuel mixing caused a decrease in the NO emission without increasing the THC emission, but some amount of smoke was exhausted at high load and/or low secondary-fuel fraction. (author)

Ikeda, M. [Tokuyama College of Technology, Yamaguchi (Japan); Mikami, M.; Kojima, N. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

2000-09-25

356

Symptoms at Exhaustion from Uncompensable Exercise-Heat Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaustion occurs over a broad range of core temperatures during uncompensable exercise-heat stress. This study examined the symptoms at heat exhaustion and whether they differed among individuals terminating exercise at low vs. high core temperatures. Fo...

B. S. Cadarette L. Levine M. N. Sawka S. J. Montain W. A. Latzka

2002-01-01

357

Role of average speed in N?O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems.

Castillo S; Mac-Beath I; Mejia I; Camposeco R; Bazan G; Morán-Pineda M; Carrera R; Gómez R

2012-05-01

358

A study on the concentration of CO by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe for a household gas boiler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and environment become increasingly serious after the industrial revolution. The demand for gas as an ecofriendly energy source is also increasing. With the demand, the installation and the use of gas boilers have also increased, so the damage to human life by the waste gas (CO and CO2) continues increasing every year. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of CO (Carbon Monoxide) by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe by installing a boiler with the same method as a household boiler and to discover the harm to humans. For the effect of the length, the allowable concentration of CO is 50ppm, and the 3m of the once bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 5 minutes, and the 4m and 5m starts exceeding after 3 minutes. In addition, the 1m of three times bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 3 minutes

2008-01-01

359

Development history of the gas turbine modular high temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as an environmentally agreeable and efficient power source to support the generation of electricity and achieve a broad range of high temperature industrial applications has been an evolutionary process spanning over four decades. This process has included ongoing major development in both the HTGR as a nuclear energy source and associated power conversion systems from the steam cycle to the gas turbine. This paper follows the development process progressively through individual plant designs from early research of the 1950s to the present focus on the gas turbine modular HTGR. (author)

2001-01-01

360

Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862 vor, diese Messverfahren beruhen aber auf dem Absorptionsprinzip in Fluessigkeiten, das umstaendlich zu handhaben ist und eine grosse Querempfindlichkeit zu anderen Stoffen besitzt. Fuer die Emissionsmessung von Aminen gibt es derzeit noch keine VDI-Richtlinie. Aufgrund der Komplexitaet des Mediums Abgas ist eine selektive Anreicherung bestimmter Substanzklassen wuenschenswert. So koennen Stoerungen bei der Probenahme verringert werden, indem nur die Gasphase, und hier moeglichst nur eine Substanzklasse, selektiv angereichert wird. Dazu eignet sich besonders die Luftprobenahme auf dem Prinzip der Diffusionsabscheidung. Diese Diffusionsabscheider (Denuder) sind ein bekanntes Messsystem zur nachweisstarken und selektiven Anreicherung von Spurenschadstoffen in der Aussenluft. In diesem Vorhaben soll nun dieses Konzept der Diffusionsabscheidung auf die Anwendbarkeit im Emissionsbereich ueberprueft werden, speziell zur Erfassung der leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Aldehyde und Amine (primaere und sekundaere) mit extrem niedrigen Nachweisgrenzen (<10 ppb). (orig./SR)

Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

A laser-based sensor for measurement of off-gas composition and temperature in basic oxygen steelmaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are developing an optical sensor for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. The sensor measures gas temperature and relative CO/CO2 concentration ratios in the furnace off-gas by transmitting the laser probe beam directly above the furnace lip and below the exhaust hood during oxygen blowing. Dynamic off-gas information is being evaluated for optimizing variables such as lance height, oxygen flow, post-combustion control, and prediction of final melt-carbon content. The non-invasive nature of the optical sensor renders it robust and relatively maintenance-free. Additional potential applications of the method are process control for electric arc furnace and bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking processes. (author)

1999-01-01

362

Coal/biomass cogasification and high temperature gas cleaning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is presented on the cogasification of coal and biomass in a downdraught fixed-bed gasifier and on the high temperature removal of halides from the fuel gas produced. Air-blown downdraught gasifiers are considered as an interesting option especially for small and intermediate scale on-site fuel gas generation using high volatile feedstocks. The current test programme focuses on the effect of the partial replacement of the coal feedstock by two different biomass feedstocks - Meranti wood waste and straw pellets, on gasifier operability and fuel gas composition. For dry halide removal, several sorbents were evaluated based on literature data, thermodynamic calculations, and on laboratory and bench-scale experiments at atmospheric pressure. The evaluation was mainly focused on dry halide removal at a temperature level of 350-400{degree} C in a separate process located upstream of the desulphurisation process in an integrated system for high temperature gas cleaning. 11 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

Kiel, J.H.A.; Bos, A.; Uil, H. den; Plaum, J.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands). Business Unit ECN Fossil Fuels

1995-12-31

363

A Smart Gas Sensor Insensitive to Humidity and Temperature Variations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accuracy of the quantitative sensing of volatile organic compounds by chemoresistive gas sensors suffers from the fluctuations in the background atmospheric conditions. This is caused by the drift-like terms introduced in the responses by these instabilities, which should be identified and compensated. Here, a mathematical model is presented for a specific chemoresistive gas sensor, which facilitates these identification and compensation processes. The resistive gas sensor was considered as a multi-input-single-output system. Along with the steady state value of the measured sensor resistance, the ambient humidity and temperature are the inputs to the system, while the concentration level of the target gas is the output. The parameters of the model were calculated based on the experimental database. The model was simulated by the utilization of an artificial neural network. This was connected to the sensor and could deliver the correct contamination level upon receiving the measured gas response, ambient humidity and temperature.

Hajmirzaheydarali, Mohammadreza; Ghafarinia, Vahid, E-mail: m.heydarali@ee.kntu.ac.ir, E-mail: ghafarinia@ee.kntu.ac.ir [Electronic Materials Laboratory, Electronic Engineering Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15

364

Finite Temperature Excitations of a Trapped Bose Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a detailed study of the temperature dependence of the condensate and noncondensate density profiles of a Bose-condensed gas in a parabolic trap. These quantities are calculated self-consistently using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation. Below the Bose-Einstein transition the excitation frequencies have a relatively weak temperature dependence even though the condensate is strongly depleted. As the condensate density goes to zero through the transition, the excitation frequencies are strongly affected and approach the frequencies of a noninteracting trapped gas in the high temperature limit. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Hutchinson, D.; Zaremba, E. [Department of Physics, Queen`s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (CANADA); Griffin, A. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (CANADA)

1997-03-01

365

Finite temperature excitations of a trapped Bose gas  

CERN Multimedia

We present a detailed study of the temperature dependence of the condensate and noncondensate density profiles of a Bose-condensed gas in a parabolic trap. These quantitites are calculated self-consistently using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation. Below the Bose-Einstein transition the excitation frequencies have a realtively weak temperature dependence even though the condensate is strongly depleted. As the condensate density goes to zero through the transition, the excitation frequencies are strongly affected and approach the frequencies of a noninteracting gas in the high temperature limit.

Hutchinson, D; Griffin, A

1996-01-01

366

Gas extractor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas extractor for processing crude oil to provide the energy to power an internal combustion engine driving a conventional oil pumping unit. The extractor comprises a vertical tank, an extractor chamber, an exhaust gas pipe passing through the tank with a plurality of baffle pans mounted longitudinally thereon; a crude oil reservoir in the top of the tank, valve means controlling the rate of oil flow from the reservoir to the upper baffle pan; means to vary the amount of exhaust gases passed through the exhaust pipe to control the temperature of the extractor chamber; a gas outlet passage, air inlet passage and oil drain passages in the extractor chamber, each adjacent baffle pan being oppositely tilted and having a drain opening at its lower side whereby the oil passing through the extractor flows across each adjacent oil pan before being drained from the extractor.

Stevenson, C. K.

1985-04-23

367

Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been designing a Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled reactor) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a high efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) and fossil gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original features of this system are core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 Yen/kWh. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design except PCU design. Also, R and D for developing the power conversion unit is briefly described. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

2003-01-01

368

The Influence of Mixing in High Temperature Gas Phase Reactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this thesis is to describe the mixing in high temperature gas phase reactions.The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NOx (referred as the SNR process) using NH3 as reductant was chosen as reaction system. This in-furnace denitrification process is made at around 1200 - 1300 K by injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas. NH3 can react with NO and form N2, but a competing reaction path is the oxidation of NH3 to NO.The SNR process is briefly described and it is shown by chemical kinetic modelling that OH radicals under the present conditions will initiate the reaction of NH3 by formation of NH2 and NH radicals.Mixing in reacting gas phase systems is described by an empirical mixing model (the droplet diffusion model). The mixing process is separated into macro- and micromixing. The macromixing is assumed to be ideal while the micromixing is modelled by molecular diffusion. The SNR process is simulated using the mixing model and an empirical kinetic model based on laboratory experiments.A bench scale reactor set-up has been built using a natural gas burner to provide the main reaction gas. The set-up has been used to perform an experimental investigation of the mixing in the SNR process using injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas in crossflow by a quartz nozzle.Experiments were made with variation in NH3 flow, carrier gas flow, carrier gas composition (O2 concentration) and reactor temperature. Natural gas has been used as an addition to the injected gas as well.The effects of the NH3 flow and natural gas addition were as expected from earlier studies in laboratory reactors and pilot plants.The experiments indicates that the SNR process was only dependenton the O2 concentration in the flue gas without any effect due to variation of the O2 concentrations in the injected gas between 0 - 20 vol%.Using a nozzle with a diameter of 1.9 mm the reduction of NO is dependent on the carrier gas flow for temperatures above 1200 K (1100 K when natural gas is added).It is shown that this effect can not be described by macromixing using a simple reactor model. The difference in the NO outlet concentration for varied carrier gas flow seems to have a maximum at 1350 K and is then decreasing for higher temperatures. This is in good agreement with an analysis of the micromixing effects.The mixing effect observed in the experiments can be described by the momentum ratio between the injected jet and the flue gas in crossflow both for the 1.0 mm and 1.9 mm nozzle, indicating that for momentum ratios above 30 there is no further improvement of the mixing. For decreasing momentum ratios below 30 the NO outlet concentration is increasing for temperatures above 1200 K. For temperatures below 1200 K the NO outlet concentration is unaffected because of lower reaction rates.The droplet diffusion model is used to model the experimental results and it can describe the influence of the carrier gas flow with a successful result.

Østberg, Martin

1996-01-01

369

Simulation of the infrared radiation characteristics of high-temperature exhaust plume including particles using the backward Monte Carlo method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the infrared radiation characteristics of high-temperature free-stream flow including particles is very significant for the field of target detection, combustion diagnosis and temperature measurement of flame. In this paper, the infrared radiation characteristics of high-temperature free-stream flow are calculated and analyzed using the backward Monte Carlo method, considering the effect of the directional radiation heat flux due to the particle scattering and the different boundary conditions. The calculation results of emitting, absorbing and anisotropically scattering media are compared with the forward Monte Carlo and finite-volume methods results, which shows the superiority on computational efficiency with the backward Monte Carlo method.

2005-10-01

370

High-Temperature Gas-Stream Cleanup Test Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In support of METC`s hot-gas filter development program, the high- temperature, gas-stream cleanup test facility was designed to: investigate conventional and novel approaches to high-temperature filtration; conduct detailed parametric studies that characterize particulate control devices under well-controlled conditions; and screen new materials for other high-temperature applications, such as heat exchanger tubes. This new facility utilizes a natural gas-fueled combustor to produce high-temperature process gas, and a screw feeder to inject ash, or other fine media, into the gas stream. The vessel that surrounds the particulate control devices has an inside diameter of roughly 0.20 meters (8 inches) and is about 3 meters (10 feet) long. Three commercial-size filter elements can be tested simultaneously, and the facility is capable of operating over a wide range of conditions. Operating temperatures can vary from 540 to 870{degrees}C (1,000 to 1,600 {degrees}F), and the operating pressure can vary from 0 to 400 kPa (0 to 60 psig).

Straub, D.; Chiang, Ta-Kuan, Schultz, J.

1996-12-31

371

ULTRASENSITIVE HIGH-TEMPERATURE SELECTIVE GAS DETECTION USING PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have obtained very promising results in the Phase I study. Specifically, for temperature effects, we have established that piezoelectric cantilever sensors could retain their resonance peak strength at high temperatures, i.e., the Q values of the resonance peaks remained above 10 even when the temperature was very close to the Curie temperature. This confirms that a piezoelectric cantilever sensor can be used as a sensor up to its Curie temperature. Furthermore, we have shown that the mass detection sensitivity remained unchanged at different temperatures. For selective gas detection, we have demonstrated selective NH{sub 3} detection using piezoelectric cantilever sensors coated with mesoporous SiO{sub 2}. For high-temperature sensor materials development, we have achieved highly oriented Sr-doped lead titanate thin films that possessed superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Such highly oriented films can be microfabricated into high-performance piezoelectric microcantilever sensors that can be used up to 490 C. We have accomplished the goal of Phase I study in exploring the various aspects of a high-temperature gas sensor. We propose to continue the study in Phase II to develop a sensor that is suitable for high-temperature applications using piezoelectrics with a high Curie temperature and by controlling the effects of temperature. The lead titanate based thin film developed in Phase I is good for applications up to 490 C. In phase II, we will develop lithium niobate thin film based cantilevers for applications up to 1000 C.

Wan Y. Shih; Tejas Patil; Qiang Zhao; Yi-Shi Chiu; Wei-Heng Shih

2004-03-05

372

Two-stage catalysis of engine exhaust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to reduction of nitric oxide in exhausts from hydrocarbon burning engines. The nitric oxide is reacted with ammonia over a first catalyst and then the excess ammonia is reacted with oxygen present in the exhaust gas over a second catalyst. The resulting effluent stream has greatly reduced nitric oxide content without having an objectionable content.

Gladden, J.R.

1980-02-12

373

Titanium dioxide thin films for high temperature gas sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film gas sensors were fabricated via the sol-gel method from a starting solution of titanium isopropoxide dissolved in methoxyethanol. Spin coating was used to deposit the sol on electroded aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrates forming a film 1 ?m thick. The influence of crystallization temperature and operating temperature on crystalline phase, grain size, electronic conduction activation energy, and gas sensing response toward carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) was studied. Pure anatase phase was found with crystallization temperatures up to 800 oC, however, rutile began to form by 900 oC. Grain size increased with increasing calcination temperature. Activation energy was dependent on crystallite size and phase. Sensing response toward CO and CH4 was dependent on both calcination and operating temperatures. Films crystallized at 650 oC and operated at 450 oC showed the best selectivity toward CO.

2010-10-29

374

The influence of exhaustion and electrical stimulation on the meat quality of young bulls: Part 1-Post-mortem pH and temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After designing a method of handling cattle so that they reproducibly developed DFD meat, pH and temperature in cattle developing DFD and normal meat, respectively were studied. The influence of low voltage stimulation on both groups was also investigated. Depending on final pH and other characteristics of the meat, the carcasses could be assigned to subgroups representing pronounced DFD, slight DFD and normal meat, with and without electrical stimulation. In normal and in pronounced DFD carcasses electrical stimulation speeded up the pH drop but did not affect the final state of the meat. In stressed animals the pH values are variable for the first few hours post mortem. This effect is enhanced by electrical stimulation which, in carcasses with slight DFD (from stressed but not exhausted animals), may produce extremely fast pH drop and PSE-like meat. There is no evidence that electrical stimulation would influence the incidence of DFD in cattle slaughtered under commercial conditions. In normal animals electrical stimulation raised the carcass temperature during the first few hours post mortem by approximately 2°C. Carcasses from stressed animals had a higher temperature, independent of stimulation.

Fjelkner-Modig S; Rudérus H

1983-04-01

375

Development of gas avalanche photodetector operating at cryogenic temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are interested in developing a photodetector sensitive to liquid noble gas scintillation light which is able to operate in cryogenic environment down to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). It has to be a simple, cheap and compact device, with a photocathode surface comparable to that of photomultipliers, and it has to be able to produce fast signals for timing and triggering purposes. It could offer a cheap alternative to the photomultiplier use in large volume time projection chambers operating in liquid noble gas. We studied the possibility to couple a standard photocathode to a suitable electron multiplication system in gas. The results of the evaluation of the maximum gain attainable in gas employing pure argon and argon/methane mixture at low temperature are presented.

2006-11-01

376

Gravitational collapse of a magnetized fermion gas with finite temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature near the collapsing singularity of a Bianchi-I spacetime. Considering a general set of appropriate and physically motivated initial conditions, we transform Einstein-Maxwell field equations into a complete and self-consistent dynamical system amenable for numerical work. The resulting numerical solutions reveal the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (''point-like'') and anisotropic (''cigar-like''), singularities, depending on the initial intensity of the magnetic field. We provide a thorough study of the near collapse behavior and interplay of all relevant state and kinematic variables: temperature, expansion scalar, shear scalar, magnetic field, magnetization, and energy density. A significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas emerges in the temperature range T/mf ? 10-6 and T/mf ? 10-3. (orig.)

2013-01-01

377

Study of a laser-spectroscopic method for quantitative time-resolved exhaust gas analysis based on spontaneous Raman scattering. Final report; Untersuchung eines laserspektroskopischen Verfahrens zur quantitativen, zeitaufgeloesten Gasanalyse auf Basis der spontanen Raman-Streuung. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was studied whether spontaneous Raman spectroscopy can be used for quantitative time-resolved analysis of engine exhaust gas. Investigations in the laboratory as well as on a standard automotive test bench showed that all major species and many other gas components can be identified and their concentrations can be measured. A major advantage of this measuring technique is that the exhaust gas can be analyzed without any rarefaction or treatment. The detection limits for numerous exhaust components were determined. It was found that for many species it is still too high to measure them in catalyst cleaned exhausts. Non-stationary processes like cold start and warm up or special operation modes, e.g. misfiring are readily to observe. It is concluded that a Raman based measuring instrument can not replace but complement conventional exhaust gas measuring techniques. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde untersucht, ob die spontane Ramanspektroskopie zur quantitativen, zeitaufgeloesten Analyse des motorischen Abgases eingesetzt werden kann. Die sowohl im Labor wie auch am Rollenpruefstand durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass saemtliche Hauptspezies und viele weitere Stoffe identifiziert und ihre Konzentrationen gemessen werden koennen. Ein besonderer Vorteil des Verfahrens ist darin zu sehen, dass das Abgas unverduennt und unbehandelt analysiert werden kann. Fuer zahlreiche Komponenten wurde die Nachweisgrenze bestimmt. Sie liegt fuer viele Spurenstoffe noch zu hoch, um diese im durch den Katalysator gereinigten Abgas zu messen. Instationaere Vorgaenge wie Kaltstart und Warmlauf oder besondere Betriebsbereiche z.B. mit Zuendaussetzern sind gut zu verfolgen. Ein auf der Ramanstreuung basierendes Messgeraet wird daher die konventionellen Abgasmessverfahren nicht ersetzen, wohl aber ergaenzen. (orig.)

Kasal, P.; Mewes, B.; Brueggemann, D.

1997-09-01

378

Ceramic membranes for gas separation at high temperatures. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superior heat, wear, erosion, and corrosion resistance of ceramic materials have motivated the studies of processing-structure-performance interrelationships of ceramic membranes for high temperature gas separations. A literature review on pore transport mechanisms, physical structure of membranes, and module configuration of industrial membrane processes has been made to obtain a better understanding of membrane performance in gas separations. The research experience in decomposing polymer resins for ablative composites has stimulated a research interest in developing a dynamic model for membrane processes, incorporating a temperature effects on material and fluid properties. Brief summaries of the reviewed literature, permeability experiments, and process modeling are presented in this report.

Wang, C.J.

1994-03-01

379

A survey on gas-bearing circulators of high-temperature gas cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In development of multi-purpose high-temperature gas cooled experimental reactor VHTR with 50 MWt, the usage of gas-bearing blowers with high precision and environmental safety is one of important problems. A survey in this connection revealed the following: (1) Gas-bearing compressors are used not only in test loops but also in auxiliary systems. (2) Main circulators of self-acting gas lubricated bearings with jacking gas systems are practically used in case of Dragon reactor (20 MWt). (3) To develop a large gas-bearing blower (2,000 -- 3,000 HP output) for proven reactors, a hydrostatic gas lubricated bearing of large load capacity and high speed stability must be studied under reactor conditions. (auth.).

1977-01-01

380

Engine Cylinder Temperature Control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

2005-09-27

 
 
 
 
381

Spectroscopic support of laser remote sensing of the sulfur dioxide gas in the jet of engine exhaust gases  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of SO2 registration in the plume of a jet engine as one of the methods of monitoring of its operation quality is investigated. Spectral characteristics are calculated using the line by line method, information-computing complex TRAVA developed by the authors, and the compiled spectroscopic database on high-temperature SO2. Unlike the HITRAN database, the original spectroscopic data possess predictability up to T = 1500 K. It is established that in case of active SO2 detection using a CO laser, the laser line corresponding to the 32-31 ?5 transition is promising for temperatures T = 300-1100 K. In addition, the most suitable range of the spectrum for passive sensing of hot SO2 in the engine plume - 1330.0-1331.6 cm-1 - is established in which the useful signal level exceeds background radiation for a minimum SO2 concentration (5 ppm).

Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.; Kashirskii, D. E.; Egorov, O. V.

2013-09-01

382

Design and instrumentation of an automotive heat pump system using ambient air, engine coolant and exhaust gas as a heat source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the amount of waste heat used for comfort heating of the passenger compartment in motor vehicles decreases continuously as a result of the increasing engine efficiencies originating from recent developments in internal combustion engine technology, it is estimated that heat requirement of the passenger compartment in vehicles using future generation diesel engines will not be met by the waste heat taken from the engine coolant. The automotive heat pump (AHP) system can heat the passenger compartment individually, or it can support the present heating system of the vehicle. The AHP system can also be employed in electric vehicles, which do not have waste heat, as well as vehicles driven by a fuel cell. The authors of this paper observed that such an AHP system using ambient air as a heat source could not meet the heat requirement of the compartment when ambient temperature was extremely low. The reason is the decrease in the amount of heat taken from the ambient air as a result of low evaporating temperatures. Furthermore, the moisture condensed from air freezed on the evaporator surface, thus blocking the air flow through it. This problem can be solved by using the heat of engine coolant or exhaust gases. In this case, the AHP system can have a higher heating capacity and reuse waste heat. (author)

2009-01-01

383

Dissertation on a direct injection Diesel process with automatic control, dependent on load, of the ratio of the fuel adhering to the walls to that distributed in the air, with particular attention to exhaust gas turbo-supercharging and exhaust gas feedback. Ueber ein direkteinspritzendes Dieselverfahren mit selbsttaetiger, lastabhaengiger Steuerung des Verhaeltnisses von wandangelagertem zu luftverteiltem Kraftstoffanteil unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Abgasturboaufladung und Abgasrueckfuehrung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of modern engines is marked by the conventional requirements for high output with as small a size as possible and low fuel consumption and a reduction of the emission of poisonous exhaust gases and low combustion noise. A newly developed direct injection Diesel combustion process is introduced as a contribution to fulfilling these requirements. In order to be able to combine the advantages of the two different forms of direct injection combustion, i.e., with the fuel distributed in the air and adhering to the walls, one is aiming at a process of combustion where the fuel clings like a film to the walls of the combustion chamber at full load, but is distributed over the air automatically with decreasing load, i.e., without external manipulation of controls, without showing the Diesel engine ignition knocking of conventional direct injection engines. Measures to improve the exhaust gas were of particular interest. The results of the investigations on a first low-speed experimental engine were transposed to a modern engine.

Melzer, H.H.

1981-08-31

384

Gearbox Scheme in High Temperature Reactor Helium Gas Turbine System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helium Turbine is used in High Temperature Reactor Helium Gas Turbine (HTR-GT) system, by which the direct helium circulation between the reactor and turbine generator system will come true. Between helium turbine and generator, there is gearbox device which reduces the turbine rotation speed to nor...

Sheng Liu; Xuanyu Sheng

385

BEC transition temperature of a dilute homogeneous imperfect Bose gas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leading-order effect of interactions on a homogeneous Bose gas is theoretically predicted to shift the critical temperature by an amount DeltaT(c) approximately equal to ca(sc)n(1/3)T(0) from the ideal gas result T(0), where a(sc) is the scattering length, n is the density, and c is a pure number. There have been several different theoretical estimates for c. We claim to settle the issue by measuring the numerical coefficient in a lattice simulation of O(2) straight phi(4) field theory in three dimensions-an effective theory which, as observed previously in the literature, can be systematically matched to the dilute Bose gas problem to reproduce nonuniversal quantities such as the critical temperature. We find c = 1.32+/-0.02.

Arnold P; Moore G

2001-09-01

386

BEC Transition Temperature of a Dilute Homogeneous Imperfect Bose Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The leading-order effect of interactions on a homogeneous Bose gas is theoretically predicted to shift the critical temperature by an amount {Delta}T{sub c}{approx_equal}ca{sub sc}n{sup 1/3} T{sub 0} from the ideal gas result T{sub 0} , where a{sub sc} is the scattering length, n is the density, and c is a pure number. There have been several different theoretical estimates for c . We claim to settle the issue by measuring the numerical coefficient in a lattice simulation of O(2) {phi}{sup 4} field theory in three dimensions -- an effective theory which, as observed previously in the literature, can be systematically matched to the dilute Bose gas problem to reproduce nonuniversal quantities such as the critical temperature. We find c=1.32{+-}0.02 .

Arnold, Peter; Moore, Guy

2001-09-17

387

Indentification of an exhaust gas turbocharger with a Hammerstein model and neural networks; Identifikation mit einem Hammersteinmodell und neuronalen Netzen am Beispiel eines Abgasturboladers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neural networks can be applied to the identification of nonlinear dynamic systems because powerful learning algorithms are available. In this contribution, the features of neural networks and traditional, parametric identification approaches are compared. The basis of this study are measurement data from an exhaust gas turbocharger of a truck Diesel engine. The least-squares estimation of time-discrete Hammerstein model is compared with two different neural network architectures. On the one side, a local linear model network trained with LOLIMOT (local linear model tree) is applied. On the other side, a DMLP network (dynamic multilayer perceptron) with internal dynamics is utilized. It turns out that for the turbocharger the Hammerstein model does not perform as well as both neural networks. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch den Einsatz leistungsfaehiger Lernalgorithmen koennen neuronale Netze mittlerweile auch fuer die Identifikation von nichtlinearen, dynamischen Prozessen eingesetzt werden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag sollen die Eigenschaften von neuronalen Netzen mit denen traditioneller, parametrischer Identifikationsansaetze verglichen werden. Grundlage fuer die Untersuchung sind Messdaten des Abgasturboladers eines Lkw-Dieselmotors. Zur Identifikation wird die Least-Squares-Schaetzung eines zeitdiskreten Hammersteinmodells mit der Schaetzung zweier unterschiedlicher neuronaler Netze verglichen. Zum einen kommt ein extern dynamisches, neuronales Netz mit lokalen, linearen Modellen zum Einsatz, das mit dem LOLIMOT-Algorithmus (local linear model tree) trainiert wird. Zum anderen wird ein DMLP-Netz (dynamic multilayer perceptron) angewandt. Es stellt sich heraus, dass bei der untersuchten Anwendung die beiden neuronalen Netze dem klassischen Hammersteinmodell hinsichtlich Modellguete ueberlegen sind. (orig.)

Nelles, O.; Ernst, S. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Ayoubi, M. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Fahrdynamik-Simulation; Schumann, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik]|[Hoechst Research and Technology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Gruppe Integrierte Betriebsfuehrung; Lachmann, K.H. [HILGER und KERN GmbH, Mannheim (Germany). Sparte Dosiertechnik

1998-12-31

388

La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence) ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition), and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

Prigent M.

2006-01-01

389

Low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - hydrogen - air mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The low temperature catalytic combustion of natural gas - air mixtures would allow the development of no-NO{sub x} burners for heating and power applications. Using commercially available catalysts, the room temperature ignition of methane-propane-air mixtures has been shown in laboratory reactors with combustion efficiencies over 95% and maximum temperatures less than 700{sup o}C. After a 500 hour stability test, severe deactivation of both methane and propane oxidation functions was observed. In cooperation with industrial partners, scaleup to 3 kW is being investigated together with startup dynamics and catalyst stability. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

Newson, E.; Roth, F. von; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1999-08-01

390

Grain surface temperature in noble gas discharges: Refined analytical model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of grain surface temperature in a low-pressure weakly ionized complex plasma is refined by taking into account the effect of rare ion-neutral collisions in the vicinity of the grain. These collisions enhance plasma collection by the grain and can result in a considerable increase of the grain temperature. It is shown that the collision enhanced plasma collection model yields generally better agreement with the results of existing experiments. The effect of the temperature difference between the grain surface and the surrounding gas on the grain-grain interaction potential is also briefly discussed.

2006-01-01

391

High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

1992-08-29

392

''The hybrid catalyst, a new catalyst concept to improve utilization of exhaust gas energy and increase the efficiency of diesel catalyst systems''; ''Der Hybridkatalysator ein neues Katalysatorkonzept zur verbesserten Ausnutzung der Abgasenergie und Steigerung der Effektivitaet von Dieselkatalysatorsystemen''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to comply with future worldwide legislation on emission limits for diesel vehicles the efficiency of the catalyst must be improved for all emission components. Apart from improving engine and engine management systems, the oxidation catalyst must also be adapted to the specific requirements of modern diesel engines. The efficiency of oxidation catalysts depends mainly on the temperature of the catalyst and hence the temperature of the exhaust gases. In the case of highly efficient modern diesel engines, the temperature of the exhaust gases is within the range of the light-off-temperature, especially when driving in urban areas. An improvement in efficiency therefore requires better utilization of the exhaust gas energy as well as locating the catalyst closely to the engine. By combining fast light-off with a heat storage function in one compact component, the hybrid catalyst provides optimum thermal management. (orig.) [German] Zur Einhaltung der zukuenftigen weltweiten Emissionsgesetzgebung fuer Dieselfahrzeuge ist eine Erhoehung der Katalysatoreffektivitaet fuer alle Schadstoffkomponenten erforderlich. Neben verbesserten Motoren und Motormanagementsystemen muss der Oxidationskatalysator an die spezifischen Randbedingungen eines modernen Dieselmotors angepasst werden. Die katalytische Effektivitaet von Oxydationskatalysatoren ist hauptsaechlich von der Katalysatortemperatur und damit von der Abgastemperatur abhaengig. Betrachtet man moderne hocheffektive Dieselmotoren, liegt die Abgastemperatur vor allem bei Stadtfahrten innerhalb des Bereichs der Light-Off Temperatur. Zur Steigerung der Effektivitaet ist deshalb neben einer motornahen Lage eine verbesserte Ausnutzung der Abgasenergie erforderlich. Durch die Kombination einer schnellen Light-Off und einer Waermespeicherfunktion in einem kompakten Bauteil, sorgt der Hybrid Katalysator fuer ein optimiertes Waermemangement. (orig.)

Hosogai, S. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd. (Japan); Komatsu, K.; Unno, Y. [Emitec (Japan)

2003-07-01

393

Efficiency of direct operating evaporators with barn exhaust air from fattened hogs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat pump is especially fitting for the utilization of waste heat from stables, because it picks up quantities of heat with a low temperature level and lifts it up by mechanical energy to a level where it can be used for heating. There are two criterions of judgement for the technical efficiency of heat pumps both which consider the utilization of the input power. The evaporator is the part of the heat pump which deprives the heat of the exhaust air. The second aim besides a large heat abstraction is food durability. The heat exchange between exhaust air and freezing mixture is determined by the size and quality of the surface of the evaporator and the velocity of flow of the exhaust air. A great problem in using the exhaust air of fattened hogs is the high content of dust and pollution gas. This leads to a disproportionate efficiency and a shorter durability of the evaporator. Superposed air purifiers reduce the efficiency.

Huether, J.

1983-01-01

394

Transport of exhaust products in the near trail of a jet engine under atmospheric conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of exhaust effluents and the possibility of water ice contrail formation are investigated under the specific fluid dynamical conditions in the near exhaust trail of a subsonic jet aircraft at cruise altitude. By means of a computational model describing the two-dimensional turbulent mixing of a single jet of hot exhaust gas with the atmosphere, representative results are discussed on the temperature and saturation ratio evolutions of air parcels in the jet flow field as well as on radial distributions of exhaust effluents undergoing chemical reactions behind the nozzle exit with prescribed, typical net reaction rates. The results underline the importance of a simultaneous treatment of spatially resolved jet expansion together with microphysical and chemical processes, because this coupling leads to distinct concentration patterns for various classes of chemical reactants and is essential for the detailed prediction of contrails.

Karcher, B. [Universitat Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

1994-07-01

395

Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. E