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1

Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

M.N.Khan

2010-12-01

2

Increasing exhaust gas temperature in the diesel engine using a variable valvetrain; Anhebung der Abgastemperatur am Dieselmotor durch variablen Ventiltrieb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficient use of exhaust gas aftertreatment components in a diesel engine requires active control of the exhaust temperature. IAV has examined the possibilities offered by variable valve timing for managing the exhaust temperature. (orig.)

Diezemann, Matthias; Pohlke, Rene; Brauer, Maximilian [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Severin, Christopher [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Abt. Systementwicklung und Konzepte Brennverfahren

2013-04-15

3

Exhaust-Gas Pressure and Temperature Survey of F404-GE-400 Turbofan Engine  

Science.gov (United States)

An exhaust-gas pressure and temperature survey of the General Electric F404-GE-400 turbofan engine was conducted in the altitude test facility of the NASA Lewis Propulsion System Laboratory. Traversals by a survey rake were made across the exhaust-nozzle exit to measure the pitot pressure and total temperature. Tests were performed at Mach 0.87 and a 24,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.30 and a 30,000-ft altitude with various power settings from intermediate to maximum afterburning. Data yielded smooth pressure and temperature profiles with maximum jet temperatures approximately 1.4 in. inside the nozzle edge and maximum jet temperatures from 1 to 3 in. inside the edge. A low-pressure region located exactly at engine center was noted. The maximum temperature encountered was 3800 R.

Walton, James T.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

1986-01-01

4

Exhaust gas filter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A filter material formed by joining glass clothes to both surfaces of a glass fiber non-woven fabric is used. The filter material is disposed at the inside of a square filter material support frame made of stainless steel. The filter material is attached in a zig-zag manner in the flowing direction of the exhaust gases so as to increase the filtration area. Separators, for example, made of stainless steel are inserted between the filter materials. The separator is corrugated so as to sandwich and support the filter materials from both sides by the ridged crests. The longitudinal bottom of the separator formed by corrugating it defines a flow channel of the exhaustion gases. The longitudinal bottom is also used as a channel for back blowing air. With such a constitution, combustion gases of radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes can be completely filtered. In addition, a back wash can be conducted under high temperature. (I.N.)

5

Comparison of sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of methyl esters of vegetable oils blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke engine fuelled with Vegetable oil methyl ester and its blends with standard diesel. Among different vegetable oils which can be used as alternate fuels, five vegetable oils, i.e., Nerium (Nerium oleander, Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata, Mahua (Madhuca indica and Neem (Azadirachta indica oils were selected for analysis. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1800 rpm. It has found that the sound, exhaust gas temperature and smoke opacity characteristics of vegetable oil methyl ester and its diesel blends closely followed those of standard diesel.

S. Prabhakar

2011-10-01

6

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) temperature for various EGR rates on heavy duty DI diesel engine performance and emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DI diesel engines are well established today as the main powertrain solution for trucks and other relevant heavy duty vehicles. At the same time emission legislation (mainly for NO{sub x} and particulate matter) becomes stricter, reducing their limit to extremely low values. One efficient method to control NO{sub x} in order to achieve future emissions limits is the use of rather high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates accompanied by increased boost pressure to avoid the negative impact on soot emissions. The method is based on the reduction of gas temperature level and O{sub 2} availability inside the combustion chamber, but unfortunately it has usually an adverse effect on soot emissions and brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc). The use of high EGR rates creates the need for EGR gas cooling in order to minimize its negative impact on soot emissions especially at high engine load were the EGR flow rate and exhaust temperature are high. For this reason in the present paper it is examined, using a multi-zone combustion model, the effect of cooled EGR gas temperature level for various EGR percentages on performance and emissions of a turbocharged DI heavy duty diesel engine operating at full load. Results reveal that the decrease of EGR gas temperature has a positive effect on bsfc, soot (lower values) while it has only a small positive effect on NO. As revealed, the effect of low EGR temperature is stronger at high EGR rates. (author)

Hountalas, D.T.; Mavropoulos, G.C. [Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou, 157 73 Zografou (Greece); Binder, K.B. [Development Basic Systems, Heavy Duty Engines, DaimlerChrysler AG, 70546 Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-02-15

7

Gas turbine exhaust system silencing design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas turbines are the preferred prime mover in many applications because of their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, and low environmental impact. A typical mid-size machine might have a power rating of 80 MW, a flow of about 1000 kg/hr, and an exhaust temperature of over 500C. The most powerful single source of noise is generally the exhaust, which may generate over a kilowatt of acoustic energy. This paper reports that there are two important ways in which exhaust systems can radiate noise. The first is through the discharge of the exhaust duct, with the exhaust gas. Because of the large quantity of hot gas, the duct exit is always oriented vertically; it may be fairly high in the air in order to promote dispersion of the exhaust plume. This source is almost always attenuated by means of a silencer located somewhere in the ductwork. The second source of noise is often called breakout; it is the radiation of exhaust noise through the walls of the ducting. Breakout is most important for those sections of the exhaust duct which lie upstream of the silencer, where sound levels inside the ducting are highest. Both exhaust duct exit noise and breakout noise can be calculated from the sound power level of the gas turbine exhaust and the sound transmission loss (TL) of the silencer and ducting

8

40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Using smooth wall duct less than five feet... (iv) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function...of the CVS shall be large enough to completely...The air (or air plus exhaust gas) temperature...

2010-07-01

9

Catalytic exhaust gas cleaning device. Katalytische Abgasentgiftungseinrichtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a catalytic exhaust gas cleaning device (NO/sub x/SO/sub 2/) with a thermally insulated spring cushion (swelling mat) between the cylindrical metal outer case and the coated honeycomb ceramic body, according to the invention a shielding sheet resistant to high temperature is fitted on the inside of the exhaust gas incoming and outgoing ducts up to the swelling mat. This ensures that the outer case is thermally shielded and shielded against aggressive exhaust gases. In consequence, the life of the case is extended by this insulation and it is possible to use cheaper steels (instead of high quality steel a simple chromium steel sheet is now used).

Brich, J.

1986-03-13

10

Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter  

Science.gov (United States)

A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

2012-04-17

11

High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

Svenningstorp, Henrik

2000-07-01

12

Simultaneous temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation-measurements in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine by use of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of temperature and exhaust-gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge-compression ignition engine. Measurements were performed in a production-line four-cylinder gasoline engine operated with standard gasoline fuel through small optical line-of-sight accesses. The homogenization process of fresh intake air with recirculated exhaust gas was observed during the compression stroke, and the effect of charge temperature on combustion timing is shown. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra could not only be taken in the compression stroke but also during the gas-exchange cycle and after combustion. Consequently, the used method has been shown to be suitable for the investigation of two of the key parameters for self-ignition, namely temperature and charge composition.

Weikl, Markus C.; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

2006-05-01

13

Exhaust gas cleaning device. Abgasreinigungsvorrichtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention concerns an exhaust gas cleaning device with a two shell outer housing in which, above an elastic mineral fibre mat, particularly a so-called swelling mat, at least one honeycomb structure support and an inner shielding funnel on the incoming and outgoing side, and spacer rings beween successive support bodies are supported, where the cut halves of the mineral fibre mat divided according to the half shells of the outer housing are fixed in the half shells so that the edges of the cut halves seal tightly to one another.

Stoepler, W.; Schmetzer, G.

1991-02-07

14

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system. 86.1509 Section 86.1509...Idle Test Procedures § 86.1509 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a) The exhaust gas sampling system shall transport the exhaust...

2010-07-01

15

Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 ?m band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 ?m band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ? The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ? The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ? The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ? The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ? The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

16

Electrochemical Reactor for Exhaust Gas Purification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A concept for an electrochemical reactor acting as a trap for the removal of soot particles from diesel exhaust gas has been developed and presented earlier [1]. Only small scale flat plate samples tested with synthetic exhaust gas was presented. Since then, the sample size has been increased, and test on a diesel engine in a test bench has been carried out. Various concepts for the establishment of a sufficient filtering surface and for the electrical connections have been tested, and the construction of a muffler with an electrochemical reactor installed has been initiated. This is to be on a passenger car for on-road test. The preliminary bench test indicates a soot removal efficiency of 75-90% with no accumulation of soot at the reactor, at temperatures above 250°C. A separate project has been started to evaluate the possibilities of lean NOx removal on a similar reactor. Results from this will be reported separately.

Christensen, Henrik; Dinesen, JØrgen

1999-01-01

17

Exhaust gas cleaning plants in field experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research and development project has the following aims: Measurement of exhaust gas cleaning of engine-driven heat generation plants in the field experiment; Suitability of emission hand measurement equipment for discontinuous testing of the exhaust gas cleaning plant by the operator; Testing new methods of reducing the harmful substances in engine and conventional heat generators. (orig.)

18

40 CFR 86.209-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. 86.209-94...Temperature Test Procedures § 86.209-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; gasoline-fueled vehicles. The...

2010-07-01

19

Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation chamber and to the engine intake manifold; and a cyclone drum connected to the electrostatic precipitator for removing particles from the exhaust gases in the electrostatic precipitator. The method consists of: dissociating the molecules of the exhaust gas from the engine in the dissociation chamber into monomolecules by subjecting the exhaust gas to the effects of a corona discharge in the dissociation chamber; removing carbon and other particulate matter from the exhaust in the electrostatic precipitator and cyclone drum to dedust the exhaust gas; and igniting a mixture of fuel and the dedusted exhaust gas in the combustion chamber of the engine, whereby fuel is initially oxidized solely by an oxygen component of the dissociated exhaust gas.

Suzuki, N.

1986-05-13

20

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

Science.gov (United States)

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21

 
 
 
 
21

Catalytic exhaust gas detoxification device. Katalytische Abgasentgiftungseinrichtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a catalytic exhaust gas detoxification device with a porous, particularly a honeycomb structure monolithic ceramic body with catalytic surface coating situated in a metal case with exhaust gas inlet and outlet openings, where the container jacket and the outside surface of the ceramic body may have a sealing feather pillow between them, where a centering ring is fixed to the outlet and inlet openings for the exhaust gas of the front of the ceramic body, to which an axial spring ring fixed to the case adheres.

Zachmann, A.; Wulftange, W.

1985-09-12

22

Exhaust gas assisted reforming of rapeseed methyl ester for reduced exhaust emissions of CI engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions of compression ignition (CI) engines fueled with biodiesel are generally higher compared to conventional diesel fuelling. Previous research work in CI engines has shown that the partial replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can reduce NOx and smoke emissions without significant changes to the engine efficiency. In the present study, the production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) has been investigated experimentally as a way to provide the required hydrogen for the reduction of biodiesel emissions. For comparison, tests with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were also performed. The reforming experiments were carried out in a mini reactor supplied with exhaust gas from a single cylinder CI engine. In all cases, the reactor inlet temperature was kept at 290-bar C which was chosen as a typical low exhaust gas temperature of diesel engines operating at part load. The engine operating condition (speed, load) was the same in all the tests and the reactor product gas was examined as a function of the reactor fuel flow rate and the composition of fuel and engine exhaust gas. Up to 17% hydrogen content of the reformer product was achieved and the results indicated that the main reactions in the reformer were the exothermic complete oxidation of part of the fuel and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Reforming of RME produced more hydrogen with higher fuel conversion efficiency compared to ULSD reforming

23

Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

2013-05-21

24

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

Science.gov (United States)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14

25

Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

26

Effect of ambient temperature on vehicle emissions and performance factors. Appendix A: test results for all vehicles. Appendix B: plots of exhaust gas catalyst out temperatures. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ambient temperatures have been reported to affect automotive emissions and fuel economies since 1966. Federal automobile emission standards and the measured fuel economies are currently based on results obtained using the 1975 Federal Test Procedure and the Highway Fuel Economy Test. Both tests must be conducted at ambient temperatures from 68F (20C) to 86F (30C). Since cars in service must start and run over a much broader temperature range than this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency wanted to know how well the various car age groups and emission control technologies available today would perform at the more extreme ambient temperatures using the above test procedures as well as other specialized tests. It was also desired to know how the use of a car's air conditioner would affect exhaust emissions and fuel economies. This report presents the results of exhaust emissions (regulated and unregulated) and fuel economies associated with fourteen selected vehicles tested at ambient temperatures ranging from 0 deg F (-18C) to 110F (43C) using the various test procedures.

Spindt, R.S.; Dizak, R.E.; Stewart, R.M.; Meyer, W.A.P.

1979-09-01

27

Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

28

Exhaust gas cleaning device for vehicles. Abgasreinigungsvorrichtung fuer Kraftfahrzeuge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to an exhaust gas cleaning device for vehicles with a honeycomb structure monolithic ceramic body in a metal outer case with front, conical exhaust gas inlet and outlet ducts, which may be provided with a catalytic surface coating. A thermally insulating spring cushion preferably made of a so-called swelling mat or aluminium silicate fibre mat embedded in a woven wire stocking is situated in the outer case near the ceramic body. The inside surface of the exhaust gas inlet and outlet ducts and possibly the intermediate space of the outer case is covered between two ceramic bodies in series by a high temperature-resistant shield sheet situated at a certain spacing.

Brich, J.; Stoepler, W.

1986-10-09

29

SST-1 Gas feed and Gas Exhaust system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SST-1 tokamak is a long pulse tokamak designed for the plasma operation up to 1000 sec duration. Gas feed system and gas exhaust management will play a very crucial role during plasma discharge. During the different type of operations of tokamak like wall conditioning, diverter operation and neutral beam injection, a large amount of gas will be fed into the vacuum chamber at different locations. Also during plasma operations, the gas will be fed both in continues and pulse mode. Gas feed will be carried out mainly using piezo-electric valves controlled by PXI based data acquisition and control system. Such operations will lead to a huge amount gas exhaust by the main system which requires good exhaust facility to searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Also initial pumping of cryostat and vacuum vessel of SST-1 will release a large amount of gas. Exhausted gases from SST -1 will be Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Mixture gases or some toxic gases. Dedicated exhaust system controlling the different gases are installed. Special treatment of hazardous/explosive gases is done before releasing to the atmosphere. This paper describes design and implementations of the complete gas feed and exhaust system of SST-1.

30

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...listed for the exhaust gas EFC-CVS in § 86.1309...of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This may...F (121 °C) for methanol fueled engines) or...exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured...temperature measuring system(sensors and readout) shall...

2010-07-01

31

Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system  

Science.gov (United States)

An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-12-10

32

Second law analysis of a low temperature combustion diesel engine: Effect of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For diesel engines, low temperature combustion (LTC) with a high level of EGR and late injection becomes attractive because of its potential of simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, detailed thermodynamic evaluations including second law analysis of the LTC are few. The current work employed an engine cycle simulation incorporating the second law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energy and exergy distribution of various processes in a low temperature combustion diesel engine. After validation with experimental data at eight operating conditions including four different EGR levels and two different injection timings, the model was used to evaluate the effect of EGR level and injection timing on the first and second law parameters. As EGR was increased, intake temperature and equivalence ratio increased. Results showed that for the case at 0% EGR level with conventional injection timing, about 30% of the fuel exergy was destructed during combustion processes, and as EGR level increased to 45% (intake temperature and equivalence ratio also increased), the combustion destructed exergy decreased to 20% of the fuel exergy. This was largely due to the related combustion temperature increase. For both conventional (?6.5° aTDC) and late (1.5° aTDC) injection timings, the percentage of exergy transfer through flows increases as EGR increases, which is attributed to the retarded ignition by increasing EGR. Other parameters such as energy and exergy transfer due to heat transfer, blow-by, and unburned fuel also were determined as a function of EGR level and injection timing. -- Highlights: ? Exergy destruction during combustion decreased as intake temperature increased. ? Both conventional and late injection timings (LTC cases) were examined. ? For conventional injection timings, the combustion efficiency remains constant as EGR increases. ? For late injections and high EGR, combustion was incomplete. ? Late injection cases had lower percentage of heat transfer exergy.

33

PIXE analysis of exhaust gas from diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variation of elemental concentrations in exhaust gas of a Diesel engine with the outputs was studied. Particulates in high temperature gas were collected on silica fiber filters and analyzed by PIXE method. Concentrations of S and V were nearly proportional to particulate masses and fuel consumption rates per discharging rates of exhaust gas respectively. While, concentrations of Fe and Mn were markedly increased together with engine outputs, and Mn/Fe ratios were nearly equal to those of the material of piston rings and the cylinder liner. Concentrations of the elements contained in lubricant, such as Ca and Mo, were also conspicuously increased with the outputs. It was shown that PIXE analysis is a useful tool for engine diagonostics owing to its high sensitive multi-elemental availability without chemical treatments. (author)

34

Exhaust gas system for internal combustion engines. Abgassystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patent application entitled ''exhaust gas system for internal combustion engines'' emphasises the advantages, which are obtained for exhaust gas cleaning by using a thermal reactor, which is equipped with an ignition element. While silencer exhaust gas systems obtain the whole energy from the flow of exhaust gas and additional catalysts build up additional resistance to flow, in such thermal reactors using reactions caused by ignition, a further source for forming flow energy is added. There is then the possibility of reducing the resistance of the exhaust gas system, depending on the operating condition, or at least of not increasing it for the purpose of cleaning the exhaust gas. This will only be successful if the whole system up to the exhaust outlet into the atmosphere is technically correctly worked out. (orig.).

Leistritz, H.K.; Horst, G. van der.

1983-12-08

35

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sample line. The sensor shall have an accuracy...dilute exhaust gas flowing in the total...description—methanol-fueled diesel...a temperature sensor located at the...sample line. The sensor shall have an accuracy...dilute exhaust gas flowing in the hydrocarbon... (16) For methanol-fueled...

2010-07-01

36

Exhaust gas device, particularly exhaust gas cleaning device. Abgasvorrichtung, insbesondere Abgasreinigungsvorrichtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention refers to an exhaust gas device with a two shell housing, where the inner shell is supported at least in sections over an elastic support mat, particularly a mineral fibre mat in the outside shell, particularly for an exhaust gas cleaning device with an outer housing consisting of two half shells in which, above an elastic support mat, particularly a so-called swelling mat, at least one honeycomb structure support body and a shielding funnel on the inside of the incoming and outgoing side and possibly shielding rings, are supported between successive supports, where the inner housing, particularly the shielding funnel and rings are formed by a close mesh and elastic wire weave mat and are fixed at both ends.

Stoepler, W.

1991-03-21

37

On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas  

Science.gov (United States)

The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ?IC= 1-(1/r)^(?-1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r=Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio ?= cP/cV. Typically r= 8, ?= 1.4, and ?IC= 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ?Carnot= 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ?IC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, ?, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-?IC) x?Carnot= 32% for TH= 850 K (exhaust) and TC= 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ?TEG0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ?WH= (1-?IC) x?Carnot x?TEG, and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ?TEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ?WH= 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%.

Meisner, G. P.

2013-03-01

38

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel...Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

2010-07-01

39

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86...Procedures § 86.110-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in...

2010-07-01

40

Studies on exhaust-gas-cleaning from wood chip driers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on cleaning the exhaust gas of chip driers were carried out employing water and aqueous soidum hydroxide as scrubbing solutions. In addition exhaust gas cleaning through indirect cooling was investigated. The decrease of the total carbon content in the exhaust gas through water-scrubbing was 55%, through aqueous sodium hydroxide 70% and through indirect cooling 18%. Investigations on the change in concentration of the terpenes ..cap alpha..-pinene, ..beta..-pinene, myrcene, ..delta../sup 3/-carene and camphene showed that these compounds followed closely the reduction efficiency measured for the total carbon content.

Mayrhofer, W.; Pimminger, M.; Gritzner, G.

1987-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

42

Exhaust Emissions from Williams Research Corporation Gas Turbine Engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exhaust emissions of several different models of gas turbine engines under development or in production were measured. The emissions measured were carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and the oxides of nitrogen. The results are pres...

H. B. Moore, J. A. Royer

1970-01-01

43

Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

Gadgil, Ashok J. (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01

44

Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Orlando, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA); Tonkyn, Russell G. (Kennewick, WA)

1999-01-01

45

Marine diesel engine exhaust gas system, fouling and corrosion problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the wake of focused attention towards emissions from ships, the exhaust gas system is gaining importance. As of present, various emission abatement technologies are being applied onboard ships. These technologies are changing the traditional outlook of a ships exhaust gas system from simple piping to complex system, which comprises of various units. These units aim to cut down various undesirable emissions, yet recover waste heat energy from the exhaust gas. Marine diesel engines exhaust system is regularly fitted with exhaust gas boilers and silencers. Depending on system, emission abatement units such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units or commonly known as scrubbers are also fitted. Unique operating environments of individual units and the fouling as well corrosive nature of the exhaust gas, often cause reduction in a unit's performance and life. This report describes corrosion and fouling in the exhaust gas system of heavy fuel oil (FIFO) operated marine diesel engines. Both domains i.e. 4-stroke medium speed and 2-stroke slow speed diesel engine exhaust system have been covered. Various parameters and quantities that affect the fouling and corrosion severity of the exhaust units are discussed in detail. Focused attention has been given to exhaust gas boiler and SCR reactor. Due attention has also been paid to general piping, scrubber unit and turbocharger turbine. Within the scope of this study, functional details of system and units are kept to minimum. However, typical construction, operating environment nature of individual units from the perspective of fouling and corrosion are discussed where necessary. From remedy perspective, based on operator experiences and technical discussions, techniques and practices that could be beneficial for system maintainers, operators, and designers are also discussed. In addition, the specific areas, which need further investigation, are also highlighted vis-a-vis. With the passage of time, as ships exhaust gas system gain importance, various design and maintenance strategies will require modified approach and in doing so, the areas of investigation, as highlighted, can be considered as the first steps.

Munir, A.

2007-07-01

46

Method of treating vehicle exhaust gas and catalyst used therein  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a catalyst for converting the noxous CO, NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons found in the exhaust gases from internal combustion engines into less harmful gases, and to the method of treating said exhaust gases. The catalyst consists essentially of a solid solution of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/. The catalyst may be extended on a porous carrier such as aluminum oxide or aluminum silicate. The catalyst is particularly suited for treating the exhaust gas from internal combustion engines of motor vehicles.

Baresel, D.; Scharner, P.; Huth, G.

1979-02-20

47

Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

2013-06-11

48

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM

49

500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM

50

Removing method for iodine in exhaust-gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a method of processing an exhaust gas containing iodine and/or iodine compounds through a layer of an adsorbent carrying noble metals, the exhaust gas is passed through a pretreatment tower filled with metal oxides at from 60 to 250degC. This can remove most of poisonous materials for the absorbent carrying noble metals such as halogen materials other than iodine or a sulfur compounds, then it is passed through the adsorbent carrying noble metals to remove iodine and/or iodine compounds. With such procedures, a relatively small amount of iodine or iodine compounds coexistent with poisonous materials such as other halogen materials in the exhaust gas can be removed at high removing rate, to extend the service life of the catalyst. Further, cost for iodine removing processing is greatly saved. (T.M.)

51

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system...92.114 Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system...be monitored at the gas meter, and the measured... (C) Particulate sampling filters. (1...

2010-07-01

52

Emission Characteristics for Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper includes experimental investigations of various exhaust gas recirculation rates on engine emission characteristics like NOx, HC, CO, CO2, exhaust gas temperature by AVL gas meter. By passing exhaust gas from venturi meter and regulating it with EGR valve so as to find out its effect on critical NOx emission and other harmful HC,CO & NOx emission parameter. So to reduce such harmful gases exhaust gas recirculation is economical and effective method to control emission. We cant reduced it 100% but up to little bit extent we can reduce it from CI as well as in SI type of CI engine. Some external coupling technology like EGR of cold type installed with turbo intercooler, hydrogen, oxygen enriched air to displace fresh intake air volume and so reduced amount of oxygen in combustion chamber to control peak temperature of cylinder. in this paper we have also look toward some coal trapping method installed with dampener cause to break bond between NO at high temperature.

Pratik G. Sapre

2014-09-01

53

46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must...automatically supply the required amount of feed water and maintain it at the proper level...the control system must supply the feed water at a rate sufficient to ensure...

2010-10-01

54

Method and apparatus for the treatment of diesel exhaust gas:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a method for the oxidation of carbon- and/or hydrocarbon- and/or combustable organic compounds containing liquid or solid particulate contaminants in gas streams, more in particular soot in exhaust gasses of diesel engines, comprising the treatment of said gas streams in a turbulent flow precipitator, of which at least part of the surface shows catalytic activity for non-selective oxidation

Hardeveld, R.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J. A.; Jelles, S. J.

2001-01-01

55

IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

2010-01-01

56

Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air-fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (X_{O_2 }). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan-Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict ? and X_{O_2 } based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict ?, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of X_{O_2 }. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of ? and X_{O_2 }, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model.

Collings, N.; Harris, J. A.; Glover, K.

2013-09-01

57

Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

Norris, Thomas R.

2009-12-31

58

Evaluation of anomalous refraction in meridian observations caused by exhaust gas (heat flow) out of smoke stack.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anomalous refraction of the light path caused by exhaust gas (heat flow) out of a large scale incinerator was evaluated. Assuming that the temperature and flow rate of the exhaust gas be 220°C and 2.5×105m3/h, the authors find that high accuracy absolute position observations with Tokyo PMC (Photoelectric Meridian Circle at Mitaka) are degraded by the anomalous refraction by about 50% compared to the observations under normal conditions without exhaust gas. Specifically, the observed declinations of the circumpolar stars deviate up to 0?15 under the westward wind.

Ishizaki, H.; Suzuki, S.

59

Exhaust gas treatment in testing nuclear rocket engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the exception of the last test series of the Rover program, Nuclear Furnace 1, test-reactor and rocket engine hydrogen gas exhaust generated during the Rover/NERVA program was released directly to the atmosphere, without removal of the associated fission products and other radioactive debris. Current rules for nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480.6) are far more protective of the general environment; even with the remoteness of the Nevada Test Site, introduction of potentially hazardous quantities of radioactive waste into the atmosphere must be scrupulously avoided. The Rocketdyne treatment concept features a diffuser to provide altitude simulation and pressure recovery, a series of heat exchangers to gradually cool the exhaust gas stream to 100 K, and an activated charcoal bed for adsorption of inert gases. A hydrogen-gas fed ejector provides auxiliary pumping for startup and shutdown of the engine. Supplemental filtration to remove particulates and condensed phases may be added at appropriate locations in the system. The clean hydrogen may be exhausted to the atmosphere and flared, or the gas may be condensed and stored for reuse in testing. The latter approach totally isolates the working gas from the environment

60

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles...Procedures § 86.109-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles...1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles...Procedures § 86.210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles...General applicability. The exhaust gas sampling system requirements of §...

2010-07-01

62

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle...requiring particulate emission measurements. 86...86.109-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle...requiring particulate emission measurements. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system...

2010-07-01

63

40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...requiring particulate emissions measurements. 86...210-08 Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle...requiring particulate emissions measurements. (a...applicability. The exhaust gas sampling system...

2010-07-01

64

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13

65

30 CFR 36.49 - Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. 36.49 Section 36.49... § 36.49 Tests of exhaust-gas dilution system. The performance and adequacy of the exhaust-gas dilution system shall be determined in tests...

2010-07-01

66

Exhaust-gas reforming using precious metal catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rh-only and Rh bimetallic catalysts have been screened for exhaust-gas reforming, under conditions that mimic the output of an autoignition gasoline engine. Propane has been used as a model fuel, with simulated exhaust-gas providing the co-reactants (O2 and H2O) needed to generate hydrogen. Based on oxygen-conversion as a measure of light-off, Pt-Rh on ceria-zirconia shows the highest activity. In the presence of SO2, adsorbed sulphur species do not inhibit the oxidation reactions that induce light-off, but suppress the major pathway to hydrogen (steam reforming). By excluding platinum and using silica-enriched alumina as the underlying support, light-off is delayed, but the steam reforming reaction becomes much more insensitive to the presence of sulphur. The Pt-Rh catalyst is most suited to exhaust-gas reforming systems in which the engine runs on a sulphur-free fuel, whereas the Rh-only catalyst is the better choice when the fuel is conventional gasoline. (author)

67

An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

2006-12-01

68

Turbine engine exhaust gas measurements using in-situ FT-IR emission/transmission spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

12 An advanced multiple gas analyzer based on in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to successfully measure the exhaust plume composition and temperature of an operating gas turbine engine at a jet engine test stand. The sensor, which was optically coupled to the test cell using novel broadband hollow glass waveguides, performed well in this harsh environment (high acoustical noise and vibration, considerable temperature swings in the ambient with engine operation), providing quantitative gas phase information. Measurements were made through the diameter of the engine's one meter exhaust plume, about 0.7 meters downstream of the engine exit plane. The sensor performed near simultaneous infrared transmission and infrared emission measurements through the centerline of the plume. Automated analysis of the emission and transmission spectra provided the temperature and concentration information needed for engine tuning and control that will ensure optimal engine operation and reduced emissions. As a demonstration of the utility and accuracy of the technique, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, water, and carbon dioxide were quantified in spite of significant variations in the exhaust gas temperature. At some conditions, unburned fuel, particulates (soot/fuel droplets), methane, ethylene and aldehydes were identified, but not yet quantified.

Marran, David F.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Neira, Jorge; Markham, James R.; Rutka, Ronald; Strange, Richard R.

2001-02-01

69

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04

70

40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 91.420 Section 91.420 Protection...Test Procedures § 91.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling...

2010-07-01

71

40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 90.420 Section 90.420 Protection...Test Procedures § 90.420 CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. (a) A dilute exhaust sampling...

2010-07-01

72

40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the case of the methanol-fueled motorcycles...provided the methanol and formaldehyde...and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS... (2) The gas mixture temperature...and temperature sensors. The CFV sample...condensation with methanol-fueled vehicles...testing natural gas and...

2010-07-01

73

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...sample line. The sensor shall have an accuracy...dilute exhaust gas flowing in the THC...description—methanol-fueled vehicles...a temperature sensor located at the...sample line. The sensor shall have an accuracy...dilute exhaust gas flowing in the hydrocarbon... (17) For methanol-fueled...

2010-07-01

74

An Experimental Study of Different Effects of EGR Rates on The Performance And Exhaust Emissions of The Stratified Charge Piston Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of the principal techniques used to control spark ignition NOX. A fraction of the exhaust gas is recycled through a control valve from the exhaust to the engine intake system. However, EGR has different effect on performance, combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish such as increase of intake temperature, delay of Rate Of Heat Rrelease (ROHR), decrease of peak heat release, decrease in oxygen concentration et...

Wasiu, Saheed O.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

2011-01-01

75

Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

2009-10-15

76

A cyclic variability monitoring system based upon cycle resolved exhaust temperature sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyclic dispersion is a cycle-to-cycle variability in spark ignition engine output. Cyclic variability worsens as the air/fuel mixture becomes more dilute. This paper presented a cyclic variability monitoring system for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in reciprocating engines. A propane-fuelled GM 4 cylinder 2.2 litre light truck engine was used in an experiment in an effort to reduce cyclic dispersion and improve engine efficiency. Modern engines demand very low cyclic variability as well as a 20 per cent limit for the coefficient of variation (COV) at indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). By monitoring cyclic variability during engine operation, closed loop control strategies could be used to maximize dilution levels, resulting in lower fuel consumption and reduced NOx emissions. The proposed monitoring system uses robust exhaust temperature sensors that can detect cycle-to-cycle variations in the gas temperatures near each exhaust port. These variations are related to cyclic variations in combustion and tend to increase as cyclic variability worsens. The results of the experiment showed that there is an overall correlation between individual cycle values for the exhaust cyclic variability (ECV) signal and their respective IMEP values, although the ECV signal can vary greatly at a given IMEP. The distribution of the cycle-by-cycle values of the ECV signal changes significantly in response to changes in the COV of IMEP caused by changes in the air/fuel ratio. 2 refs., 9 figs.

Gardiner, D.P. [Nexum Research Corp., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bardon, M.F. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

2006-07-01

77

Intensity of corrosion processes in exhaust gas boilers at burning water-fuel emulsion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximation dependences of specific rates of low-temperature sulfur corrosion and pollution intensity under the influence of the main parameters characterizing these processes are presented. Statistical processing of the research results that displayed the primary influence on decrease in metal sulfur and water content of water fuel emulsion is conducted. The dependences of low-temperature sulfur corrosion rate on the wall temperature for 100 and 1000 hours at burning standard fuel and water-fuel emulsion are received. Reliability of data transfer obtained at experimental facility on consideration of these processes in real exhaust gas boilers installed after internal-combustion engine is confirmed.

Goryachkin Vladimir Yurievich

2013-10-01

78

Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

2012-12-01

79

Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration of oxygen, the combustion process will be affected. The lower oxygen concentration decreases the stability and the increased amoun...

Hustad, Johan E.; Røkke, Petter E.

2005-01-01

80

An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

A predictive algorithm to ensure thermal protection for a diesel exhaust gas after-treatment device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a predictive control algorithm is presented aiming at triggering an operating mode used for thermal protection of an after-treatment component. An inversion thermal model of the after-treatment component is used to calculate for a pre-assigned substrate maximum temperature, the desired oxygen concentration and the desired exhaust gas temperature at the inlet to the after-treatment component. These are then compared to pre-calibration thresholds and then used to activate/deactivate the thermal protection combustion mode. (orig.)

Yacoub, Yasser; Dubkov, Alexei; Roettger, Daniel; Carberry, Brendan [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH (Germany)

2008-07-01

82

Operation of exhaust boilers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy balance of a two-stroke diesel engine plant shows that the exhaust gas energy emounts to 28 to 34%. Especially the flue-gas temperature after the exhaust gas turbocharge has proved to be especially suitable for a further utilization of this exhaust gas energy. Cooling the flue gas temperatures down to the ambient temperatures means an energy recovery of about 31%, the exogetic gain only 10%. This relation and the determination of the design of waste-gas boilers and the design criteria are subject of further considerations. Technical details of the application of the smoke-tube boiler and the water-tube waste gas boiler are given; exhaust-gas boiler diagrams and changes of the water level when starting the main engine are described as well as the design and operation of circulation pumps. Steam generation control is described, the influencing parameters of dirt accumulation on the heating surfaces and cleaning are dealt with.

Norgaard, A.

1981-01-01

83

Performance of humid air turbine with exhaust gas expanded to below ambient pressure based on microturbine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of HAT cycle comprising HAT and Inverted Brayton cycles, named BAHAT in this paper, is proposed to enhance the microturbine's performance. By adding an exhaust compressor after flue gas condenser, the gas expander expands to a pressure lower than ambient. Simulation and parameter optimization results show that the electricity efficiency and specific work of BAHAT are about 2 percentage points and 20% higher than that of HAT cycle respectively when turbine inlet temperature is 950 deg. C. The working pressure of aftercooler, humidifier and turbine hot section is only about 0.4 MPa though the optimal total pressure ratio is about 9-10. The drops of compression work and outlet water temperature of humidifier are considered the main factors to enhance BAHAT's efficiency. In addition, the exhaust compressor inlet gas temperature affects BAHAT's efficiency and water recovery ratio apparently. It is also shown that it is easy to achieve water self-support for BAHAT, mixing makeup water to the water loop before entering economizer shows the best thermodynamic performance, and air leakage to the bottom cycle influences both efficiency and water recovery ratio of BAHAT.

84

Operation of gas-exhaust equipment at OOO Mechel-Koks coke battery 7  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measures adopted at OOO Mechel-Koks in coke-battery heating with gas extraction through a single line are evaluated. Cost savings are not guaranteed in the construction and subsequent operation of the chosen gas-exhaust equipment.

N.A. Motin; V.V. Fedorov; A.V. Vishnyakov; A.A. Pashkov [OOO Chelyabinskii Zavod po Proizvodstvu Koksokhimicheskoi Produktsii (OOO Mechel-Koks), Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

2009-08-15

85

40 CFR 86.1311-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

...nitrogen. The analytical system for methanol consists...exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the...manufacturer has the option of using gas chromatography...practices and use good engineering judgement. (c) Alternate analytical systems. Analysis...

2010-07-01

86

Temperature monitoring of vehicle engine exhaust gases under vibration condition using optical fibre temperature sensor systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two optical approaches, comprising and contracting both the fluorescence decay lifetime and the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) methods, were developed and evaluated for temperature monitoring of exhaust gases for use on a vehicle engine. The FBGs used in the system were written into specially designed Bi-Ge co-doped photosensitive fibres, to enable them to sustain high temperatures to over 8000C, which is far beyond that of FBGs written into most commercial photosensitive fibres. The sensors were subjected to a range of vibration tests, as a part of an optical exhaust monitoring network under development, and results from the test carried out are reported

87

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

Science.gov (United States)

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

88

Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH4) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH4 appear to account for the higher CH4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

89

Neuralfussy multivariable control applied to the control of velocity, power, and exhaust gas temperature of a turbo gas unit; Control neurodifuso multivariable aplicado al control de velocidad, potencia y temperatura de gases de escape de una unidad turbogas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electric power demand in Mexico has forced to the electric sector to be in a constant search of methods and systems that, among other objectives, improve the operation of the generating power stations of electric power continually. As part of their mission, the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) has promoted and leaning the applied research and the technological development to improve the indexes of security, readiness, dependability, efficiency and durability of central generating by means of the development and the installation of big digital systems of information and control. At the present time, inside the scheme of electric power generation, the gas turbine (UTG) represent 7% of the generation of the national electric sector [1]. These units have become the dominant way of the new electric generation in the U.S, either in simple cycle or combined. The above-mentioned, is attributable at less installation cost for generated kilowatt, to the shortest construction programs, at first floor levels of emission of pollutants and competitive operation costs. The control system of the gas turbine is based on conventional control algorithms of the type PI [2]. This control scheme is dedicated for regulation tasks and rejection to interferences, and it doesn't stop pursuit of reference points. The controllers act all on a control valve, that which represents a strong interaction among the same ones, for example an adjustment in the parameters of the algorithm of the digital PI of temperature, it can improve their acting but it can also affect the acting of the speed control or that of power. The gas turbine presents a non lineal behavior and variant in the time, mainly in the starting stage where several important disturbances are presented. At the moment, the controllers used in the scheme of control of the turbines are lineal, which are syntonized for a specific operation point and they are conserved this way by indefinite time. In this thesis the formulation of a controller feedback multivariable is presented, designed with the combination of the technologies of fuzzy logic and neural networks with the purpose of improving the control of speed, power and temperature of the UTG. This proposed control is used in conjunction with the scheme of conventional control of the existent UTG, to integrate a strategy of control hybrid feedback. The control feedback is compound for a fuzzy inference system of multiple entrances and a left exit designed with entrance data and exit of the plant. The controller feed forward is compound for conventional controllers type PI in this type of units. With this strategy, the controller feedback provides a bigger contribution in the control sign the effort of the conventional controllers' PI control and the strong interaction that it exists among them diminishing. The controllers PI feed forward contribute a smaller control sign used for fine adjustments in the control sign. [Spanish] La demanda de energia electrica en Mexico ha obligado al sector electrico a estar en una busqueda constante de metodos y sistemas que, entre otros objetivos, mejoren continuamente la operacion de las centrales generadoras de energia electrica. Como parte de su mision, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha promovido y apoyado la investigacion aplicada y el desarrollo tecnologico para mejorar los indices de seguridad, disponibilidad, confiabilidad, eficiencia y durabilidad de centrales generadoras mediante el desarrollo y la implantacion de grandes sistemas digitales de informacion y control. En la actualidad, dentro del esquema de generacion de energia electrica, las unidades turbogas (UTG) representan 7% de la generacion del sector electrico nacional [1]. Estas unidades se han convertido en el modo dominante de la nueva generacion electrica en los EE.UU, ya sea en ciclo simple o combinado. Lo anterior, es atribuible al menor costo de instalacion por kilowatt generado, a los programas de construccion mas cortos, a bajos niveles de emision de contaminantes y costos de operacion competitivo

Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio

2004-11-15

90

Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.

Weise, A.

1947-01-01

91

Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.)

92

Test procedures for measuring exhaust emissions from natural gas transmission engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the measurement of exhaust components from large natural gas transmission engines involves collection of the exhaust sample, transfer of the sample to the analytical instrumentation, measurement of individual component concentrations, and calculations of emission results in terms of mass, fuel specific, and brake specific rates. The major exhaust components measured include nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O2). Collection of the exhaust sample requires proper probe design and placement in the exhaust system. Transfer of the sample to the analytical instruments must maintain sample integrity from the point where the sample is removed from the exhaust stream to the point at which the sample enters the instrument for analysis. Various analytical techniques are used to measure the exhaust emission concentrations

93

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous... § 86.1310-2007 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

2010-07-01

94

40 CFR 86.110-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles, and Otto-cycle vehicles requiring particulate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles...Procedures § 86.110-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel-cycle vehicles... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in...

2010-07-01

95

Carbon Dioxide Emission Analysis of Chilled Water Production by Using Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbon dioxide from exhaust heat emission is one of the major contributorsto the environmental pollutant in power generation plants. This problem could be addressed if the emitted exhaust heat is recovered. In cogeneration plant, the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam usingHeat Recovery Steam Generator. The steam from Heat Recovery Steam Generator is then used for chilled water generation in Steam Absorption Chillers by absorption process. This study analyzed the tota...

Adzuieen Nordin; Mohd Amin Abd Majid

2013-01-01

96

Design of a DBD System for On-Board Treatment of the Exhaust Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is a part of the investigation of the diesel engine exhaust cleaning processes concerning a design of a compact, low power dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for on-board treatment of the exhaust gas in combination with a catalyst. The activated gas molecules and reduction agents which are produced by the discharge make the operation of the catalyst more efficient. The effect of the discharge frequency, power and geometry on the gas composition is described in our previous publication.

Joa, S. B.; Plaksin, Vadim Yu; Penkov, Oteksiy V.; Ruddy, F. H.; Dullo, A. R.; Lee, Heon Ju [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

97

Design of a DBD System for On-Board Treatment of the Exhaust Gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is a part of the investigation of the diesel engine exhaust cleaning processes concerning a design of a compact, low power dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for on-board treatment of the exhaust gas in combination with a catalyst. The activated gas molecules and reduction agents which are produced by the discharge make the operation of the catalyst more efficient. The effect of the discharge frequency, power and geometry on the gas composition is described in our previous publication

98

Analysis of exhaust waste heat recovery from a dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the exhaust waste heat recovery potential of a high-efficiency, low-emissions dual fuel low temperature combustion engine using an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Potential improvements in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and specific emissions (NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2}) with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ORC turbocompounding were quantified over a range of injection timings and engine loads. With hot EGR and ORC turbocompounding, FCE improved by an average of 7 percentage points for all injection timings and loads while NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions recorded an 18 percent (average) decrease. From pinch-point analysis of the ORC evaporator, ORC heat exchanger effectiveness ({epsilon}), percent EGR, and exhaust manifold pressure were identified as important design parameters. Higher pinch point temperature differences (PPTD) uniformly yielded greater exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator, irrespective of engine operating conditions. Increasing percent EGR yielded higher FCEs and stable engine operation but also increased exergy destruction in the ORC evaporator. It was observed that hot EGR can prevent water condensation in the ORC evaporator, thereby reducing corrosion potential in the exhaust piping. Higher {epsilon} values yielded lower PPTD and higher exergy efficiencies while lower {epsilon} values decreased post-evaporator exhaust temperatures below water condensation temperatures and reduced exergy efficiencies. (author)

Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Mago, Pedro J.; Krishnan, Sundar R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mail Stop 9552, 210 Carpenter Building, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2010-06-15

99

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled...Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled...1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this...

2010-07-01

100

Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

Schalwig, Jan

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

Al-lwayzy, Saddam H.; Yusaf, Talal; Jensen, Troy

2012-09-01

102

Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

103

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...exhaust gas dilution function at the engine exhaust...The CO and CO2 analytical system requires... (7) The NOX analytical system requires a continuously...and coordinate the functions of the component...Other sampling and/or analytical systems may be...

2010-07-01

104

NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from October 2003 to April 2004.

Palitha Jayaweera

2004-05-01

105

30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT ...speed. The preliminary liquid-fuel-injection rate shall be such that the exhaust...smoke and the applicant shall adjust the injection rate promptly to correct any...

2010-07-01

106

Exhaust gas monitoring based on absorption spectroscopy in the process industry  

Science.gov (United States)

This non-invasive gas monitor for exhaust gas monitoring must has high reliability and requires little maintenance. Monitor for in-situ measurements using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near infrared, can meet these requirements. TDLAS has evolved over the past decade from a laboratory especially to an accepted, robust and reliable technology for trace gas sensing. With the features of tunability and narrow linewidth of the distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and by precisely tuning the laser output wavelength to a single isolated absorption line of the gas, TDLAS technique can be utilized to measure gas concentration with high sensitivity. Typical applications for monitoring of H2S, NH3, HC1 and HF are described here together by wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic(WMS-2F) detection. This paper will illustrate the problems related to on-line applications, in particular, the overfall effects, automatic light intensity correction, temperature correction, which impacted on absorption coefficient and give details of how effect of automatic correction is necessary. The system mainly includes optics and electronics, optical system mainly composed of fiber, fiber coupler and beam expander, the electron part has been placed in safe analysis room not together with the optical part. Laser merely passes through one-meter-long pipes by the fiber coupling technology, so the system itself has anti-explosion. The results of the system are also presented in the end, the system's response time is only 0.5s, and can be achieved below 1×10-5 the detection limit at the volume fraction, it can entirely replace the traditional methods of detection exhaust gas in the process industry.

Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Shu, Xiao-wen; Kan, Rui-feng; Cui, Yi-ben; He, Ying; Xu, Zhen-yu; Geng, Hui; Liu, Jian-guo

2009-07-01

107

LPG fueled diesel engine using diethyl ether with exhaust gas recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present investigation was to study the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on homogeneous charge ignition engine. A stationary four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection (DI) diesel engine capable of developing 3.7 kW at 1500 rpm was modified to operate in HCCI mode. In the present work the diesel engine was operated on 100% Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG). The LPG has a low cetane number (<3), therefore Diethyl ether (DEE) was added to the LPG for ignition purpose. DEE is an excellent ignition enhancer (cetane number >125) and has a low auto ignition temperature (160 C). Experimental results showed that by EGR technique, at part loads the brake thermal efficiency increases by about 2.5% and at full load, NO concentration could be considerably reduced to about 68% as compared to LPG operation without EGR. However, higher EGR percentage affects the combustion rate and significant reduction in peak pressure at maximum load. (author)

Miller Jothi, N.K.; Nagarajan, G.; Renganarayanan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

2008-04-15

108

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-15

109

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sensor. A temperature sensor (T1) to measure the...practical equivalent during engine testing), and at least...condensation. (C) The engine exhaust shall be directed...protrusions (due to sensors, etc.) should be smooth...locomotive testing, the engine exhaust shall be...

2010-07-01

110

[Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology. PMID:25208369

Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

2014-03-01

111

Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NOx, O2 and CO2, were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

112

Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

Orosa, John

2014-03-11

113

Numerical simulation of pulverized coal oxy-combustion with exhaust gas recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the performances of pulverized coal combustion with exhaust gas recirculation are evaluated by means of the CFD commercial code Fluent, using advanced mathematical models for coal devolatilization and for turbulence-chemistry interaction in the gas phase. The pulverized coal combustion with recirculated exhaust gas is evaluated by considering the same burner geometry and operating condition used for the conventional air combustion test-case in IFRF no.1 furnace. The secondary air stream is replaced by a O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture with the same O{sub 2} volume fraction and the same molar flow rate, and keeping the same velocity profile. Two oxycombustion cases are considered, characterized by the same O{sub 2}-to-coal ratio: in the first case the secondary molar flow rate is kept constant as in the air combustion case (21%O{sub 2}-79%CO{sub 2} by volume), in the second one the secondary mass flow rate is kept constant (30%O{sub 2}-70%CO{sub 2} by volume). The first case is characterized by similar fluid dynamic behaviour of the air combustion, but by a lower flame temperature related to the lower CO{sub 2} specific heat. The second case has similar flame temperature, but fluid dynamic behaviour is different because of the different inlet velocity of secondary stream. Oxycombustion flames are deeply different respect to conventional flame because of the different physical properties of the O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixture. Therefore they require an optimization of the burner geometry and of the O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixture composition in order to improve flame characteristics and reduce pollutants emissions. 32 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Michele Vascellari; Giorgio Cau [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2009-07-01

114

Reduction of low temperature engine pollutants by understanding the exhaust species interactions in a diesel oxidation catalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interactions between exhaust gas species and their effect (promotion or inhibition) on the light-off and activity of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the removal of pollutants are studied, using actual engine exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel, alternative fuels (rapeseed methyl ester and gas-to-liquid fuel) and diesel/propane dual fuel combustion. The activity of the catalyst was recorded during a heating temperature ramp where carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) light-off curves were obtained. From the catalyst activity tests, it was found that the presence of species including CO, medium-heavy HC, alkenes, alkanes, and NOx and their concentration influence the catalyst ability to reduce CO and total HC emissions before release to the atmosphere. CO could inhibit itself and other species oxidation (e.g., light and medium-heavy hydrocarbons) while suffering from competitive adsorption with NO. Hydrocarbon species were also found to inhibit their own oxidation as well as CO through adsorption competition. On the other hand, NO2 was found to promote low temperature HC oxidation through its partial reduction, forming NO. The understanding of these exhaust species interactions within the DOC could aid the design of an efficient aftertreatment system for the removal of diesel exhaust pollutants. PMID:24450781

Lefort, I; Herreros, J M; Tsolakis, A

2014-02-18

115

Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-01-01

116

Remote sensing and gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR emission spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the impact of air traffic on the upper and lower troposphere, one must find an effective method to measure the actual gas emissions of aircraft engines at defined thrust levels and at all altitudes. FTIR-emission-spectroscopy detects the thermal radiation of hot exhaust gases, yielding all information about its compounds during one measurement. This remote technique can be used under ground- and flight-conditions. The theoretical line-by-line retrieval of the measured spectra simulates the radiative transfer through several plume- and foreground-layers and is based on the HITRAN 92 database. After the spectroscopic determination of the plume temperature and its profile from the CO2-band around 2400 cm-1, one obtains the toal mass of the single gas species in the field of view of the spectrometer. Comparing the measured data with the theoretical emission index of CO2 from ideal stoichiometric combustion, one obtains the emission indices for the other measured species. Knowing the fuel consumption of the engine, one may get the emission rates of the compounds in g/a. Several engine types, old fashioned engines (no bypass) and modern JT8 and CFM56 bypass at different thrust levels have been analyzed. H2O, CO2 CO, and NO concentrations can be derived immediately from the measurements right behind the nozzle exits, where the temperature profile is known to be homogeneous. The retrieval of the measured data far behind the nozzle exit uses a computer time consuming multilayer model. Formaldehyde and other hydrocarbon species are seen in some spectra and shall be implemented in the computer code. Apart form future applications for the turbine development and the engine-status control after a certain flight time, this remote sensing system can deliver emission data of aircraft engines and the temperature decay of the exhaust plumes at all altitudes.

Heland, Joerg; Schaefer, Klaus; Haus, Rainer

1995-09-01

117

The Purification and Thermal Recovery of Exhaust Gas with the Wet-type Electrostatic Precipitator  

Science.gov (United States)

The exhaust gas ejected from engine heat pump contain the injurious materials, SOx, NOx and dust. And it also has a good deal of thermal energy, so thermal recovery from the exhaust gas increases the total C.O.P. of the heat pump system. The experimental study for the purpose of the purification of the exhaust gas and the thermal recovery from exhaust gas has been conducted with the wet-type electrostatic precipitator, which has the advantage of high collection efficiency and the gas-liquid direct heat-exchanism. The experimental results showed that: 1. For the dust, the collection efficiency of 96 % was achieved, when applied voltage was 19,000V. 2. The effect of the alkali absorption of Nox and SOx gases was made sure by the experiment. 3. The fundamental equation which is useful for design method was resolved by kinetic model of charged particle. 4. In the phenomenon of coagulation the velocity constant was decided with "Chemical Kinetics" and so that the density of coagulant, Ca(OH)2 was decided. 5. It is shown that mixing coagulant, Ca(OH)2, was a very effective way to remove the dust particles from the waste water. 6. Thermal energy of 5.3 kW was recovered from exhaust gas, so that total C.O.P. of heat pump system increases from 1.83 to 1.97.

Umemiya, Hiromichi; Koike, Hiroshi

118

Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters. PMID:16310328

Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

2006-08-10

119

Suicide by carbon monoxide from car exhaust-gas in Denmark 1995-1999  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the period 1995-1999 there were 388 car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark. Of these 343 (88.4%) were men and 45 (11.6%) were women, the average age being 47 years. The car exhaust-gas suicides made up 9.3% of all suicides in Denmark in the period. The corresponding rate was 11.7% for men and 3.7% for women. In rural areas a larger part of all suicides were committed with car exhaust-gas compared to the more densely populated areas. Mental disease was diagnosed in 124 (32.0%) cases. A suicide note was found in 165 (42.5%) cases. A hose was fitted to the exhaust pipe in 334 (86.1%) cases. Of these the 234 (60.3%) occurred outside, typically in a forest area, while 76 (19.6%) occurred in a closed garage. All the 54 (13.9%) cases with no hose fitted to the exhaust pipe occurred in a garage. Seven (1.8%) victims were found in a burning or burnt-out car, where the following investigation revealed that it was actually a car exhaust-gas suicide. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in 26 (6.7%) victims. In two of these victims no carboxyhemoglobin was found, as they had survived for some time after the poisoning. The average saturation of the remaining victims was 67%, the lowest saturation being 20% and the highest being 84%. In the period 1969-1987 the number of car exhaust-gas suicides in Denmark increased from 50 to approximately 190 per year and the rate of car exhaust-gas suicides compared to all suicides increased from approximately 5% to approximately 13%. In 1987-1999 these figures decreased from approximately 190 to 63 per year and from 13% to approximately 8%. During these 30 years the number of passenger cars in Denmark doubled, which explains the increase in car exhaust-gas suicides during 1969-1987. A possible explanation for the decrease in 1987-1999 is the introduction of the catalytic converter, which was made mandatory in 1990. We anticipate that car exhaust-gas suicides will continue to decrease in numbers, as more cars are equipped with catalytic converters.

Thomsen, Asser H; Gregersen, Markil

2006-01-01

120

Rapid reduction of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) play a major role in the formation of photochemical smog and in acid rain production1. Some progress has been made in reducing NOx emissions through the use of combustion and exhaust control schemes, including three-way catalyst, staged combustion, and ammonia injection. Nevertheless, estimates indicate that the production of nitrogen oxides will continue to increase until the end of the century and beyond, if current trends continue2. We describe here a new chemical process capable of completely removing NOx from the products of combustion. The effectiveness of this process is established in flow tube experiments. Further, we demonstrate the practical feasibility of this method by eliminating NOx from a portion of the exhaust from a single-cylinder diesel engine. Based on these results we conclude that this process for rapid reduction of nitrogen oxides could play a major role in controlling NOx emissions from most combustion devices.

Perry, R. A.; Siebers, D. L.

1986-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Carbon Dioxide Emission Analysis of Chilled Water Production by Using Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon dioxide from exhaust heat emission is one of the major contributorsto the environmental pollutant in power generation plants. This problem could be addressed if the emitted exhaust heat is recovered. In cogeneration plant, the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam usingHeat Recovery Steam Generator. The steam from Heat Recovery Steam Generator is then used for chilled water generation in Steam Absorption Chillers by absorption process. This study analyzed the total estimated amount of CO2 released to the environment due to chilled water production by using gas turbine exhaust heat. University Teknologi PetronasMalaysia cogeneration system is used as a case study. The energy balance principlewas adopted for the analysis. Results indicate that approximately 44% of CO2is avoided from being released to the environment by this process.

Adzuieen Nordin

2013-12-01

122

Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NOx emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed

123

Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well.

Ralf Moos

2009-09-01

124

Implications of increased gas throughputs at ITER on the torus exhaust pumping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reference design of the ITER torus exhaust pumping system is based on 8 cryopumps, connected via 4 ducts to the torus. The exhaust gas flows will pass through the divertor into the pumping slots, at divertor pressures between 1 and 10 Pa. The pumping port and divertor geometry has limited conductance which reduces drastically the available pumping speed for the whole machine. Based on the transitional flow code ITERVAC, a conductance study is currently going on to model the complete divertor and pumping port geometry as a network in full detail and to assess the overall conductance at varied flow range conditions. This paper will report the relevant results of this study. The reference fueling rate has been recently increased; the resulting changes in the pump heat loads and operating envelopes are discussed. The maximum allowed hydrogenic gas accumulation is limited by oxy-hydrogen deflagration safety considerations: increased gas flows will lead to shortened pumping times. As the pumping system is operated in transitional flow regime, increased flows will change the overall conductance and directly re-influence the available divertor pressures. Higher gas flows will result in higher pressures inside the cryopump volume and lead to increased heat loads on the 4.5 K and 80 K cooling circuits of the cryopumps. Depending on the heat loads, the outlet temperatures of the coolant will tend to increase which, if unmitigated, could affect the pumping speed for helium, ould affect the pumping speed for helium, or, alternatively, the cryogenic flows might needed to be increased, which then has an impact on thermohydraulics and pressure losses across the pumps cryocircuits. To mitigate the potential deleterious influence on helium pumping speed, means to provide a lower coolant inlet temperature are being studied by ITER. Massive gas injection is the proposed concept to safely terminate a disrupting plasma discharge. Many aspects of this type of disruption mitigation need more investigation, but the first results of modelling the effects of massive gas injection are given for the current design of the ITER pumping system. This paper will present the results of a study on the different effects and their mutual influences and consequences. As ITER is an experimental device, it would be desirable to add as much flexibility to the pumping system as possible without increasing cost significantly. (author)

125

Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

2012-01-24

126

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

127

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge, resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxide dissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas, which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

128

Turbocharger efficiencies in pulsating exhaust gas flow; Turboladerwirkungsgrade in pulsierender Abgasstroemung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust pressure pulse amplitudes in downsizing engines challenge the quasi steady modelling of turbocharger turbines in engine process simulation. An early selection of a well matching turbocharger is the key to time efficiency in the concept development phase of engines with ambitious performance and fuel economy targets. This article from FEV and RWTH Aachen assesses the turbocharger efficiencies in pulsating exhaust gas flow and gives a handling recommendation to minimise matching errors. (orig.)

Aymanns, Richard; Scharf, Johannes; Uhlmann, Tolga [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Business Unit Gasoline Engines; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

2012-07-15

129

40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty...Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle...

2010-07-01

130

40 CFR 86.1511 - Exhaust gas analysis system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty...Trucks, and New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle...

2010-07-01

131

APPLICATION GUIDE FOR THE SOURCE PM10 EXHAUST GAS RECYCLE SAMPLING SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The document describes assembly, operation, and maintenance of the Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) sampling system. The design of the sampling train allows the operator to maintain a constant flow rate through an inertial sampler while the gas flow rate into the sampling nozzle is adju...

132

Catalyst for cleaning exhaust gas, particularly from vehicle internal combustion engines. Katalysator zur Abgasreinigung, insbesondere von Kfz-Verbrennungsmotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A catalyst is proposed, which is used for cleaning exhaust gas, particularly from vehicle internal combustion engines. It is based on Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, contains a proportion of Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and can remove CO, NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons from the exhaust gas. It is manufactured by dissolving a soluble iron (III) salt and a soluble chromium (III) salt together in water, precipitating the hydroxides, drying and sintering the dried material, possibly adding a barium, potassium or lithium compound, drying and sintering the mixture and reducing in a flow of hydrogen at a high temperature until the Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ content is between 20 and 50% mol relative to the total iron oxide proportion.

Baresel, D.; Scharner, P.; Huth, G.; Gellert, W.

1982-04-22

133

Numerical solution of gas exhaustion from a reciprocating engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical simulations of a flow around an exhaust valve, inside the cylinder of a fourstroke combustion engine. The different flow models have been tested. Besides, the impact of the dimensionality and geometry detailness has been studied. Fixed (i.e. non-moving geometry and steady boundary conditions have been assumed for all simulations. All the results presented have been obtained by a newly developed CFD package, based on finite volume method (FVM with an AUSM-family numerical scheme.

Žaloudek M.

2010-07-01

134

Thermoelectric exhaust-gas energy recovery: An integrated approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe the first results from an interdisciplinary project that seeks to develop a skutterudite-based thermoelectric (TE) energy recovery system for a vehicle exhaust stream. Filled skutterudites have been prepared and characterised and their thermal stability evaluated. Thermoelements fabricated from these skutterudites have been used to evaluate the compatibility of materials required for the construction of TE modules. The results of modelling studies for the optimization of heat exchanger design and the creation of a component in the loop test facility are also described.

Powell, A. V.; Kaltzoglou, A.; Vaqueiro, P.; Min, G.; Garcia-Cañadas, J.; Stobart, R. K.; Li, J.; Dong, G.; Wijewardane, A.

2012-06-01

135

Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T)2O and CO are converted to (H,D,T)2 and CO2 is a better method of (H,D,T)2O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H2O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H2O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO2, CO2, O2 and N2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

136

Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 2. ultrasonic changes and stomatal behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e exhaust gas exposure disturbed the gas exchange of spruce seedlings. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to realistic concentrations of exhaust gas in the atmosphere can induce rather severe injuries to the needle surface structure as well as ultra-structure at the cellular level. (author)

137

Recent R and D trend of exhaust gas catalyst for the car. Jidoshayo hai gas shokubai no saishin no kenkyu doko  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report introduced the recent R and D trend of exhaust gas catalyst for the car. The catalytic converter rhodium method being put to practical use in the gasoline passenger car CO, HC and NO{sub x} are effectively removed. To improve that method, research is being made on synthesis of heat-resisting alumina carrier by the sol/gel and other methods, by-production control of H{sub 2}s and electrical heating of catalyst as measures against the low temperature exhaust gas at the starting of engine. Substituting catalysts are being investigated for the noble metals such as Pt and Rh used in the catalytic converter rhodium method. Development of lean combustion engine being in progress for the exhaust control of CO{sub 2}, needed is a catalytic system which can remove NO{sub x} in the ambience of high concentration oxygen. As a NO{sub x}-removing catalyst for the diesel car, there are solid reducing agent substituting for the ammonia, perovskite composite oxide newly developed in the direct NO decomposition method and Cu-ZSM-5. Ion-exchange zeolite, etc. are used as a catalyst in the selective NO reduction method by the hydrocarbon. Research is being made also on the catalyst which is to remove the exhaust gas particulates from the diesel engine. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Hamada, H. (National Chemical Laboraotry for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

1992-06-18

138

New developments in optical exhaust gas measurement technology; Neue Entwicklungen in der optischen Abgasmesstechnik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Against the background of more stringent global exhaust gas regulations for vehicles, the automobile industry requires innovative measurement techniques that enable sensitive, selective and highly time-resolved multi-component analysis of the exhaust gases. This goal can be achieved using specially adapted infrared systems and laser measurement procedures. Dynamic hydrocarbon measurements in the exhaust gas system are possible using the fast filter photometer HCAT. The DEGAS IV laser measurement system allows for the concentrations of different exhaust gas components to be determined simultaneously - time-resolved down to one revolution cycle. This optimizes engine management and exhaust gas aftertreatment considerably. The unit meets the strict requirements of reliable operation at an engine test station. High sensitivity, selectivity and measurement speed are achieved when measuring in the middle infrared range for DEGAS IV. Technological achievements in the development of novel infrared lasers, especially the quantum cascade laser (QCL), have resulted in great potential for future unit developments. Compact and highly sensitive laser measurement systems without complex cooling are possible with QCLs. A demonstration system with pulsed quantum cascade lasers was constructed. Examples of measurement results for CO, NO and NH{sub 3} are shown. (orig.)

Lambrecht, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Physikalische Messtechnik (IPM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2008-07-01

139

Removal of Carbon Dioxide Gas From the Exhaust Gases Generated at the Takoradi Thermal Power Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takoradi Thermal Power Station (TTPS generates electricity by burning fossil-fuel and hence it also generates greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide, which is vented into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases are pollutants known to cause global warming. A method for the removal of carbon dioxide gas from the exhaust gases generated at TTPS is proposed in this research. It aims at reducing the plant’s carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere and hence reducing the plant’s rate of pollution into the atmosphere. The method employed is a modification of a method known as the Fluor Daniel ECONAMINE FG process. This method removes carbon dioxide from exhaust gas by using an amine solution which comes into “contact” with the exhaust gas in a counter-current manner. This method has been applied by 23 companies which produce CO2 on a large scale. However, before TTPS apply this method a cost feasibility study is recommended.

M. Charles

2010-10-01

140

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty...1310-2007 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty...Measurement Using Gas Chromatography...Materials, Fuels, Emissions, and Noise,...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Re-entrainment and dispersion of exhausts from indoor radon reduction systems. Analysis of tracer gas data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tracer gas studies were conducted around four model houses in a wind tunnel, and around one house in the field, to quantify re-entrainment and dispersion of exhaust gases released from residential indoor radon reduction systems. Re-entrainment tests in the field suggest that active soil depressurization systems exhausting at grade level can contribute indoor radon concentrations 3 to 9 times greater than systems exhausting at the eave. With a high exhaust concentration of 37,000 Bq/m3, the indoor contribution from eave exhaust re-entrainment may be only 20% to 70% of the national average ambient level in the U.S. (about 14 Bq/m3), while grade-level exhaust may contribute 1.8 times the ambient average. The grade-level contribution would drop to only 0.18 times ambient if the exhaust were 3,700 Bq/m3. Wind tunnel tests of exhaust dispersion outdoors suggest that grade-level exhaust can contribute mean concentrations beside houses averaging 7 times greater than exhaust at the eave, and 25 to 50 times greater than exhaust midway up the roof slope. With 37,000 Bq/m3 in the exhaust, the highest mean concentrations beside the house could be less than or equal to the ambient background level with eave and mid-roof exhausts, and 2 to 7 times greater than ambient with grade exhausts. (au) 9 refs

142

Exhaust Emission Analysis of the Williams Research Gas Turbine Volkswagen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Williams Gas Turbine, 131-Q, regenerative turbine automotive engine was mounted in a 1965 Volkswagen squareback test bed. The engine utilizes a two stage turbine to develop 70 horsepower. It incorporates the standard VW automatic transmission coupled ...

L. D. Verrelli

1971-01-01

143

40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine...dilution tunnel. This method assures that the...Measurement Using Gas Chromatography,” December 1991...liquid chromatography (HPLC) of...

2010-07-01

144

Exhaust gas emission from ships in Norwegian coastal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the following vessel categories bunker consumption and emission of greenhouse gases and SO2 has been calculated: Norwegian coastal trade, domestic ferries, fishing vessels (Norwegian), Norwegian military vessels, inter-coastal ferries, import and export, ships iron-ore from Narvik and Soviet vessels in transit. The carbon emission (CO2 as carbon) within 12 nautical miles has been calculated to 0.621 MtC (Mega ton carbon) and to 1.0 MtC within the economic zone for these vessel categories. The calculated ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption in this study deviates from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway and OECD/IEA figures by up to 25%. This large deviation supports the need for a uniform method to calculate ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption. Scenarios for the emission outlook for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005 are discussed and calculated. With 1988 as present level it is possible, according to these scenarios, to reduce the emission of NOx by close to 40% and SO2 by 85%. Reduction of greenhouse- and SO2 components in the exhaust gases from ships is today technically possible, but the demand for further research and development is significant. Compared with land-based low-emission technologies, the offshore technologies are years behind. 21 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

145

HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), acrolein (H2C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH3CH2CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH3)2CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

146

An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

147

System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks.

Waldo, E.J.

1998-03-11

148

Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines  

Science.gov (United States)

The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1) its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2) its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

Gaborieau, Cécile; Sommier, Alain; Toutain, Jean; Anguy, Yannick; Crepeau, Gérald; Gobin, Benoît

2012-04-01

149

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Using smooth wall duct less than five...iv) Omitting the duct and performing the exhaust gas dilution function...the CVS shall be large enough to completely...the CVS shall be large enough to completely...air (or air plus exhaust gas)...

2010-07-01

150

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

151

Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

1990-03-01

152

Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

153

Experimental analysis of a spark-ignition engine using exhaust gas recycle at WOT operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spark-ignition engines are still a competitive solution in a great number of applications. European manufacturers are all involved in the effort of improving fuel economy, at least at some engine operating points while meeting, of course, the pollutant emission standards. The EGR technique, since a long time adopted in reducing the NO{sub x} formation rate, could be an effective system for fuel economy improvement. Mainly, a de-throttle effect and decreased heat losses to the walls can be obtained in this way. Furthermore, lower exhaust gas temperatures can be reached thus avoiding damages to the noble metals of catalytic converters. In this paper, the EGR technique has been widely investigated by carrying out an experimental analysis of a small, naturally aspirated, spark-ignition engine. In particular, at full or high load operation, attention has been paid to the combustion development and the influence of EGR rate on the values of spark advance, at knock onset limit, tolerated by the engine has been assessed. Due to lower temperature levels within the combustion chamber, the obtained results show a decreased octane requirement, thus an optimal choice of spark advance is possible. Hence a significant increase of engine efficiency has been obtained. (author)

Fontana, G.; Galloni, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Cassino, Via G. De Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy)

2010-07-15

154

Diesel emission control system using combined process of nonthermal plasma and exhaust gas components' recirculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A NOx aftertreatment system, using nonthermal plasma (NTP) reduction and exhaust gas components' recirculation, is investigated. A pilot-scale system is applied to a stationary diesel engine. In this system, NOx is first removed by adsorption, and subsequently, the adsorbent is regenerated by thermal desorption. NOx desorbed is reduced by using nitrogen NTP. Moreover, NOx, CO2, and water vapor recirculated into the engine intake reduce NOx. In this study, approximately 57% of the NOx of the exhaust (NOx: 240-325 ppm, flow rate = 300 NL/min) can be continuously treated for 58 h. A system energy efficiency of 120 g (NO2)/kWh is obtained.

155

Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery for C.I Engine-A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the study is to review the modern changes and technologies on waste heat recovery of exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. These include the thermoelectric generator, turbocharger, exhaust gas through I.C engine. Due to the total heat supplied to the engine in the form of fuel around 30-40%, heat is converting in to the use full mechanical work and residual parts of the wastage heat 60-70% as friction, exhaust gas and engine cooling system. Waste heat release in the form of fumes in environment through I.C engine, which also includes the exhaust gases. The side effects are global warming, greenhouse effects and entropy increases etc. Therefore, it is required to use the waste heat in to useful work. The recovery of waste heat not only conserves fossil fuel but also control the environment pollution. Therefore, main objective of this paper is to evaluate (waste heat recovery system technology based on the total waste heat converted into the useful mechanical work and possible methods to recovery of the waste heat from I.C engine. As a result, waste heat recovery from the I.C engines and utilization shall be remain best technique in future automobile application save the fuel and protect the environment.

Baleshwar Kumar Singh,

2014-11-01

156

Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

157

Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

2014-02-11

158

Measurement of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in gasoline vehicle exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels from most combustion sources including motor vehicles. Extensive studies have been carried out in the past on the identification and quantitation of PAH in particular matter, primarily from diesel vehicles; however, only limited data are available on gas phase emissions from motor vehicles. Gas phase emissions are important from both a health perspective and because of their higher chemical reactivity during atmospheric transport. A method was sought to allow the authors to measure gas phase PAH in diluted vehicle exhaust over the relatively short collection times permitted during the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) or Federal Test Procedure (FTP). In this paper, the authors describe their results on the development of a method using adsorption/thermal desorption with Tenax solid absorbent for the analysis of PAH and PAH derivatives in dilute vehicle exhaust

159

40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the CVS concept of measuring mass emissions...C (250 °F); heating and possibly cooling...not heated since heating of the CFVs...formaldehyde by measuring the CVS flow rate...The temperature measuring system shall have an...CVS is allowed. Heating the dilution...

2010-07-01

160

Interaction between struts and swirl flow in gas turbine exhaust diffusers  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modern gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is investigated experimentally. The test rig consists of a radial type, variable swirl generator which provides the exhaust flow corresponding to different gas turbine operating conditions. Static pressure measurements are carried out along the outer diffuser walls and along the hub of the annular part and along the centerline of the conical diffuser. Velocity distributions at several axial positions in the annular and conical diffuser have been measured using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Pressure recovery coefficients and velocity profiles are depicted as a function of diffuser length for several combinations of swirl strength, tip flow and strut geometries. The diffuser without struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with struts at all swirl angle settings. The diffuser with cylindrical struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with profiled struts at all swirl angle settings. Inlet flows with swirl angles over 18° affected the pressure recovery negatively for all strut configurations.

Pietrasch, Roman Z.; Seume, Joerg R.

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ceramic hot film sensor for exhaust gas mass flow measurements in automotive applications; Keramischer Heissfilmsensor zur Abgasmassenstrommessung in automotiven Anwendungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to increasingly stringent emission standards, a number of internal measures as well as exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have become state-of-the-art technology for passenger car and heavy duty engines. However, the full potential of these measures, for example the cooled external exhaust gas recirculation, can only be utilized if the engine control is adapted adequately well in all engine states. Thus, the requirements for future engine controls become more demanding and consequently the standards for sensors used in the control loop will increase. In this context this article introduces a new exhaust gas mass flow sensor based or the principle of hot film anemometry. The sensor comprising a ceramic sensor element is developed especially for the use in engine exhaust gases providing the exhaust gas mass flow as a direct measurement and control variable. Next to the sensor technology first results of engine tests are presented in this paper. (orig.)

Dismon, Heinrich; Grimm, Karsten; Toennesmann, Andres; Nigrin, Sven [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany); Wienand, Karlheinz; Muziol, Matthias [Heraeus Sensor Technology GmbH, Kleinostheim (Germany)

2008-07-01

162

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty...for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty...average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty...

2010-07-01

163

Analysis of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery and Pollution Processing for Z12V190 Diesel Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increasingly prominent problem regarding rapid economy development and the gradually serious environmental pollution, the waste heat recovery and waste gas pollution processing have received significant attention. Z12V190 diesel engine has high fuel consumption and low thermal efficiency and releases large amounts of exhaust gas and waste heat into the atmosphere, causing serious problems of energy waste and environmental pollution. In this work, the diesel engine exhaust gas components are analysed and the diesel engine exhaust emission rates and exhaust gas waste heat rates are calculated. The calculating results proved the economic feasibility of waste heat recovery from Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas. Then, the mainly harmful components are analysed and the corresponding methods of purification and processing about Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution discussed. In order to achieve full recovery of waste heat, save energy, purify treatment pollution and ultimate to lay the foundation for waste gas recovery and pollution treatment, the comprehensive process flows of Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution processing and waste heat recovery are preliminary designed.

Hou Xuejun

2012-06-01

164

NOVEL GAS SENSORS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI is developing ceramic-based microsensors for detection of exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes and are designed to operate at high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. Under this research project we are developing sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package along with data acquisition and control software and hardware. The sensor package can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. This report details the research activities performed from May 2004 to October 2004 including testing of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, and software development.

Palitha Jayaweera

2004-05-01

165

The effect of heat transfer on performance of the Diesel cycle and exergy of the exhaust gas stream in a LHR Diesel engine at the optimum injection timing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a Diesel cycle analysis taking combustion and heat transfer into account on performance has been performed. The effect of heat transfer is analysed in terms of design parameters such as compression ratio and cut-off ratio. The effects of heat transfer from the cylinder on exhaust temperature were also investigated for different heat transfer and combustion modes. It was observed that the work output and exhaust temperature proportionally increase with the decrease of heat transfer for a fixed combustion rate and cut-off ratio. In the experimental study, it was found that the minimum fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared to the standard (STD) engine was obtained with a 4 deg. crank angle (CA) retardation of the injection timing from the 38 deg. (CA). The decrease in specific fuel consumption at this injection timing reached 6%, and the increase in brake thermal efficiency was 2%. The exhaust temperature of the LHR Diesel engine with the injection timing of 38 deg. CA was 10.8% higher than that of the STD engine, whereas, the increase in the temperature reached 22.8% at 34 deg. CA. Thus, as a consequence of its great potential for optimisation of system performance, a comparative exergy analysis has been performed with the purpose of calculating the amount of available energy of the exhaust gas stream at the optimum injection timing (34 CA) for the LHR engine. While the maximum amount of available energy in the LHR engine exhaust gas stream with the injection timing of 38 deg. CA was 13.45%, the increase at the optimum injection timing of 34 deg. CA was found to reach 38%. It was concluded that the exhaust gas stream of a low heat rejection (LHR) Diesel engine is the most important source of available energy, which must be recovered via a secondary heat recovery system

166

Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of sin-gle particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near atomic scale such as layer distance, lamella length, and tortuosity were not observed to be influenced by the scrub-ber. We also found that particles in the size range between 30 and 50 nm, which were abundant in the exhaust before and after scrubber, were not graphitic soot. Furthermore, we found indications that these particles are composed of other crystalline material (salts).

Lieke, Kirsten Inga; RosenØrn, Thomas

2013-01-01

167

Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microinertial impactor with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids on two stages. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of single particles were studied by TEM. Image analysis was carried out on overview and high-resolution images, revealing influence of the exhaust gas treatment (scrubber) on the particle morphology and mixing state. Soot agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (D-f ) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mixing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near atomic scale such as layer distance, lamella length, and tortuosity were not observed to be influenced by the scrubber. We also found that particles in the size range between 30 and 50nm, which were abundant in the exhaust before and after scrubber, were not graphitic soot. Furthermore, we found indications that these particles are composed of other crystalline material (salts). Copyright 2013 American Association for Aerosol Research

Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenorn, Thomas

2013-01-01

168

Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

2012-06-01

169

Trigeneration scheme for energy efficiency enhancement in a natural gas processing plant through turbine exhaust gas waste heat utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Efficiency enhancement of Natural Gas (NG) processing plants in hot/humid climates. ? Gas turbine waste heat powered trigeneration scheme using absorption refrigeration. ? Annual NG savings of 1879 MSCM and operating cost savings of US$ 20.9 million realized. ? Trigeneration scheme payback period estimated at approximately 1 year. ? Significant economical and environmental benefits for NG processing plants. - Abstract: The performance of Natural Gas Processing Plants (NGPPs) can be enhanced with the integration of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) generation schemes. This paper analyzes the integration of a trigeneration scheme within a NGPP, that utilizes waste heat from gas turbine exhaust gases to generate process steam in a Waste Heat Recovery Steam Generator (WHRSG). Part of the steam generated is used to power double-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers that provide gas turbine compressor inlet air-cooling. Another portion of the steam is utilized to meet part furnace heating load, and supplement plant electrical power in a combined regenerative Rankine cycle. A detailed techno-economic analysis of scheme performance is presented based on thermodynamic predictions obtained using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The results indicate that the trigeneration system could recover 79.7 MW of gas turbine waste heat, 37.1 MW of which could be utilized by three steam-fired H2O–LiBr absod H2O–LiBr absorption chillers to provide 45 MW of cooling at 5 °C. This could save approximately 9 MW of electric energy required by a typical compression chiller, while providing the same amount of cooling. In addition, the combined cycle generates 22.6 MW of additional electrical energy for the plant, while process heating reduces furnace oil consumption by 0.23 MSCM per annum. Overall, the trigeneration scheme would result in annual natural gas fuel savings of approximately 1879 MSCM, and annual operating cost savings of approximately US$ 20.9 million, with a payback period of 1 year. This study highlights the significant economical and environmental benefits that could be achieved through implementation of the proposed integrated cogeneration scheme in NGPPs, particularly in elevated ambient temperature and humidity conditions such as encountered in Middle East facilities.

170

Consideration of a new cleanup system to remove tritium from an exhaust gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium cleanup system for application to exhaust gases discharged from the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The system is distinguished from conventional systems in that tritium which is in various chemical forms in the exhaust gas is removed as hydrogen molecules. The system basically consists of three main components, a hydrogen separator, a decomposition-processing vessel, and a hydrogen-absorbing vessel. We have been developing the decomposition-processing vessel over the last few years. In the present study, the performance of the tritium cleanup system was examined by computer-based simulation. We assumed that the gas for processing was made up of hydrogen, methane, and helium. To monitor the removal of tritium from the exhaust gas, we examined the partial pressures of the respective components during processing. The speed of processing was shown to gradually decrease with increasing proportions of methane. The curve for the partial pressure of hydrogen clearly bends at two elapsed times; one when a cycle of processing has been completed, and the other when helium became the dominant determinant of the speed with which the circular pump drove the gas flow. The first bent disappeared when the proportion of methane was lager than 80 %. The second bend gradually moved to the right along the X-axis as the proportion of methane increased. The time interval between the first and second bends obviously lengthened as the proportion of methane grew

171

Analysis of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery and Pollution Processing for Z12V190 Diesel Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the increasingly prominent problem regarding rapid economy development and the gradually serious environmental pollution, the waste heat recovery and waste gas pollution processing have received significant attention. Z12V190 diesel engine has high fuel consumption and low thermal efficiency and releases large amounts of exhaust gas and waste heat into the atmosphere, causing serious problems of energy waste and environmental pollution. In this work, the diesel engine exhaust gas compone...

Hou Xuejun; Gao Deli

2012-01-01

172

Study on using acetylene in dual fuel mode with exhaust gas recirculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in employing gaseous fuels to internal combustion (IC) engines whether for stationary or mobile automotive applications has gained importance because of the economical, sustainable and environmental technical features associated with their usage. However, the incidence of preignition and knock remains a significant barrier in achieving their optimum performance potential. With the advent of latest technologies, the above barriers are eliminated. One such technique is timed manifold injection (TMI) of the gaseous fuel, which is controlled electronically to precisely monitor the induction of fuel to overcome the preignition problem in the intake. In the present investigation, acetylene was injected in the intake manifold in a single cylinder diesel engine, with a gas flow rate of 240 g/h, start of injection time is 10o aTDC and 90o CA (9.9 ms) duration, operated in dual fuel mode. In order to decrease the NOx emissions from acetylene-diesel engine, cooled EGR was employed. The cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency and emissions such as NOx, smoke, CO, HC, CO2 and exhaust gas temperature were studied. Dual fuel operation with acetylene induction coupled with cooled EGR results in lowered NOx emissions and improved part load performance. -- Highlights: ? Acetylene was tried in SI engines, but due to backfire further research was hindered as an alternative fuel. ? But it is not tried in CI engine. Timed manifold injection was tried in diesel engine in the present work to combat backfire. ? Author was successful in running the diesel engine in dual fuel mode. ? 21% maximum diesel replacement was achieved. Author is confident that acetylene will be commercialised as a fuel for diesel engine in future.

173

PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a la...

RANBIR SINGH; SAGAR MAJI

2012-01-01

174

Modelling and observation of exhaust gas concentrations for diesel engine control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation covers the problem of the online estimation of diesel engine exhaust concentrations of NOx and '1. Two information sources are utilised: ¿ on-board sensors for measuring NOx and '1, and ¿ control oriented models (COM) in order to predict NOx and '1. The evaluation of the static accuracy of these sensors is made by comparing the outputs with a gas analyser, while the dynamics are identified on-board by perform- ing step-like transitions on NOx and '1 af...

Blanco Rodriguez, David

2013-01-01

175

The measurements of smokiness of the flue gas in the exhaust duct of a power boiler  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a construction of an absorption instrument for measuring the flue gas smokiness. The instrument, which was tested in industrial conditions, is a probe of the diameter 51 mm and length 2000 mm inserted into the exhaust duct. A laser diode GaAs of the power 5 mW were used as a light source. The industrial testing was performed on Power Unit no. 10 in the power plant TUROW II in Turoszow.

Pisarek, Jerzy; Wojciechowski, Artur

2007-02-01

176

Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

177

Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

178

Three-dimensional reconstruction method on the PDE exhaust plume flow flame temperature field  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulse detonation engine (referred to as PDE) has many advantage about simple structure, high efficiency thermal [1] cycling etc. In the future, it can be widely used in unmanned aircraft, target drone, luring the plane, the imaginary target, target missiles, long-range missiles and other military targets. However, because the exhaust flame of PDE is complicated [2], non-uniform temperature distribution and mutation in real time, its 3-D temperature distribution is difficult to be measured by normal way. As a result, PDE is used in the military project need to face many difficulties and challenges. In order to analyze and improve the working performance of PDE, deep research on the detonation combustion process is necessary. However, its performance characteristic which is in non-steady-state, as well as high temperature, high pressure, transient combustion characteristics put forward high demands about the flow field parameters measurement. In this paper, the PDE exhaust flames temperature field is reconstructed based on the theory of radiation thermometry [3] and Emission Spectral Tomography (referred to as EST) [4~6] which is one branch of Optical CT. It can monitor the detonation wave temperature distribution out of the exhaust flames at different moments, it also provides authentication for the numerical simulation which directs towards PDE work performance, and then it provides the basis for improving the structure of PDE.

Zhang, Zhimin; Wan, Xiong; Luo, Ningning; Li, Shujing

2010-10-01

179

A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

1996-01-01

180

Mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators; Bergtechnische Verwertung von Abgasreinigungsrueckstaenden aus Verbrennungsanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The exhaust gas purification of a household incinerator or a substitute fuel power plant intends to remove dust, heavy metal compounds and acid harmful gases from the exhaust gas in order to comply with the immission-control legal limits. The particulate matter contains volatile heavy metal chlorides which precipitate as a solid matter. The enhanced amount of water-soluble salts is conspicuous. The concentration of soluble components is limited to 10,000 mg/L in the 1:10 eluate due to the landfill regulation. Thus, the residues of exhaust gas cleaning are predestined for an underground waste disposal in salt mines. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the mining utilization of residues of exhaust gas cleaning from waste incinerators.

Werthmann, Rainer [K+S Entsorgung GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Abfallchemie und Zulassungen

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Nitride precipitation during high temperature corrosion of ductile cast irons in synthetic exhaust gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Internal nitrides form in two ductile cast irons (SiMo and Ni-Resist) intended for exhaust systems in vehicles. Samples oxidised at 650 1050 °C for 50 h in modified synthetic exhaust gases were analysed by using AES and FEG-SEM. No nitrides formed in absence of NOx. In dry petrol gas coarse nitrides (diffusion paths and increased N solubility as Si was depleted contribute to a self-accelerating process. The Si depletion around the coarse nitrides lowered the microhardness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In diesel and in normal petrol gases ?-sized MgSiN2 form in SiMo in cell boundaries where Mg segregates. This also occurs in Ni-Resist in both dry and normal petrol whereas no nitrides were observed in Ni-Resist exposed to diesel gases.

Tholence, F.; Norell, M.

2005-02-01

182

Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

Moos, Ralf

2010-01-01

183

Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

Ralf Moos

2010-07-01

184

A unified approach to assess performance of different techniques for recovering exhaust heat from gas turbines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exhaust heat from gas turbines can be recovered externally or internally to the cycle itself. Of the technology options for external recovery, the combined gas-steam power plant is by far the most effective and commonly used worldwide. For internal recovery conventional solutions are based on thermodynamic regeneration and steam injection, while innovative solutions rely on humid air regeneration and steam reforming of fuel. In this paper a unified approach for analysing different exhaust heat recovery techniques is proposed. It has been possible to define a characteristic internal heat recovery plane, based on a few meaningful parameters and to identify an innovative scheme for repowering existing combined cycles. The characteristic plane indicates directly the performance obtainable with the different recovery techniques, showing that performances close to combined cycle plants (external recovery) can only be achieved with combined recovery techniques (humid air regeneration, steam reforming of fuel). The innovative repowering scheme, which requires the addition of a gas turbine and one-pressure level HRSG to an existing combined gas-steam power plant, significantly increases power output with fairly high marginal efficiency.

185

The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

186

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...For methanol-fueled engines, cooling or reaction...representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall...dilution function at the engine exhaust manifold or...representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or ...required. Additional components such as...

2010-07-01

187

Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance  

Science.gov (United States)

The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

2010-01-01

188

Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

Serres, Nicolas (Epinal, FR)

2010-11-09

189

Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in thates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01–0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

190

Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

1997-12-31

191

An Experimental Study of Different Effects of EGR Rates on The Performance And Exhaust Emissions of The Stratified Charge Piston Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR is one of the principal techniques used to control spark ignition NOX. A fraction of the exhaust gas is recycled through a control valve from the exhaust to the engine intake system. However, EGR has different effect on performance, combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish such as increase of intake temperature, delay of Rate Of Heat Rrelease (ROHR, decrease of peak heat release, decrease in oxygen concentration etc. Therefore the impact of EGR on the aforementioned engine parameters (i.e., performance, combustion and exhaust emission is not perfectly understood, especially under high EGR rates. An experimental study has been conducted to analyze various effects of EGR rates on the performance and emissions of the stratified charge piston direct injection compressed natural gas engine and to determine the stable operating limit of the engine at different excess air ratios ( = 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 which represents rich, stoichiometric, slightly lean and moderately lean mixture respectively. The results showed that as the EGR is increased, the brake torque, brake specific fuel consumption decreased, while nitric oxide emissions (NO reduced drastically at various fraction of EGR, just as Unburnt Hydro Carbon (UHC increased. EGR has no significant effect on carbon monoxide (CO emission. The addition of EGR also reduces cylinder’s gas temperature and pressure. It can be concluded that in introducing EGR in DI-CNG engines, there is a tradeoff between the engine’s performance and NOX emission, while it is difficult to realize stable combustion at high temperature.

Saheed O. Wasiu

2011-01-01

192

A GAS TEMPERATURE PROFILE BY INFRARED EMISSION-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

This computer program calculates the temperature profile of a flame or hot gas. Emphasis is on profiles found in jet engine or rocket engine exhaust streams containing water vapor or carbon dioxide as radiating gases. The temperature profile is assumed to be axisymmetric with a functional form controlled by two variable parameters. The parameters are calculated using measurements of gas radiation at two wavelengths in the infrared spectrum. Infrared emission and absorption measurements at two or more wavelengths provide a method of determining a gas temperature profile along a path through the gas by using a radiation source and receiver located outside the gas stream being measured. This permits simplified spectral scanning of a jet or rocket engine exhaust stream with the instrumentation outside the exhaust gas stream. This program provides an iterative-cyclic computation in which an initial assumed temperature profile is altered in shape until the computed emission and absorption agree, within specified limits, with the actual instrument measurements of emission and absorption. Temperature determination by experimental measurements of emission and absorption at two or more wavelengths is also provided by this program. Additionally, the program provides a technique for selecting the wavelengths to be used for determining the temperature profiles prior to the beginning of the experiment. By using this program feature, the experimenter has a higher probability of selecting wavelengths which will result in accurate temperature profile measurements. This program provides the user with a technique for determining whether this program will be sufficiently accurate for his particular application, as well as providing a means of finding the solution. The input to the program consists of four types of data: (1) computer program control constants, (2) measurements of gas radiance and transmittance at selected wavelengths, (3) tabulations from the literature of gas transmission parameters at selected wavelengths, and (4) independently determined or estimated profiles of partial pressures of the gas reaction products. The output consists of error figures for the temperature and partial pressure profiles in tabular form. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for execution on an UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a main memory requirement of 21K of 36 bit words. This program was developed in 1977.

Buchele, D. R.

1994-01-01

193

Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat exchangers with superior performance for further analysis. In this work, the on-design performances of the 4 heat exchangers are more thoroughly assessed on their corresponding optimized subsystem configurations. Afterward, their off-design performances are compared on the whole working range of the fuel cell stack. All through this study, different electrical connection styles of all the thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules in the subsystem and their influences are also discussed. In the end, the subsystem configuration is further optimized and a higher subsystem power output is achieved. All TEG modules are now connected into branches. The procedures of designing and optimizing this TE exhaust heat recovery subsystem are drawn out. The contribution of TE exhaust heat recovery to the HT-PEM fuel cell power system is preliminarily concluded. Its feasibility is also discussed.

Xin, Gao; Andreasen, SØren Juhl

2014-01-01

194

Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

2012-08-01

195

Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These gener...

Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

2012-01-01

196

Plasma and neutral gas jet interactions in the exhaust of a magnetic confinement system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general purpose 2-1/2 dimensional, multifluid, time dependent computer code has been developed. This flexible tool models the dynamic behavior of plasma/neutral gas interactions in the presence of a magnetic field. The simulation has been used to examine the formation of smoke ring structure in the plasma rocket exhaust by injection of an axial jet of neutral gas. Specifically, the code was applied to the special case of attempting to couple the neutral gas momentum to the plasma in such a manner that plasma smoke rings would form, disconnecting the plasma from the magnetic field. For this scenario several cases where run scanning a wide range of neutral gas input parameters. In all the cases it was found that after an initial transient phase, the plasma eroded the neutral gas and after that followed the original magnetic field. From these findings it is concluded that smoke rings do not form with axial injection of neutral gas. Several suggestions for alternative injection schemes are presented

197

Water-recovery systems from exhaust gas of a steam injection gas turbine; Haikisui kaishu hakuen boshi gijutsu no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A water-recovery system has been developed for the steam injection gas turbine system to recycle recovered water into the steam injector. The system can also effectively suppress the visible steam plume. A condenser is provided to recover water from the exhaust gas after the steam generator of the gas-turbine system, which has a fin-tube structure, without blowing condensing droplets away. CO{sub 2} is stripped out from the condensed water, because CO{sub 2} lowers the pH, using membrane technology, which makes the system compact. The condenser and CO{sub 2} stripping system were tested, and thermal and efficiency improvements were confirmed. (author)

Oguma, M.; Mizuno, M.; Uji, S.; Ochiai, J. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-05-01

198

ZIGBEE Based Implementation on Exhaust Gas Detection Services Oriented System Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vehicle exhaust gas emission is directly related with the quality of air. This paper describes theresearch and development of an ZIGBEE based exhaust gas detection system applying the service orientedarchitecture for the purpose of environmental protection. An edge engine supporting the EPC global ALEspecification, a complex event processing engine dealing with the complex streaming ZIGBEE events and servicebus, which are involved in the architecture of the system, are discussed both separately and in a whole picture. Theedge engine is composed of four modules, which are kernel module, device management module, events filter module,and configuration module. It provides features to encapsulate the applications from device interfaces; to process the raw observations captured by the readers and sensors; and to provide an application-level interface formanaging readers and querying ZIGBEE observations. Event processing engine consists of a network of event processing agents running in parallel that interact using a dedicated event processing infrastructure, which provides an abstract communication mechanism and allows dynamic reconfiguration of the communication topology between agents at run-time. Web Services and asynchronous APIs are pivotal system implementation for flexiblecomponents reuse, dynamic configuration and optimized performance. Service bus, through its service integrationand management capabilities, is the backbone of the system. Lastly, the system is proven to be effective with highperformance in the benchmark.

SK SABIHA BEGUM

2013-02-01

199

Part-load characteristics of direct injection spark ignition engine using exhaust gas trap  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective strategy to reduce pumping loss and improve fuel economy using mixture dilution than traditional external EGR. In this paper, the internal EGR was obtained by exhaust gas trap (EGT) using the negative valve overlap (NVO) method. The effects of EGT on the part-load characteristics, including energy conversion, combustion and emission characteristics were studied in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine. The experimental results showed that EGT can save fuel consumption by 5-16% due to reduced pumping loss and improved combustion efficiency, while it also can increase the engine cyclic variation and combustion duration. The engine cyclic variation increases with increasing of the EGT level; this can be overcome by advancing spark timing to stabilize the combustion. The flame propagation and compression combustion occurred simultaneously when high EGT level and high compression ratio were adopted; the combined combustion can reduce combustion duration but increase the engine cyclic variation. The stratified mixture using the two-stage injection strategy can reduce the engine cyclic variation and shorten the combustion duration so as to improve the thermal efficiency. Moreover, the second injection mass ratio and timing take an important effect on the combustion and emission characteristics in DISI engines using EGT strategy. (author)

Bai, Yun-long; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jian-xin [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-08-15

200

Operating properties and exhaust gas emission of a combustion engine with the Porsche divided chamber system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to reduce the emission of undesirable exhaust gas components without raising fuel consumption led to the development of the Porsche stratified charge system with divided combustion chamber. A lean mixture is supplied to the main combustion chamber which is connected with a second combustion chamber through a small duct. A rich mixture is produced in the second chamber which is equipped with an injection nozzle or an additional valve for this purpose. The ignition chamber is attached to the second combustion chamber. The fuel is directly injected into the main combustion chamber. The stratified charge is produced with the aid of the second chamber. As experiments with the single-cylinder test engine and with an automobile engine with several cylinders have shown, the combustion process is marked by a very stable operation over a wide range of fuel-to-air ratios. Design parameters such as ignition timing and lambda have a far smaller influence on the fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission than with the comparable Otto engine. This makes the regulation of the stratified charge engine with divided chamber easy. The described system emits somewhat less carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons than the Otto engine and considerably less oxides of nitrogen with about the same fuel consumption as the conventional Otto engine.

Gruden, D.; Lange, K.

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cleaning the exhaust gas of Volkswagen FSI engines; Die Abgasreinigung der FSI-Motoren von Volkswagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order further to reduce the fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop a spark-ignition engine with direct fuel injection. So as to be able to launch this new engine concept while at the same time meeting the EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and this was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and dmc{sup 2} Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The article describes the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines, its adjustment to the vehicle and the most important development aspects. (orig.) [German] Zur weiteren Absenkung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs ihrer Fahrzeugflotte hat sich die Volkswagen AG fuer die Entwicklung eines Ottomotors mit Kraftstoffdirekteinspritzung entschieden. Um dieses neue Motorkonzept unter Einhaltung der EU-IV-Grenzwerte betreiben zu koennen, war die Entwicklung eines adaequaten Abgasnachbehandlungssystems notwendig, die im Rahmen einer intensiven Zusammenarbeit zwischen der Volkswagen AG und der dmc{sup 2} Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG realisiert wurde. Der Artikel beschreibt das Abgasnachbehandlungssystem fuer die FSI-Motoren von Volkswagen, dessen Integration im Fahrzeug, sowie die dafuer wichtigen Entwicklungsrichtungen und -schwerpunkte. (orig.)

Glueck, K.H.; Goebel, U.; Hoehne, J.; Kreuzer, T. [Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG (Germany); Hahn, H.; Krebs, R.; Pott, E. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2000-06-01

202

Effects of exhaust gas recirculation on the thermal efficiency and combustion characteristics for premixed combustion system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research, a boiler in a premixed combustion system used to achieve exhaust gas recirculation was investigated as a way to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. The effects of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities on thermal efficiency, NOx and CO emissions and the flame behavior on the burner surface were examined both experimentally and numerically. The results of the experiments showed that when EGR was used, the NOx and CO concentrations decreased and the thermal efficiency increased. In the case of a 15% EGR ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, NOx concentrations were found to be smaller than for the current operating condition of the boiler, and the thermal efficiency was approximately 4.7% higher. However, unlike NOx concentrations, although the EGR ratio was increased to 20% at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, the CO concentration was higher than in the current operating condition of the boiler. From the viewpoint of burner safety, the red glow on the burner surface was noticeably reduced when EGR was used. These results confirmed that the EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety. -- Highlights: ? The premixed boiler system applied EGR was investigated to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. ? Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics were examined with EGR ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities. ? EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety.

203

Oxidation and exhaust gas corrosion resistance of the cobalt base clad layers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this work is describing the behaviour of the cobalt base cladding layers after treatment in hot air (750°C, 200 hours and exhaust gases (700°C, two month.Design/methodology/approach: The layers were produced by two cladding, laser and PTA, cladding technique. Cladding was conducted with a high power diode laser HDPL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 and Plasma Transformed Arc method. The layers consisted of three multitracking sublayers. The cobalt base layers were evaluated by microstructure investigations (optical and scanning electron microscope SEM, chemical analysis and micro hardness measurements.Findings: The microstructure of the investigated layers did not change much, neither on the top part nor in the clad/steel interface after treatment in both environments. On the outer surfaces the oxide layers were observed which consisted generally of chromium and iron oxides. The compositions of this scales were reviled by the EDS analyze. The changes in chemical compositions before and after oxidation and after corrosion in exhaust gases in the dendritic regions and micro regions were confirmed by the semi-quantitative chemical analysis (EDS. Neither the oxidation nor exposition for two month in exhaust gases did not influence on the morphology of the clad layers in any region however changes in chemical composition were observed. For both sort of clads the oxide layers were observed on the surface. The proposed layers are resistant for the hot exhausted gases.Research limitations/implications: The future researches should be done on microstructural and kinetic analyze of high temperature corrosion for higher temperature and times of the process.Practical implications: The clad layers, of this composition, were designed as a method to prolong service time for the ship engine exhausted valve and after this investigation the first valve heads with laser clad layer were installed in working ship engine.Originality/value: The chemical composition of the powder was new one. Also using the laser cladding technique for ship engine parts subject of interesting.

H. Smolenska

2008-12-01

204

Gas turbine cycles with solid oxide fuel cells. Part 1: Improved gas turbine power plant efficiency by use of recycled exhaust gases and fuel cell technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy conversion efficiency of the combustion process can be improved if immediate contact of fuel and oxygen is prevent4ed and an oxygen carrier is used. In a previous paper (Harvey et al., 1992), a gas turbine cycle was investigated in which part of the exhaust gases are recycled and used as oxygen-carrying components. For the optimized process, a theoretical thermal efficiency of 66.3% was achieved, based on the lower heating value (LHV) of the methane fuel. One means to further improve the exergetic efficiency of a power cycle is to utilize fuel cell technology. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have many features that make them attractive for utility and industrial applications. In this paper, the authors will therefore consider SOFC technology. In view of their high operating temperatures and the incomplete nature of the fuel oxidation process, fuel cells must be combined with conventional power generation technology to develop power plant configurations that are both functional and efficient. In this paper, the authors will show how monolithic SOFC (MSOFC) technology may be integrated into the previously described gas turbine cycle using recycled exhaust gases as oxygen carriers. An optimized cycle configuration will be presented based upon a detailed cycle analysis performance using Aspen Plus[trademark] process simulation software and a MSOFC fuel cell simulator developed by Argonne National Labs. The optimized cycle achieves a theoretical thermal efficiency of 77.7%, based on the LHV of the fuel.

Harvey, S.P.; Richter, H.J. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering)

1994-12-01

205

Determination of analytical dependences in order to calculate the exhaust gas boiler with helical belt inserts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research is the identification of regularities of heat and aerodynamic processes and determination of analytical dependences in order to calculate heat exchange Nu = (Re, S/d and aerodynamic resistance ? = f(Re, S/d of the exhaust gas boiler with helical belt inserts. The experimental research of heat exchange and aerodynamics of all used helical belt inserts was performed in the same conditions, based on one methodology and the same ex-perimental installation. The received dependences help to evaluate the increasein heat exchange and aerodynamic resistance of a gas flow while using helical belt inserts with different geometrical specifications, and to select the best option of the geometry of the insert for a specific construction of a recuperative heat exchanger with multi-phase heat exchange environments.

Kolyadin Evgeniy Alekseevich

2010-10-01

206

Purification of exhaust air and off-gas in nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sources of radioactivity present in nuclear power stations, the significance of the fission products for the environmental impact of nuclear power stations, and the pathway of the airborne radioactivity will be treated briefly. The devices for the removal of radioactivity from the exhaust air and from off-gas are discussed and their function is explained. The HEPA-filters for the removal of aerosols, the sorption filters for the removal of gaseous radioiodine, and the fission gas holdup beds with activated charcoal for decreasing the discharge of radioactive isotopes of the noble gases xenon and krypton will be treated in detail. The degree of penetration of these devices will be given. The factors reducing the removal efficiency will be mentioned. (orig.)

207

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

...temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have...of the introduction of engine exhaust into the CVS...filter and upstream of the engine exhaust flow (Figure...determined by a temperature sensor located immediately upstream...condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust shall be...

2010-07-01

208

Effects of powdery silica on NOsub(x) and SO2 removals by electron beam irradiation in coal-fired exhaust gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test gases with contents similar to actual coal-fired exhaust gases are brought into contact with water-containing powdery silica after being irradiated with electron beam, and the effects of silica on removal NO sub(x) and SO sub(x) are examined. The investigation is carried out in the temperature range from 80 to 220 0C. Results obtained lead to conclusions as follows. (1) Removal of NO sub(x) and SO sub(x) from exhaust gas can be performed effectively by bringing it into contact with water-containing powdery silica after irradiation of electron beam. The degree of NO sub(x) removal increases with increasing temperature (irradiation temperature and silica bath temperature). (2) An increase in degree of NO sub(x) removal is also observed when a test exhaust gas containing ammonia is brought into the silica bath after irradiation. (3) The acceleration of NO sub(x) removal below 200 0C results from oxidation of NO to NO2 caused by electron beam irradiation plus reaction of NO2 produced above with the absorbed water existing on the silica surface (3NO2 + H2O ? 2HNO3 + NO). The resulting NHO3 molecules are then fixed on the silica surface. Part of the NO2 molecules are reduced to NO by the above reaction and released back into the gas. (4) It can be expected that the NO molecules released when the irradiated gas comes into contact with silica will be immediately oxidized ith silica will be immediately oxidized to NO2 and removed from the gas if silica coexists with it during the irradiation. This suggests a process which may further improve the degree of NO sub(x) removal. (Nogami, K.)

209

Temperatures and Stresses on Hollow Blades For Gas Turbines  

Science.gov (United States)

The present treatise reports on theoretical investigations and test-stand measurements which were carried out in the BMW Flugmotoren GMbH in developing the hollow blade for exhaust gas turbines. As an introduction the temperature variation and the stress on a turbine blade for a gas temperature of 900 degrees and circumferential velocities of 600 meters per second are discussed. The assumptions onthe heat transfer coefficients at the blade profile are supported by tests on an electrically heated blade model. The temperature distribution in the cross section of a blade Is thoroughly investigated and the temperature field determined for a special case. A method for calculation of the thermal stresses in turbine blades for a given temperature distribution is indicated. The effect of the heat radiation on the blade temperature also is dealt with. Test-stand experiments on turbine blades are evaluated, particularly with respect to temperature distribution in the cross section; maximum and minimum temperature in the cross section are ascertained. Finally, the application of the hollow blade for a stationary gas turbine is investigated. Starting from a setup for 550 C gas temperature the improvement of the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption are considered as well as the increase of the useful power by use of high temperatures. The power required for blade cooling is taken into account.

Pollmann, Erich

1947-01-01

210

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1990 through 1994 model year methanol-fueled...maintained at a temperature below 599 °F (315...wall so as to be free from the influence...Increase the gas stream temperature to 464K ±11K...wall so as to be free from the influences...condensation, to a minimum temperature of 131 °F...

2010-07-01

211

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Operating on Biodiesel and its Blends at Elevated Temperature of Air  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, performance and exhaust emission characteristics of Pongamia Pinnata oil blends (B10,B20,B30 and B50 with mineral diesel were investigated in preheated intake air conditions in a single cylinder 4-Stroke direct injection CI engine at 75 % maximum load and its rated engine speed 1500 rpm. Two types of heat exchanger designed to preheat the suction air and the heating is accomplished by both engine cooling water and exhaust gases. Two types of heat exchanger includes concentric tube counter flow heat exchanger (to recover heat from engine exhaust gases and shell and tube heat exchanger (to recover heat from engine jacket cooling water is mounted along intake manifold to preheat the suction air. Test is carried out at atmospheric air temperature (30oC, preheated air temperature of 45oC,60oC and75oC.Exhaust emission characteristics such as Carbon Dioxide(CO2,Carbon monoxide(CO,Unburned Hydrocarbon (HC and Nitrogen Oxide(NO. Experimental investigation revealed that except Nitrogen Oxide (NO emission and other exhaust emission parameters such as CO2,CO and HC are decreased with mineral diesel and among other biodiesel blends a drastic reduction in exhaust emission is observed for Biodiesel blend ratio B20 for all preheated air temperature .However the Nitrogen Oxide (NO emission increases with increase in biodiesel mixtures for all preheated air temperature.

K.Sureshkumar

2014-10-01

212

Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

213

Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

2013-07-01

214

Simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 in exhausted gas through landfill leachate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 from exhausted gas were investigated by studying co-culture of sulfate reducing bacteria and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, separated from landfill leachate. When H2S, generated by sulfate reducing bacteria was chosen as the sole electron donor for anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, the co-culture system demonstrated a faster NO removal rate, higher stability and better permanence. When the feed gas flow rates of N2 and SO2 were maintained constant at 0.1 m3/h and 16 ml/min respectively, the maximum NO-removal rate could be achieved at over 92% with NO feed gas kept between 2-6 ml/min, while the SO2 removal rate was always above 95%. Long-term continuous removal of NO exhibited an evident periodicity of five days, however, the fluctuation range of NO-removal was decreasing. Moreover, the decrease of the gas flow rate and the increase in NO inlet concentration could contribute to a higher NO- removal rate. PMID:21250607

Han, Yaqiong; Zhang, Weijiang

2010-12-01

215

Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

2008-07-01

216

SIGIS HR: a system for measurement of aircraft exhaust gas under normal operating conditions of an airport  

Science.gov (United States)

To gather information about the impact on the environment caused by airport operations, knowledge about the amount of gases such as CO or NOX emitted by aircraft engines on the ground is important. In order to avoid influences on airport operations an analysis system for this application has to enable measurements on the hot jet engine exhaust gas from a distance. The infrared radiation emitted by the hot gas can be analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gas. To fulfil this task, a new version of the scanning infrared gas imaging system (SIGIS HR), using relatively high spectral resolution (0.2 cm-1), has been developed. The period of time for measurements on the engine exhaust gas of an aircraft on the ground is short during normal airport operations. Hence the remote sensing system has to be aligned to the exhaust gas plume quickly. For this reason the system is equipped with a scanning mirror actuated by stepper motors in order to allow fast changes of the line of sight. An infrared camera combined with a DSP-system enables automatic alignment of the system to the hot exhaust gas and tracking of a moving engine via online analysis of the infrared image. Additionally fast scans with low spectral resolution of the area around the engine-outlet can be performed. On the basis of the low resolution data the optimal direction for the exhaust gas measurement can be found using several automatic evaluation- and positioning-algorithms. After the SIGIS HR-system has been positioned correctly it is operated in high- resolution-mode in order to quantify the target compounds.

Rusch, Peter; Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Utzig, Selina

2005-10-01

217

Novel laboratory-scale preparation and characterisation of BaLn{sub 2}PtO{sub 5} (Ln: Nd, Eu, Sm, Gd) as exhaust gas catalyst precursors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly tightening regulations concerning the emissions of internal combustion engines have brought about new requirements for automobile exhaust catalysts. Among these requirements is the high thermal stability of the catalytically active materials. PtO{sub 2} especially is vulnerable at high operating temperatures of the catalysts. One solution to increase the thermal stability of the catalytically active material is to introduce PtO{sub 2} mixed with other metal oxides into the catalysts. For palladium catalysts this has been achieved by using neodymium, samarium or lanthanum. In this paper, BaNd{sub 2}PtO{sub 5}, BaEu{sub 2}PtO{sub 5}, BaSm{sub 2}PtO{sub 5} and BaGd{sub 2}PtO{sub 5} were synthesised by a novel, laboratory-scale method. The products were characterised by powder-XRD, XPS and TGA/DTA. The complete indexing of XRD powder data yielded the unit cell parameters and could be used to identify the solid phases. TGA/DTA experiments indicated that all phases were thermally stable up to 1250C. Based on the XPS measurements, the valence states of the elements were consistent with those of BaLn{sub 2}PtO{sub 5} (Ln: Nd, Eu, Sm, Gd). Catalytic activity was measured for the catalysts prepared from BaNd{sub 2}PtO{sub 5} and BaEu{sub 2}PtO{sub 5}. The measurements were performed in both simulated gasoline exhaust gas and lean exhaust gas atmospheres. And the results indicated, that the lean exhaust gas catalysts operate in a temperature region (=270-300C) that cannot easily be achieved with conventional platinum catalysts.

Hietikko, M.; Pursiainen, J.; Laitinen, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Suhonen, S.; Valden, M. [Surface Science Laboratory/Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33720 Tampere (Finland); Savimaeki, A. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Catalyst Research, P.O. Box 171, FIN-90101 Oulu (Finland); Slotte, T. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, P.O. Box 74, FIN-67101 Kokkola (Finland)

2002-06-28

218

Dual-catalyst aftertreatment of lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dual-catalyst system for the reduction of NO with CH4 under lean conditions was investigated. The system is comprised of a mixed bed containing a Co/ZrO2 catalyst, active for the oxidation of NO to NO2, and a Pd/sulfated zirconia (SZ) catalyst that is active for the reduction of NO2 with CH4. Such a system is capable of taking advantage of higher reduction rates for NO2, as compared to NO, that have been previously observed. When simulated exhaust streams from lean-burn natural gas engines are used as feed, the dual-catalyst system is simultaneously active for the reduction of NOx and the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO. (author)

219

Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko

2000-03-01

220

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...iii) If the exhaust system ducting from the...than standard exhaust system components in the...The equipment and methods used for dilution, sampling and analysis shall comply with...is determined for systems that determine...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Simplified prediction of soot emissions in the exhaust of gas turbines operated at atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous works [1, 2], a correlation for the prediction of soot in gas turbine exhaust has been presented. The development of the correlation is based on 300 of experimental data for a total of 19 fuels burned both at atmospheric and high pressure (0.1 to 0.9 MPa) and two scales (1/2 and 1/3) of a Laval type combustion chamber. With the wide range of fuels burned in the experiment giving a smoke number variation from 0 to 100, the accuracy of the correlation (Standard Deviation of 40%) is acceptable for most purposes Later on the correlation has been improved using data from the full scaled combustion chamber as shown in [3]. A detailed analysis of the correlation is undertaken within the present work for the case of the experiments at atmospheric pressure. The result is a simplification of the correlation presented in [3] without a major deterioration of the standard deviation. This result leads to a simplification of the previous proposed soot formation and oxidation model within gas turbine combustors (operated at atmospheric pressure) and limits the analysis of the phenomenon on essential functional parameters as well. Gas turbines are generally used in aircraft, ships, and in stationary production of electricity, heat and vapor. (author)

222

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...vents, bypass flow, and pressure...Filters. Glass fiber filter paper...indicate sample flow rates through the...Temperature sensor. A temperature...protrusions (due to sensors, etc.) should...gas meters or flow instrumentation...Fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters...

2010-07-01

223

Influence of gas temperature on temperature field in the area of transit gas-pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes to what extent can temperature regimes of gas-pipeline influence temperature field in the surrounding environment during transportation of natural gas in transit gas-pipeline. Basic thermo-physical properties of soil, pipe material and natural gas affect the heat transfer from the gas through the pipe wall into the surrounding soil. It is necessary to calculate the temperature course in the depth of the pipeline in time ? = 0 (no gas flow in the pipeline), to determine temperature and regime pressure of gas and soil temperature when gas pipeline is affected (gas flow in the gas-pipeline).

Széplaky, Dávid; Varga, Augustín; Rajzinger, Ján

2014-08-01

224

Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based on a finite-element approach. On each discretized segment, fluid properties, heat transfer process and TEG performance are locally calculated for higher model precision. To benefit both the system design and fabrication, the way to model TEG modules is herein reconsidered; a database of commercialized compact plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance of the model accuracy and the optimization on system configuration. Future studies will concentrate on heat exchanger structures.

Xin, Gao; Andreasen, SØren Juhl

2012-01-01

225

Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

2005-03-01

226

Characteristics and economic evaluation of a CO{sub 2}-capturing repowering system with oxy-fuel combustion for utilizing exhaust gas of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scale of 2.4 MW molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) was taken to construct a high-efficiency and economic power generation system without CO{sub 2} emission for utilizing its exhaust gas. A conventional steam turbine power generation system (STPS) is evaluated and the net generated power (NGP) is estimated to be only 131 kW and the STPS is not economically feasible. A CO{sub 2}-caputuring repowering system is proposed, where low temperature steam produced at heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) by using the MCFC exhaust gas is utilized as a main working fluid of a gas turbine, and the temperature of the steam is raised by combusting fuel in a combustor by using pure oxygen, not the air. It is estimated that NGP of the proposed system is 253 kW, and CO{sub 2} reduction amount is 583 t-CO{sub 2}/y, compared to 302 t-CO{sub 2}/y for the STPS and that the proposed system becomes economically feasible if a CO{sub 2} emission credit higher than 20 $/t-CO{sub 2} can be granted. It is also estimated, when its turbine inlet temperature is increased from 850 C to 1000 C, CO{sub 2}-capturing is not cost-consuming but becomes to be profitable, owing to improved power generation characteristics. (author)

Pak, Pyong Sik; Lee, Young Duk; Ahn, Kook Young [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305 343 (Korea)

2009-11-15

227

CO{sub 2} separation from exhaust gas; CO{sub 2} separasjon fra eksosgass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Saga wanted to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from Snorre B, cleaning of CO{sub 2} from exhaust gas was one of several options considered. CO{sub 2} cleaning using membrane/amine technology is under development. Saga required that the technology should be qualified and that the yield of the Snorre B project should not be reduced. This presentation discusses qualification of combined membrane/amine technology, environmental issues, economic issues and implementation on the Snorre B platform. Flue gas from the gas turbine is passed to a CO{sub 2} absorption and desorption stage from which the CO{sub 2} is passed on for compression and disposal while the cleaned flue is let out. The membrane is situated between the flue gas and the absorbent liquid. The pores are large enough for the CO{sub 2} to pass through quickly and small enough to prevent the liquid from penetrating into the pores. The packing factor is high, 500 - 1000 m2/m3, there is no formation of froth, ducts or entrainment of the liquid. New technology implies 65 - 70% size reduction of the main equipment and 39 - 40% reduction of the energy consumption. Research on amines brings out new chemicals which imply 80% reduction in the consumption of chemicals and the quantity of special waste produced. If a CO{sub 2} cleaning plant is installed on a LM 2500, the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 97,200 ton/year given the right operational conditions. Although it was decided in 1998 not to install the module with the CO{sub 2} pilot cleaning plant, Snorre B is still a good environmental project having CO{sub 2} emission within the values set by Miljoesok.

Magelssen, Paul Fr. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

1998-07-01

228

Numerical Simulation of Exhaust Gas Cooling in Channels with Periodic Elbows for Application in Compact Heat Recovery Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Miniature and Micro devices represent the new frontier for advanced heat and mass transfer technology. Due to the small length scales, the use of CFD is very useful for designing and optimizing microfluidic devices since experimentation and visualization at these scales can be difficult. In this work a high temperature air microfluidic cooling strategy for applications such as compact waste heat recovery, exhaust gas recirculation and fuel cell thermal management is proposed. Initially, the application of a simple straight microchannel is considered. In an effort to partially compensate for the poor thermal properties of air, right-angle bends are introduced in order to induce Dean vortices which periodically restart the thermal boundary layer development, thus improving the heat transfer and fluid mixing. Numerical simulations in the range of 100 ? ReDh ? 1000 have been carried out for channels of square cross-section. Channel wall lengths of 1.0 mm are investigated for elbow spacings of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm. High temperature air (300°C) at atmospheric inlet pressure is the working fluid. The results indicate that the elbows substantially improve the local and average heat transfer in the channels while increasing the pressure drop. Design considerations are discussed which take into account the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the channels.

229

PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.

RANBIR SINGH

2012-03-01

230

Mercury removal from geothermal exhaust gas by sulfur-impregnated and virgin activated carbons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulfur-impregnated and virgin activated carbons have been used in a laboratory scaled fixed-bed reactor to investigate their capability of removing mercury vapours from a gas mixture containing H{sub 2}S, O{sub 2} and moisture that is representative of the exhaust gas emissions of the geothermal power plants of the Monte Amiata field in Italy. The observed deposition of sulfur from H{sub 2}S oxidation on the carbonaceous matrix increases the mercury scavenging capacity of the commercial sulfur-impregnated activated carbon and makes virgin activated carbon capable of adsorbing mercury vapours by the formation of HgS contextually to the deposition of sulfur, achieving a mercury adsorption capacity comparable to the commercial sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. This result suggests that the extremely economic virgin activated carbon can be used in this specific application, provided that a suitable carbonaceous matrix is selected to achieve a sulfur deposition rate that can guarantee a high mercury adsorption capacity. (author)

Vitolo, S.; Seggiani, M. [University of Pisa (Italy). Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science

2002-08-01

231

Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL

2011-01-01

232

On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing the latest FTIR technology. Overall, the levels of these emissions were also mostly elevated at subnormal temperatures. Total vehicle mileage seemed not to affect cold-start emissions (CO and HC) at low temperatures. Nor did the overall durability of the emission control system appear to be worse in cold-climate conditions typical for Finland. The deterioration of the emissions performance in the tested vehicles either closely followed the average trend defined by the normal, assigned deterioration factors or was even lesser. The conclusions of this report underline the necessity of a separate low-temperature test in order to really effectively curb real-world emissions. Standards at normal temperature are no more effective alone, but need to be accompanied with additional requirements for good performance also in conditions closer to the everyday use, which comprises many cold-starts even in low ambient temperature conditions. (orig.) 75 refs.

Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

1998-11-01

233

Gas temperature measurement in internal cooling passages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gas temperature distribution is important in the measurement and the definition of heat transfer to various gas turbine cooling problems. This paper describes a novel technique which employs encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals on a fine nylon mesh to give virtually instantaneous gas temperature distribution measurement. The hue value of the liquid crystals on a fine nylon mesh to give virtually instantaneous gas temperature response crystal, in the range of 22-40°C, and for a narr...

Wang, Z.; Ireland, Pt; Kohler, St

1996-01-01

234

Hazardous exhaust gas monitoring using a deep UV based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fibre-optic sensor for the monitoring of hazardous exhaust gases is described. The sensor based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy was developed to operate within exhaust environments, monitor several exhaust gases and demonstrate low susceptibility to interferences from other gases. Experimental results describing the calibration of the sensor against a commercial analyser and tests documenting the sensor's operating capabilities within the exhaust of an engine are presented. The lower limit of detection for the sensor was found to be 5ppm for nitric oxide, and 1ppm for both nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Response times were found to be 3.4 seconds

235

Study of an exhaust gas recirculation equipped micro gas turbine supplied with bio-fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors discuss in this paper some aspects related to the employment of liquid and gaseous bio-fuels in a micro-gas turbine. Besides the purpose of checking the effectiveness of methods for supplying the micro-turbine with fuels from renewable sources, the attention is focused on the need of controlling the pollutant emission. To this aim, several solutions are experienced and numerically tested. For the liquid fuel supply, a new shape and location of the main fuel injector is combined with a modified position of the pilot injector. In the case of the biogas fuelling, an external EGR option is considered as activated. Both methods aim at the reduction of the thermal and prompt NO formation by approaching the flameless combustion concept. -- Highlights: • External and internal EGR concepts applied to NOx control from micro gas turbines. • For gaseous fuels: internal EGR is obtained by a proper location of the pilot injector. • For liquid fuels: replacing the original radial injectors with a pressure swirl atomizer. • We apply a CFD based method, after validation with experimental data. • Blends of bio-fuels with fossil fuels promise noticeable benefits

236

Low-temperature gas from marine shales  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Thermal cracking of kerogens and bitumens is widely accepted as the major source of natural gas (thermal gas. Decomposition is believed to occur at high temperatures, between 100 and 200°C in the subsurface and generally above 300°C in the laboratory. Although there are examples of gas deposits possibly generated at lower temperatures, and reports of gas generation over long periods of time at 100°C, robust gas generation below 100°C under ordinary laboratory conditions is unprecedented. Here we report gas generation under anoxic helium flow at temperatures 300° below thermal cracking temperatures. Gas is generated discontinuously, in distinct aperiodic episodes of near equal intensity. In one three-hour episode at 50°C, six percent of the hydrocarbons (kerogen & bitumen in a Mississippian marine shale decomposed to gas (C1–C5. The same shale generated 72% less gas with helium flow containing 10 ppm O2 and the two gases were compositionally distinct. In sequential isothermal heating cycles (~1 hour, nearly five times more gas was generated at 50°C (57.4 ?g C1–C5/g rock than at 350°C by thermal cracking (12 ?g C1–C5/g rock. The position that natural gas forms only at high temperatures over geologic time is based largely on pyrolysis experiments under oxic conditions and temperatures where low-temperature gas generation could be suppressed. Our results indicate two paths to gas, a high-temperature thermal path, and a low-temperature catalytic path proceeding 300° below the thermal path. It redefines the time-temperature dimensions of gas habitats and opens the possibility of gas generation at subsurface temperatures previously thought impossible.

Jarvie Daniel M

2009-02-01

237

COMBINED IMPACT OF BIODIESEL (MENO AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON NOX EMISSIONS IN DI DIESEL ENGINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The steep rises in the prices of the petroleum fuels and the concern for the environment have forced the researchers to find alternative renewable fuels which are called bio-fuels. The objective of this work is to find the optimum EGR and biodiesel blend matrix for the better performance and optimum emission reduction in a DI diesel engine. The bio fuel used in the experimentation is derived from the Neem oil. A twin-cylinder, air-cooled, constant speed direct injection diesel engine is used for experiments. HC, NOx, CO, and smoke of the exhaust gas are measured. Various engine performance parameters such as thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption are calculated from the acquired data. As the percentage of bio diesel increased in diesel and bio fuel blend the NOx emission increased. In order to reduce the emission from bio diesel EGR is used. Application of EGR with biodiesel blends resulted in reductions in NOx emissions without any significant penalty in smoke emissions. The results reveal that the Blend 100 (100 % bio fuel produces maximum NOx emission (300 ppm. With 25% volume flow rate of EGR with the same B100 bio diesel, the NOx emission is reduced approximately 300 ppm to 100 ppm

B. Jothithirumal

2012-09-01

238

Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

239

Measurements of gas phase acids in diesel exhaust: a relevant source of HNCO?  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas-phase acids in light duty diesel (LDD) vehicle exhaust were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Fuel based emission factors (EF) and NOx ratios for these species were determined under differing steady state engine operating conditions. The derived HONO and HNO3 EFs agree well with literature values, with HONO being the single most important acidic emission. Of particular importance is the quantification of the EF for the toxic species, isocyanic acid (HNCO). The emission factors for HNCO ranged from 0.69 to 3.96 mg kgfuel(-1), and were significantly higher than previous biomass burning emission estimates. Further ambient urban measurements of HNCO demonstrated a clear relationship with the known traffic markers of benzene and toluene, demonstrating for the first time that urban commuter traffic is a source of HNCO. Estimates based upon the HNCO-benzene relationship indicate that upward of 23 tonnes of HNCO are released annually from commuter traffic in the Greater Toronto Area, far exceeding the amount possible from LDD alone. Nationally, 250 to 770 tonnes of HNCO may be emitted annually from on-road vehicles, likely representing the dominant source of exposure in urban areas, and with emissions comparable to that of biomass burning. PMID:23781923

Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Vlasenko, A; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Poitras, Marie-Josée; Chan, Tak; Brook, Jeffrey R

2013-07-16

240

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...petroleum-fueled diesel vehicles. The components...for petroleum fueled diesel vehicle exhaust sampling...of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±20...for methanol-fueled diesel vehicle exhaust sampling...of the critical flow venturi, shall be within...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

242

Gas and temperature measurements on Xingjian coal field fires  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to know no robust methodology has been established that allows the estimation of coal loss - and the associated CO2 emissions - based on temperature and / or gas emission measurements. Such knowledge is a prerequisite for an aimed at accreditation for coal fire extinction measures within the clean development mechanism (CDM) context under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. During a field campaign in Xinjiang extended measurements on a specific coal fire site were performed to proof so far developed estimations for exhaust gas volumes. The investigations show that during the evaluation of gas emissions, based on preliminary data, an inconsistency between measured and calculated gas emissions for the fire area was observed. Therefore temperature measurements on a dense grid have been done as well, taking also faults and cracks into account, to analyse how these measurements correlate with the gas measurements. In addition, the temperature measurements that have been done serve as reference data sets for the analysis of thermal satellite images taken by the ASTER satellite sensor system. Ongoing research focuses on the development of robust routines to detect coal fires and to quantify the amount of the coal fire related radiative energy release (CFRE).

Schlömer, S.; Fischer, C.; Teschner, M.; Hirner, A.

2009-04-01

243

Development of a catalyst expected to reduce diesel engine exhaust emission. Kitaisareru diesel hai gas teigen shokubai no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces two kinds of particulate reducing catalysts to be applied to diesel engine exhaust, developed by Japan Catalyst Company. One of them is a trapping catalyst with ceramic honeycomb filters capturing soots in the exhaust, which are burnt with the loaded catalyst. Because of low exhaust temperature, particulates tend to accumulate and cause the catalyst to deactivate and get damaged, hence it is used only in special vehicles. The other one is an SOF catalyst that oxidizes organic solvent solubles (SOF) with the catalyst loaded on a honeycomb carrier of flow-through type made of cordierite. Important performances of the developed catalyst are that the catalyst has long durability, will not increase sulfuric acid mist by suppressing oxidation of SO2, and will not accumulate HC, sulfur, and soots. A performance test verified effects of reducing SOF by 50 % to 70% and particulates by 20 % to 30%. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Ohata, T.; Horiuchi, M. (Nippon Shokubai Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

1992-09-01

244

Reduction of the exhaust gas emissions during warm up by improving the mixture preparation of spark-ignition engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During warm-up the engine emits the highest concentration of exhaust gas emissions. An improvement of the atomization behaviour of the injected fuel should lead to a good mixture preparation in the manifold and combustion chamber and further to lower exhaust gas emissions during warm up. During these investigations it was found out that the build-up of fuel film in the manifold of cold spark-ignition engines can not be prevented. But by injecting the fuel at the open inlet valve it is possible to reduce the fuel film. The injection of extremely finely atomized fuel at the open inlet valve leads to a better mixture preparation with smaller fuel dropplets in the manifold and combustion chamber. This again leads, during warm-up of the spark ignition engine, to a reduction of the HC emissions of 30% and the CO emissions of 50%. (author)

245

A laboratory test unit for exhausted gas cleaning by electron beam and combined electron beam-microwave irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the electron accelerator laboratory, NILPR, Bucharest developed a small laboratory test unit (max. gas flow rate = 1 Nm{sup 3}/h) for exhaust gas cleaning by means of electron beam and combined electron beam microwave irradiation. The aim of these methods is to obtain the concomitant removal of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} by precipitation with ammonia. Several parameters such as residence time and dose, reaction temperature, argon and NH{sub 3} concentration, etc. were investigated. The removal efficiencies were: only for electron beam irradiation 63-80% for SO{sub 2} and 0-63% for NO{sub x}; for combined electron beam-microwave treatment 68-95% for SO{sub 2} and 0-70% for NO{sub x}. Also, the presence of a small concentration of argon in the irradiated gaseous mixture increases the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency (between 5% and 10%) for both electron beam and electron beam-microwave treatment. As electron beams generator was used the Linear Accelerator ALID-7 (5.5 MeV, 670 W). The microwave applicator consists of a power-controlled generator with a 2.45 GHz magnetron of 850 W maximum output power, a launcher to fit to waveguide WR430, a dual directional coupler and a three stub tuner for impedance matching. Our tests also demonstrated that the combined method electron beam-microwave irradiation, due to the additional use of microwave energy, leads to the decrease of the electron beam average power from 30% to 50%, at the same removal efficiency. (orig.) 8 refs.

Radoiu, M.; Martin, D.; Bestea, V.; Indreias, I.; Matei, C. [Inst. for Atomic Phys., Bucharest (Romania). Electron Accel. Lab.; Georgescu, I.I.; Calinescu, I. [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Calea Grivitei 132, 78122 Bucharest (Romania)

1998-04-01

246

Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

Erkan AVLAR

2009-01-01

247

Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

2014-06-01

248

Environmentally benign denitration device for power generator exhaust gas; Kankyo ni yasashii hatsuden setsubiyo hai gas dassho sochi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel cogeneration has been widely introduced from the viewpoint of low cost and reliability. However, its exhaust gas contains a lot of NOx and is a substance causing acid rain, respiratory disease, etc.; therefore, a strict NOx discharging control has recently been enforced primarily in urban areas. A conventional denitration device was mainly by dry catalytic denitration method which used ammonia (NH3) in reducing NOx to harmless elements. This method is bound by various regulations because of the odor and toxicity of NH3. Under the circumstances, Meidensha Corp. employed the denitration method using urea in place of NH3 as the reducing agent, and has since been developing catalysers for the purpose of further improving denitration characteristic. This paper introduces the denitration system utilizing the urea denitration method. The catalyser developed is a honeycomb-shaped one using zeolite as the main material. As a result of a test, denitration rate of 90% or higher was found possible, with NH3 leak controlled to be 10ppm or lower. (NEDO)

Isono, T.; Ogura, K.; Kuramoto, M.; Sato, T. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-09-06

249

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measur...

G. Fralick, D. Ng

1999-01-01

250

*GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PRODUCE DIFFERENTIAL CARDIOPHYSIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN HEALTHY RATS  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicited changes in cardiac gene expression pattern that broadly mimicked gene expression in non-exposed spontaneously hypertensive rats. We hypothesized that healthy ...

251

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission...sampling system; diesel vehicles. ...sample system with heat exchanger connected...petroleum fueled diesel vehicle exhaust...less. (ii) A heat exchanger is required... (3) The transfer of...

2010-07-01

252

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and from the sample flow and total flow over the test period. As an option, the measurement of total fuel mass consumed over a cycle may be substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2 . General...

2010-07-01

253

Temperature Controller System for Gas Gun Targets  

Science.gov (United States)

A temperature controller system capable of heating and cooling gas gun targets over the range -75°C to +120°C was designed and tested. The system uses cold nitrogen gas from a liquid nitrogen Dewar for cooling and compressed air for heating. Two gas flow heaters control the gas temperature for both heating and cooling. One heater controls the temperature of the target mounting plate and the other the temperature of a copper tubing coil surrounding the target. Each heater is separately adjustable, so the target material will achieve a uniform temperature throughout its volume. A magnetic gauge membrane with integrated thermocouples was developed to measure the internal temperature of the target. Using this system, multiple magnetic gauge shock experiments, including equation-of-state measurements and shock initiation of high explosives, can be performed over a range of initial temperatures. Successful heating and cooling tests were completed on Teflon samples.

Bucholtz, S. M.; Gehr, R. J.; Rupp, T. D.; Sheffield, S. A.; Robbins, D. L.

2006-07-01

254

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99...National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks §...

2010-07-01

255

Relationship between Vehicle Emissions Laws and Incidence of Suicide by Motor Vehicle Exhaust Gas in Australia, 2001–06: An Ecological Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an ecological study, David Studdert and colleagues show that areas of Australia with fewer vehicles pre-dating stringent carbon monoxide emission laws have lower rates of suicide due to asphyxiation by motor vehicle exhaust gas.

Studdert, David M.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Jatkar, Uma; Pirkis, Jane

2010-01-01

256

On Developing a Spectroscopic System for Fast Gas Temperature Measurements in Combustion Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques are known to provide reliable results for gas temperature measurements and can be comparatively easily performed on an industrial scale such as a boiler on a power plant or an exhaust of a ship engine cylinder. However temporal resolution is not high enough to trace fast temperature variations which are of great importance for complete combustion diagnostics. To eliminate the above mentioned shortcoming, a new IR spectroscopic-imaging...

Evseev, Vadim; Clausen, Sønnik

2009-01-01

257

Effect of ejector dilutors on measurements of automotive exhaust gas aerosol size distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ejector dilutors have long been used for automotive exhaust particle sampling, as they can offer a low-cost option for stable dilution. In an ejector dilutor, pressurized air expanding in the periphery of a nozzle draws in and mixes with an exhaust sample which is then led to analytical equipment. The combination of processes involved may lead to particle losses which can affect the measurement. This study examines the losses of diesel exhaust particles of different characteristics (nucleation mode, non-volatile accumulation mode, internally and externally mixed accumulation mode) when these are sampled through an ejector dilutor. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an electrical low-pressure impactor and a diffusion charger were used as analytical equipment to characterize losses with different instruments. Particle losses were found negligible for all practical applications of diesel exhaust aerosol sampling. Also, the sampling outlet and the operating pressure of the ejector dilutor were found to have a non-measurable effect on the distribution shape. Some variation of the labile nucleation mode particles was attributed to evaporation within the SMPS rather than an ejector effect, and this was confirmed by sampling solid NaCl particles in the same size range. The study further confirms the usability of ejector dilutors for exhaust particle sampling and dilution

258

MEGAS - multi-electrode gas sensor system. Micromechanical high-temperature sensor system on a Si basis for measurements of nitrogen monoxide concentrations in motor car exhaust. Final report; MEGAS - Multi-Elektroden-Gassensorsystem. Mikromechanisches Hochtemperatur-Sensorsystem aus Silizium-Basis zur Ermittlung von Stickstoffmonoxid-Konzentrationen im Kfz-Abgas. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IMSAS is working on an actively heated Si substrate with interdigital structures fo working temperatures up to 550 C and for aggressive working media. The following tasks were achieved: Gas sensor design; Process development and optimisation; Processing of the Si substrate; Optimisation of the sensor substrate. The following problems were encountered: Minimisation of intrinsic stress of the stratified packages; Optimisation of the adhesive strength; Development of a stable sensor heating up to 550 C; Development and optimisation of structuring methods; Combination of thin film and thick film technologies. Resistive gas sensors with titanium-tungsten mixed oxides must be heated to 500 C for fast and sensitive response to a NO atmosphere. The gas sensitivity is strongly temperature-dependent, i.e. gas sensor temperature contro is required. In the case of diesel engine catalytic converters, ambient temperatures are high and vary with the mode of operation and operating time. The sensor temperature must be at least as high as the maximum ambient temperature and must be kept stable at this level. (orig.) [German] Am IMSAS liegt der Schwerpunkt im Bereich der Entwicklung eines aktiv beheizten Siliziumsubstrates mit Interdigitalstrukturen, das Arbeitstemperaturen bis zu 550 C und aggressiven Umgebungsbedingungen standhaelt. Die Arbeitspakete lassen sich grob zusammenfassen: - Designerstellung des Gassensors - Prozessentwicklung und -optimierung - Prozessierung des Siliziumsubstrates - Optimierung des Sensorsubstrates. Aus diesen Schwerpunkten ergeben sich Schwierigkeiten, die im Projektverlauf geloest werden muessen: - Minimierung des intrinsischen Stresses der Schichtpakete - Optimierung der Haftfestigkeit der Schichten/Schichtpakete - Entwicklung einer stabilen Sensorheizung bis 550 C - Entwicklung und Optimierung der Strukturierungsmethoden - Kombination von Duenn- und Dickschichttechnik (Si-Technologie und Siebdruck). Resistive Gassensoren mit Titan-Wolfram-Mischoxiden muessen waehrend ihres Betriebs auf ca. 500 C geheizt werden, um schnell und empfindlich eine NO-Atmosphaere ansprechen zu koennen. Die Gassensitivitaet ist stark von der Temperatur abhaengig. Aus diesem Grunde muss die Temperatur des Gassensors geregelt werden. Im Anwendungsfall Dieselkatalysator sind erhoehte Umgebungstemperaturen vorhanden, diese variieren je nach Betriebsdauer und Lastfall. Die Sensortemperatur muss deshalb mindestens so hoch sein, wie die maximale Temperatur der Umgebung und dabei stabil gehalten werden. (orig.)

Junge, S.

2002-07-01

259

Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an H(?) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. PMID:22062324

Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

2012-03-01

260

Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

2010-07-20

 
 
 
 
261

Helium gas turbine plant with high temperature gas cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dreams of the Nuclear Gas Turbine was broken about 10 years ago after long term R and D in Europe and U.S. since 1960's, while HTGR'S penetration to the nuclear power market was failed in mid 1970's. In later 1980's, Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor became one of the most promising 'Passively and Inherently Safe' concept for next decades, and an appeal to call back the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine was risen by Prof. L.M. Lidsky of MIT-NPI. Supported by GCRA, ESEERCO and US-DOE, the first 'International Workshop on the Closed-Cycle Gas-Turbine Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor' was held at MIT in June 17-19, 1991, and since then various activities are going on. Looking back the past experiences and summarizing the present status, the writer describes a revival of the Nuclear Gas Turbine. (author)

262

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe) shall...dilution function at the engine exhaust manifold...representative of the vehicle exhaust pipe; or ...For methanol-fueled engines, the sample lines...required. Additional components such as...

2010-07-01

263

The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

2008-12-01

264

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF AN AMMONIA REMOVAL UNIT FROM THE EXHAUST GAS OF A MANURE DRYING SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The storage and handling of animal wastes is one of the main sources of ammonia gas emissions. Ammonia gas has a distinct, unpleasant odor and can become detrimental to the health of humans and animals at high concentrations. Ammonia emissions are of particular concern in manure drying systems, where large losses of nitrogen, in the form of ammonia can cause air quality concerns. The aim of this study was to develop an ammonia removal system for a poultry manure drying system. The thin layer drying of poultry manure in 1-3 cm thick layers resulted in effective sterilization; with the removal of 99.44-99.56% of total bacterial count, 88.51-93.705 of yeast and mold cells, 99.13-99.565 of E.coli cells, and complete removal of Salmonellae. The drying of poultry manure resulted in a large loss of nitrogen, through ammonia loss in the exhaust gasses. The use of a water scrubber resulted in a 75-99% removal of ammonia gas from the exhaust gases. The absorption of ammonia into the scrubberâ??s water resulted in an increase in pH, which subsequently fell as the drying process finished, and ammonia emission decreased. The heated air drying of poultry manure, with the use of an ammonia removal system proved effective in reducing the odor intensity and offensiveness of the poultry manure drying process, resulting in increased air quality. While producing a high value product.

A. E. Ghaly

2013-01-01

265

Modeling and Deterioration Diagnosis of Catalyst for Automobile Exhaust Gas by On-Line Identification Method With Variable Forgetting Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of the conventional system purifying exhaust gas is composed of a three-way catalyst and an electronic fuel injection. However, harmful pollutants are increasingly emitted when the catalyst becomes aged. Therefore, it is necessary to detect the deterioration of the catalyst by means of on board diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a diagnosis method of the aged catalyst using recursive system identification method with variable forgetting factor. We focus on the parameter of identified model which represents a characteristic of the catalyst, and possibility to describe the diagnosis of the aged catalyst.

Okada, Yasushi; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Shuichi; Niwa, Shinji; Kajitani, Mitsunobu; Hashimoto, Seiji

266

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (2) The gas mixture temperature...measuring system (sensors and readout) shall...especially critical for methanol-fueled engines...concern with natural gas- and liquefied...measuring system (sensors and readout) shall...especially critical for methanol-fueled engines...concern with natural gas- and...

2010-07-01

267

Oxidation and exhaust gas corrosion resistance of the cobalt base clad layers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Purpose of this work is describing the behaviour of the cobalt base cladding layers after treatment in hot air (750°C, 200 hours) and exhaust gases (700°C, two month).Design/methodology/approach: The layers were produced by two cladding, laser and PTA, cladding technique. Cladding was conducted with a high power diode laser HDPL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 and Plasma Transformed Arc method. The layers consisted of three multitracking sublayers. The cobalt base layers were evaluated by micro...

Smolenska, H.

2008-01-01

268

Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

2012-05-08

269

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01

270

Influence of steam injection through exhaust heat recovery on the design performance of solid oxide fuel cell . gas turbine hybrid systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyzed the influence of steam injection on the performance of hybrid systems combining a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. Two different configurations (pressurized system and ambient pressure system) were examined and the effects of injecting steam, generated by recovering heat from the exhaust gas, on system performances were compared. Performance variations according to the design of different turbine inlet temperatures were examined. Two representative gas turbine pressure ratios were used. Without steam injection, the pressurized system generally exhibits higher system efficiency than the ambient pressure system. The steam injection augments gas turbine power, thus increasing the power capacity of the hybrid system. The power boost effect due to the steam injection is generally greater in the relatively higher pressure ratio design in both the pressurized and ambient pressure systems. The effect of the steam injection on system efficiency varies depending on system configurations and design conditions. The pressurized system hardly takes advantage of the steam injection in terms of system efficiency. On the other hand, the steam injection contributes to the efficiency improvement of the ambient pressure system in some design conditions. In particular, a higher pressure ratio provides a better chance of efficiency increase due to the steam injection

271

Inspired gas temperature in ventilated neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The warming and humidification of inspired gases for ventilated neonates are routine. There are no data on the temperature of the gas at the airway opening in ventilated neonates. Is the inspired gas temperature at the airway opening, as expected and set on the humidifier, around 37 degrees C? We aimed to measure temperature at the airway opening and compare this with the circuit temperature. This was an observational study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Twenty-five mechanically ventilated infants were studied. All had humidifiers with chamber temperature set at 36 degrees C and the circuit temperature set at 37 degrees C. Two temperature probes were inserted and rested at the circuit-exit and at the airway opening, and temperatures were measured for 2 min in each infant. At this time, the circuit temperature was also noted. The mean (SD) temperature at the airway opening in infants nursed in incubators was 34.9 (1.2) degrees C, compared with radiant warmers where the mean (SD) was 33.1 (0.5) degrees C. The mean (SD) difference in temperature from the circuit temperature probe to the airway opening was greater under radiant warmers, with a mean (SD) drop of 3.9 (0.6) degrees C compared with a mean (SD) drop of 2.0 (1.3) degrees C in the incubators. In conclusion, the temperature at the circuit temperature probe does not reflect the temperature at the airway opening. Inspired gas temperatures are lower than the expected 37 degrees C with the normal circuits and usual humidifier settings. PMID:15170873

Davies, Mark William; Dunster, Kimble Robert; Cartwright, David William

2004-07-01

272

Temperature modulation of a catalytic gas sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal. PMID:25356643

Brauns, Eike; Morsbach, Eva; Kunz, Sebastian; Baeumer, Marcus; Lang, Walter

2014-01-01

273

Response to 'Comment on 'Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning'' [Phys. Plasmas 17, 014701 (2010)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-voltage cathode initiates an electron emission, resulting in a reduction in the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. Assuming that the observed carbon dioxide reduction is originated from the molecular decomposition, the energy needed for the endothermic reaction of this carbon dioxide reduction may stem primarily from the internal energy reduction in the exhaust gas in accordance of the first law of the thermodynamics. An oxygen increase due to the reduction in carbon dioxide in a discharge gas was observed in real time.

274

Temperature dependence of the MDT gas gain  

CERN Document Server

This note describes the measurements taken in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) in the X5 test beam area at CERN to investigate the temperature dependence of the MDT drift gas (Ar/CO2 - 90:10). Spectra were taken with an Americium-241 source during the aging studies. We analysed the effects of temperature changes on the pulse height spectrum.

Gaudio, G; Treichel, M

1999-01-01

275

Study on the oxidation process of unburnt hydrocarbons in the exhaust system of a spark ignition engine. 2nd Report. Effects of the gaseous fueled operation and the ring crevice volume on hydrocarbon emissions under the cold starting condition; Hibana tenka kikan no haikikei ni okeru HC nodo no keiji henka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Gas nenryo wo mochiita baai no reitai shidoji ni okeuru HC nodo no keiji henka to crevice taiseki no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on the oxidation process of unburnt hydrocarbons from a gaseous fueled spark ignition engine under the cold starting condition. The time history of the hydrocarbons concentration and the exhaust gas temperature in the exhaust pipe have been measured experimentally. The experimental data show that the high concentration of hydrocarbons in the exhaust pipe are found during 30s after the engine has started under the cold starting condition. These results can be explained by the fact that the measured temperature of the exhaust gas under the cold starting condition is lower than that of the warmed-up condition. The concentration of hydrocarbons increase with increasing of the ring crevice volume under the warmed-up condition. On the contrary this effect is not found under the cold starting condition. Because the oxidation in the exhaust process is weak under the cold starting condition. 17 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Tanaka, J.; Korematsu, K. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-09-25

276

Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

Gong Jing

2014-01-01

277

A micro-scale dispersion model for motor vehicle exhaust gas in urban areas—OMG volume-source model  

Science.gov (United States)

A micro-scale dispersion model is presented for estimating the concentration of pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust gas within an area extending 200 m from the side of the road in an urban area. The initial mixing of pollutants in a street canyon is modeled as a volume source employing an analytical solution to the Fickian diffusion equation. Parameters for the model were determined based on data from experiments performed at five locations in Osaka. In the experiments, SF 6 was released as a tracer gas. The height for wind speed measurements for use as the advection speed of the plume was determined from an analysis of the flux of SF 6. The eddy diffusivities in the vertical and lateral directions were derived from statistics of the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the air. The sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that proper characterization of the thickness of the volume source is essential for proper estimation of the concentration of pollutants.

Kono, Hitoshi; Ito, Shozo

278

Design of thermoelectric generators operating on exhaust gas from marine diesel engines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The design of thermoelectric generator (TEG), forming the exhaust system of the vessel, is offered in the paper. Thermal calculation of the TEG for the ves-sel engine, Ro-8 6VDS48/42-AL2, with the capacity of 2 650 kW is given. Values of output parameters of the TEG are comparable with output values of the pa-rameters of existing analogues. The thermoelectric generator with the received parameters can be used on a vessel as an additional source of the direct current electric power.

Khalykov Kamil Rafaelevich; Gorbachev Maksim Mikhaylovich; Vinogradov Sergey Vladimirovich

2010-01-01

279

The pilot plant experiment of electron beam irradiation process for removal of NOx and SOx from sinter plant exhaust gas in the iron and steel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollution problem has become more important in the progress of industry. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, mostly NO) and sulfur oxides (SOx, mostly SO2) which are contained in a sinter plant exhaust gas, are known as serious air pollutants. In such circumstances, an attempt has been made to simultaneously remove NOx and SOx from the sinter plant exhaust gas by means of a new electron beam irradiation process. The process consists of adding a small amount of NH3 to the exhaust gas, irradiating the gas by electron beam, forming ammonium salts by reactions of NOx and SOx with the NH3 and collecting ammonium salts by dry electrostatic precipitator (E.P.). Basic research on the present process had been performed using heavy oil combustion gas. Based on the results research was launched to study the applicability of the process to the treatment of sinter plant exhaust gas. A pilot plant, capable of treating a gas flow of 3000 Nm3/H was set up, and experiments were performed from July 1977 to June 1978. The plant is described and the results are presented. (author)

280

Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J.; Rabinovich, A.

2002-08-25

 
 
 
 
281

Temperature Effect on the Radiation-Corrective Gas Temperature Measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a thermocouple is placed in a gas flow stream, there are two sources of the bias error in gas temperature measurement, including the radiation on the thermocouple and the conduction through the sheath tube as shown in Figure 1. Especially, the radiation error is inherent due to a relatively large radiation heat transfer from a thermocouple surface to its surroundings. Two thermocouples with unequal diameters are relatively simpler than the other radiation correction methods. Kim et al. has investigated the gas temperature measurement methodology and device to correct the radiation bias effect at a very high temperature condition. In previous experiments, the method had the good applicability on the heating chamber, which had enough immersion length to neglect the conduction effect through the sheath tube. In the case of the pipe, the conduction effect through the sheath tube resulted in the overestimation of the measured temperatures between two thermocouples. In this study, the method was experimentally estimated at a higher gas temperature and larger mass flow rate than those of the previous experiments

282

Alternative catalyst and exhaust gas sensor work at Argonne National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research programs at Argonne National Laboratory in the areas of automobile emissions monitoring and control are described. The mandate to improve automobile efficiency while reducing Pollution requires the development of new catalysts for exhaust emissions control that are capable of functioning efficiently under lean-burn engine operating conditions. It is also desirable that the use of expensive noble metal catalysts be avoided. NO{sub x} emissions will not be efficiently controlled by the current three-way, supported noble metal catalysts under lean-burn conditions. New catalysts are being sought that could effect the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by exhaust hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen. Molecular sieve zeolites of the ZSM-5 and ferrierite types, ion-exchanged with copper ions, are the best of the catalysts known to effect this chemistry, but the mechanism of the SCR is still not understood. In this project the authors will first undertake the investigation of the SCR of NO using model reactions to test postulated mechanistic pathways. Initial experiments have been devised to investigate the possible participation of metal alkyl complexes, metal oxime complexes, N-alkyl-N-nitroso-alkylaminato-metal complexes, and metal nitrile complexes in the zeolites. ANL will also develop microsensors, based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensing techniques, and a micro mass-spectrometer (MS) for tailpipe or engine-out emission monitoring. The sensor configurations and sensing techniques of the proposed SAW and micro-MS are described.

Iton, L.E.; Maroni, V.A.; Dieckman, S.L.; Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

1994-12-31

283

Exhaust Gas Analysis and Parametric Study of Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the future availability of energy resources, as well as the need for reducing CO2 emissions from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels. This research is done taking commercial gasoline as reference which is originally blended with 5% ethanol. Hence 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% ethanol blended with Gasoline initially was tested in SI engines. Physical properties relevant to the fuel were determined for the four blends of gasoline. A four cylinder, four stroke, varying rpm, Petrol (MPFI engine was tested on blends containing 5%,10%,15%,20% ethanol and performance characteristics, and exhaust emissions were evaluated. Even though higher blends can replace gasoline in a SI engine, results showed that there is a reduction in exhaust gases, such as HC, O2, CO, CO2 and increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency on blending. Hence we can conclude from the result that using 10% ethanol blend is most effective and we can utilize it for further use in SI engines with little constraint on material used to sustain little increase in pressure.

Jitendra kumar

2013-07-01

284

Quantitative shearography in axisymmetric gas temperature measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of shearing interferometry (shearography) for the quantitative measurement of gas temperatures in axisymmetric systems in which vibration and shock are substantial, and measurement time is limited. The setup and principle of operation of the interferometer are described, as well as Fourier-transform-based fringe pattern analysis, Abel transform, and sensitivity of the phase lead to temperature calculation. A helium jet and a Bunsen burner flame are shown as verification of the diagnostic. The accuracy of the measured temperature profile is shown to be limited by the Abel transform and is critically dependent on the reference temperature used.

VanDerWege, Brad A.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Hochgreb, Simone

1999-06-01

285

Room-temperature hydrogen gas sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrogen gas sensing ability of n-type PtSi /porous Si Schottky junctions is investigated at room temperature. These junctions exhibit a breakdown-type current-voltage curve, whose breakdown voltage depends on the gas content inside the pores. Hydrogen replaces gases with an inherent dipole moment and increases the breakdown voltage. The response time is very fast, around 6 s, and the recovery time is about 60 s. Concentrations as low as 10 ppm have been detected in the presence of methanol and acetone. Detection has been tested at different temperatures ranging from 273 to 300 K.

Raissi, Farshid; Farivar, Rashid

2005-10-01

286

Generating efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions of a gas engine generator fueled with a biogas-hydrogen blend and using an exhaust gas recirculation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the generating efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions of a gas engine generator with a low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system, fueled by a model biogas. Experiments for improving the generating efficiency and reducing NO{sub x} emissions were conducted, utilizing optimum spark timings based on the maximum generating efficiencies with varying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The test results show that both the NO{sub x} emissions and the generating efficiency generally decrease when the EGR rate is increased. Also, by utilizing optimum spark timings with varying EGR rates, the addition of hydrogen to the biogas increases the generating efficiency of the engine. In particular, the generating efficiency of the biogas-hydrogen test increased by about 1.5% in comparison with the model biogas test for the optimum spark timing at 15% EGR. Accordingly, comprehensive techniques, such as the use of a biogas-hydrogen fuel mixture and optimum spark timings with respect to EGR rates, should be employed to efficiently generate electricity with a biogas engine. (author)

Lee, Kyungtaek; Kim, Taesoo; Cha, Hyoseok [Graduate School, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Specialized Graduate School of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Song, Soonho; Chun, Kwang Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

2010-06-15

287

Investigation of organic pollutants from house heating systems using biogenic fuels and correlations with other exhaust gas components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogenic fuels are an interesting alternative to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission from energy plants and general heat supply. In contrast to wood as a fuel, biogenic fuels are much more critical because of their higher content of chloride, which seems to be an essential factor for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. In the exhaust gases from hay and straw polychloro-dibenzo-furans and polychloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the ngI-TE/Nm{sup 3} level were detected. The polychlorobenzene (PCBz) concentrations were low, except from rape. Analogous to the PCBz yield the incineration of wood and biogenic fuels (except wheat straw pellet and hay chopping material) produced relatively small and comparable concentrations of polychlorophenols. The polyaromatic hydrocarbons concentration of untreated wood and biogenic fuels were also very similar. In contrast to the exhaust gas results the concentrations of PAH in slag from untreated wood were up to a factor 50 higher than from the other biogenic fuels

Vierle, O.; Dumler-Gradl, R.; Thoma, H.; Schreiner, M. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Postfach 81 01 29, D-81901 Muenchen (Germany); Launhardt, T.; Strehler, A. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen - Weihenstephan, Voettinger Strasse 30, D-85334 Freising (Germany)

1999-06-30

288

Experimental study of various effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection diesel engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a common way to control in-cylinder NO{sub x} production and is used on most modern high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. However EGR has different effects on combustion and emissions production that are difficult to distinguish (increase of intake temperature, delay of rate of heat release (ROHR), decrease of peak heat release, decrease in O{sub 2} concentration (and thus of global air/fuel ratio (AFR)) and flame temperature, increase of lift-off length, etc.), and thus the influence of EGR on NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions is not perfectly understood, especially under high EGR rates. An experimental study has been conducted on a 2.0 l HSDI automotive diesel engine under low-load and part load conditions in order to distinguish and quantify some effects of EGR on combustion and NO{sub x}/PM emissions. The increase of inlet temperature with EGR has contrary effects on combustion and emissions, thus sometimes giving opposite tendencies as traditionally observed, as, for example, the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions with increased inlet temperature. For a purely diffusion combustion the ROHR is unchanged when the AFR is maintained when changing in-cylinder ambient gas properties (temperature or EGR rate). At low-load conditions, use of high EGR rates at constant boost pressure is a way to drastically reduce NO{sub x} and PM emissions but with an increase of brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and other emissions (CO and hydrocarbon), whereas EGR at constant AFR may drastically reduce NO{sub x} emissions without important penalty on BSFC and soot emissions but is limited by the turbocharging system. (author)

Maiboom, Alain; Tauzia, Xavier; Hetet, Jean-Francois [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Internal Combustion Engine Team, Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, UMR 6598 CNRS

2008-01-15

289

Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

Roman, W. C.

1979-01-01

290

Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

2012-06-01

291

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...analytical system for petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization...gas-fueled and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled diesel engines either a heated flame ionization...immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±20 °F (±11...

2010-07-01

292

The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2011-12-31

293

Temperature Anisotropy in a Driven Granular Gas  

CERN Document Server

When smooth granular material is fluidized by vertically shaking a container, we find that the temperature in the direction of energy input always exceeds the temperature in the other directions. An analytical model is presented which shows how the anisotropy can be traced back to the inelasticity of the interparticle collisions and the collisions with the wall. The model compares very well with molecular dynamics simulations. It is concluded that any non-isotropic driving of a granular gas in a steady state necessarily causes anisotropy of the granular temperature.

Van der Meer, D; Meer, Devaraj van der; Reimann, Peter

2004-01-01

294

The Performance Test on Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV System to Prevent Chlorine Gas Leakage in Water Treatment Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water is a necessity of life to humans and animals. In Malaysia, Government Link Companies (GLC or Private Companies manages most of the water treatment plants. Chlorine gas is used as one of the water treatment media to treat raw water that will then be distributed for public or commercial usage. The large volume of Chlorine gases used and stored in these treatment plants has the potential to create a disaster if it leaks. Objective of this paper to highlight a result of Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV monitoring system and their performance test in controlling of air flow from the chlorine gas building to prevent leakage and spread to the surrounding environment. Methodology used follows the American Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH. The Chlorine Gas leakage system is checked and verified by using ACGIH Standard. Finally as a result, all the measured parameters (velocity, flow rate, face velocity and brake horse power (bhp show that the measurement and monitoring system of LEV are complied with ACGIH Standard and Local Law and Regulations.

Nor Halim Hasan

2013-08-01

295

High-temperature gas-cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) can supply high-temperature heat for non-electric utilization such as hydrogen production, which is expected to contribute to solve energy sources and global warming problems in the future. Characteristics of the HTGR and present status of its development in Japan and also in the world were introduced in the article. Based on results of fundamental R and D, the HTTR reactor made critical in 1998 and attained 950degC reactor outlet temperature operation in 2004. Latest R and D has been concentrated on design studies and related R and D concerned with closed cycle helium gas turbine system, hydrogen production system using nuclear heat of HTGR and VHTR for hydrogen and electricity cogeneration. International cooperation was also encouraged. (T. Tanaka)

296

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...through 1994 model year methanol-fueled...provided maximum temperature is not exceeded...probe so as to be free from the influence...spots (i.e., free from spots where the probe wall temperature is less than 355...spots (i.e., free from cold spots...probe wall temperature is less than...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and engines, the wall temperature of the HC...exception is made for the first 4 feet (122 cm...For all fuels, wall temperature of the...exception is made for the first 4 feet (122 cm...filters. (B) The wall temperature of the...tunnel (excluding the first 4 feet of the...

2010-07-01

298

40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...see Figure B94-2 for methanol sampling system and Figure...in the case of the methanol-fueled vehicles (heating...omitted, provided the methanol and formaldehyde sample...pressure and temperature sensors. The PDP-CVS shall...tolerance.) (2) The gas mixture temperature,...

2010-07-01

299

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission...New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...gas-fueled and methanol-fueled heavy-duty diesel engines. This system utilizes...

2010-07-01

300

Exhaust Emission Analysis of the Williams Research Gas Turbine AMC Hornet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project was conducted for the purpose of evaluating field experience with a turbine powered passenger car. The Williams Gas Turbine, WR-26, regenerative turbine automotive engine was mounted in a 1971 American Motors Corporation Hornet test vehicle. T...

C. J. Andary, L. D. Verrelli

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Analysis Proton Conducting Electrolyte IT-SOFC Hybrid System Exhaust Gas With External Reforming of Biofuel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this analysis, a hybrid system containing proton SOFC (P-SOFC combine with micro gas turbine (MGT with biofuel external reforming is investigation to decrease the greenhouse gases problem facing in electrical power plant. The hybrid system consist of a proton solid oxide fuel cell stack, a micro gas turbine, a combustor, compressors, heat exchangers and external reformer. The main operating parameter such as, fuel utilization and steam - carbon ratio is determined in this analysis.

Nizar Amir

2013-03-01

302

Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog  

Science.gov (United States)

We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

2011-12-01

303

40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...vehicles and light light-duty trucks. 86.1710-99 Section 86.1710-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust...

2010-07-01

304

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

...complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air. Good engineering judgment shall dictate the use of mixing plates and mixing orifices to ensure a well-mixed sample. To verify mixing, EPA recommends flowing a tracer gas (i.e. propane...

2010-07-01

305

Operating limitations due to low gas temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of projects concerning continental links for the transport of treated natural gas over long distance, both on and offshore, have been implemented during the last few years or are currently being implemented. The long trunklines in North America and subsea trunklines planned or already in operation in the North Sea, are outstanding examples of such long distance transmission of gas in large diameter pipelines operated at high pressure. The development of such network has paid special attention to the effects that low temperature resulting from the transportation process may imply in terms of pipe structural integrity and environmental impact. Scope of this paper is to discuss operating limitations due to low gas temperature. New project scenarios are presented in a brief introduction. The fluido-thermo-dynamic background for the development of low temperatures are outlined. Finally some topics relevant to structural integrity are discussed in particular such as the pipe steel behaviour at low temperature, the prediction techniques of the ice bulb growth around the pipe, the interactions of the cold line with the soil and the consequences due to the differential compliancy of the pipeline towards points of fixity (in-line valves/tees or fixed plants). 30 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

Bruschi, R.; Ghiselli, W.; Spinazze, M.

1995-12-31

306

Analysis of separation characteristics of low temperature distillation system in fuel supply and exhaust system for nuclear fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most promising method for the hydrogen isotope separation in the fuel supply and exhaust system for nuclear fusion reactors is low temperature distillation method. In order to establish the design and operation methods for low temperature distillation towers, it is necessary to perform the experimental research and theoretical analysis for long period. The author has studied on the analysis model of low temperature distillation towers. The problem of low temperature distillation is that the experimental data of high accuracy are difficult to obtain because of many restrictions on the measurement. Accordingly, the analysis depends on the estimation by computer aid. In hydrogen isotopic separation, it is important to estimate accurately the amount of components existing in very small amount in output flow. The latent heat of evaporation is different according to the components. The decay of tritium generates heat. Hydrogen isotope system deviates from the law of Raoult. The effect of the three factors on the steady characteristics of a tower was examined, and the deviation from the law of Raoult affected most. (Kako, I.)

307

40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...86.109) of measuring mass emissions...8 °C) through heating and cooling as required...with no required heating, or (iv) Omitting...The temperature measuring system shall have an...The temperature measuring system shall have an...8 °C) through heating and cooling as...

2010-07-01

308

Study on Thermal Conductivity Gas Sensor Constant Temperature Detection Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thermal conductivity gas sensor can detect gas concentration that measure the thermal conductivity coefficient of the measured gas different from the background gas.This paper analyzes the theory of thermal conductivity gas sensor and method of measurement,proposes thermal conductivity gas sensor constant temperature detection method,and experimentally validate the feasibility of ambient temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the method effectively reduces the effect of ambient temperature on measuring accuracy.

Xi-bo Ding

2013-11-01

309

High temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For high-temperature gas cooled reactors it is considered advantageous to design the core so that the moderator blocks can be removed and replaced by some means of standpipes normally situated in the top of the reactor vessel. An arrangement is here described to facilitate these operations. The blocks have end faces shaped as irregular hexagons with three long sides of equal length and three short sides also of equal length, one short side being located between each pair of adjacent long sides, and the long sides being inclined towards one another at 600. The block defines a number of coolant channels located parallel to its sides. Application of the arrangement to a high temperature gas-cooled reactor with refuelling standpipes is described. The standpipes are located in the top of the reactor vessel above the tops of the columns and are disposed coaxially above the hexagonal channels, with diameters that allow the passage of the blocks. (U.K.)

310

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...petroleum-fueled diesel engines requires a heated flame...petroleum gas-fueled diesel engines either a heated...for methanol fueled engines) or less at the...EFC-CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic...where used, a sample transfer system (which...

2010-07-01

311

Effect of ambient temperature on the performance of micro gas turbine with cogeneration system in cold region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ub>exe/Pe and Qehr/Pe increased with the increase of ambient temperature. Moreover, although different values of total energy efficiency, fuel energy saving and CO2 reduction for every temperature condition were found comparing with a two conventional system that were considered, the MGT-CGS could annually reduce 30,000-80,000 m3/y of fuel consumption and 35-94 t-CO2/y of CO2 emissions. - Research highlights: ? Micro gas turbine cogeneration system (MGT-CGS) has higher electrical efficiency and lower exhaust heat recovery efficiency under cold condition. ? MGT-CGS has lower exhaust heat and exhaust heat recovery to power ratio under cold condition. ? The performance of MGT-CGS depends on heat and electrical demands of applied facilities, and it can decide the necessity of inlet precooling. ? MGT-CGS is very efficient on total energy efficiency, fuel saving and CO2 reduction.

312

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the hydrocarbon plus methanol analyses are performed using a FID calibrated...additional information and coordinate the functions of the component...sampling system heaters at normal operating temperatures...percent of the step change. Analysis system response time...

2010-07-01

313

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...demonstrated by inserting thermocouple wires (typically Teflon ® coated for ease of insertion...good engineering judgement. The wire should be inserted up to the HFID...operating temperatures. Withdraw the wires in increments of 5 cm to...

2010-07-01

314

Development of a catalytic water gas shift reactor for fusion fuel exhaust streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Catalytic reactors based on the water gas shift reaction were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor as an alternative to the uranium hot metal beds in a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system. The reactor was designed so it could be implemented into a FCU using only existing technology. A closed loop system was chosen so that safety and net efficiency would not be compromised during upset conditions. The system uses only pure reactants thus eliminating the requirement for a carrier gas. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least five years. The reactor is small and operates at about490 K. It will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H2O ratio of 1.5 with greater than 98% efficiency and with an estimated 95% efficiency for a tritiated stream of 90,000 Ci/day

315

Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

316

Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1 to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5, the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

Jarvie Daniel M

2009-11-01

317

Recommended launch-hold criteria for protecting public health from hydrogen chloride (HC1) gas produced by rocket exhaust  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solid-fuel rocket motors used by the United States Air Force (USAF) to launch missiles and spacecraft can produce ambient-air concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCI) gas. The HCI gas is a reaction product exhausted from the rocket motor during normal launch or emitted as a result of a catastrophic abort destroying the launch vehicle. Depending on the concentration in ambient air, the HCI gas can be irritating or toxic to humans. The diagnostic and complex-terrain wind field and particle dispersion model used by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Program was applied to the launch of a Peacekeeper missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Results from this deterministic model revealed that under specific meteorological conditions, cloud passage from normal-launch and catastropic-abort situations can yield measureable ground-level air concentrations of HCI where the general public is located. To protect public health in the event of such cloud passage, scientifically defensible, emergency ambient-air concentration limits for HCI were developed and recommended to the USAF for use as launch-hold criteria. Such launch-hold criteria are used to postpone a launch unless the forecasted meteorological conditions favor the prediction of safe ground-level concentrations of HCl for the general public. The recommended concentration limits are a 2 ppM 1-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentration constrained by a 1-min 10-ppM average concentration. This recommended criteria is supported by human dose-response information, including data for sensitive humans (e.g., asthmatics), and the dose response exhibited experimentally by animal models with respiratory physiology or responses considered similar to humans.

Daniels, J.I.; Baskett, R.L.

1995-11-01

318

Low temperature cardiac response to exhaustive exercise in fish with different levels of winter quiescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the cardiac responses of different fish species to anaerobic exercise at low temperatures (3 degrees C). Three species of sympatric warmwater fish with perceived differences in winter activity were used for this comparative study: the winter-quiescent largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides); the winter-active white bass (Morone chrysops); and the intermediately winter-active black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Perceived differences in winter activity were reflected in cardiac responses; e.g. basal cardiac values were lowest for largemouth bass, highest for white bass, and intermediate for black crappie. In addition, cardiac recovery was most rapid for white bass, slowest for largemouth bass and intermediate for black crappie. When disturbed at low temperatures, largemouth bass and black crappie elevated cardiac output principally through increases in heart rate despite substantial decreases in stroke volume. Conversely, white bass principally used stroke volume modulation to change cardiac output. The results of this study indicate that different species respond differently to exercise at low temperatures. Management strategies should recognize that such variation exists and ensure that management decisions are based upon an understanding of the low temperature exercise physiology and winter biology of the species of interest. PMID:12507619

Cooke, Steven J; Grant, Emily C; Schreer, Jason F; Philipp, David P; Devries, Arthur L

2003-01-01

319

An integrated exhaust gas analysis system with self-contained data processing and automatic calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated gas analysis system designed to operate in automatic, semiautomatic, and manual modes from a remote control panel is described. The system measures the carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. A pull through design provides increased reliability and eliminates the need for manual flow rate adjustment and pressure correction. The system contains two microprocessors to range the analyzers, calibrate the system, process the raw data to units of concentration, and provides information to the facility research computer and to the operator through terminal and the control panels. After initial setup, the system operates for several hours without significant operator attention.

Anderson, R. C.; Summers, R. L.

320

High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

1980-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The spacing of the radial planes for each hole...not all be in the same radial plane. (iii... (iii) The sample transport system from the engine...temperature of the sample transport system from the probe to...shall be located in each radial plane along the...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in § 86.1309) of measuring the combined mass emissions...F (315 °C). (Heating and possibly cooling...long with no required heating (a maximum of two short...be taken to prevent heating of the sample probes unless...occur. The temperature measuring system(sensors...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to minimize heat loss from...equivalent during engine testing...4) Sample transfer line(s... (A) For diesel fueled and...locomotives and engines, the wall temperature...locomotives and engines using fuels other than diesel or biodiesel...particulate transfer tube) must be...to minimize heat loss...

2010-07-01

324

Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

2014-01-01

325

Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f. magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO nanoparticles film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors.

YuLei

2014-08-01

326

Gas-Alloy Interactions at Elevated Temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The understanding of the stability of metals and alloys against oxidation and other detrimental reactions, to the catalysis of important chemical reactions and the minimization of defects associated with processing and synthesis have one thing in common: At the most fundamental level, all these scientific/engineering problems involve interactions between metals and alloys (in the solid or liquid state) and gaseous atmospheres at elevated temperatures. In this special issue, we have collected a series of articles that illustrate the application of different theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to investigate gas-alloy interactions.

Arroyave, Raymundo; Gao, Michael

2012-12-01

327

A Fast Exhaust-Gas Analyzer for the ITER Fusion Experiment Divertor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a first demonstration of a radio-frequency (RF)-excited optical gas analyzer (RF-OGA) designed to quantitatively measure minority species inside the neutralization region of the ITER fusion experiment divertor. The sensor head, which creates its own plasma excitation and plasma light emission, is designed to operate in a strong magnetic field, and the RF coupling leads to bright light emission. It also allows for operation at low voltages, avoiding the radiation-enhanced breakdowns expected when high voltages are present in the ITER environment. Furthermore, the preferred sensor head features full isolation of the metal RF electrodes from the induced plasma. This ''electrodeless'' operation will permit long operation without frequent maintenance. The testing of a first experimental RF-OGA with an electrodeless design in a strong (similar to 2-T) magnetic field showed a mostly linear response of the He I-6678 angstrom line emission to the He concentration in a hydrogen background, which would produce a He concentration measurement accurate to within 2% of the helium-to-hydrogen ratio.

328

Optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement from 600 to 1900 C in gas turbine engines  

Science.gov (United States)

A temperature sensor system has been fabricated specifically for the harsh environment encountered in temperature measurement on gas turbine engines. Four components comprised the system: a thermally emissive source, a high temperature lightguide, a flexible optical cable and an electro-optic signal processor. The emissive source was located inside a sapphire rod so that the sapphire serves as both a lightguide and as a protective shroud. As the probe was heated, the thermal radiation from the emissive source increased with increasing temperature. The flexible optical cable was constructed with 200 micron core fiber and ruggedized for turbine engine applications. The electro-optic signal processor used the ratio of intensity in two wavelength intervals to determine a digital value of the temperature. The probe tip was operated above 1900 C in a low velocity propane flame and above 1500 C at Mach .37. Probe housings, optical cables, and signal processors were constructed and environmentally tested for the temperature and vibration experienced by turbine engine sensors. This technology was used to build an optical exhaust gas sensor for a General Electric Aircraft Engines F404 turbine. The four optical probes and optical cable were a functional replacement for four thermocouple probes. The system was ground tested for 50 hours with an excess of 1000 thermal cycles. This optical temperature sensor system measured gas temperature up to the operational limit of the turbine engine.

Tregay, G. W.; Calabrese, P. R.; Kaplin, P. L.; Finney, M. J.

1991-01-01

329

Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

330

New high temperature abradables for gas turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was to increase the knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for the wear in abradable seals of engines, and to use the insight gained for improving the abradability of gas path seals operated at temperatures above 450{sup o}C. For this purpose a testing facility capable of reproducing seal wear mechanisms observed in engines was constructed, and a complete range of conventional and new abradable seals were examined. Wear maps were used to interpret the results. Based on this investigation, a model for abradability at temperatures above 450{sup o}C was devised and verified. The abradable testing apparatus was capable of controlling the following parameters: blade velocity: 150 to 500 m/s, incursion rate: 2 to 3000 {mu}m/s, shroud surface temperature: ambient to 1200{sup o}C. Thermal spraying processes were exclusively used for the manufacture of abradable specimens. Blade tipping techniques ranging from thermal spraying to laser cladding and electro plating particle entrapment were applied. It was observed that if continuous sliding of the blade tip over the shroud specimen was allowed to take place, melting wear of the tip immediately became the predominant mechanism. Only against selected aluminium and polymer based materials did blade tips suffer no wear. For higher temperatures (above 450{sup o}C), other mechanisms had to be looked for. It was found that brittle fracture of the shroud surface zone resulted in the lowest increase in blade tip temperature and thus the best means of attaining high temperature abradability. The suggested abradable model is based on the use of a release agent encapsulating the individual particles making up the matrix. The release agent is to function as a dislocator reducing the forces required for the expulsion of particles. A polymer phase is providing crack sources for particle release. The matrix material must be oxidation and corrosion resistant enough for the hottest engine stage in which it will be utilised. (author) 61 figs., 131 refs.

Schmid, R.K.

1997-12-01

331

Additives for rapeseed oil fuel. Influence on the exhaust gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In contrast to fossil diesel fuel, the use of additives is not common in rapeseed oil fuel. In a preceding research project the efficacy of several additives, that are commercially available for the use in fossil diesel or FAME, has been investigated for rapeseed oil fuel in the lab. Four additives could be identified, which have a significant influence on the ignition delay or the low temperature flow behaviour of rapeseed oil fuel. To investigate whether there are negative effects of the additives on other fuel-related properties in practical use, a test series on an agricultural tractor capable of running on vegetable oils has been conducted. Attention is focused on the operating parameters like power, torque or fuel consumption as well as on regulated emissions (CO, HC, particulate matter or NOx) and non-regulated emissions like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the influence of the additives on the storage stability of rapeseed oil fuel is investigated in long term studies. No negative influence of the additives on the regulated emissions could be seen in the experiments, the data of the non-regulated emissions is still being analysed. This paper will focus on the emissions testing; results of the long term studies will be given in the presentation. (orig.)

Kastl, Johannes; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

2013-06-01

332

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled...be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines...be of concern with natural gas- and liquefied petroleum gas-fueled...

2010-07-01

333

Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200?m thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.

2012-06-01

334

Controlling exhaust gas recirculation  

Science.gov (United States)

In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

Zurlo, James Richard (Madison, WI); Konkle, Kevin Paul (West Bend, WI); May, Andrew (Milwaukee, WI)

2012-01-31

335

Experimental study on scale prevention method using exhausted gases from geothermal power station. Chinetsu hatsudensho no haishutsu gas wo mochiita scale fuchaku boshiho no kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a method of suppressing the scale deposition, which is considered to be promising in view of both economical efficiency of power generation and prevention of environmental pollution. A brief summary is first given of the well known fact that the silica scaling can be suppressed by keeping geothermal water in acidic conditions. There is next a description of an experiment, which was performed at the Hatchobaru geothermal power station, on the control of pH condition of geothermal water using a technique of bringing it in contact with exhaust gas discharged from the plant, which contains 70% of CO {sub 2} gas and about 2% of H {sub 2} S gas in volume. It is shown by this experiment that pH of the geothermal water was lowered to a value less than about 5.5 and thereby the rate of scale deposition could be reduced to about one twentieth of that observed in the case of original thermal water. Furthermore, it is noted that H {sub 2} S gas causes the deposition of much slime containing various kinds of metal elements on the filler of vessels used for pH adjustment of the geothermal water, but it can be efficiently removed from the exhaust gas by means of the pressure swing adsorption process. 8 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Hirowatari, K. (Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan))

1990-10-25

336

The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor design has been evolving over the last few years to the point where the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will soon issue a safety evaluation report based on their review of the preliminary safety information document submitted during the conceptual design phase. Key features of this design are the use of ceramic fuel particles surrounded by multiple layers of temperature-tolerant refractory material and the reduction in power density of the reactor such that core heatup, as a result of loss of forced circulation or loss of coolant, will not result in fission product releases which exceed the protective action guidelines at the site boundary. These features result in a new approach to licensing and a possibility to demonstrate the plant response to key design basis events in a prototype. New approaches are also being taken in the use of magnetic bearings in the main helium circulators and in the areas of modular, factory fabricated construction. This paper gives the current status of the design and some of the new approaches being adopted

337

First online measurements of sulfuric acid gas in modern heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust: implications for nanoparticle formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To mitigate the diesel particle pollution problem, diesel vehicles are fitted with modern exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS), which efficiently remove engine-generated primary particles (soot and ash) and gaseous hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, ATS can promote formation of low-vapor-pressure gases, which may undergo nucleation and condensation leading to formation of nucleation particles (NUP). The chemical nature and formation mechanism of these particles are only poorly explored. Using a novel mass spectrometric method, online measurements of low-vapor-pressure gases were performed for exhaust of a modern heavy-duty diesel engine operated with modern ATS and combusting low and ultralow sulfur fuels and also biofuel. It was observed that the gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) concentration varied strongly, although engine operation was stable. However, the exhaust GSA was observed to be affected by fuel sulfur level, exhaust after-treatment, and driving conditions. Significant GSA concentrations were measured also when biofuel was used, indicating that GSA can be originated also from lubricant oil sulfur. Furthermore, accompanying NUP measurements and NUP model simulations were performed. We found that the exhaust GSA promotes NUP formation, but also organic (acidic) precursor gases can have a role. The model results indicate that that the measured GSA concentration alone is not high enough to grow the particles to the detected sizes. PMID:23035617

Arnold, F; Pirjola, L; Rönkkö, T; Reichl, U; Schlager, H; Lähde, T; Heikkilä, J; Keskinen, J

2012-10-16

338

Photochemical transformation of aircraft exhausts at their transition from the plume to the large scale dispersion in the Northern temperature belt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2-D diurnally varying photochemical model of the Northern temperate zonal tropospheric belt with fixed (off line) temperature and air transport is used for the description of the formation of aircraft exhaust concentration distribution in the North Atlantic commercial flight corridor, based on actual flights in summer and winter. A strong diurnal and seasonal variation of emitted NO{sub x} oxidation rate is revealed and evaluated. (author) 11 refs.

Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

339

Gas formation. Formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas and energy resource generated dominantly by methanogens at low temperatures and through the breakdown of organic molecules at high temperatures. However, methane-formation temperatures in nature are often poorly constrained. We measured formation temperatures of thermogenic and biogenic methane using a "clumped isotope" technique. Thermogenic gases yield formation temperatures between 157° and 221°C, within the nominal gas window, and biogenic gases yield formation temperatures consistent with their comparatively lower-temperature formational environments (gases have migrated and other proxies for gas-generation temperature yield ambiguous results, methane clumped-isotope temperatures distinguish among and allow for independent tests of possible gas-formation models. PMID:24970083

Stolper, D A; Lawson, M; Davis, C L; Ferreira, A A; Santos Neto, E V; Ellis, G S; Lewan, M D; Martini, A M; Tang, Y; Schoell, M; Sessions, A L; Eiler, J M

2014-06-27

340

Mean gas opacity for circumstellar environments and equilibrium temperature degeneracy  

Science.gov (United States)

Context. In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. Aims: By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. Methods: We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. Results: We produced two sets of gas opacity tables: Rosseland means and two-temperature Planck means. For three metallicities [Me/H] = 0.0, ± 0.3 we covered the parameter range 3.48 ? log Trad [K] ? 4.48 in radiation temperature, 2.8 ? log Tgas [K] ? 6.0 in gas temperature, and -10 ? log P [dyn cm-2] ? 6 in gas pressure. We show that in the optically thin circumstellar environment for a given stellar radiation field and local gas density there are several equilibrium gas temperatures possible. Conclusions: We conclude that, in general, equilibrium gas temperature cannot be determined without treating the temperature evolution. The opacity tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A91 as well as via http://www.mpia.de/~malygin

Malygin, M. G.; Kuiper, R.; Klahr, H.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on (a the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and (b the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

D. A. Lack

2012-01-01

342

Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality on EFBC using robust measurement methods and b the efficacy of scrubbers for the removal of particulate matter by size and composition.

D. A. Lack

2012-05-01

343

High-temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR)  

Science.gov (United States)

General Atomics (GA) has over 35 years experience in prismatic block High-temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology design. During this period, the design has recently involved into a modular have been performed to demonstrate its versatility. This versatility is directly related to refractory TRISO coated - particle fuel that can contain any type of fuel. This paper summarized GA's fuel cycle studies individually and compares each based upon its cycle sustainability, proliferation-resistance capabilities, and other performance data against pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel cycle data. Fuel cycle studies LEU-NV;commercial HEU-Th;commercial LEU-Th;weapons-grade plutonium consumption; and burning of LWR waste including plutonium and minor actinides in the MHR. results show that all commercial MHR options, with the exception of HEU-TH, are more sustainable than a PWR fuel cycle. With LEU-NV being the most sustainable commercial options. In addition, all commercial MHR options out perform the PWR with regards to its proliferation-resistance, with thorium fuel cycle having the best proliferation-resistance characteristics.

Abedi, Sajad

2011-06-01

344

40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...allowed under this option); or (iii...exhaust aftertreatment systems, or after a length...accuracy on some systems, may be excluded...based upon good engineering judgment. (b...dilution air inlet system, and should be...as often as good engineering practice...

2010-07-01

345

Swirl and blade wakes in the interaction between gas turbines and exhaust diffusers investigated by endoscopic particle image velocimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhaust diffusers studied in this thesis are installed behind the last turbine stage of gas turbines, including those used in combined cycle power plants. Extensive research made in recent years proved that effects caused by an upstream turbine need to be taken into account when designing efficient diffusers. Under certain conditions these effects can stabilize the boundary layer in diffusers and prevent separation. In this research the impact of multiple parameters, such as tip leakage flow, swirl, and rotating blade wakes, on the performance of a diffuser is studied. Experiments were conducted using a diffuser test rig with a rotating bladed wheel as a turbine effect generator and with an additional tip leakage flow insert. The major advantages of this test rig are modularity and easy variation of the main parameters. To capture the complexity and understand the physics of diffuser flow, and to clarify the phenomenon of the flow stabilisation, the 2D endoscopic laser optical measurement technique Partide Image Velocimetry (PIV) was adopted to the closed ''rotating'' diffuser test rig. Intensity and distribution of vortices in the blade tip area are decisive for diffuser performance. Large vortices in the annular diffuser inlet behind the blade tips interact with the boundary layer in diffusers. At design point these vortices are very early suppressed by the main flow. For the operating point with a low value of the flow coefficient (negative swirl), vortices are ab out two tim es stronger than for design point and the boundary layer is destabilized. V mtices develop in the direction contrary to swirl in the main flow and just cause flow destabilization. Coherent back flow zones are induced and reduction of diffuser performance occurs. For the operating point with positive swirl (for a high flow coefficient value), these vortices are also strong but do not counteract the main flow because they develop in the same direction with the swirl in the main flow. Pressure recovery in the annular diffuser is even high er than for design point because vortices energize the boundary layer and the turbulence level in the core flow is very high. Turbulent energy is better transported to the peripheral zones of the channel by the swirled flow. A small positive swirl angle in the inlet flow (behind the rotating bladed wheel in experiments) has a stabilizing effect on the diffuser, while negative swirl decreases its performance. This occurs due to change in the development of vertical structures downstream of the rotor blade tip area. The tip leakage flow from the last turbine stage positively affects pressure recovery in the diffuser energizing the boundary layer. Comparison of results for different diffuser test rig configurations with results from a more gas turbine-like test rig with a similar diffuser and a scaled turbine stage model and for higher Mach numbers showed similar pressure recovery trends, verifying the results.

Opilat, Victor

2011-10-21

346

Heat pump cycle by hydrogen-absorbing alloys to assist high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in producing hydrogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical heat pump system using two hydrogen-absorbing alloys is proposed to utilise heat exhausted from a high-temperature source such as a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), more efficiently. The heat pump system is designed to produce H2 based on the S-I cycle more efficiently. The overall system proposed here consists of HTGR, He gas turbines, chemical heat pumps and reaction vessels corresponding to the three-step decomposition reactions comprised in the S-I process. A fundamental research is experimentally performed on heat generation in a single bed packed with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy that may work at the H2 production temperature. The hydrogen-absorbing alloy of Zr(V1-xFex)2 is selected as a material that has a proper plateau pressure for the heat pump system operated between the input and output temperatures of HTGR and reaction vessels of the S-I cycle. Temperature jump due to heat generated when the alloy absorbs H2 proves that the alloy-H2 system can heat up the exhaust gas even at 600 deg. C without any external mechanical force. (authors)

347

Temperature monitoring of gas-cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with questions like : a) Why temperature monitoring in high-temperature reactors at all. b) How are the measuring positions arranged and how are the measurements designed. c) What technique of temperature measurement is applied. (RW)

348

40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.  

Science.gov (United States)

...205. This may involve using an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic...of the meter. (d) Exhaust cooling. You may cool raw exhaust...not sample PM downstream of the cooling. (2) If cooling causes exhaust temperatures...

2010-07-01

349

Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-01-01

350

On Developing a Spectroscopic System for Fast Gas Temperature Measurements in Combustion Environments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques are known to provide reliable results for gas temperature measurements and can be comparatively easily performed on an industrial scale such as a boiler on a power plant or an exhaust of a ship engine cylinder. However temporal resolution is not high enough to trace fast temperature variations which are of great importance for complete combustion diagnostics. To eliminate the above mentioned shortcoming, a new IR spectroscopic-imaging system has been developed at Risø DTU. The schematic of the system is presented. Results on lab and industrial scale are discussed. System’s flexibility and changeability which enable applying of a number of other methods for combustion diagnostics are demonstrated.

Evseev, Vadim; Clausen, SØnnik

2009-01-01

351

Experimental Study of Heat Transfer to Small Cylinders in a Subsonic, High-temperature Gas Stream  

Science.gov (United States)

A Nusselt-Reynolds number relation for cylindrical thermocouple wires in crossflow was obtained from the experimental determination of time constants. Tests were conducted in exhaust gas over a temperature range of 2000 to 3400 R, a Mach number range of 0.3 to 0.8, and a static-pressure range from 2/3 to 1-1/3 atmospheres, yielding a Reynolds number range of 450 to 3000. The correlation obtained is Nu=(0.428 plus or minus 0.003) times the square root of Re* with average deviations of a single observation of 8.5 percent. This relation is the same as one previously reported for room-temperature conditions.

Glawe, George E; Johnson, Robert C

1957-01-01

352

Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from solid particles reflects variations in particle feeding rates during the experiments.

Clausen, SØnnik

2006-01-01

353

In situ gas temperature measurements by UV-absorption spectroscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The absorption spectrum of the NO A(2)Sigma(+) <- X(2)Pi gamma-system can be used for in situ evaluation of gas temperature. Experiments were performed with a newly developed atmospheric-pressure high-temperature flow gas cell at highly uniform and stable gas temperatures over a 0.533 m path in the range from 23 degrees C to 1,500 degrees C. The gas temperature was evaluated (1) from the analysis of the structure of selected NO high-resolution gamma-absorption bands and (2) from the analysis of vibrational distribution in the NO gamma-absorption system in the (211-238) nm spectral range. The accuracy of both methods is discussed. Validation of the classical Lambert-Beer law has been demonstrated at NO concentrations up to 500 ppm and gas temperatures up to 1,500 degrees C over an optical absorption path length of 0.533 m.

Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, SØnnik

2009-01-01

354

Pressure-Sensitive System for Gas-Temperature Control  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermodynamic relation is derived and simplified for use as a temperature-limiting control equation involving measurement of gas temperature before combustion and gas pressures before and after combustion. For critical flow in the turbine nozzles of gas-turbine engines, the control equation is further simplified to require only measurements upstream of the burner. Hypothetical control systems are discussed to illustrate application of the control equations.

Cesaro, Richard S; Matz, Norman

1948-01-01

355

Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

Twigg, Martyn V

2005-04-15

356

High temperature reactor with closed gas circuit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The claim refers to a reactor mounted within recesses of a pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel, together with heat exchanging components and at least one gas turbo-generator set as well as the gas pipes. The reactor is built within a cylindrical cavern and the other components are installed within partly horizontal, partly vertical ducts or tunnels. The aim of the invention is to prevent direct neutron radiation from the hot gas plenum to the hot gas pipes and with it an activation of the metallic components of these pipes. This is achieved by providing a shielding in the form of a circular wall in the hot gas plenum and over its total height, running coaxially to the reactor cavern. The circular wall consists of graphite with a borated zone. (orig./PW)

357

Tailoring the structural and microstructural properties of nanosized tantalum oxide for high temperature electrochemical gas sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ta2O5 nanopowders to be used as sensing electrodes in high temperature electrochemical gas sensors for hydrocarbons detection were synthesized using a sol-gel method and their structural and microstructural properties were investigated. The as-synthesized powders were heated at different temperatures in the range 250-1000 degrees C and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. This investigation allowed to identify the correct thermal treatments to achieve the microstructural, textural and functional stability of materials working at high temperature, preserving their nano-metric grain size. Planar sensors fabricated by using Ta2O5 powders treated at 750 degrees C showed promising results for the selective detection of propylene at high temperature (700 degrees C). The good stability of the sensing response after gas exposure at high temperature was correlated to the stable microstructure the electrodes. Thus, Ta2O5 powders seems good candidate as sensing electrode for sensors for automotive exhausts monitoring. PMID:19916469

Bonavita, Anna; Di Bartolomeo, Elisabetta; Chevallier, Laure; D'Ottavi, Cadia; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

2009-07-01

358

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Dual Fuel Combustion of Gasoline and CNG by Compression Ignition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion process that promises the combination of diesel like efficiencies and very low NOx emissions. The major issues with HCCI are high heat release rates, lack of combustion control and high CO and HC emissions. Operating HCCI with two fuels of different properties and recirculation of exhaust gases are effective strategies of promoting and controlling autoignition. This study discusses the effects of EGR on the combustion characterist...

Aziz, A. Rashid A.; Raja Shahzad; Noraz Al-Khairi; Naveenchandran, P.

2011-01-01

359

Acetone laser-induced fluorescence behavior for the simultaneous quantification of temperature and residual gas distribution in fired spark-ignition engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the fluorescence behavior of acetone has already been examined widely, the amount of data is still not sufficient for the quantification of signals over the parameter field relevant for combustion engines. This leads to large uncertainties when new excitation wavelengths are applied or in cases where temperature and pressure and bath gas composition dependences of the fluorescence yield must be extrapolated from models. This work presents calibration results of the fluorescence signal intensities in nitrogen, air, and an exhaust-gas-air mixture in the wide range from 298 to 748 K and from 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) to 20 bars for the two important excitation wavelengths 308 and 248 nm. Based on this data, measurements of temperature and exhaust gas concentrations in a fired spark ignition engine were performed with high accuracy in single-shot images also. PMID:20062488

Löffler, Micha; Beyrau, Frank; Leipertz, Alfred

2010-01-01

360

Investigation on depositions of soot particles from exhaust gas in diesel engines; Untersuchungen zur Ablagerung von Russpartikeln aus dem Abgas von Dieselmotoren  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this thesis is to determine the change of particles emitted by a diesel engine at different positions in the exhaust pipe and also to examine technical potential for decreasing soot deposition and soot-blow. To do so particle samples are collected at three or four representative positions out of the exhaust pipe and also from the pipe wall. The particle properties examined are total mass, size distribution and chemical composition. The experiments were performed with an exhaust system used in serial production and a simple pipe to isolate the effect of exhaust system components like e.g. the muffler. To determine the influence of the catalyst, it is sometimes replaced by an empty housing. Different wall materials like glass, rubber,teflon, etc. are tested at lower temperatures to maintain material stability. At last different fuels and some constructive variations are tested. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Veraenderung der Partikel in Bezug auf die Groessenverteilung und Zusammensetzung an verschiedenen Stellen der Abgasanlage sowie verschiedene, technische Eingriffe auf russstoss- und ablagerungsminderndes Potential hin zu untersuchen. Dazu werden dem Abgas an drei bzw. vier ausgewaehlten Stellen im Abgasstrang Partikelproben entnommen und analysiert. Ebenfalls werden Russproben von der Wandung gesammelt und untersucht. Von den Partikeln werden die Gesamtmasse, die Groessenverteilung und die chemische Zusammensetzung bestimmt. Zum einen werden die Versuche mit der gaengigen Serienabgasanlage durchgefuehrt. Um den Einfluss der Schalldaempfer isolieren zu koennen, werden diese durch ein Glattrohr, das dem Stroemungsverlauf geometrisch nachgeformt ist, ersetzt. Ausserdem kann der Katalysator durch ein Leergehaeuse ohne Monolith ersetzt werden. Zusaetzlich werden verschiedene Rohrmaterialien (Glas, Gummi, Teflon) und Kraftstoffe sowie konstruktive Massnahmen getestet. Fuer die Untersuchungen an temperaturempfindlichen Materialien wird ein Motorpro-gramm mit verminderter Abgastemperatur verwendet (Nullastlauf).

Bechmann, O.

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Simultaneous conversion of nitrogen oxides and soot into nitrogen and carbon dioxide over iron containing oxide catalysts in diesel exhaust gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the simultaneous catalytic conversion of NOx and soot into N2 and CO2 in diesel exhaust gas. Several iron containing oxide catalysts were partially modified by the alkali metal potassium and were used for NOx-soot reaction in a model exhaust gas. Fe1.9K0.1O3 has shown highest catalytic performance for N2 formation in the so far investigated catalysts. Further studies have shown that Fe1.9K0.1O3 was deactivated in a substantial way after about 20 TPR experiments due to the agglomeration of the promoter potassium. Experiments carried out over the aged Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst have shown that NOx-soot reaction was suppressed at higher O2 concentration, since O2-soot conversion was kinetically favored. In contrast to that, the catalytic activity was increased in presence of NO2 and H2O. Mechanistic examinations suggest that (CO) intermediates, formed at the soot surface, are the reactive sites in the NOx-soot reaction. Higher catalytic performance in presence of NO2 could be explained by the enhanced formation of these (CO) species. Moreover, nitrate species formed at the catalyst surface might also play an important role in NOx-soot conversion

362

System study high temperature gas cleaning at IGCC systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IGCC-installation is an attractive option for using coal for electricity generation with a high efficiency and a low environmental pollution. Application of high temperature (HT) gas cleaning basically offers the possibility to reduce the cost of power generated electricity by raising the efficiency and reducing the investment costs of the power plants. On behalf of Novem ECN, Kema, Stork boilers and TNO have collectively performed a system study of the state of affairs and the merits of high temperature gas cleaning at IGCC-plants. Thermodynamic calculations of the IGCC systems based on the Shell as well as Texaco gasification process have shown that the application of dry gas cleaning at a high temperature improves the efficiency by 2 to 3% points compared to an instalation with conventional gas cleaning. If a wet washing of the coal gas is assumed, an increase in efficiency of about 1% point can be realized by letting the desulphurization take place at an increased temperature (approximately 200{degree}C). From an economic evaluation it has become apparent that with the application of a dry gas cleaning at a high temperature, lower kWh-costs can be reached if primary denitrification techniques can be used for the NO{sub x} reduction. The article also give an impression of the state of affairs in connection with gas cleaning techniques for coal gas at high temperatures. 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Verschoor, M.J.E.; Melman, A.G. (TNO-Milieu Energie, Delft (Netherlands))

1991-06-01

363

[Study on vibrational temperature and gas temperature in a hollowneedle-plate discharge plasma].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1.6-3 cm long plasma torch was generated when argon gas was introduced by using a hollowneedle-plate discharge device working in atmosphere. The vibrational temperature and the gas temperature at plasma root and tip were studied by using optical emission spectrum at different argon gas flow. The gas temperature was obtained by comparing experimental line shape of OH radicals band around 309 nm with its simulated line shape. The vibrational temperature was calculated using N2 second posi tive band system C3:pi u-B3 pi g. It was found that the gas temperatures at arc root and arc tip are equal and they decrease with the argon flow rate increasing. The gas temperature decreases from 350 to 300 K when argon flow rate increases from 3.0 to 6.5 mL x min(-1). The vibrational temperature at are tip (1950 K) is higher than that at arc root (1755 K) under a low gas flow rate (e.g., 3.0 mL x min(-1)). With gas flow rate increasing, the vibrational temperature at both tip and root decreases, but the decreasing rate at are tip is faster than that at arc root. When gas flow is larger, the vibrational temperatures at tip and root tend to be equal. PMID:21105384

Dong, Li-fang; Liu, Wei-yuan; Yang, Yu-jie; Wang, Shuai

2010-09-01

364

Apparatus using radioactive particles for measuring gas temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus for producing a signal indicative of the temperature of a heated gas is described comprising a beta particle source; a beta particle detector which intercepts particles emitted from said source; circuitry for converting the detector output to a signal indicative of the density of the gas; a pressure transducer for generating a signal indicative of the pressure on the gas; and circuitry for dividing the pressure signal by the density signal to produce a signal indicative of the average temperature of the gas along the path between the beta particle source and the beta particle detector. (auth)

365

Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams  

Science.gov (United States)

A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

2006-04-25

366

Temperature detection in a gas turbine  

Science.gov (United States)

A temperature detector includes a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal. The first metal includes a plurality of wires and the second metal includes a wire. The plurality of wires of the first metal are connected to the wire of the second metal in parallel junctions. Another temperature detector includes a plurality of resistance temperature detectors. The plurality of resistance temperature detectors are connected at a plurality of junctions. A method of detecting a temperature change of a component of a turbine includes providing a temperature detector include ing a first metal and a second metal different from the first metal connected to each other at a plurality of junctions in contact with the component; and detecting any voltage change at any junction.

Lacy, Benjamin; Kraemer, Gilbert; Stevenson, Christian

2012-12-18

367

Gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge in air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Capacitance spark discharge has been widely used for studying the ignition of flammable gas caused by electrostatic discharge. In the present study, the gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge is measured. The gas temperature is an important factor in understanding the electrostatic ignition process because it influences the reaction rate of ignition. Spark discharge is generated in air with a pulse duration shorter than 100 ns. The discharge energy is set to 0.03-1 mJ. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the N2 molecule are measured using the emission spectrum of the N2 second positive system. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 5000 K, respectively, which are independent of the discharge energy. This result indicates that most of the electron energy is consumed in the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules rather than the heating of the gas. The gas temperature after discharge is also measured by laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. It is shown that the gas temperature increases after discharge and reaches approximately 1000 K at 3 ?s after discharge. Then the temperature decreases at a rate in the range of 8-35 K/?s depending on the discharge energy

368

Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

369

Determining gas rate distribution from temperature and pressure profiles in gas well  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple and effective method of the gas rate prediction from temperature and pressure data is discussed in this paper. Solving the inverse problem allows determination of the flow rate by matching the gas pressure and temperature distributions with measured profiles. Results of field data treatment show good agreement with the model prediction.

Barrett Emile; Abbasy Imran; Wu Chii-Rong; You Zhenjiang; Bedrikovetsky Pavel

2012-01-01

370

Determining gas rate distribution from temperature and pressure profiles in gas well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple and effective method of the gas rate prediction from temperature and pressure data is discussed in this paper. Solving the inverse problem allows determination of the flow rate by matching the gas pressure and temperature distributions with measured profiles. Results of field data treatment show good agreement with the model prediction.

Barrett Emile

2012-01-01

371

Heat pipe temperature control utilizing a soluble gas absorption reservior  

Science.gov (United States)

A new gas-controlled heat pipe design is described which uses a liquid matrix reservior, or sponge, to replace the standard gas reservior. Reservior volume may be reduced by a factor of five to ten for certain gas-liquid combinations, while retaining the same level of temperature control. Experiments with ammonia, butane, and carbon dioxide control gases with methanol working fluid are discussed.

Saaski, E. W.

1976-01-01

372

Verification of tritium gas purity by means of low-temperature gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gas chromatography method has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogen isotopes and their compounds by means of gas chromatography on aluminium oxide at temperatures below -150 grad.C. For the separation process a modified gas chromatograph of CHROMATRON 18.3 type has been used with a specially made low temperature (-100 grad.C. - 180 grad.C.) thermostat. The modified device can be applied for preparative separations also, e.g. for tritium recuperation from mixtures with hydrogen

373

Effect of the factors of combustion chamber on the performance and exhaust emissions in a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine; Hibana tenkashiki tennen gas engine no doryoku seino narabini haiki tokusei ni oyobosu nenshoshitsu inshi no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study was made on a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine to improve its thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions by the lean burn operation. A multi-cylinder engine was used to obtain the data for practical application. Investigated were the effects of the throat area of the orifice which separated a prechamber from a main chamber, the position of ignition spark in the prechamber and the compression ratio on the thermal efficiency, the exhaust emissions and the lean limit of stable operation. The results showed that a small throat area resulted in low emissions of NOx, low thermal efficiency and narrow lean limit. The spark ignition at the center of prechamber or near the throat was preferable to the top of prechamber in terms of the thermal efficiency. Higher compression ratio resulted in shorter combustion duration, higher thermal efficiency and extended lean limit. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Kataoka, K. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Atsumi, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan); Segawa, D.; Kadota, T. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fukano, Y. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-05-25

374

Metal oxide gas sensors upon various temperature-induced profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents how an array of sensors with different sensitivities to gases can be applied for detection of hydrogen in the presence of humidity when operated upon various temperature - induced profiles. The sensors in the array are subject to temperature modulation over the range of 350 - 500°C. Temperature profiles are based on a cardinal sine as well as Meyer wavelet phi and psi functions. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance patterns of the sensors depending on gas concentration. The sensors responses are studied as a function of target gas concentration (0 - 3000 ppm) and relative humidity level (0 - 75%Rh). Feedforward back-propagation neural networks are used in order to facilitate gas concentration and humidity level prediction. The results show reliable hydrogen detection upon temperature modulation and a reduction of the total power consumption.

Gwi?d?, Patryk; Brudnik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

2014-08-01

375

Development of multipurpose high temperature gas reactors and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is considered that multipurpose high temperature gas reactors will bear an important part in energy supply in Japan from the end of this century to the next century. Nuclear power generation can supply only 30% of the total energy consumed in Japan, therefore in order to substitute the energy supplied by petroleum now with atomic energy, the multipurpose high temperature gas reactors have been developed, which supply heat sources to iron and steel making and chemical industries, and produce hydrogen from water to use as the fuel for future. The high temperature gas reactors use graphite as the moderator and helium as the coolant because both materials are stable at high temperature. The outlet temperature of the reactors will be raised to 1000 deg. C, attempting to improve the efficiency of heat utilization. In order to produce the reducing gas for iron making, the experimental reactor of 50 MW thermal output and the outlet temperature of 1000 deg. C are required. The cooling system, the reactor construction, fuel and heat resistant metallic materials are explained. As the heat utilization system of multipurpose high temperature gas reactors, nuclear iron making and its system, and the themes of researches are described. The state of development of HTGRs in foreign countries and the international cooperation are reported. (Kako, I.)

376

Development history of the gas turbine modular high temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as an environmentally agreeable and efficient power source to support the generation of electricity and achieve a broad range of high temperature industrial applications has been an evolutionary process spanning over four decades. This process has included ongoing major development in both the HTGR as a nuclear energy source and associated power conversion systems from the steam cycle to the gas turbine. This paper follows the development process progressively through individual plant designs from early research of the 1950s to the present focus on the gas turbine modular HTGR. (author)

377

Multipass open-path Fourier-transform infrared measurements for nonintrusive monitoring of gas turbine exhaust composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection limits for NO and NO2 in turbine exhausts by nonintrusive monitoring have to be improved. Multipass mode Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry and use of a White mirror system were found from a sensitivity study with spectra simulations in the mid-infrared to be essential for the retrieval of NO2 abundances. A new White mirror system with a parallel infrared beam was developed and tested successfully with a commercial FTIR spectrometer in different turbine test beds. The minimum detection limits for a typical turbine plume of 50 cm in diameter are approximately 6 parts per million (ppm) for NO and 9 ppm for NO2 (as well 100 ppm for CO2 and 4 ppm for CO). PMID:15835364

Schäfer, Klaus; Brockmann, Klaus; Heland, Jörg; Wiesen, Peter; Jahn, Carsten; Legras, Olivier

2005-04-10

378

A Smart Gas Sensor Insensitive to Humidity and Temperature Variations  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of the quantitative sensing of volatile organic compounds by chemoresistive gas sensors suffers from the fluctuations in the background atmospheric conditions. This is caused by the drift-like terms introduced in the responses by these instabilities, which should be identified and compensated. Here, a mathematical model is presented for a specific chemoresistive gas sensor, which facilitates these identification and compensation processes. The resistive gas sensor was considered as a multi-input-single-output system. Along with the steady state value of the measured sensor resistance, the ambient humidity and temperature are the inputs to the system, while the concentration level of the target gas is the output. The parameters of the model were calculated based on the experimental database. The model was simulated by the utilization of an artificial neural network. This was connected to the sensor and could deliver the correct contamination level upon receiving the measured gas response, ambient humidity and temperature.

Hajmirzaheydarali, Mohammadreza; Ghafarinia, Vahid

2011-02-01

379

Air bubbles and temperature effect on blood gas analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of temperature, time of storage, and presence of air bubbles in specimens for blood gas analysis was studied. The results show that air bubbles in a 10% proportion are undesirable because of significant elevation in the PO2, and the storage of anaerobic blood samples at room temperature (25 degrees C) is acceptable when measurements are done within the first 20 minutes.

Madiedo, G.; Sciacca, R.; Hause, L.

1980-01-01

380

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

...analytical system for diesel engines requires a heated flame ionization detector...condensation. (iii) The engine exhaust shall be directed...an integral support ring of polymethylpentene...g., rust from the engine exhaust...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...  

Science.gov (United States)

...New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate...emissions in the exhaust of heavy-duty diesel engines, and particulate emissions in the exhaust of all heavy-duty engines. (Gaseous emissions...

2010-07-01

382

Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements  

CERN Document Server

This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

Pavese, Franco

2013-01-01

383

A laser-based sensor for measurement of off-gas composition and temperature in basic oxygen steelmaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are developing an optical sensor for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. The sensor measures gas temperature and relative CO/CO2 concentration ratios in the furnace off-gas by transmitting the laser probe beam directly above the furnace lip and below the exhaust hood during oxygen blowing. Dynamic off-gas information is being evaluated for optimizing variables such as lance height, oxygen flow, post-combustion control, and prediction of final melt-carbon content. The non-invasive nature of the optical sensor renders it robust and relatively maintenance-free. Additional potential applications of the method are process control for electric arc furnace and bottom-blown oxygen steelmaking processes. (author)

384

A study on the concentration of CO by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe for a household gas boiler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and environment become increasingly serious after the industrial revolution. The demand for gas as an ecofriendly energy source is also increasing. With the demand, the installation and the use of gas boilers have also increased, so the damage to human life by the waste gas (CO and CO2) continues increasing every year. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of CO (Carbon Monoxide) by the length and the variation of the bent tube of the exhaust pipe by installing a boiler with the same method as a household boiler and to discover the harm to humans. For the effect of the length, the allowable concentration of CO is 50ppm, and the 3m of the once bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 5 minutes, and the 4m and 5m starts exceeding after 3 minutes. In addition, the 1m of three times bent tube starts exceeding the allowable concentration of CO after 3 minutes

385

High temperature machinery and equipment for high temperature gas-cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high temperature machinery and equipment for high temperature gas-cooled reactors are used for the circulation, heat exchange and confinement of helium gas at 4-5 MPa, at 750 deg C in the case of electric power generation and at 950 deg C in the case of nuclear heat utilization. The selection of the heat resistant materials which are used at such high temperature and high pressure is difficult, and it is the reality that the difficulty is overcome by devising the mechanism and structure. For the development of important high temperature machinery and equipment, the test models are made based on the basic test, and put to the verifying test with a gas loop. The high temperature machinery and equipment for already constructed five high temperature gas-cooled reactors were similarly developed, and the technical basis has been established for the high temperature machinery and equipment of the high temperature gas-cooled reactors for electric power generation. At present, there are Komponenten Versuchskreislauf and Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop as the helium test loops. Intermediate heat exchangers, steam generators, piping and heat insulation and gas circulators are described. (K.I.)

386

Determination of gas temperature in the plasmatron channel according to the known distribution of electronic temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analytical method to calculate the temperature distribution of heavy particles in the channel of the plasma torch on the known distribution of the electronic temperature has been proposed. The results can be useful for a number of model calculations in determining the most effective conditions of gas blowing through the plasma torch with the purpose of heating the heavy component. This approach allows us to understand full details about the heating of cold gas, inpouring the plasma, and to estimate correctly the distribution of the gas temperature inside the channel.

Gerasimov Alexander V.

2013-01-01

387

Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862 vor, diese Messverfahren beruhen aber auf dem Absorptionsprinzip in Fluessigkeiten, das umstaendlich zu handhaben ist und eine grosse Querempfindlichkeit zu anderen Stoffen besitzt. Fuer die Emissionsmessung von Aminen gibt es derzeit noch keine VDI-Richtlinie. Aufgrund der Komplexitaet des Mediums Abgas ist eine selektive Anreicherung bestimmter Substanzklassen wuenschenswert. So koennen Stoerungen bei der Probenahme verringert werden, indem nur die Gasphase, und hier moeglichst nur eine Substanzklasse, selektiv angereichert wird. Dazu eignet sich besonders die Luftprobenahme auf dem Prinzip der Diffusionsabscheidung. Diese Diffusionsabscheider (Denuder) sind ein bekanntes Messsystem zur nachweisstarken und selektiven Anreicherung von Spurenschadstoffen in der Aussenluft. In diesem Vorhaben soll nun dieses Konzept der Diffusionsabscheidung auf die Anwendbarkeit im Emissionsbereich ueberprueft werden, speziell zur Erfassung der leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Aldehyde und Amine (primaere und sekundaere) mit extrem niedrigen Nachweisgrenzen (<10 ppb). (orig./SR)

Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.

1997-05-01

388

Design and development of gas turbine high temperature reactor 300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been designing a Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, GTHTR300 (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled reactor) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a high efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) and fossil gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original features of this system are core design with two-year refueling interval, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel, innovative plant flow scheme and horizontally installed gas turbine unit. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200 thousands Yen/kWe, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 Yen/kWh. This paper describes the original design features focusing on reactor core design, fuel design, in-core structure design and reactor pressure vessel design except PCU design. Also, R and D for developing the power conversion unit is briefly described. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japane, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

389

Status of the modern high-temperature gas turbine family  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the well proven design principles of the heavy-duty gas turbine V84.2 and V94.2, Siemens has developed the new gas turbine family V64.3, V84.3 and V94.3. By increasing turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio and compressor mass flow, the efficiency of these gas turbines and their power output were increased beyond the V84.2 and V94.2 performances. The development was started with the V64.3, the smallest gas turbine of this family. With its 5400 rpm speed and 1120 C ISO turbine inlet temperature it achieves a power output of approximately 60 MW. This gas turbine was tested in 1990/91 in the Siemens shop in Berlin up to maximum load. Simultaneously it was installed in a combined cycle plant in Finland, where it has been in operation now for about two years. The first V84.3 gas turbine has now also been tested in Berlin. This gas turbine is running at 3600 rpm, giving approximately 140 MW power output. As all gas turbines of this family are scaled in speed and in linear dimensions, it is running at the same temperatures and pressures as the V64.3. The paper summarizes the shop test results and compares them with the V64.3. Almost all of these test results of V84.3 are as predicted from those of the V64.3. This demonstrates the benefit of scaling gas turbines. Consequently, the latest gas turbine of this family, the V94.3 with 3000 rpm and more than 200 MW power output, will be commissioned without a prior shop test in Berlin. The paper highlights some future applications, including the use of V94.2 and V94.3 for firing coal. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Becker, B.; Schulenberg, T. (Siemens AG, Muelheim (Germany))

1993-01-01

390

Status of the modern high temperature gas turbine family  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the well proven design principles of the heavy-duty gas turbines V84.2 and V94.2, Siemens has developed the new gas turbine family V64.3, V84.3 and V94.3. By increasing turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio and compressor mass flow, the efficiency of these gas turbines and their power output were increased beyond the V84.2 and V94.2 performances. The development was started with the V64.3, the smallest gas turbine of this family. With its 5400 rpm speed and 1120[degree]C ISO turbine inlet temperature it achieves a power output of approximately 60 MW. This gas turbine was tested in 1990/91 in the Siemens shop in Berlin up to maximum load. Simultaneously it was installed in a combined cycle plant in Finland, where it has been in operation now for about two years. The first V84.3 gas turbine has now also been tested in Berlin. This gas turbine is running at 3600 rpm, giving approximately 140 MW power output. As all gas turbines of this family are scaled in speed and in linear dimensions, it is running at the same temperatures and pressures as the V64.3. The paper summarizes the shop test results and compares them with the V64.3. Almost all of these test results of V84.3 are as predicted from those of the V64.3. This demonstrates the benefit of scaling gas turbines. Consequently, the largest gas turbine of this family, the V94.3 with 3000 rpm and more than 200 MW power output, will be commissioned without a prior shop test in Berlin. The paper highlights some future applications including coal gasification power plants. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Becker, B.; Schulenberg, T. (Siemens AG, Muelheim (Germany))

1993-01-01

391

Coolant purification system of high-temperature gas cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systems for purifying the coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are discussed. In the Dragon reactor helium is purified from radioactive isotopes of inert gases by adsorbing them on activated carbon at -1960C. Krypton and xenon are retained in a system consisting of five identical adsorbers. The use of four adsorbers (the fifth is in reserve) ensures retention of xenon for 200 hr and of krypton for 15 hr. The Peach Bottom reactor also has cryogenic purification system with helium blown through the fuel elements. The gas temperature at the activated carbon outlet is 210C and the operating temperature is 16 to 420C. The full heat load of the adsorbers is 1.7 kW; the calculated temperature is 1960C. A purification system for a high-temperature thorium reactor with 300 MW (el) power is also described. The basic parameters used in designing a coolant purification system are given. In the Fulton reactor, with 1160 MW (el), there is an additional regeneration system for radioactive gas. The total operating time of the system is several months per year. Analysis of the purification system loops of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors shows that fission product escape is prevented by three barriers, which ensure protection of personnel and the environment from the hazard of radioactive gases. These are the fuel particle coatings, the first loop, and the shielding within which the facility is located. The advantages of the cryogenic system of purification - high efficiency, small dimensions, and reliability in operation - have been demonstrated in operation on producing high-temperature gas reactors. The data obtained are widely used in designing similar systems for higher power high-temperature reactors. (H.E.)

392

Experimental study of gas turbine combustion with elevated fuel temperatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many thermal management challenges have developed as advancements in gas turbine engine designs are made. As the thermal demands on gas turbine engines continue to increase, the heat sink available in the combustor fuel flow becomes more attractive. Increasing the temperature of fuel by using it as a heat sink can lead to higher combustion efficiency due to the increase in flow enthalpy and improved vaporization of the heated fuel. Emissions levels can also be affected by using heated fuels w...

Wiest, Heather K.

2013-01-01

393

Gravitational collapse of a magnetized fermion gas with finite temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examine the dynamics of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature near the collapsing singularity of a Bianchi-I spacetime. Considering a general set of appropriate and physically motivated initial conditions, we transform Einstein-Maxwell field equations into a complete and self-consistent dynamical system amenable for numerical work. The resulting numerical solutions reveal the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (''point-like'') and anisotropic (''cigar-like''), singularities, depending on the initial intensity of the magnetic field. We provide a thorough study of the near collapse behavior and interplay of all relevant state and kinematic variables: temperature, expansion scalar, shear scalar, magnetic field, magnetization, and energy density. A significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas emerges in the temperature range T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -6} and T/m{sub f} {proportional_to} 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

Delgado Gaspar, I. [Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia (IGA), La Habana (Cuba); Perez Martinez, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Sussman, Roberto A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico); Ulacia Rey, A. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM), Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-15

394

High-temperature oxidation of graphite rods with temperature control by combustion gas recycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The combustion of graphite (fuel blocks) is of fundamental importance in the fuel reprocessing scheme for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A study was made to evaluate a chunk-type burner for possible application in this reprocessing step. The combustion gases were recycled to allow operation at higher burn rates without an increase in graphite temperature. Graphite rods of two diameters were oxidized with makeup oxygen and recycled stack gases at various gas flow rates in an insulated reactor. Results of this study indicate a strong dependence of oxygen transfer on gas flow rate with little effect resulting from changes in graphite temperature. High carbon monoxide concentrations in the exit gas were not a problem except at oxygen concentrations below approx. 5%. Stable operation of a recycle controlled burner was achieved, avoiding the temperature excursions common in previous graphite burners

395

PhET Gas Properties - Gas, Pressure, Volume, Temperature, Work, PV Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other. This simulation of a Gas Properties is from the Physics Education Technology website of University of Colorado. Included are links to related topics and additional ideas and activities for teachers to use.

2008-10-30

396